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Basic Persian

Lesson 1
ch b drad n well water has that

1. n ch ast 2. n b ast 3. ch b darad 4. b bi ast 5. n b bi ast 6. n be ch ast

that is a well that is water a well has water water is blue that water is blue that is well water

j p bu dud zud mad

place foot smell smoke early he/she came

1. u j drad 2. u p drad 3. dud bu drad 4. b bi ast 5. u zud mad

he/she has a place he/she has foot the smoke has smell the water is blue he/she came early

Exercise 1.1
1. Learn the pronunciations of a and by pronouncing them aloud. 2. Learn the meaning of the above Persian words and pronounce them aloud. 3. Copy the above example sentences five times.

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Lesson 2
sn dars m in bud kr man dram easy lesson we this was job/work I I have

1. in dars sn ast 2. n dars sn bud 3. kre m sn ast 4. n be ch ast 5. u p drad 6. man kr dram 7. darse man sn ast 8. in darse man ast 9. u zud mad 10. n ch b drad

this lesson is easy that lesson was easy our work/job is easy that is well water he/she has foot I have work my lesson is easy this is my lesson he/she came early that well has water

Forming Interrogative Sentences


For forming an interrogative sentence add the word y in the beginning of a declarative one. For a positive answer to an interrogative sentence, use the word bale and for a negative answer use the word na.

Excerice 2.1

Answer the Following Questions:

1. y in dars sn ast? 2. y kre m sn ast? 3. y n ch b drad? 4. y u zud mad? 5. y b bi ast? 6. y n be ch ast?

bale, in dars sn ast bale, kre m sn ast bale, n ch b drad bale, u zud mad bale, b bi ast bale, n be ch ast

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7. y dud bu drad? 8. y u j drad?

bale, dud bu drad bale, u j drad

Exercise 2.2

Read the Following Words Loudly and Distinctly:


sn - dars - m - in - bud - kr - man - dram

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Lesson 3
asb gu dom sag dar yek do dast lab horse ear tail dog door/in one two hand lip

1. in asb ast 2. n asb do gu drad 3. in asb yek dom drad 4. asbe mn do gu drad 5. in dar ast 6. u yek asb drad 7. n asb ast 8. in asbe mn ast 9. n sag, yek dom drad 10. in sage u ast 11. in labe mn ast 12. n daste ust (ust = u ast) 13. u do asb drad 14. man yek sag dram 15. man do p dram 16. asb dom drad 17. asb lab drad 18. u do dast drad 19. in sag do lab drad 20. n dar ast

this is a horse that horse has two ears this horse has a tail my horse has two ears this is a door he/she has a horse that is a horse this is my horse that dog has a tail this is his/her dig this is my lip that is his/her hand he/she has two horses I have a dog I have two feet a horse has a tail a horse has lips he/she has two hnds this dog has two lips that is a door

Exercise 3.1

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1. Remember the pronunciation of o in the word do (two). Pronounce this word several times. 2. Learn these combinations and make others similar to them: abe ch kre m do gu 3. Put the following declarative sentences into interrogative:
1. u yek sag drad 2. asb dom drad 3. n sag ast 4. in asbe ust 5. n sag do gu drad 6. in be ch ast 7. n ch b drad 8. n daste ust y u yek sag drad? y asb dom drad? y n sag ast? y in asbe ust? y n sag do gu drad? y in be ch ast? y n ch b drad? y n daste ust?

Exercise 3.2

Put the following words in the right order:

1. drad - yek - u - sag 2. dom - asb - n - drad 3. man - sag - gu - drad - do - e 4. asb - ast - n 5. man - in - ast - sage 6. asb - u - do - drad 7. p - do - man - dram 8. drad - dom - asb 9. asbe - do - p - u - drad 10. ch - be - ast - n

u yek sag drad n asb dom drad sage man do gu drad n asb ast sage man in ast u do asb drad man do p dram asb dom drad asbe u do p drad n be ch ast

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Lesson 4
mu abru damq/bini sar dahan/dahn cam kucak bozorg va/o hair eyebrow nose head mouth eye little/small big/large and

1. u do gue bozorg drad 2. daste man kucak ast 3. sare man mu drad 4. u yek damqe bozorg drad 5. man do cam dram 6. u yek dahan drad 7. man yek sar dram 8. u do p drad 9. man yek dahn va/dahno do lab dram (dahan + o = dahno) 10. u do abru va/abruvo do cam drad (abru + o = abruvo) 11. sare man va/mano sare u mu drand 12. sare u kucak va/kucako gue u bozorg ast 13. u do dast va/dasto do p drad 14. daste u kucak va/kucako daste man bozorg ast 15. sare om bozorg ast

he/she has two large ears I have a small hand I have hair on my head he/she has a large nose I have two eyes he/she has a mouth I have a head he/she has two feet I have one mouth and two lips he/she has two eyebrows and two eyes he/she and I have hair on our heads his/her head is small and his/her ears are large he/she has two hands and two feet his/her hands are small and mine are large your head is large

Exercise 4.1

Answer the following questions:


1. y daste man kucak ast? 2. y sare u bozorg ast? 3. ya asb dom drad?

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4. y in sag do gu drad? 5. y in labe man ast? 6. y in dar ast? 7. y in dars, sn ast? 8. y man zud madam? 9. y kre m sn ast? 10. y man do p dram? The plural of the majority of nouns is formed by adding "h" to the singular and sometimes by adding "n".

Exercise 4.2

Add h to the singular nouns below to make them plural:

ch dars kr sag gu lab dast sar abru cam

chh darsh krh sagh guh labh dasth sarh abruh camh

Read and learn the following pronouns:


man om to u m in I you thou he/she we they

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Lesson 5
ketb kels drid medd be madid xne raft se madim book class you have pencil to you came house he/she went three we came

1. om do ketb drid 2. u yek qalam drad 3. kelse ma bozorg ast 4. u se medd drad 5. ma be kels madim 6. u be xne raft 7. asbe u bozorg ast 8. om se medd drid 9. medde man bi ast 10. u be kels raft 11. man do qalam dram 12. u yek damq drad 13. ketbe u bi ast 14. medde man kucak ast 15. u yek sage bozorg drad 16. u do medde bi drad 17. man do camo do abru dram 18. u do dasto do pa drad 19. ketbe u kucak ast 20. medde man bozorg ast

you have two books he/she has one pen our classroom is large he/she has three pencils we came to class he/she went to the house his/her horse is big you have three pencils my pencil is blue he/she went to class I have two pens he/she has one nose his/her book is blue my pencil is small he/she has a big dog he/she has a blue pencil I have two eyes and two eyebrows he/she has two hands and two feet his book is small my pencil is big

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Exercise 5.1

Answer the following questions:

1. y om yek qalam drid? 2. y u do medd drad? 3. y kelse m bozorg ast? 4. y man do dasto do p dram? 5. y man do lab dram? 6. y om zud be kels madid? 7. ya om do dast drid? 8. y om do gu drid? 9. y asb dom drad? 10. y in daste man ast? 11. y n ketbe man ast? 12. y sag dom drad? 13. y om do p drid? 14. y om do cam drid? 15. y daste u kucak ast? 16. y daste man bozorg ast? 17. y medde man bi ast? 18. y man do gu dram? 19. y man do dast dram? 20. y dars sn ast?

bale, om yek qalam drid bale, u do medd drad bale, kelse m bozorg ast bale, man do dasto do p dram bale, man do lab dram bale, om zud be kels madid bale, om do dast drid bale, om do gu drid bale, asb dom drad bale, in daste man ast bale, n ketbe man ast bale, sag dom drad bale, om do p drid bale, om do cam drid bale, daste u kucak ast bale, daste man bozorg ast bale, medde man bi ast bale, man do gu dram bale, man do dast dram bale, dars sn ast

Negative Form of the Verbs


The prefixes na or ne make the verbs negative: Examples: dram nadram raft naraft miravam nemiravam There is a special case for the word ast (is). To make it negative the prefix ni is added instead of na at the beginning: Example: ast nist

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Exercise 5.2

Change the following positive sentences into negative:

1. in dars sn ast 2. kre m sn ast 3. n ch b drad 4. u do asb drad 5. in asbe ust 6. man do ketb dram 7. u be kels raft 8. man se qalam dram 9. om do ketb drid 10. man do medd dram 11. n ketbe ust 12. man be kels raftam

in dars sn nist kre m sn nist n ch b nadrad u do asb nadrad in asbe u nist man do ketb nadram u be kels naraft man se qalam nadram om do ketb nadrid man do medd nadram an ketbe u nist man be kels naraftam

Numbers
1. yek 2. do 3. se 4. cahr 5. panj 6. e 7. haft 8. hat 9. noh 10. dah one two three four five six seven eight nine ten

Sentences
1. man dah ketb dram 2. u hat qalam drad 3. y oma yek ketb drid? 4. man e ketbe bi dram 5. u haft medde bi nadrad I have ten books he has eight pens do you have a book? I have six blue books he/she does not have seven blue pencils

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6. m cahr sag nadrim

we do not have four dogs

Combinations
do p - panj ch - noh dars - haft asb - cahr ketb - e medd - se xne - hat sag

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Lesson 6
vardam vard vardid bordam bord bordid didam om didid I brought he/she brought you brought I took away he/she took away you took away I saw you saw

1. man om r didam. 2. man u r nadidam. 3. om u r didid. 4. u mar did. 5. man ketbh r bordam. 6. y u medde om r bord? 7. y om qalame ur be xne bordid? 8. om m r nadidid 9. u ketbh r be xne nabord. 10. man cahr medde bi be kels vardam. 11. y om qalame u r vardid? 12. y u ketbe om r be xne bord? 13. y u om r did? 14. man dah ketb dram. 15. y om m r didid? 16. u be kels naraft. 17. m zud be kels madim. 18. y om ketbe u r be kels vardid? 19. man medde om r nadidam. 20. u yek xne drad.

I saw you. I did not see him/her. you saw him/her. he/she saw me. I took away the books. did he/she take away your pencil? did you take his/her pen home? you did not see us. he/she did not take the books home. I brought four blue pencils to class. didyou bring his/her pen? did he/she take your book home? did he/she see you? I have ten books. did you see us? he did not go to class. we came to class early. did you bring his/hr book to class? I did not see your pencil. he/she has a house.

Verb Conjugation Past tense of the verb:


Didan To see

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man didam to didi u did m didim om didid ian didand

I saw you saw/thou sawest he/she saw we saw you saw they saw

vardan man vardam to vardi u vard m vardim om vardid in vardand I brought

To bring

you brought/thou broughtest he/she brought we brought you brought they brought

Bordan man bordam to bordi u bord m bordim om bordid in bordand I took away

To take away

you took away/thou tookest away he/she took away we took away you took away they took away

Execrcise 6.1

Answer the following questions with positive and negative sentences:

1. y om mar ( = man r) didid? 2. y u ketb r bord? 3. y medde u dar kels bud? 4. y in qalame om ast? 5. y u m r did? 6. y om ketbh r bordid? 7. y u ketbe om r be kels bord? 8. y u be kels raft? 9. y om medde mar didid?

na, man om r nadidam. bale, u ketb r bord. na, medde u dar kels nabud. bale, in qalame man ast. na, u m r nadid. bale m ketbh r bordim. na, u ketbe mar be kels nabord. bale, u be kels raft. na, man medde om r nadidam.

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10. y u yek xne drad? 11. y om dah ketb drid? 12. y u do ketbe bi drad? 13. y oma cahr sag drid? 14. y oma panj medd darid? 15. y in dars sn ast? 16. y medde man bi ast?

bale, u yek xne drad. na, m dah ketb nadrim. bale, u do ketbe bi drad. na, m cahr sag nadrim. bale, m panj medd drim. na, in dars sn nist. bale, medde man bi ast.

