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VLT 5000 Engineering Data General Drive Control Principles

VLT Series units rectify AC voltage from the AC line into DC voltage. This DC voltage is converted into an AC current with a variable amplitude and frequency. As a result, the motor is supplied with variable voltage and frequency, which enables infinitely variable speed regulation of threephase, standard AC motors.
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NOTE: The Engineering Data Section of this catalog serves to describe in more technical detail special features and attributes specific to Danfoss VLT 5000 Series drives. Many advanced concepts and functions are shared for all Danfoss VLT units, while others are unique to the VLT 5000. One concept not individually spelled out in this section, but equally important, is the concept of high overload torque (H.O.) and normal overload torque (N.O.). Only the VLT 5000 offers this variability in drive sizing. High overload indicates that the drive is capable of an overload capacity of at least 150/160% for 1 minute (see specific drive specifications for details) while Normal overload implies overload capacity of 110% for 1 minute. The end result is the ability to use a larger motor (ex. 60 HP motor with a 50 HP drive) without compromising performance. The Engineering Data Section assumes H.O. properties of the VLT 5000 in all areas of discussion.
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1. AC Line voltage 3, 200-240 VAC, 50/60 Hz 3, 380-500 VAC, 50/60 Hz 2. Rectifier A rectifier converts the AC voltage from the supply mains to a pulsating DC voltage. There are two basic types of rectifiers: the controlled and the uncontrolled rectifiers. 3. Intermediate circuit DC voltage = 2 x AC line voltage [V]. The intermediate circuit stabilizes the pulsating DC voltage and sends this on to the inverter. 4. Intermediate circuit coils Smooths the intermediate circuit current and limits the load on AC line and components (AC line transformer, wires, fuses and contactors). 5. Intermediate circuit capacitors Smooths the intermediate circuit voltage. 6. Inverter The inverter converts DC voltage into variable AC voltage with a variable frequency. 7. Motor voltage Variable AC voltage, 0-100% of AC line supply voltage. Variable frequency: 0-1000 Hz 8. Control card The electronics of the control circuit can transmit signals to the rectifier, the intermediate circuit and the inverter. The control circuit transmits a signal to the semiconductors of the inverter to switch on or off.

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VLT 5000 Engineering Data VVCPLUS Control Principle

The VLT 5000 Series of Danfoss AFDs control the amplitude and frequency of the output voltage as well as the angle of the voltage vector. Although similar to VVC, this enhanced control principle called VVCPLUS provides these additional advantages: better dynamic response at low speeds (0-10 Hz) more torque producing current 1:100 speed control range, open loop speed accuracy: +0.5% of rated speed, open loop open loop torque control active resonance damping maintains operation at the current limit The VVC control principle utilizes a vector modulation principle for constant, voltage-sourced PWM drives. This principle applies an improved motor model that uses measured values of both the active and reactive current to control the angle of the voltage vector. The result is improved dynamic performance over standard PWM Volts/Hertz drives, especially in the 0-10 Hz speed range. The VVCPLUS control principle is illustrated in the equivalent circuit diagrams (Figure A and B) and basic control diagram (Figure C).

where RS = stator resistance, Rr = rotor resistance, iS = motor magnetization current, iW = active (rotor) current LSs = stator leakage inductance, LRs = rotor leakage inductance, Lh = main inductance, LS (=LSs + Lh ) = stator inductance and ws (=2fs ) = angular speed of the rotating field in the air gap The no-load voltage ( U L ) is determined by using the motor nameplate rated voltage, current, frequency and rpm. When the motor is not loaded, there is no current flowing in the rotor ( iw = 0), so the no-load voltage can be expressed as: U = U L = (RS + jwsLS ) x is When a load is applied to the motor, the active current ( iW ) flows in the rotor. Because of the nature of VVCPLUS, an additional voltage ( U Comp) boost is given to the motor: where U Comp = load-dependent voltage compensation VVCplus uses Automatic Motor Adaption (AMA) to measure static values of stator resistance and inductance. This data is provided to the motor model, which serves to calculate no-load values for the load compensator and the voltage vector generator. The voltage vector generator calculates the no-load voltage vector ( UL ) and the angle of the voltage vector based on the stator frequency, no-load current, stator resistance and inductance. At this point, a resulting voltage vector amplitude is determined by adding the no load voltage vector amplitude, the start voltage, and load compensation voltage. The availability of the no-load angle component and current vector aids the drive in producing a current vector that corresponds to the actual load. Without the no-load values, current is wasted in over-magnetizing the motor instead of being allocated to produce torque. The resolution (or accuracy) of the output frequency from the drive is determined by the resolution of the theta components () and the stator frequency. These values are represented in 32 bit resolution. Based on the calculated actual currents and the values of the voltage vector, the load compensator estimates the air gap torque and calculates how much extra voltage ( U Comp ) is required to maintain the magnetic

iS U = UL Uq Lh

Figure A. Equivalent circuit diagram of a three-phase AC motor with no load





iS Uq Lh

iw Rr


Figure B. Equivalent circuit diagram for loaded three phase AC motors

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VLT 5000 Engineering Data VVCPLUS Control Principle