Exercise 6.2

Put the following words in the right order:

1. medde - do - bi - u - drad 2. bozorg - ast - m - kelse 3. zud - be - man - madam - kels 4. p - do - om - va - drid - do - dast 5. kucak - daste - ast - u 6. gu - om - drid - do 7. ch - b - drad - n 8. e - bi - ketbe - dram - man 9. yek - sag - drad - u 10. ketbh - bordam - r - man 11. be - xne - bordid - om - u - r - qalame 12. man - bi - cahr - be - kels - medde vardam 13. qalame - vardid - om - u - r - y 14. ketbe - u - om - r - bord - be - xne 15. u - r - didid- om - y 16. u - xne - yek - drad 17. ketbe - om - r - u - kels - be - bord 18. qalam - dah - nadram - man 19. zud - xne - be - om - madid 20. do - man - cam - gu - o - dram - do

u do medde bi drad. kelse m bozorg ast. man zud be kels madam. om do p va do dast drid. daste u kucak ast. om do gu drid. n ch b drad. man e ketbe bi dram. u yek sag drad. man ketbh r bordam. om qalame u r be xne bordid. man cahr medde bi be kels vardam y om qalame u r vardid? u ketbe om r be xne bord. y om u r didid? u yek xne drad. u ketbe om r be kels bord. man dah qalam nadram. be om zud be xne madid. man do guo do cam dram

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Exercise 6.3

Read the following words aloud; then find their equivalents in English:
kucak - bozorg - damq - dahn - abru - sar - mu - dom - lab - gu - asb - sag - didid - bordam - zud dud - mad - vard - did - bord - j - ch - b- drad - bi - sn - vardid - didam - dars - n - in - bud

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Lesson 7
xord dnegh bzr deraxt goft sib raftam az xarid he/she ate university bazaar tree he/she told apple I went from he/she bought

1. u be bzr raft. 2. u az bzr sib xarid. 3. u sib r xord. 4. man dar dnegh om r nadidam. 5. man az dnegh be xne raftam. 6. u m r dar bzr did. 7. ketbe om dar kels ast. 8. u sibe om r naxord. 9. u be man goft. 10. m be dnegh raftim. 11. man ketbe om r vardam. 12. u ketbe om r be xne bord. 13. y om medde mar be kels vardid? 14. man in r dar dnegh nadidam. 15. u mar dar kels did. 16. m om r nadidim. 17. y om sibe mar xordid? 18. man ketbe om r be dnegh nabordam. 19. y in medde omst? 20. na, n medde man nist. 21. y n medde omst? 22. bale, an medde man ast. 23. in deraxte sib ast.

he went to the bazaar. he bought apples at the bazaar. he ate the apple. I did not see you at the university. I went home from the university. he/she saw us at the bazaar. your book is the classroom. he/she did not eat your apple. he/she told me. we went to the university. I brought your book. he/she took your book home. did you bring my pencil to class? I did not see them at the university. he/she saw me in class. we did not see you. did you eat my apple? I did not take your book to the university. is this your pencil? no, that is not my pencil. is that your pencil? yes, this is my pencil. this is an apple tree.

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24. in sib az n deraxt ast. 25. ma sib r az bzr xaridim. 26. u ketb r az man xarid. 27. man be bzr naraftam. 28. y om sibe u r xordid? 29. na, man sibe u r naxordam. 30. bale, man sibe u r xordam.

this apple is from that tree. I bought the apple from the bazaar. he bought the book from me. I did not go to the bazaar. did you eat his/her apple? no, I did not eat his apple. yes, I ate his apple.

Verb Conjugation Past tense of the verb (in the negative form):
Naxordan man naxordam to naxordi u naxord m naxordim om naxordid in naxordand I did not eat you did not eat/thou didest not eat he/she did not eat we did not eat you did not eat they did not eat Not to eat

Nagoftan man nagoftam to nagofti u nagoft m nagoftim om nagoftid in nagoftand I did not say

Not to say/Not to tell

you did not say/thou didest not say he/she did not say we did not say you did not say they did not say

Naxaridan man naxaridam to naxaridi u naxarid m naxaridim om naxaridid in naxaridand I did not buy

Not to buy

you did not buy/thou didest not buy he/she did not buy we did not buy you did not buy they did not buy

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Exercise 7.1

Put the following verbs in negative form:

bordam didid raft didam ast xordam drad xord xaridand drand bordid dram didand bord did bordim xaridam

nabordam nadidid naraft nadidam nist naxordam nadrad naxord naxaridand nadrand nabordid nadram nadidand nabord nadid nabordim naxaridam

Exercise 7.2

Answer the following questions:

1. y om yek qalame bi drid? 2. y u zud be xne raft? 3. y kelse m dar dnegah ast? 4. y ketbe om dar kels bud? 5. y u sib r az bzr xarid? 6. y u ketbe om r be kels vard? 7. y om in r dar dnegh didid? 8. y om medde mar be xne bordid? 9. y n ketbe omst?

bale, man yek qalame bi dram na, u zud be xne naraft bale, kelse m dar dnegah ast na, ketbe m dar kels nabud bale, u sib r az bzr xarid na, u ketbe m r be kels nayvard bale, m in r dar dnegh didim na, man medde om r be xne nabordam bale, n ketbe mst

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10. y in sib az n deraxt ast? 11. y om ketbe mar dar kels didid? 12. y in dars sn ast? 13. y in qalame omst? 14. y om ketbh r be kels bordid? 15. y om yek xne drid? 16. y om yek sag drid? 17. y om ketbe u r be xne bordid? 18. y om zud be xne raftid? 19. y man zud be kels madam? 20. y ketbe om bist?

na, in sib az n deraxt nist bale, man ketbe om r dar kels didam na, in dars sn nist bale, in qalame man ast na, m ketbh r be kels nabordim bale, m yek xne drim na, man yek sag nadram bale, m ketbe u r be xne bordim na, m zud be xne naraftim bale, om zud be kels madid na, ketbe man bi nist

Exercise 7.3

Put the following words in the right order:

1. zud - kels - be - man - raftam. 2. sib - u - az - r - xarid - bzr. 3. dar - kelse - m - dnegh - ast. 4. az - sibh - u - naxord - in. 5. ketbe - man - om - r - vardam - dnegh be 6. deraxte - n - ast - sib 7. dram - yek - man - medde - bi. 8. yek - sag - u - drad. 9. do - om - drid - gu. 10. bozorg - ast - m - kelse. 11. do - om - p - va - dast - do - drid. 12. drad - b - ch - n. 13. be - om - xne - madid. 14. cam - do - man - do - va - dram - gu. 15. cahr - u - ketb - kels - be - vard.

man zud be kels raftam. u sib r az bzr xarid kelse m dar dnegh ast u az in sibh naxord man ketbe om r be dnegh vardam n deraxte sib ast man yek medde bi dram u yek sag drad om do gu drid kelse m bozorg ast om do p va do dast drid n ch b drad om be xne madid man do camo do gu dram u cahr ketb be kels vard

Numbers
11 yzdah 12 davzdah 16 nzdah 17 hafdah

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13 sizdah 14 cahrdah 15 pnzdah

18 hajdah/hadah/ha dah 19 nuzdah 20 bist

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Lesson 8
Rangh = Colors
rang sefid/sepid sabz syh zard rowan color white green black yellow light

1. Medde man syh ast. 2. Ketbe u zard ast. 3. Muye u syh ast. 4. Range in sib sabz ast. 5. Range n medd zard ast. 6. Ketbe u bist. 7. n sag syh ast. 8. Man yek medde zard az bzr xaridam. 9. In e ketbe sabz az bzr xaridand. 10. U yek qalame biyo yek ketbe zard az bzr xarid. 11. U medde syh nadrad. 12. In camhye syh drand. 13. U yek medde biyo do ketbe zard be kels vard. 14. y in ketbe zard dar kels bud? 15. Medde sabze u dar kels nabud.

My pencil is black. His/her book is yellow. His/her hair is black. The color of this apple is green. The color of that pencil is yellow. His/her book is blue. That dog is black. I bought a yellow pencil from the bazaar/market. They bought six green books from the bazaar/market. He/she bought a blue pen and a yellow book from the market. He/she does not have a black pencil. They have black eyes. He/she brought a blue pencil and two yellow books to class. Was this yellow book in the classroom. His/her green pen was not in the classroom.

sir sorx/qermez

dark red

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qahveyi xkestari banaf

brown grey purple

1. n sib sorx ast. 2. In deraxt, sibe sorx drad. 3. Man az bzr cahr medde qermez xaridam. 4. Range jmeye/lebse man qahveyist. 5. U do medde banaf drad. 6. In qalame xkestari nadrand. 7. Range jmeye/lebse m xkestarist. 8. y om qalame xkestari drid? 9. Range lebse u qermez nist. 10. Man yek qalame xkestariyo do medde banaf dram.

That apple is red. This tree, has red apples. I bought four red pencils from the market. The color of my clothes is brown. He/she has two purple pencils. They do not have grey pens. The color of my clothes is grey. Do you have a grey pen? The color of his/her clothes is red. I have a grey pen and two purple pencils.

Exercise 8.1

1. Put the following words in the right order:

1. medd - range - n - ast - qahveyiye - sir. 2. qalam - range - in - rowan - zarde - ast. 3. n - range - sib - qermeze - ast - sir. 4. e - sabz - ketbe - drand - in. 5. sag - ast - n - syh. 6. yek - zard - xaridam - man - medde. 7. n - range - zard - medd - ast. 8. sage - syah - dram - man - yek. 9. syh- in - medde - nadrand. 10. kels - medde - sabze - u - dar - nabud.

range n medd qahveyiye sir ast. range in qalam zarde rowan ast. range n sib qermeze sir ast. in e ketbe sabz drand. n sag syh ast. man yek medde zard xaridam. range n medd zard ast. man yek sage syh dram. in medde syh nadrand. medde sabze u dar kels nabud.

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2. Find the English equivalents of the following words:

1. rang 2. nzdah 3. syh 4. sepid 5. deraxt 6. sib 7. jme 8. bist 9. didam 10. bordid 11. hat 12. kels 13. sarh 14. in 15. kucak 16. abru 17. mu 18. xordand 19. did 20. ch

color sixteen black white tree apple clothes twenty I saw you took away eight class heads they little/small eyebrow hair they ate he/she saw a well

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Lesson 9
ostd pk kardan taxtepkkon sandali kels taxteye syh gerd miz daftar kqaz professor to clean duster/eraser chair class/classroom blackboard student table notebook paper

1. Dar in kels nuzdah gerd ast. 2. Dar in kels yek ostd ast. 3. gerdn ketbo daftar drand. 4. Ostd b taxtepkkon taxteye syh r pk kard. 5. n gerd do daftaro do medd drad. 6. Range daftare man zardo range medde man qermez ast. 7. Kqaze daftare n gerd sepid ast. 8. Ostde m yek sandaliyo yek miz drad. 9. Kelse m dar dnegh ast. 10. Dar in kels yek taxteye syho, mizo yek sandali ast.

There are nineteen students in this class. There is one professor in this class. The students have books and notebooks. The professor cleaned the blackboard with a duster. That student has two notebooks and two pencils. The color of my notebook is yellow, and the color of my pencil is red. That student's notebook paper is white. Our professor has a chair and a table. Our classroom is in the university. There is a blackboard, a table, and a chair in this classroom.

Exercise 9.1

Put the following words in the right order:

ostd - kels - dar - ast. sandali - nadrand - gerdn.

ostd dar kels ast. gerdn sandali nadrand.

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medde - nadram - man - bi. man - qalame - range - ast - syh. agerd - n - daftar - drad - do. do - bozorg - ostd - drad - ketbe. nadrim - kqaze - m - zard. kels - dar - taxtepkkon - in - yek - ast. ostd - drad - sandaliyo - yek - miz - yek. ketb - nadrad - ostd - daftaro.

man medde bi nadram. range qalame man syh ast. n gerd do daftar drad. ostd do ketbe bozorg drad. m kqaze zard nadrim. yek taxtepkkon dar in kels ast. ostd yek sandaliyo yek miz drad. ostd daftaro ketb nadrad.

Answer the following questions:

1. y om dar xne panj sandali drid? 2. y dar in kels bist gerd ast? 3. y om taxteye syh r pk kardid? 4. y ostd qalame bi drad? 5. y ostd taxteye syh r pk kard? 6. y range qalame man syh ast? 7. y range medde om zard ast? 8. y gerdane in kels sandali drand? 9. y ostd yek sandali drad? 10. y om zud be kels madid?

Bale, m dar xne panj sandali drim. Na, dar in kels bist gerd nist. Bale, man taxteye syh r pk kardam. Na, ostd qalame bi nadrad. Bale, ostd taxteye syh r pk kard. Na, range qalame man syh nist. Bale, range medde m zard ast. Na, gerdane in kels sandali nadrand. Bale, ostd yek sandali drad. Na, man zud be kels nymadam.

Verb Conjugation Present tense of the verbs:


Nevetan Man minevisam To minevisi U minevisad M minevisim om minevisid In minevisand I write you write/thou writest he/she writes we write you write they write To write

Xaridan

To buy

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Man mixaram To mixari U mixarad M mixarim om mixarid In mixarand

I buy you buy/thou buyest he/she buys we buy you buy they buy

vardan Man miyvaram To miyvari U miyvarad M miyvarim om miyvarid In miyvarand I bring

To bring

you bring/thou bringest he/she brings we bring you bring they bring

Present tense of the verbs:


Bordan Man mibaram To mibari U mibarad Ma mibarim om mibarid In mibarand I take away you take away/thou takest away he/she takes away we take away you take away they take away To take away

Exercise 9.2

1. Write the present tense of the following verbs:


1. Xordan = to eat 3. Istdan = to stand 2. Raftan = to go 4. Kardan = to do

2. Write the equivalent of the following words in English:


mixaram - miyvardid - mibarim - minevisim - mibaram mixarid - miyvarid - minevisand

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Lesson 10
ruye heste tond zir blaye jelove/pie kuth derz on slowly fast under over/above in front of short long

1. Ketbe ostd ruye miz ast. 2. Qalame om zire sandalist. 3. Medde u derz ast. 4. Qalame om kuth ast. 5. Man jelove mize ostd istdam. 6. Pye man zire miz ast. 7. U tond miravad. 8. Man tond be xne raftam. 9. U heste be kels mad. 10. om do medde kuth drid.

The professor's book is on the table. Your pen is under the chair. His pencil is long. Your pen is short. I stood in front of the professor's table. My foot is under the table. He goes fast. I went home fast. He/she came home slowly. You have two short pencils.

Exercise 10.1

1. Write the following sentences in Persian:

1. This pencil is long. 2. That pen is short. 3. My book is on the table. 4. You have two long pencils. 5. I stood in front of your table. 6. She went to the class slowly. 7. Your pen is under your table. 8. My hand is over the book.

In medd derz ast. In qalam kuth ast. Ketbe man ruye miz ast. To do medde derz dri. Man jelove mize om istdam. U heste be kels raft. Qalame om zire miz ast. Daste man ruye ketb ast.

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9. Your book was under this table. 10. Have you a red pencil?

Ketbe to zire in miz ast. Ay yek qalame sorx drid?

2. Put the following words in the right order:

1. sandaliye - syh - ostd - yek - drad. 2. yek - medde - kuth - dram - man. 3. qalame - ruye - syh - ast - miz. 4. sabz - medde - zire - ast - sandali. 5. gerd - yek - taxteye syh - r - pk kard. 6. u - mar - daftare - vard. 7. medd - in - ast - kuth. 8. ruye - taxtepkkon - ast - sandali. 9. man - om - r - ketbe - miz - ruye - didam. 10. kels - gerdn - in - nadrand - daftar.

ostd yek sandaliye syh drad. man yek medde kuth dram. qalame syh ruye miz ast. medde sabz zire sandali ast. yek gerd taxteye syh r pk kard. u daftare mar vard. in medd kuth ast. taxtepkkon ruye sandali ast. man ketbe om r ruye miz didam. gerdne in kels daftar nadrand.

3. Write the equivalents of the following words in English:


1. drim 2. j 3. dud 4. sn 5. dars 6. kr 7. sag 8. lab 9. dast 10. damq 11. bozorg 12. sabze 13. qahveyiye sir 14. daftar 15. banaf 16. kqaz 17. gerdn 18. bist 19. nist 20. mu

4. Make a sentence for each of the following words:


1. jme 2. deraxt

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3. dnegh 4. dom 5. gu 6. bzr 7. zard 8. miz 9. asb 10. kr

5. Answer the following questions:


1. y ketbe om ruye mize ostd ast? 2. y om gerde in kels hastid? 3. y om qalame syah drid? 4. y om az xne be dnegh madid? 5. Cand ketb ruye mize om st? 6. om cand daftar drid? 7. y in medd zard ast? 8. y om zud be kels madid? 9. y range jmeye om xkestarist? 10. Cand gerd dar in kels ast?

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Lesson 11
1. diab 2. emab 3. ab 4. diruz 5. emruz 6. ruz 7. ce? 8. daqiqe 9. sat last night tonight night yesterday today day what? minute hour/oclock

1. Emab sate hat dar xne hastam. 2. Diab sate cahr az dnegh be xne raftam. 3. Diruz sate cahr dar xne budam. 4. y abh zud be xne miravid? 5. y om diab dar xne budid? 6. y om diruz sate hat be dnegh madid? 7. Man emruz be dnegh naraftam. 8. Ruzh cand sat dar dnegh kr mikonid? 9. Man diab zud be xane raftam. 10. Man emruz zud be dnegh madam. 11. Dar yek ruz hat sat kr mikonid. 12. gerdn ruye kqaze sepid minevisand. 13. Man az bzr kqazo daftar xaridam va be dnegh bordam. 14. y om ketbe mar be xne bordid? 15. Ostde m emruz sate hat be dnegh mad. 16. Ce satist? 17. sat daho dah daqiqe ast.

I am home at 8 oclock tonight. I left the university for home at 4 oclock last night. I was home at 4 oclock yesterday. Do you go home early every night? Were you at home last night? Did you come to the university at 8 oclock last night? I did not go to the university today. How many hours do you work at the university every day? I went home early last night. I came to the university early today. You work 8 hours in a day. The students write on white paper. I bought a paper and a notebook from the market and took to the university. Did you take my book home? Our professor came to the university at 8 oclock. What time is it? It is ten minutes past ten.

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18. sat noho bist daqiqe ast. 19. sat hato pnzdah daqiqe ast.

It is twenty minutes past nine. It is fifteen minutes past eight.

Numbers
21 bisto yek 22 bisto do 23 bisto se 24 bisto cahr 25 bisto panj 26 bisto e 27 bisto haft 28 bisto hat 29 bisto noh 30 si 30 si 40 cehel 50 panjh 60 ast 70 haftd 80 hatd 90 navad 100 sad 1000 hezr

Exercise 11.1

1. Answer the following questions:


1. y om emruz be bzr raftid? 2. y om diruz be dnegh amadid? 3. y om diruz az bzr sib xaridid? 4. y om emruz az dnegh be xne miravid? 5. y ketbe om dar kels bud? 6. y om dar xne deraxte sib drid? 7. y medde man ruye miz ast? 8. y om ostd r dar dnegh didid? 9. y om mar diruz dar ke1s nadidid? 10. y om medde mar be xne bordid? 11. y in dars sn ast? 12. y om medde syh drid? 13. y medde qermeze om dar xne ast? 14. y emruz zud be kels madid? 15. y muye man syh ast?

2. Put the following words in the right order:


1. kqaze - in - nadrand - sepid

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2. mize - ostd - ruye - ketb - panj - ast 3. az - xne - u - dnegh - be - raft 4. miz - taxtepkkon - ast ruye 5. om - syh - qalame - range - ast 6. sandali - nadrand - gerdn 7. ostd - sandali - yek - miz - yek - drad - va 8. man - zud - kels - be - madam - emruz 9. ostd - r - dar - diruz - nadidam - kels 10. bi - ruye - miz - medde - ast

3. Use each of the following words in simple sentences:


1. minevisam 2. ab 3. bastani 4. ce 5. daqiqe 6. sepid 7. kuth 8. rang 9. xkestari 10. cehelo haft

4. Put the following verbs into negative:

1. bordam 2. didid 3. raftam 4. xordi 5. goft 6. xarid 7. mixaram 8. mibaram 9. miyvaram 10. minevisand

nabordam nadidid naraftam naxordi nagoft naxarid nemixaram nemibaram nemiyvaram neminevisand

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Lesson 12
b inj nj yek rob nimsat gozate sniye ham hamn with here there a quarter half hour past second too/also same

1. gerdn sate hato nim be dnegh miyyand. 2. Ostd ham hamn sat be dnegh miyyad. 3. Ostdo gerdn yek sat dar kels hastand. 4. Ostd ruye taxteye syh minevisad. 5. gerdn b medd ruye kqaz minevisand. 6. Sate davzdah az dnegh be xne miravim. 7. Emruz yek rob be e be xneye om miyyam. 8. Sate hato nim az xne be dnegh miravim. 9. Ketbe om inj nist. 10. Medde om diruz nj bud. 11. Yek rob az hat gozate ast. 12. Dah daqiqe az dah gozate ast. 13. Bist daqiqe az dah gosate ast. 14. Yek sat ast daqiqe ast. 15. Yek daqiqe ast sniye ast. 16. Yek ruz bisto cahr sat ast. 17. om be dnegh beravid, man ham miyyam. 18. gerdn sate hat madand, ostd ham hamn sat mad.

The students come to the university at eight thirty. The professor arrives at the university at the same time. The professor and the students are in class for one hour. The professor writes on the blackboard. The students write on paper with pencil. I go home at twelve oclock from the university. I come to your home at quarter to six today. I go to the university from home at half past eight. Your book is not here. Your pencil was there yesterday. It is a quarter past eight. It is ten minutes past ten. It is twenty minutes past ten. An hour is sixty minutes long. A minute is sixty seconds long. A day is twenty four hours long. Go to the university, I will also go. The students came at eight, the professor came at the same time.

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Exercise 12.1

Answer the following questions:

1. Ce satist? 2. Cand sat dar ruz kr mikonid? 3. y nimsat si daqiqe ast? 4. y yek rob pnzdah daqiqe ast? 5. y om sate hato nim be dnegh miravid? 6. Cand sat dar hafte kr mikonid? 7. y emab sate hat dar xne hastid? 8. y om diruz be dnegh madid? 9. y ostde m dar kels ast? 10. y gerdn be kels raftand?

Sat hafto nim ast. Hat sat dar ruz kr mikonam. Bale, nimsat si daqiqe ast. Bale, yek rob pnzdah daqiqe ast. Na, man sate hato nim be dnegh nemiravam. Cehel sat dar hafte kr mikonam. Bale, emab sate hat dar xne hastam. Na, man diruz be dnegh naymadam. Bale, ostde m dar kels ast. Na, gerdn be kels naraftand.

Verb Conjugation Present tense of the verb "to be":


Budan Man hastam To hasti U hast Ma hastim om hastid In hastand I am You are/thou art He/she is We are You are They are To be

Negative:
Man nistam To nisti U nist M nistim om nistid In nistand I am not You are not/thou are not He/she is not We are not You are not They are not

Past tense:
Man budam I was

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To budi U bud M budim om budid In budand

you were/thou wert He/she was We were You were They were

Present tense of the verb "to come":


madan Man miyyam To miyyi U miyyad Ma miyyim om miyyid In miyyand I come thou comest he/she comes we come you come they come To come

Past tense:
Man madam To madi U mad M madim om madid In madand I came You came/thou comest He/she came We came You came They came

Negative:
Man naymadam To naymadi U naymad M naymadim om naymadid In naymadand I did not come You did not come/thou didest not come He/she did not come We did not come You did not come They did not come

Present tense of the verb "to go":


Raftan Man miravam To miravi U miravid I go You go/thou goest he/she goes To go

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M miravim om miravid In miravand

we go you go they go

Past tense:
Man raftam To rafti U raft M raftim om raftid In raftand I went You went/thou went He/she went We went You went They went

Exercise 11.2 Conjugate the present and past tense of the following verbs:
vardan - bordan - didan - xordan - xaridan - goftan - nevetan

Exercise 11.3 Put the following verbs into the negative:


bord - didam - xordam - xaridand - goftim - nevetand - rafti - hastim - budam - madand - miravam raft - hast - didand - xordim - xarid - goftand - nevetand - bordim - vardand - vard - xordi - xaridam did - didam - nevetim - vardim

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Lesson 13
anbe Yekanbe Doanbe Seanbe Cahranbe Panjanbe dine/Jom'e mh sl Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday moon/month year

1. Yek hafte haft ruz ast. 2. Yek mh si ruz ast. 3. Yek sl sisado asto panj ruz ast. 4. Yek sl davzdah mh y panjho do hafte ast. 5. Jomeh m be dnegh nemiyyim. 6. Jomeh ostdn be dnegh nemiyyand. 7. Ruze anbe gerdn be dnegh miyyand. 8. Emruz Yekanbe ast. 9. Diruz anbe bud. 10. Man ruzhye Jome dar xne hastam. 11. Man ruzhye anbe dar danegh hastam. 12. Man ruzhye Doanbe va Cahranbe be dnegah miyyam.

1. A week is seven days long. 2. A month is thirty days long. 3. A year is three hundred and sixty five days long. 4. A year is twelve months or fifty two weeks long. 5. We do not go to the university on Fridays. 6. Professors do not go to the university on Fridays. 7. Students go to the university on Saturdays. 8. Today is Sunday. 9. Yesterday was Saturday. 10. I am home on Fridays. 11. I am at the university on Saturdays. 12. I go to the university on Mondays and Wednesdays.

Exercise 13.1

Put the following words in the right order:

1. gerdn - dar - sat - yek - kels - hastand 2. kqaz - gerdn - medd - ruye - minevisand b 3. om - inj - ketbe - nist 4. ast - yek - sat - ast - daqiqe 5. dnegh - miravim - be - anbeh - m 6. bud - diruz - Cahranbe

gerdn sate yek dar kels hastand. gerdn b medd ruye kqaz minevisand. ketbe om inj nist. yek sat ast daqiqe ast. ma anbeh be danegah miravim. diruz Cahranbe bud.

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7. dar - ruzhye - Panjanbe - nistam - dnegh 8. sat - yekruz - ast - davzdah 9. sl - yek - mh - davzdah - ast 10. gerdn - medd - b - kqaz - ruye minevisand

ruzhaye Panjanbe dar dnegh nistam. yek ruz bisto cahr sat ast. yek sl davzdah mh ast. gerdn b medd ruye kqaz minevisand.

Exercise 13.2

Answer the following questions:


1. Emruz cand anbe ast? 2. Diruz cand anbe bud? 3. Hafte cand ruz ast? 4. Yek ruz cand sat ast? 5. Yek sat cand daqiqe ast? 6. Yek daqiqe cand sniye ast? 7. y om ruzhaye Doanbe be dnegh miravid? 8. y om ruzhye Jome dar xne hastid? 9. Yek sl cand ruz ast? 10. Yek sl cand hafte ast?