Mains Rectifier DC Link Inverter Motor

VVC PLUS Control

f XY V Ref Ramp MotorModel V Voltage Vector Generator Load Compensation XY SlipCompensation ab 3 Tw ab Switch Logic


Tu Tv

Figure C. Basic diagram of VVC PLUS control.

field level. The calculated voltage, frequency and angle () are then handled by the power circuit where the appropriate switching sequence is determined (SFAVM or 60 AVM) to produce a near perfect sine wave to the motor while minimizing losses. VVCPLUS incorporates two methods for controlling the switching pattern of the IGBTs in the inverter section of the AFD: SFAVM (Stator Flow-oriented Asynchronous Vector Modulation): A space vector modulation technique that varies AFD voltage, amplitude and angle asynchronously. 60 AVM (Asynchronous Vector Modulation): A space vector modulation technique that varies AFD voltage and amplitude.

Selection SFAVM

Max. Switching Frequency of AFD 8 kHz


14 kHz

Properties 1. low torque ripple compared to the synchronous 60 PWM (VVC) 2. no "gearshift" 3. high switching losses in inverter 1. reduced switching losses in inverter (by 1/3 compared to SFAVM) 2. low torque ripple compared to the synchronous 60 PWM (VVC) 3. relatively high torque ripple compared to SFAVM.

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VLT 5000 Engineering Data VVCPLUS Control Principle

This control technique serves to optimize the stator flux by regulating the stator voltage as well as reducing torque ripple. Torque ripple is the result of a deviation between the stator flux vector amplitude and the flux angle. The greater the deviation between the stator flux vector amplitude and the flux angle, the more the effect on the rotating field in the air gap, and the greater the resulting torque ripple. Since the amount of torque ripple is dependent upon the drives switching sequence, SFAVM calculates the optimum switching sequence based on the desired trajectory of the motors stator flux. When SFAVM is active, the voltage vectors maintain the following properties: The voltage vectors amplitude and angle can be controlled without deviating from the preset output voltage reference. Switching sequences always begin with 000 or 111 such that each voltage vector has three switching modes. Short pulses of adjacent vectors and zero vectors (000 and 111) are used to obtain a mean value of each voltage vector.
+DC 1 0 0 U V W -DC

Simplified view of the inverter section of a drive where 3 switches (one per phase) determine the logic of U, V, and W. In this example, U is closed = logic 1; V and W are open = logic 0.

The following diagrams illustrate a preset reference value (Uwt ) of 50% (50% motor voltage, Umotor ), Figure F (1-3), and generation of 100% motor voltage, Figure G (1-3). SFAVM links the control system and the power circuit of the inverter by creating a switching pattern synchronous to the frequency seen by the control card and asynchronous to the frequency of the motor voltage.
110 1.0 U 100

1.0 110 U 100

010 0.5 V


010 0.5


W 011 0 001 0 011

W 001

F1) Preset output voltage

F2) Generation of the voltage vector utilizing adjacent, adjustable voltage vectors.

G1) Preset output voltage

G2) Ideal voltage vector U wt using adjacent adjustable voltage vectors

F3.) Time sequence of the control signals for the three drive phases U, V and W

G3) Time sequence of the control signals for the three drive phases U, V and W

Basic Wave
Basic Wave V

Figure F. Momentary recording of torque PWM based on the space vector modulation SFAVM for 50% rated motor voltage.

Figure G. Momentary recording of torque PWM based on the space vector modulation SFAVM for 100% rated motor voltage.

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VLT 5000 Engineering Data VVCPLUS Control Principle

60 AVM
The user may select between SFAVM, 60 AVM, or Automatic Switching between the two. When 60 AVM mode is active, the voltage vectors can be determined as follows: Within a switching period, only one zero vector (000 or 111) is used. A switching sequence does not always begin from a zero vector (000 or 111). Within 1/6 period, (60) the AFD does not switch one of the three phases the switching state (1 or 0) is maintained while the other two phases are switching normally. Figures H and I illustrate the difference in switching sequences between SFAVM and 60 AVM for a short interval (Fig. H) and for several periods (Fig. I).
U V W U V W 270.0 273.6 277.2 280.8 Electrical Degrees SFAVM 60 AVM

Figure H. Switching sequence of 60 AVM and SFAVM for short time intervals

U V W U V W 0 180 360 540 720 Electrical Degrees SFAVM 60 AVM

Figure I. Switching sequence in 60 AVM and SFAVM for two cycles electrical degree implies 1 cycle = 360

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