Exercise 13.3

Find the negative form of the following sentences:


1. Emruz sate hat az xne be bzr raftam. 2. Az bzr kqazo meddo qalam xaridam. 3. Sate noh az bzr be xne madam. 4. Dar xne darse kels r b medd nevetam. 5. Sate daho nim az xne be dnegh raftam. 6. Sate yzdah ostde m mad. 7. gerdn va ostd be kels raftand. 8. Dar kels ostd dars r ruye taxteye syh nevet. 9. M ham dars r b medd ruye kqaz nevetim.

ADJECTIVES
positive degree: comparative degree: superlative degree: bozorg, kuth, zib, bad bozorgtar, kuthtar, zibtar, badtar bozorgtarin, kuthtarin, zibtarin, badtarin

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Lesson 14
zohr/nimruz kond dorost kuk kardan sobh/bmdd qorub xarb xub xbidan noon slow just/right/exact to wind up morning evening out of order well/good to sleep

1. Dorost zohr ast. 2. Dorost sat dah ast. 3. Sate om dah daqiqe tond ast. 4. Sate man dar bisto cahar sat panj daqiqe kond kar mikonad. 5. Man zohr satam r kuk kardam. 6. Man diruz satam r kuk kardam. 7. Man abh sate dah mixbam. 8. Dar yek ruz hat sat kr mikonam. 9. Yek sat ast daqiqevo yek daqiqe ast sniye ast. 10. In sat kond kr mikonad. 11. Sate om dar bisto cahr sat yek rob tond kr mikonad. 12. Sobhh be dnegh miyyamo zohrh be xne miravam. 13. In sat xarb asto kr nemikonad. 14. In sat xarb ast va dar bisto cahr sat panj sat kond kr mikonad. 15. y om abh sate hat mixbid? 16. Sate om xub kr mikonad. 17. Sate man diruz bad kr mikard. 18. Sate man dorost asto b sate dnegh yeki st. 19. Sate om dorost nist.

It is exactly noon. It is exactly ten oclock. You clock/watch is ten minutes fast. My clock/watch runs five minutes slow during twenty four hours I wound up my clock/watch at noon. I wound up my clock/watch yesterday. I sleep at ten oclock every night. I work eight hours per day. An hour is sixty minutes, and a minute is sixty seconds. This clock/watch runs slow. You clock/watch runs fifteen minutes too fast during twenty four hours. I go to the university in the morning and I come home every noon. This clock is out of order and does not work. This clock is out of order and runs five hours slow during twenty four hours. Do you sleep at eight oclock every night? Your clock/watch works well. My clock worked poorly yesterday. My clock/watch is right and is the same as the university's. You clock/watch is not right.

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20. Sate man kucak ast.

My clock/watch is small.

Exercise 14.1

Answer the following questions:

1. Cand sat dar ruz kr mikonid? 2. y om abh sate noh mixbid? 3. y om ruzh mixbid? 4. Ce sati mixbid? 5. y sate om dorost kr mikonad? 6. y sate om kond kr mikonad? 7. y sate om tond kr mikonad? 8. Ce sati ast? 9. y sobhh be dnegh miyayid? 10. y zohrh be xane miravid? 11. Yek sat cand daqiqe ast? 12. Yek robe sat cand daqiqe ast? 13. Nimsat cand dadiqe ast? 14. Yek sl cand ruz ast? 15. Yek ruz cand sat ast?

Man hat sat dar ruz kr mikonam. Na, man abh sate dah mixbam. Na, man ruzh nemixbam. Sate dah mixbam. Bale, sate man dorost kr mikonad. Na, sate m kond kr nemikonad. Na, sate man dorost kr mikonad. Sat panj ast. Bale, sobhh sate hat be dnegh miravam. Bale, dorost zohr be xane miravam. Yek sat ast daqiqe ast. Yek robe sat pnzdah daqiqe ast. Nimsat si dadiqe ast. Yek sl sisado asto panj ruz ast Yek ruz bisto cahr sat ast.

Exercise 14.2

Compare and categorize the following adjectives:


xogel/zib bozorg arzn zet gern dur pretty large/big cheap ugly expensive far

Exercise 14.3

Put the following sentences into Persian:

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1. Did you see us in the market? 2. I have a red pen and two blue pencils. 3. I am at home today. 4. I did not see him yesterday. 5. The students are in the class. 6. Our professor came to the class at half past eight. 7. I went home at a quarter past four yesterday. 8. It is ten minutes past six. 9. We do not come to the university on Fridays. 10. There are sixty seconds in one hour.

y m r dar bzr didid? Man yek qalame sorxo do medde bi dram. Man emruz dar xne hastam. Man u r diruz nadidam. gerdn dar kels hastand. Ostde m sate hato nim be kels mad. Man diruz sate cahro rob' be xne raftam. Sat eo dah daqiqe ast. M ruzhye dine be dnegh nemiyyim. Yek sat ast daqiqe ast.

Exercise 14.4

Learn the following combinations that denote possessive case:


ketbam ketbat ketba ketbaman ketbatn ketban my book your book/thy book his/her book our book your book their book

Exercise 14.5

Write the possessive cases of these nouns:

medd sar dast dars dar sag kqaz

meddam (my pencil) sarat (your head) dasta (his/her hand) darsamn (our lesson) daratn (your door) sagan (their dog) kqazam (my paper)

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Lesson 15
Fasl bahr zemestn tbestn pyiz emsl prsl bax kardan odan season spring winter summer autumn/fall this year last year to divide to become

1. Yek mh si ruz ast. 2. Yek sl davzdah mh ast. 3. Panjho do hafte yek sl miavad. 4. Emsl tabestn dar Tehrn nabudam. 5. Tbestne prsl dar Tehrn budam. 6. Sisado asto panj ruz ham yek sl ast. 7. Yek sl r be davzdah mh bax kardeand. 8. Har fasl se mh ast. 9. Bahr, tbestn, pyiz, zemestn, cahr fasle sl hastand. 10. Prs1, tbestn az Tehrn be Espahn raftam.

A month is thirty days long. A year is twelve months long. A year is fifty two weeks long. I was not in Tehran this summer. I was in Tehran this past summer. Three hundred sixty five days makes up a year. A year is divided into twelve months. A season is three months long. Spring, summer, autumn, and winter are the four seasons of the year. I went from Tehran to Ispahan last summer.

Exercise 15.1

Make a sentence for each of the following words:


1. anbe 2. hafte 4. ruz 5. daqiqe 7. emsl 8. fasl 10. diruz 3. bahr 6. mh 9. miavad

Exercise 15.2

Answer the following questions:


1. Yek sl cand fasl ast? 2. Yek ruz cand sat ast? 3. Yek hafte cand ruz ast? 4. Sal r be cand fasl bax kardeand? 5. Har fasl cand mh ast? 6. Har sal cand hafte ast?

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7. Yek sl cand ruz ast? 8. Emruz cand anbe ast? 9. Diruz cand anbe bud? 10. In fasl ce faslist (= fasli ast)?

Exercise 15.3

Put the following words in the right order:


1. dar - Tehrn - nabudam - prsl 2. emsl - az Tehrn - tbestn - miravam - be Espahn 3. cahr - yek - fasl - sl - ast 4. dar - xne - sat - hastam - yek 5. sat - diab - xbidam - noh 6. in sntar - diruz - dars - az - ast - dars 7. yek - se - mh - fasl - ast 8. diruz - ketb - dah - bzr - az - xaridam 9. in - hafte - dnegh - sobhh - dar - dram - kr 10. man - sat - sobhh - hat - xne - dar - nistam

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Lesson 16
Mhhye sl Farvardin Ordibehet Xordd Tir Amordd ahrivar Mehr bn zar Dey Bahman Espand The months of the year

Nowruz

Iranian new year

garm sard hav

warm cold air/weather

1. Farvardin, Ordibehet, Xordd, se mhe bahr hastand. 2. Tir, Amordd, ahrivar, se mhe Tbestn hastand. 3. Dey, Bahman, Espand, se mhe zemestn hastand. 4. Mehr, bn, zar, se mhe pyiz hastand. 5. Nowruz, naxostin ruze Farvardin ast. 6. Bisto yekome mhe Mrc ham naxostin ruze Farvardin ast. 7. Zemestnh hav sard ast. 8. Tbestnh hav garm ast. 9. Dar mhe Amordd havye Tehrn, garm ast. 10. Dar mhe Bahman havye Tehrn, sard ast. 11. Yek sl be cahr fasl bax miavad. 12. Har fasl se mh ast. 13. e mhe naxoste sl siyo yek ruz hastand. 14.e mhe dovome sl si ruz ast. 15. Har yek az mhhye bahr siyo yek ruz ast.

Farvardin, Ordibehet, and Xordd are the 3 months of spring. Tir, Amordd, and ahrivar, are the 3 months of summer. Dey, Bahman, and Espand, are the 3 months of winter Mehr, bn, and zar, are the 3 months of autumn. Nowruz, is the first day of Farvardin. The twenty first of March is also the first day of Farvardin. The weather is cold in the winter. The weather is warm in the summer. The weather of Tehran is warm in the month of Amordd. The weather of Tehran is cold in the month of Bahman. A year is divided into four seasons. Every season is three months long. The first six months of the year are thirty one days long. The second six months of the year are thirty days long. Each of the spring months is thirty one days long.

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16. Har yek az mhhye tbestn siyo yek ruz ast. 17. Har yek az mhhaye pyiz si ruz ast. 18. Har yek az mhhye zemestn si ruz ast. 19. Dar fasle bahro pyiz, havye Tehrn, xub ast. 20. Dar fasle tbestno zemestan, havye Tehrn, xub nist.

Each of the summer months is thirty one days long. Each of the autumn months is thirty days long. Each of the winter months is thirty days long. Tehran's weather is good during the spring and autumn seasons. Tehran's weather is not good during the summer and winter seasons.

Exercise 16.1

Put the following sentences into negative:


1. Emruz hav sard ast. 2. Diruz hav garm bud. 3. Emsl tbestn hav garm bud. 4. Prsl zemestn hav sard bud. 5. Dar tbestn havye Tehran garm ast. 6. Dar zemestn havye Tehrn sard ast. 7. Zemestnh man dar Tehrn hastam. 8. Emsl tbestn az Tehrn be Espahn raftam. 9. Diruz havye xubi bud. 10. Emruz sate e hav sard bud.

Exercise 16.2

Answer the following questions:


1. y emruz sard ast? 2. y diruz garm bud? 3. y dar Amorddmh havye Tehrn garm ast? 4. y dar Bahmanmh havye Tehrn sard ast? 5. y tbestnh dar Tehrn hastid? 6. y nowruz naxostin ruze sl ast? 7. y bisto yekome mhe Mrc ruze naxoste Farvardin ast? 8. Farvardinmh cand ruz ast? 9. Tirmh cand ruz ast? 10. Deymh cand ruz ast?

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Exercise 16.3

Make sentences out of the following words:


1. hav - dar - garm - tbestn - ast. 2. ast - hav - sard - zemestnh. 3. naxostin - Farvardin - ruz - Nowruz - ast. 4. fasl - har - mh - se - ast. 5. mh - ruz - si - ast - yek. 6. sal - fasl - yek - ast - cahr. 7. sl - yek - hafte - panjaho do - ast. 8. naxoste - anbe - hafte - ruze - ast. 9. Tehrn - zemestnh - man - hastam - dar. 10. mhe - naxoste - bahr - Farvardin - aste.

Exercise 16.4

Write a sentence for each of the following words:


1. sard 2. naxost 3. sat 4. zohr 5. garm 6. mh 7. emsl 8. hav 9. sl 10. emruz

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Lesson 17
xorid setre abr aftab tbidan zamin mahtab/mhtb abri ftbi smn sun star cloud sunlight to shine earth moonlight cloudy sunny sky

1. Xorid be zamin mitbad. 2. Xorid az zamin dur ast. 3. ftab zamin r garm mikonad. 4. ftab m r garm mikonad. 5. Mahtb garm nist, va zamin r garm nemikonad. 6. Xorid bozorg asto setregn kucak hastand. 7. Xorido mho setregn dar smn hastand. 8. abh m xorid r nemibinim. 9. Ruzh m setregn r nemibinim. 10. abh setregn r dar smn mibinim. 11. Emruz hav abrist, va xorid r nemibinim. 12. Diruz hav ftabiyo garm bud. 13. Zemestnh ftb ziyd garm nist. 14. Ruzhye zemestno abhye tbestn kuth hastand. 15. abhaye zemestno ruzhye tbestn boland hastand.

The sun shines on the earth. The sun is far from the earth. The sun warms the earth. The sun warms us up. Moonlight is not warm, and does not warm the earth. The sun is large and the stars are small. The sun, the moon, and the stars are in the sky. We do not see the sun at night. We do not see the stars during the day. We see the stars in the sky at night. It is cloudy today, and we do not see the sun. Yesterday the weather was sunny and warm. The sunlight is not very warm in the winter. Winter days and summer nights are short. Winter nights and summer days are long.

Exercise 17.1

Put into Persian:

1. The sun is bigger than the earth.

Xorid bozorgtar az zamin ast.

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2. It was sunny yesterday. 3. It is cloudy today and the sun does not shine. 4. The sky is blue. 5. It is cold in winter. 6. It was warm last summer. 7. Autumn is a beautiful season. 8. There are four seasons in a year. 9. It is not cloudy tonight. 10. Saturday is the first day of the week.

Diruz ftbi bud. Emruz abristo xorid nemitbad. smn bist. Zemestn sard ast. Tbestne pi garm bud. Pyiz fasle zibyist. Sl cahr fast ast. Emab abri nist. anbe ruze naxoste hafte ast.

Exercise 17.2

1. Name the days of the week. 2. Name the months of the year. 3. Count from twenty to a hundred. 4. Name the seasons of the year.
Exercise 17.3

Answer the following questions:


1. y abh xorid r mibunid? 2. y om bozorgtar az man hastid? 3. y ruzh setregn r mibinid? 4. y diab hav abri bud? 5. y emruz hava ftbiyast? 6. y xorid bozorgtar az zamin ast? 7. Abr ce rang ast? 8. y ruzh mh ra mibinid? 9. y zamin, kucaktar az xorid ast? 10. y Nowruz, naxoste sl ast?

Exercise 17.4

Make a sentence for each of the following words:


1. setre 2. naxost 3. Amordd 4. abr 5. durtar 6. bahr 7. cehel 8. prsl 9. xbid 10. Doanbe

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Lesson 18
barf tagarg bd ghi sf vazidan meh brn baridan besyr/xeyli snow hail wind sometimes cloudless/clear to blow fog rain to rain very/very much

1. Dar mhe Amordd havye Tehrn besyr garm ast. 2. Dar Bahmanmh havye Tehrn besyr sard ast. 3. Brn dar bahro pyiz, va barf dar zemestn mibarad. 4. Bd dar bahro pyiz va ghi ham dar zemestn mivazad. 5. Emruz hav kami abri ast. 6. Tabestne Tehrn besyr garm, va zemstne n, besyr sard ast. 7. Emruz havye Tehrn abri bud, bd mad, abrh r bord, hav sf od. 8. Prsl brn zyd naymad; vali emsl ham barfo ham barne zydi mad. 9. Prsl yek ruz sobh meh mad, vali zud raft. 10. Prsl, zemestn hav besyr sard naod.

Tehran's weather is very warm in the month of Amordd. Tehran's weather is very cold in the month of Bahman. It rains in spring and autumn, and it snows in winter. Wind blows in spring and autumn and sometimes in winter. The weather is a little cloudy today. Tehran's summer is very warm, and its winter is very cold. Tehran's weather today was cloudy, the wind blew the clouds away and it became clear. Last year it did not rain very much; but this year it rained and snowed a lot. Last year one morning it turned foggy, but it quickly cleared up. Last year, winter the weather did not turn too cold.

Exercise 18.1

Answer these questions:


1. Amorddmh dar kodam fasl ast? 2. Ordibehetmh dar kodm fasl ast?

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3. Kodm fasl garmtar ast? 4. Sardtarin fasl kodm ast? 5. Dar ce fasli bran zyd mibrad? 6. Dar ce fasli bd zyd mibrad? 7. Kodm fasl hav zyd sard miavad? 8. Kodm fasl hav zyd garm miavad? 9. Ay dar bahr brn zydtar mibrad y dar pyiz? 10. Ay barf dar zemestn mibrad?

Exercise 18.2

Compare the following adjectives:


1. garm 2. sard 3. zyd 4. arzn 5. gern 6. boland 7. kuth 8. zib 9. bad 10. bozorg

Exercise 18.3

Learn the following ordinal numbers:


yekom/naxost/avval doyom/dovom seyom/sevom caharom panjom eom haftom hatom nohom dahom yzdahom davzdahom sizdahom cahardahom panzdahom nzdahom hafdahom hajdahom/hadahom/ha nuzdahom bistom dahom first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelveth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth

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bisto yekom bisto dovom siyo dovom cehelo sevom panjaho cahrom asto panjom haftdo eom hatdo haftam navado hatom sadom hezrom

twenty first twenty second thirty second forty third fifty fourth sixty fifth seventy sixth eighty seventh ninety eighth hundredth thousandth

Exercise 18.4

Write five simple sentences about winter.


Exercise 18.5

Make sentences out of the following words:


1. ruz - Farvardin - naxoste - Nowruz - ast 2. hav - tbestnh - besyr - miavad - garm 3. ftb - mikonad - garm - m - r 4. mahtb - nist - garm - va - nemikonad - garm - m - r 5. setregn - r - dar - abh - mibinim - smn 6. nemibinim - setregn - r - ruzh 7. hav - ftbi - diruz - bud 8. mitbad - be - xorid - zamin 9. dovome - bahr - Ordibehet - mh - ast 10. mh - Xordd - bahr - sevome - ast

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Lesson 19
mdar bardar doxtar pedar zan pesar xhar mard owhar mother brother girl/daughter father wife/woman boy/son sister man husband

Pedaram asto se sl drad va dar dnegh dars midahad. Mdaram panjhsle asto dar xne kr mikonad. Har ruz sobh pedaram be dnegh miravad, va dar nj dars midahad amm mdaram dar xne asto krhye xne r mikonad. Man se xharo do bardar dram. Xaharne man har se az man kucaktarand. Yeki az xharne man owhar drad. Do xhare digare man dar xneye pedaro mdaram hastand. Bardarne man har do az man bozorgtar hastand va dar xneye xodan hastand. Man har ruz be dnegh miravamo dar nj dars mixnam. Ruzhye Jome ostdn be dnegh nemiyyand, man ham be nj nemiravam. Dar dneghe m zanno mardn, doxtarno pesarn b ham dars mixnand.

My father is sixty three years old and teaches at the university. My mother is fifty three years old and works at home. Every morning my father goes to the university and teaches there, but my mother is at home taking care of the house work. I have three sisters and two brothers. My sisters are all younger than me. One of my sisters has a husband. My two other sisters live at home with my parents. My brothers are all older than me and live in their own homes. I go to the university every day and study there. On Fridays the professors do not go to the university and I do not go there either. In our university women and men, girls and boys all study together.

Exercise 19.1

Give negative and positive answers to the following questions:


1. y om har ruz be dnegh miravid? 2. y pedare om dar dnegh dars midahad? 3. y om bardar drid? 4. y om xhar drid? 5. y bardare om az om bozorgtar ast?

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6. y xhare om az om kucaktar ast? 7. y xhare om dar xneye pedaratn ast? 8. y bardare bozorge om kr mikonad? 9. y xhare kucake om dar xne ast? 10. y xhare bozorge om owhar drad?

Exercise 19.2

Make sentences out of the following words:


1. man - pedare - dar - xne - nist - ruzh 2. dar - mdaram - xne - mikonad - kr 3. mdar - besyr - bozorgtar - va - pedaram - az - man - hastand 4. az - xharne - yeki - owhar - man - drad 5. yeki - xharn - kr - man - az - xne - r - mikonad - e

Exercise 19.3

Learn the following pronouns:


pedaram = my father pedarat = your father pedara = his/her father pedaramn = our father pedaratn = your father pedaran = their father

xodam = myself xodat = yourself xoda = himself/herself

xodamn = ourselves xodatn = yourselves xodan = themselves

ketbe xodam = my own book ketbe xodat = your own book ketbe xoda = his/her own book

ketbe xodamn = our own book ketbe xodatn = your own book ketbe xodan = their own book

Exercise 19.4

Correct these sentences:


1. in az xne be bzr raft.

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2. man emruz sobh dar xne hast. 3. u diruz be dnegh miravad. 4. pedare man az man kucaktar ast. 5. man az mdaram bozorgtar hastam.

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Lesson 20
m = supper nhr = lunch sobhne/ct = breakfast xork/qaz = food ir = milk bidr odan = to wake nn = bread panir = cheese ostan = to wash

Sobhh sate e az xb bidr miavam. Dasto suratam r miuyam. Nno paniro ir mixoram, va be dnegh miravam. Sate hato nim dar kels hastam. Ostd be kels miyyad va dars midahad. Sobhh se sat dars mixnam. Sate yzdaho nim az dnegh be xne miravam. Dorost sate davzdah nhr mixoram. Sate dovo nim dobre be dnegh miravam. Do sat digar dars mixnam. Pas az n be xne miravam. Dar xne ham kami dars mixnamo kami kr mikonam. Sate hat m mixoramo sate dah mixbam.

I wake up at six o'clock every morning. I wash may hands and face. I eat bread with cheese and milk and head to the university. I am in the classroom at eight thirty. The professor arrives at class and teaches. I study for three hours every morning. I leave the university for home at eleven thirty. I eat lunch exactly at twelve o'clock. I again go to the university at two thirty. I study another two hours. After that I go home. At home I study and work a little. I eat supper at eight and sleep at ten.

Exercise 20.1

Answer the following questions:


Sobhh ce sati az xb bidr miavid? y abh zud mixbid? y dar zemestn dasto suratetn r b be sard miuyid? y dar tbestn dasto suratetn r b be garm miuyid? Ce sati sobhne mixorid? Ce sati nhr mixorid? Ce saati m mixorid? ir ce rang ast? Dar zemestn xorke sard behtar ast y xorke garm? abi cand sat mixbid?

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Exercise 20.2

Make a sentence with each of the following words:


1. pedaratn 4. ghi 7. pas az n 2. xoda 5. amm 8. dobre 3. pedaram 6. setregn 9. mixbam

Exercise 20.3

Correct these sentences:


1. U xodan be man goft. 2. Yeki az xaharne man owhar drand. 3. Mahtb m r garm mikonad. 4. Nowruz, ruze naxoste Ordibehet ast. 5. Hav besyr sard bud, tagarg mivazido bd mibrid. 6. Diab hav sf budo setregn r nemididim. 7. Emruz dorost sate davzdah m xordam. 8. om ketbe xodetn r be xne bordand. 9. Zemestn havye Tehrn besyr garm ast. 10. Tbestnh dar Tehrn barf mibrad.

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Lesson 21
otqe neiman otqe xb otqe nhrxori nowkar otqe paziryi pazxne paz ruuyi kolfat mehmn livingroom bedroom dining room man-servant guestroom kitchen cook lavatory maid-servant guest

Xneye m panj otq drad, se otqe n bozorgo do otqe an kucak ast. Yeki az otqhye bozorg, otqe neiman ast ke m dar n mineinim. Yeki az otqhye kucak barye xb ast ke m dar an mixbim. Dar otqe nhrxori xork mixorim. Dar otqe paziryi az mehmn paziryi mikonim. Yeki az otqhye kucak barye nowkaro kolfate mst. Kolfato nowkare m zano owhar hastand. M paz nadrim va xodemn pazi mikonim. Sobhh ke az xb bidr miavim har yek az m be ruuyi miravad va dast o surate xod r miuyad. Sate hafte sobh barye xordane sobhne be otqe nhrxori miravim. Barye xordane nhr va m hameye m dasthye xodemn r miuyim, pas az n be otqe nhrxori barye xordane xork miravim. Pas az xordane nhr dobre har yek be sare kre xod miravim. abh do sat pas az xordane m hameye m mixbim.

Our house has five rooms, three of its rooms are large and two are small. One of its large rooms is the living room where we sit. One of the small rooms is the bedroom where we sleep. We eat food in the dining room We entertain a guest in the guestroom. One of the small rooms is for the maid and the sevant. Our maid and servant are husband and wife. We do not have a cook and must cook our own food. Every morning when we get up each one of us goes to the bathroom and washes his face and hands. At seven o'clock we go to the dining room to have breakfast. We wash our hands before lunch and dinner, then we go into the dining room to have our meals. After having lunch we return to our work. Every night we go to bed two hours after dinner.

Exercise 21.1

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Write five simple sentences about your family.


Exercise 21.2

Use each of the following words in simple sentences:


1. bozorgtar 4. ostam 7. pazxne 10. sobhne 2. haryek 5. mard 8. otqe nowkar 3. hame 6. bidr odam 9. paziryi kardam

Exercise 21.3

Answer these questions:


1. Sobhh ce sati az xb bidr miavid? 2. abh ce sati mixbid? 3. Nhr r ce sati mixorid? 4. Ce sati m mixorid? 5. Sobhh ce sati sare kr miravid? 6. y om paz drid, y xodatn pazi mikonid? 7. Xneye om cand otq drad? 8. abi cand sat mixbid? 9. y om abh dir mixbid? 10. Zemestn r bitar dust drid y tbestn r?

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Lesson 22
mndan hendese zabn pkize trix Prsi poxtan joqrfi mre/hesb komak kardan to remain geometry language clean history Persian to cook geography arithmetic to help

Pariyo Kuro dar dabestn dars mixnand. Pari xhare Kuro ast va Kuro bardare Pari ast. Pari kelse dovomo Kuro cahrom ast. Sobhh bham az xne be dabestn miravand. Kuro do sl bozorgtar az Pari ast. Dar dabestn har do zabne Prsi, mre, hendese, trix, va joqrfi mixnand. abh Kuro dar xne be Pari komak mikonad. Pedaran ruzh sate hat be sare kr miravado abh sate haft be xne miyyad. Mdaran dar xne mimnado xne r pkize mikonado barye in xork mipazad. Pariyo Kuro pas az in ke kre xod r tamm kardand be apazxne miravando be mdaran komak mikonand.

Pari and Kurosh study at the elementary school. Pari is Kurosh's sister, and Kurosh is Pari's brother. Pari is in second, and Kurosh is in fourth grade. Every morning they go to school together. Kurosh is two years older than Pari. At school they both study Persian, arithmetic, geometry, history, and geography. Every night Kurosh helps Pari at home. Their father goes to work every day at eight o'clock, and every night he goes comes home at seven o'clock. Their mother stays at home, cleans the house, and cooks meals for them. Pari and Kurosh go to the kitchen after finishing their work and help out their mother.

Exercise 22.1

Answer the following questions:


1. y Pari xhare Kuro ast? 2. y Kuro bardare Pari ast? 3. Pari dar ce kelsi ast? 4. Kuro dar ce kelsi ast? 5. Kuro cand sl bozorgtar an Pari ast? 6. Dar dabestn ce mixnand? 7. y abh Kuro be Pari komak mikonad?

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8. Pedaran ce sati be sare kar miravad? 9. Ce sati pedaran be xne bar migardad? 10. Madaran dar xne ce mikonad?

Exercise 22.2

Write the infinitive of five different verbs.


Exercise 22.3

Conjugate the present tense of the verb budan.


Exercise 22.4

Conjugate the past tense of the verb xordan.


Exercise 22.5

Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Man u r didam. 2. Ostd dar kels dars midahad. 3. Sate hato nim gerdn dar kels budand. 4. Mdaram diruz be bzr raft. 5. Pedare om diab be xneye m mad.

Numbers
100 sad 200 devist 300 sisad 400 cahrsad 500 pnsad 600 esad 700 haftsad 800 hatsad 900 nohsad 1000 hezr

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Lesson 23
xohl odan bidr kardan piyde kif bz miavad hanuz xarideid xstan rasidan hardo to become happy to waken on foot school bag opens yet you have bought to want to reach both

Pariyo Kuro diab be pedaran goftand: Dabestne m, ruze Cahranbe bz miavado hanuz om barye m ketb, daftar, meddo kqaz naxarideid. Pedaran goft: Fard ke Doanbe ast hame b ham be bzr xhim raft. Baceh besyr xohl odando be otqe xbe xod raftand. Fard sobhe zud har do az xb bidr odando pedaro mdar r bidr kardand. Pas az xordane sobhne piyde be bzr raftand. Dar xiybnh daste Pari dar daste mdar, va daste Kuro dar daste pedar bud. Pas az nim sat be bzr rasidand. Pedar barye har do ketb, daftar, qalam, meddo kqaz xarid. Pari goft: Pedar jn, man yek kif mixham. Pedar barye Pari yek kife qahveiyo barye Kuro yek kife siyh xarid. In ketb, daftar, qalam, meddo kqaze xod r dar kifhyan goztando be xne madand.

Pari and Kurosh told their father last night: Our school will open on Wednesday and you have not yet bought us any books, notebooks, pencils and papers. Their father said: Tomorrow is Monday and we will all go to the market together. The children became happy and went to their rooms. The next day they woke up early and awakened their mother and father. After having breakfast they left for the market. In the streets Pari's hand was in her mother's and Kurosh's was in his father's. They reached the market after half hour. Their father bought books, notebooks, pens, pencils, and papers for both of them. Pari said: Dear father, I want a school bag. Their father bought a brown school bag for Pari and a black one for Kurosh. They put their books, notebooks, pens, pencils, and papers in their bags and came home.

Exercise 23.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Ce ruzi Pariyo Kuro b pedaran be bzr raftand? 2. y om bzre Tehrn r dideid?

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3. y Pariyo Kuro piyde be bzr raftand? 4. Pas az cand sat be bzr rasidand? 5. y dar xiybnh daste Pari dar daste mdara bud? 6. y pedar barye har do ketb, daftar, meddo qalam xarid? 7. Pari be pedar ce goft? 8. y kife Pari qahvei bud? 9. y kife Kuro siyh bud? 8. y Pariyo Kuro ketbo daftare xod r dar kife xod goztand?

Exercise 23.2

Write the equivalent of the following words in English:


1. hav 4. zud 7. otqe paziryi 10. mre 13. devist 16. dust dtan 19. poxtan 2. barye 5. dir 8. rasidan 11. hendese 14. komak mikonad 17. bitar 20. trix 3. bace 6. xiybn 9. piyde 12. mixham 15. mndan 18. Prsi

Conjugation of Verbs

Perfect tense:
Xordan man xordeam to xordei u xorde ast m xordeim om xordeid in xordeand I have eaten you have eaten he/she has eaten we have eaten you have eaten they have eaten To eat

Perfect tense:
Rasidan man rasideam to rasidei u raside ast I have reached you have/thou hast reached he/she has reached To reach

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m rasideim om rasideid in rasideand

we have reached you have reached they have reached

Pefect tense:
Raftan man rafteam to raftei u rafte ast m rafteim oma rafteid in rafteand I have gone you have/thou hast gone he/she has gone we have gone you have gone they have gone To go

Future tense:
Amadan man xham mad to xhi mad u xhad mad m xhim niad om xhid mad in xhand mad I shall come you will come he/she will come we shall come you will come they will come To come

Future tense:
Didan man xham did to xhi did u xhad did m xhim did om xhid did in xhand did I shall see you will see he/she will see we will see you will see they will see To see

Future tense:
Xaridan To buy

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man xham xarid to xhi xarid u xhad xarid m xhim xarid om xhid xarid in xhand xarid

I shall buy you will buy he/she will buy we shall buy you will buy they will buy

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Lesson 24
dust gie hangm nme postxne slem posti tambr fahmidan sandoqe post andxtan pkat ahr friend stamp window when letter post office safe/healthy postman stamp to realize mailbox to drop/to throw envelope city

Yeki az dustne man, yek mh ast ke be Landan rafte ast. Diruz sate nohe sobh posti nmeyi az Landan barye man vard. In nme r duste man ferestde bud. Nme r xndam. Hangmi ke fahmidam u slem be ahre Landan raside ast, xohl odam. Diab psoxe nmeye u r nevetamo emruz sobh n r be postxne bordam. Az yeki az gieh tambr xaridamo be pkat casbndam, va nme r dar sandoqe post andxtam. Az postxne be xneye bardaram raftam. Bardaram goft: Sate hate sobh be xneye om telefon kardam, om dar xne nabudid. Goftam: dorost ast, man be postxne rafte budam.

One of my friends has gone to London for a month. The postman brought me a letter from London at nine o'clock yesterday morning. My friend had sent me the letter. I read the letter. I was happy when I realized he had safely reached the city of London. Last night I wrote an answer to his letter, and took it to the post office this morning. I bought a stamp from a window, pasted it to an envelope, and dropped the letter in a mailbox. I went to my brother's place after the post office. I called your home at eight o'clock this morning, and you were not home, my brother said. That is correct, I had gone to the post office, I said.

Exercise 24.1

Answer the following questions:


1. y om ahre Landan r dideid?

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2. Postxneye Tehrn dar ce xiybni ast? 3. y om postxneye Tehrn r dideid? 4. Tambre post r az koj mixarid? 5. y om dusti dar ahre Landan drid? 6. Hangmi ke tambr r be pkat casbndid, pkat r koj miyandzid? 7. Sobhh ce sati az xne birun miravid? 8. y om sobhh dir be xne bar migardid? 9. y om be dustne xod ke dar Irn nistand nme minevisid? 10. y om psoxe nmeh r zud minevisid?

Exercise 24.2

Conjugate the future tense of the verb: To Go = Raftan


Exercise 24.3

Conjugate the perfect tense of the verb: To See = Didan


Exercise 24.4

Put the following verbs into negative:

man budeam to budei u bude ast m budeim om budeid in budeand

man xham goft to xhi goft u xhad goft m xhim goft om xhid goft in xhand goft

man miravam to miravi u miravad m miravim om miravid in miravand

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Lesson 25
havpeym neastan forudgh dast ddan tksi mosfer q digari didani miyn gomrok mrikyi miymad xodrow airplane to sit/to land airport to shake hands taxi passenger sir/Mr. the other worth seeing among customs American was coming automobile

qye Edvrd Jnson va qye Yegne b ham dust hastand. qye Yegne be m goft: Emruz sobh sate haft b yek tksi az ahr be forudghe Mehrbd raftam. qye Edvrd Jnson, yeki az dustne man, az Nyu York be Tehrn miymad. Yek rob be hat, yek havpeymye mrikyi be zamin neast, duste man dar in havpeym bud. Dare havpeym bz od. Mosfern hame be gomrok raftand. Pas az nim sat birun madand. Duste man ham birun mad, b u dast ddamo hle u r porsidam. Bardare man ham be forudgh made bud t duste mar bebinad. B xordove u be ahr madim. qye Jnson yek hafte dar Tehrn mimnado dar xneye m mehmn ast. M az u paziryi xhim kard. Dar in hafte be jhye didaniye ahre Tehrn xhim raft. Pas az yek hafte u be ahrhye digare Irn xhad raft.

Mr. Edward Johnson and Mr. Yeganeh are friends. Mr. Yeganeh told us: This morning at seven o'clock I took a taxi from the city to the Mehrabad airport. One of my friends, Mr. Edward Johnson, was arriving in Tehran from New York. At quarter to eight, an American airplane landed, and my friend was on board. The airplane door opened. All passengers went through customs. They came out after a half hour. My friend came out as well, I shook his hand and greeted him. My brother had also come to the airport to see my friend. We left for the city in his car. Mr. Johnson will stay in Tehran for a week, as a guest in our home. We will entertain him. This week we will visit the interesting sights of the city of Tehran. After a week he will visit other cities around Iran.

Exercise 25.1

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Answer these questions:


1. qye Jnson az kodm ahr be Tehrn mad? 2. qye Jnson b otomobil be Tehrn mad? 3. y qye Jnson b havpeymye mrikyi be Tehrn mad? 4. Ce sati havpeym be zamin neast? 5. Mosafern az havpeym be koj raftand? 6. qye Jnson dar Tehrn mehmne kist? 7. qye Jnson ce moddat dar Tehrn xhad mand? 8. U pas az yek hafte be koj xhad raft? 9. y qye Jnson be jhye didaniye ahre Tehrn xhad raft? 10. qye Jnson b xodrove ke be ahr mad?

Exercise 25.2

Conjugate the perfect tense of the verbs: Ddan = To Give, Gereftan = To Take
Exercise 25.3

Translate the following sentences into Persian:


1. What day is it today? 2. Today is Tuesday. 3. What day was yesterday? 4. Yesterday was Monday. 5. What day will tomorrow be? 6. Tomorrow will be Wednesday. 7. It was cold yesterday. 8. It was warm in summertime. 9. It is cold in winter. 10. It was cloudy last night.

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Lesson 26
be suye zang zadan sed zadan ruuyi avaz kardan taxte xb jmedn andar/andarun odan rhnamyi kardan xomad goftan nen anjm ddan ekf hammm towards to ring to call lavatory to change bed suitcase to enter to guide to welcome to show to finish closet bathroom

Xneye qye Yegne dar xiybne Taxte Jamid ast. Xodrove bardara jelove xne istd. qye Jnson, qye Yegnevo bardar az xodrow piyde odand va be suye dare xne raftand. qye Yegne zang r zad. Nowkara dar r bz kard. qye Yegnevo bardara be qye Jnson tarof kardand va u naxost andarune xne od. qye Yegne u r be otqi rhnamyi kard va u andarune n otq od. Xnome Yegne ham be in otq mad, be qye Jnson xomad gofto taxte xb, ekf, hammmo ruuyi r be u nen dd. Nowkar ham jmedanhye qye Jnson r vard va dar otq gozt. Hame birun raftand t qye Jnson dasto surate xod r beuyado jmeye xod r avaz konad. Pas az yek sat qye Jnson krhye xod r anjm ddo duste xod qaye Yegne r sed zad. Har do be otqe paziryi raftando nj neastand.

Mr. Yeganeh's house is on Takht-e Jamshid Avenue. His brother's automobile stopped in front of the house. Mr. Johnson, Mr. Yeganeh, and his brother got out of the automobile and went towards the door. Mr. Yeganeh rang the bell. His servant opened the door. Mr. Yeganeh and his brother gestured Mr. Johnson politely and he was the first to enter the house. Mr. Yeganeh directed him to a room which he entered. Mrs. Yeganeh also entered the room, welcomed Mr. Johnson, and showed him the bed, the closet, the bathroom. The servant brought Mr. Johnson's suitcases and placed them in the room. Everyone left so that Mr. Johnson could wash up and change his clothes. After an hour Mr. Johnson was finshed, and called his friend Mr. Yeganeh. They both went to the livingroom and sat there.

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Exercise 26.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Xneye qye Yegne kojst? ( koj ast?) 2. Ke zange xne r zad? 3. Ke dar r bz kard? 4. Ke be qye Jnson tarof kard? 5. Ke naxost andarune xne od? 6. Ke qye Jnson r be otq rhnamyi kard? 7. Xnome Yegne be qye Jnson ce goft va be u ce nen dd? 8. Ke jmednhye qye Jnson r vard? 9. Nowkar jmednh r koj gozt? 10. Pas az ce moddati qye Jnson krhye xod r anjm dd? 11. qye Jnson ke r sed zad? 12. qye Jnsono qye Yegne be koj raftando ce kardand?

Exercise 26.2

Make a sentence with each of the following words:


1. xne 2. xiybn 3. bardaram 4. zang 5. bz 6. andarun 7. ekf 8. xoda

Exercise 26.3

Correct the following sentences:


1. Man qye Yegne r dar xiyban did. 2. qye Jnson mehmnhye qye. 3. Havpeym sate hat be zamin neastand. 4. U daste xod r dar kels nadidand. 5. Sate nohe ab posti nmeyi barye man vardi. 6. Bardaram nme r dar sandoqe post andxtam.

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7. Yeki az dustne man yek mh ast ke be Landan rfteand. 8. Xharam dusti dar ahre Tehrn drid. 9. Pedaram sobhh sate hat az xne birun miravad. 10. M kami zabne Prsi midnam.

Exercise 26.4

Learn the different parts of the following verbs:


Infinitive kardan budan madan vardan bordan didan xordan raftan xaridan nevetan odan tbidan vazidan ddan xndan kon b y var bar bin xor row xar nevis ow tb vaz deh xn Present tense kard bud mad vard bord did xord raft xarid nevet od tbid vazid dd xnd Past tense karde bude made varde borde dide xorde rafte xaride nevete ode tbide vazide dde xnde Past participle

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Lesson 27
aknun/inak neasteand ehterm boland odand cy nalbaki gap mizadand piband qand pi/jelow surat irini fenjn mizbn hangm ne kard kenr mixordand now they are sitting respect/honor they raise up tea saucer they were talking apron sugar in front of/before face sweets cup host when he/she combed beside they were eating

qye Jnsono qye Yegne aknun dar otqe paziryi neasteando bham gap mizanand. Xnome Yegne dar in hangm dar pazxne bud. Az pazxne birun mad, pibande xod r baz kard, dasto surate xod r ost, jmeye xne r avaz kard, sare xod r ne kardo be otqe paziryi raft. qaye Jnsono qye Yegne be ehterme u az jye xod boland odand. Hangmi ke Xnome Yegne neast, in ham dobre neastand. Nowkare xne cyo irini vardo pie qye Jnson bord. qye Johnson yek fenjn cy bardto do tekke qand dar n andxt. Pas az n yek irini ham bardto kenre nalbaki gozt. qvo xnome Yegne ham cyo iriniye xod r bardtand va nowkar az otq birun raft. Mehmno do mizbn cy mixordando gap mizadand.

Mr. Johnson and Mr. Yeganeh are now seated in the livingroom and talking. Mrs. Yeganeh was in the kitchen at this time. She came out of the kitchen, took off her apron, washed up, changed her clothes, combed her hair and entered the livingroom. Mr. Johnson and Mr. Yeganeh rose up from their seats as a sign of respect for her. They sat down again when Mrs. Yeganeh took her seat. The servant brought some tea and sweets and offered them to Mr. Johnson. Mr. Johnson picked up a cup of tea and dropped two pieces of sugar in it. Then he picked up a sweet and placed it on the saucer. Mr. and Mrs. Yeganeh took their tea and sweets and the servant left the room. The guest and the two hosts drank tea and talked.

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Exercise 27.1

Without referring to the translation tell what you read in your own words.
Exercise 27.2

Answer the following questions with complete sentences:


1. qye Jnson va qye Yegne aknun dar koj neasteand? 2. qye Jnsono qye Yegne ce mikonand? 3. ya Xnome Yegne jmevo kafhvo jurbhye xod r avaz kard? 4. Hangmi ke qye Jnsono qye Yegne, Xnome Yegne r didand ce kardand? 5. Hangmi ke Xnome Yegne neast in ce kardand? 6. Nowkare xne ce vard? 7. Nowkare xne cyo irini r pie ke bord? 8. qye Jnson ce bar dt? 9. qye Jnson dar fenjne cy ce andxt? 10. qye Jnson irini r koj gozt?

Exercise 27.3

Put all the verbs in the sentences into present tense.


Exercise 27.4

Translate the following sentences into English:


1. In doxtare man ast. 2. Doxtare man yzdah sle ast. 3. Pesare om cand sle ast? 4. Emruz hav besyr sard ast. 5. y om dar Tehrn zendegi mikonid? 6. Yeki az bardarne man dar Espahn zendegi mikonad. 7. Diab dir be xne raftam. 8. Nowruz, ruze naxoste sle Iraniyn ast. 9. Havye in otq garm ast, yeki az panjareh r bz konid. 10. Yeki az dustnam be dneghhye Englestn rafte ast.

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Lesson 28
gerd madand deh dehnein dowr pir davat kard garde kardan mnand npk ketzr jow kte budand guspand boz xorus negahdri kardan jnvar sudmand nm porsid mde kardan tang gandom gv xar morq zir they gathered village villager around old he/she invited to take a walk/browse/wander like dirty field barley they had sown sheep goat cock to take care animal useful name he/she asked to prepare narrow wheat cow donkey hen because

qye Yegne b pesare bozorgo Xnoma va qye Jnson ruze dine b xodrow az Tehrn birun raftand. Pas az do sat be yek deh rasidand. Dehneinn ke didand xodrow andarune deh ode ast, dowre n gerd madand.

Mr. Yeganeh, his eldest son, his wife, and Mr. Johnson, left Tehran by car on Friday.

They reached a village after two hours. The villagers gathered around the automobile after they saw it enter the village.

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Yeki az in ke pirmardi bud, in r be xneye xod davat kard. In ham xodrow r dar kenri goztando be xneye pirmard raftand. qye Yegne nme pirmard r porsid, pir-mard goft: Nme man Kuro ast. Pas az rasidan be xne zane Kuro in r be otqi rhnamyi kardo pas az nim sat cy mde kardo barye in vard. In pas az xordane cy dar deh garde kardand. qye Jnson goft: Xnehye deh mnande xnehye ahr bozorgo zib nistand va kuce ham tango npk ast. Pas az dah daqiqe az deh birun raftando be ketzr rasidand. Bitare zaminh r gandomo jow kte budand. Dehneinn az gv, guspand, boz, xar, asb, morqo xorus negahdri mikonand, zir in janvarn sudmand hastand.

One of them, an old man, invited them to his home. They left the automobile in a corner and went to the old man's house. Mr. Yeganeh asked the old man for his name, the old man replied: My name is Kurosh. After reaching the house, Kurosh's wife directed them to a room and after a half hour prepared tea and brought it inside. They browsed around village after drinking their teas. Mr. Johnson said: The village houses are not as large and beautiful as the one's in the city, and the alley is narrow and dirty. After ten minutes they left the village and reached a field. Most of the field was planted with barley and wheat. The villagers take care of cows, sheep, goats, donkeys, horses, hens and cocks, because these are useful animals.

Exercise 28.1

Answer the following questions:


1. qye Yegne b ke az Tehrn birun raft? 2. Ce ruzi qye Yegne az Tehrn birun raft? 3. Pas az cand sat be deh rasidand? 4. Ce kasni dowre min gerd madand? 5. Ke in r be xneye xod davat kard? 6. y in be xneye an pirmard raftand? 7. Nme n pirmard ce bud? 8. Zane Kuro ce kard? 9. In pas az xordane cy ce kardand? 10. qye Jnson dar breye xnehye deh ce goft? 11. qye Jnson dar breye kucehye deh ce goft? 12. qye Yegnevo digarn az deh ke birun raftand be koj rasidand? 13. Dar zaminh bitar ce kte budand? 14. Jnvarni r ke dar deh budand nm bebarid? 15. y gvo guspand sudmand hastand?

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Exercise 28.2

Make a sentence for each of the following words:


1. deh 2. pir 3. davat 4. nm 5. rasidan 6. rhnamyi kardan 7. ahr 8. daqiqe 9. sudmand 10. bozorgtar

Exercise 28.3

Explain what you read in your own words without refering to the previous pages.
Exercise 28.4

Put the sentences you created in Exercise 28.2 into negative.


Exercise 28.5

Name five villages around Tehran.

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Lesson 29
asr hamrhn xo gozatan sude byad mixham safar xvar jonubi bxtar markazi taqriban ncram gungun yani dur xnevde oml bax sepas bedrud goftan evening companions to have a good time comfortable must I want trip/voyage east southern west central nearly Im obliged different it means far family north part afterwards to say goodby

Asre dine qye Yegnevo hamrhn az garde bar gatand va slem be xne rasidand. Hame barye xordane cy be otqe paziryi raftand.

Mr. Yeganeh and companions returned home fine on Friday evening. They all went to the livingroom for tea.

qye Jnson be xnevdeye Yegne goft: Man dar Mr Johnson said to the Yeganeh family: I am very xneye om besyr sude hastamo dar inj be man comfortable at your home and am having a good xo migozarad. time. Vali man byad ahrhye digare Irn r ham bebinam. Naxost be omle Irn mixham beravam va zarbyjn, Gilno Mnzandarn r b Gorgn bebinam. Sepas mixham safari be xvare Irn yani xorsn beravam. Pas az n be baxhye jonubiye Irn mnande Kermn, Ba1ucestn, Prso Xuzestn xham raft va safari ham be bxtare Irn xham kard t Kordestn But I have to visit other cities around Iran. First I want to go north of Iran and visit Azerbaijan, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Gorgan. Then I want to take a trip to Khorasan in eastern Iran. Then I will visit the southern regions like Kerman, Baluchistan, Pars and Khuzistan, and also take a trip to see Kurdistan in western Iran.

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r bebinam. Sepas ahrhye markazi, mnande Qom, Kn, Espahno Ark r xham did, t taqriban hameye Irn r dide bam. Man gomn dram yek ketbe joqrfi be zabne Englisi dar breye Irn benevisamo barye nevetane in ketb ncram baxhye gungune Irn r bebinam. Fard sobh b om bedrud xham goft va b preyi dustne Englisiye xod in safare duro derz r qz xham kard. Then I will see the cities in the central region, like Qom, Kashan, Espahan and Arak, so that I would have visited the entire Iran. I have in mind to write a geographical book on Iran, and in order to do that I am obliged to visit the different parts of the country. Tomorrow morning I will say goodby to you all, and leave on this long trip with several of my English friends.

Exercise 29.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Key qaye Yegne va hamrhna az safar bar gatand? 2. Vaqti be xne rasidand be kodm otq raftand? 3. y qye Jnson dar xneye qye Yegne sude bud va be u xo migozat? 4. y qye Jnson mixst ahrhye digare Iran r bebinad? 5. y qye Jnson mixst naxost be ome Irn beravad? 6. y zarbyjn dar ome Irn ast? 7. y Prs dar jonube Irn ast? 8. Yeki az ahrhye bxtare Irn r nm bebarid? 9. y qye Jnson mixst yek ketbe joqrfi dar breye Irn benevisad? 10. y qye Jnson mixst baxhye gungune Irn r bebinad?

Exercise 29.2

Fill in the missing words:


1. Cand ruz ast havye Tehrn sard .......... ? 2. Diruz hlam xub .......... va natavnestam be kels .......... 3. Emruz be bzr .......... va yek .......... kaf .......... 4. Dehneinn dar .......... zendegi .......... 5. Diruz sate eo nim be xneye om .......... amm oma .......... 6. Diab .......... abri .......... 7. Espahn yeki az ahrhye .......... Irn .......... 8. Tbestnh havye Tehrn .......... 9. Yek hafte .......... ruz .......... 10. Yek sl .......... ruz ast.

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Exercise 29.3

Write the plural form of the following sentences:


1. Man be Espahn raftam. 2. y bardare om dar Tehrn ast? 3. Ketbe man ruye mize om nabud? 4. Kuceye deh tang ast? 5. Man daste xod r ostam. 6. U pas az xordane nhr az xne birun raft. 7. Pye man yax karde ast. 8. ahrnein dar ahr zendegi mikonad. 9. Sandaliye man qahveyi ast. 10. Daro panjareye in otq bz asto havye otq sard ode ast.

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Lesson 30
naxostin molyem golbi beh anr gowje holu pundan tondar okufe kardan rudxne bq kevarz zardlu gils mive lblu portoql nrangi limu barq daraxidan por farvardeh sed first mild pears quinces pomegranate plum peaches to cover thunder to blossom river garden farmer apricot cherry fruit black cherry orange tangerine lemon lightening to shine full crops sound/noise

Bahr naxostin fasle sl ast. Havye in fasl molyem ast. Na ziyd sardo na ziyd garm ast. Deraxtne mive mnande sib, beh, anr, holu, gils, lblu, gowje, zardlu, portoql, nrangiyo limu okufe mikonand. okufeh, mivehye tbestniyo pyizi miavand. Dar in fasl barfhye kuh b miavad.

Spring is the first season of the year. The weather is mild during this season. It is not too cold and not too warm. Fruit trees like apples, quinces, pomegranates, peaches, cherries, black cherries, plums, apricots, oranges, tangerines, and lemons blossom. Blossoms turn into summer and autumn fruits. In this season snow on the mountains melt.

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be in barfh rudxneh r por mikonad. Kevarzn be in rudxneh r be zaminhye keto bqh mibarand va farvardehye xod r b midahand. Ghi abre siyhi smn r mipunad, barq mizanad, sedye tondar be gu mirasado pas az n brne tondi mibrad, sepas hav sf miavado xorid dobre midaraxad.

Water from the snow fills the rivers. Farmers take the water from these rivers to their fields and gardens and water their crops.

Sometimes a dark cloud covers the sky, lightning strikes, and the sound of thunder is heard; then there is a shower and finally it clears and the sun shines again.

Exercise 30.1

Answer the following questions:


1. y bahr naxostin fasle sal ast? 2. Havye in fasl cegune ast? 3. y havye in fasl ziyd garm ast? 4. Havye ce fasli ziyd garm ast? 5. Havye ce fasli ziyd sard ast? 6. Deraxtne mive dar ce fasli okufe mikonand? 7. y deraxtne portoql, narangiyo limu ham dar bahr okufe mikonand? 8. Rudxneh dar ce fasli por b hastand? 9. Kevarzan be rudxneh r ce mikonand? 10. Sedye tondar dar ce fasli bitar be gu mirasad?

Exercise 30.2

Learn the following ordinal numbers:


naxostin - dovomin - sevomin - cahromin - panjomin - eomin - haftomin - hatomin - nohomin dahomin

Exercise 30.3

Write five simple sentences about summer.


Exercise 30.4

Fill in the missing words:


1. Xordd mhe .......... bahr ast. 2. ahrivar mhe .......... tbestn ast. 3. Mehr mhe .......... pyiz ast. 4. Dey mhe .......... zemestn ast. 5. U .......... be xneye man mado m montazer .......... budim.

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6. Zemestn fasle .......... asto .......... ziyd mibrad. 7. Xorid be zamin .......... va zamin r .......... mikonad. 8. Setregn .......... abh dar .......... mibinam. 9. Mahtb .......... nisto m r garm .......... . 10. Zamin .......... az xorid ast. 11. Zemestn .......... fasl ast. 12 .......... garmtarin fasl ast. 13. M .......... xorid r nemibinim. 14. Ruzh m setregn r .......... 15. Ruzhye zemestno abhye tbestn .......... ast. 16. Yek sat ast ..........o yek daqiqe .......... ast. 17. Yek abne .......... ruz sat ast. 18. Man b gac .......... taxte syah nevetam va b .......... pk kardam. 19. Yek sl .......... ruz ast. 20. .......... ruze naxoste sl ast.

Exercise 30.5

Translate the following sentences into Persian:


1. My pencil is longer than yours. 2. This room is the largest. 3. This boy is the tallest student in the school. 4. Shahreza is the widest street in Tehran. 5. My hand is bigger than yours. 6. Im the shortest girl in the class. 7. Mount Damavand is higher than Alvand. 8. Please close this window, I feel a little cold. 9. The people mostly catch cold in winter. 10. This shoe is tight for me.

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Lesson 31
oxm zadan xue kam kam rasidan sabz odan ds byri kardan derow kardan xarman kardan bd ddan kubidan dne kh syb sybn rd kardan jod kardan nnvyi xamir kardan nnv dokn to plough ear of corn by and by to ripen to peep out sickle to irrigate to cut to heap up (corn) to air to thresh seed straw mill miller to grind into flour to separate bakery to make dough baker shop

Kevarzn dar pyiz zamine ket r oxm mizanando gandom mikrand. Gandom kam kam sabz miavad. Barfe zemestno brne pyizo bahr n r byri mikonad. Gandom boland miavad, xue mikonado dar tbestan mirasad. Kevarz b ds gandom r derow mikonad, va gandome derow ode r xarman mikonad, t xub xok avad. Sepas n r mikubad, bd midahado dneh r az khh jod mikonad. Sepas gandomh r pk mikonado be syb mibarad. sybn gandom r rd mikonando, rd r be nnvyi mibarad. Xamirgir n r xamir mikonado mipazad. M be dokne nnvyi miravim, pul midahimo nn mixarim, nn r be xne miyvarimo b xorkhye gungun mixorim.

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Exercise 31.1

Explain in your own words what you read.


Exercise 31.2

Answer the following questions:


1. Kevarz ce hangm zamin ra oxm mizanad? 2. Pas az oxm zadan ce mikonad? 3. y barfe zemestn barye gandome xue ode sudmand ast? 4. y kevarz dar zemestn gandom r byri mikonad? 5. Gandom key boland miavad? 6. Gandom key xue mikonad? 7. y gandom dar tbestn mirasad? 8. B ce ciz kevarz gandom r derow mikonad? 9. Dne r az kh cegune jod mikonad? 10. sybn kist? 11. y sybn gandom r rd mikonad? 12. rd r be koj mibarad? 13. Xamirgir kist? 14. Nn r ce mikonad? 15. M nn r az koj mixarim?

Exercise 31.3

Write a sentence for each of the following words:


1. pul 4. xue 7. syb 10. xaridan 2. xork 5. mive 8. brn 3. kh 6. nnvyi 9. kam kam

Exercise 31.4

Put the following words in the right order:


1. dar - Tehrn - oml - dnegh - ast 2. az - dur - dnegh - xneye - ast - man 3. diab - xbidn - bd - man 4. diab - xne - madam - dir - be 5. diruz - hav - sard - od - asr

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6. ast - mz - do - ke - garm - ode ast 7. man - bardar - pariruz - raft - Espahn - be 8. do - digar - mali - Englestn - be - miravam 9. xhe - an - panjare - - mikonam - bebandid 10. ostd - dir - be - m - kels - mad

Exercise 31.5

Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Kafhye man kohne odeand, mixham yek joft kafe now bexaram. 2. Pye man bozorgo in kaf barye pye man tang ast. 3. Agar be bzr raftid dah varaqe kqaz barye man bexarid. 4. Pesare om dah ruz ast ke be dabestn nemiyyad. 5. Yeki az dustne xod r prsl dar mrik didam.

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Lesson 32
xar miyne garm daraje tan angur estaxr dary en foruxte miavand tatil xonak otobus tlebi garmak kenr en kardan hendevne end middle heat degree body grapes pool sea sand they are sold holiday cool bus persian melon a kind of melon side to swim water melon

Tbestn, dovomin fasle sl ast. Az xare bahr hav kam kam garm miavado miyneye tbestan hav besyr garm ast. Garmye Tehrn ghi be cehel darajeye sntigrd mirasad. Dar tbestn dabestnh, dabirestnhvo dneghhye Irn tatil miavand. Bitare gerdno ostdn az Tehrn be ahrhye digar y be jhye xonak miravand. dinehvo ruzhye digar ke tatil ast mardome Tehrn b xodrow y otobus be kenre dary miravand. Dar b en mikonand, ruye enh mixbando tanhyan r ftab midahand. Dar ahre Tehrn ham estaxrhyi barye en sxteand va har kas mitavand b pule kami az in extaxrh bahremand avad. Dar in fasl tlebi, garmak, hendevne, gils, gowje,

Summer is the second season of the year. Little by little it starts getting warmer at the end of summer, and the weather is very warm in the middle of summer. The temperature in Tehran can sometimes reach forty degrees Celsius. The elementary schools, secondary schools, and universities of Iran close down. Most students and professors leave Tehran for other cities or cooler places. Fridays and holidays people of Tehran leave for the seaside by car or bus. They swim in the water, lie on the sand, and get some sun. There have been pools built in the city of Tehran for swimming and anyone can use these pools for very little money. In this season there are melons, watermelons,

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zardluvo angurhye gungun mirasando dar bzr foruxte miavand. Mardom dar fasle tbestn ziyad mive mixorand. xare ahrivarmh hav kam kam ru be xonaki miravado pyize zib qz miavad.

cherries, plums, apricots, and various grapes sold in the market. Everyone eats a lot of fruits in the summertime. At the end of the month of Shahrivar the weather slowly cools off and the beautiful autumn begins.

Exercise 32.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Kodm fasl garmtarin fasle sl ast? 2. Kodm fasl sardtarin fasle sl ast? 3. y dar bahr hav molyem ast? 4. Garmye Tehrn dar tbestn be cand daraje mirasad? 5. Barye ce dabestnh va dabirestnh dar tbestn tatil miavand? 6. y om dar tbestn dar Tehrn mimnid? 7. Mardome Tehrn tbestnh be koj miravand? 8. y om b otobus mosferat kardeid? 9. y om xub en mikonid? 10. y om daryye Mzandarn ra dideid? 11. Zardlu ce rang ast? 12. Ce miveyi r bitar az hame dust drid? 13. Pyiz zibtar ast y tbestn? 14. Tbestn r bitar dust drid y zemestn r? 15. Key hav ru be xonaki miravad?

Exercise 32.2

Name the months of the year.


Exercise 32.3

Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Man emruz xasteam va nemitavnam dars bexnam. 2. Darshye Prsi kam kam dovr miavand. 3. Emruz sardtar az diruz ast. 4. Xhe mikonam yek varaqe kqaz be man bedahid. 5. Diruz hlam xub nabud va be kelse Prsi naymadam.

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Exercise 32.4 Fill in the missing words:


1. Ostd b .......... ruye taxteye syh nevet. 2. Man b .......... taxteye syh r pak kardam. 3. Pedaram si sl az man .......... ast. 4. Man yeke pas az nimruz .......... mixoram. 5. .......... dar deh zendegi mikonad. 6. Havye bahr va pyiz .......... ast. 7. Daryaye Mzandarn dar .......... Irn ast. 8. Tehrn pyetaxt .......... ast. 9. M mitavnim kam .......... Prsi bexnim. 10. Sobhh zud az xb.......... .

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Lesson 33
kevar mellat xoki bax din Kalimi Budyi poni Mosalmn kore Englisi Rusi Frnsavi lmni mrikayi Torkiye Cini Masihi Brahman Zartoti country nation land part religion Jewish Buddhist Japanese Moslem globe English Russian French German American Turkey Chinese Christian Brahman Zoroastrian

Xokihye koreye zamin r be panj bax kardeand. Nme in panj bax az in qarr ast: 1. Asy 2. Orup 3. friq 4. mrikye omli va mrikye Jonubi. 5. Ostrly. Har yek az in baxh be kevarhye gungun bax odeando dar har kevari, mellati ke drye zabno dine jod ast zendegi mikonad. Irni dar Irn zendegi mikonado zabna Prsi ast. Englisi dar Englestn zendegi mikonado zabna Englisi ast. Frnsavi dar Frnse zendegi mikonado zabna Frnsavi ast. Rusi dar Rusiye zendegi mikonado zabna Rusi ast. lmni dar lmn zendegi mikonado zabna lmni ast.

The land masses of the globe have been divided into five continents. The names of these five divisions are: 1. Asia 2. Europe 3. Africa 4. North America and South America 5. Oceania. Every one of these divisions has been divided into different countries, and in each country lives a nation with its separate language and religion. An Iranian lives in Iran and his language is Persian. An Englishman lives in England and his language in English. A Frenchman lives in France and his language is French. A Russian lives in Russia and his language is Russian. A German lives in Germany and his language is German.

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mrikyi dar mrik zendegi mikonado zabna Englisi ast. Tork dar Torkiye zendegi mikonado zabna Torki ast. Cini dar Cin zendegi mikonado zabna Cini ast. poni dar poni ast. pon zendegi mikonado zabna

An American lives in America and his language is English. A Turk lives in Turkey and his language is Turkish. A Chinese lives in China and his language is Chinese. A Japanese lives in Japan and his language is Japanese. People of the world belong to different religions, as listed here: Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Brahman, Buddhism, Jewish and Muslim.

Mardome jahn dinhye gungun drand, be in arh: Masihi, Zartoti, Brahman, Budyi, Kalimiyo Mosalmn.

Exercise 33.1

Answer the following questions:


1. om ahle kodm kevar hastid? 2. Zabne om cist? 3. Ce dini drid? 4. y om zabne Englisi midnid? 5. y om zabne frsi r mitavnid bexanid? 6. lmni koj zendegi mikonad? 7. Englisi koj zendegi mikonad? 8. Zabne mardome Cin cist? 9. Zabne mardome mrik cist? 10. Mardome Irn ce dinhyi drand?

Exercise 33.2

Write five simple sentences about the climate of Iran.


Exercise 33.3

Translate the following sentences into Persian:


1. He is an Iranian, but he lives in U.S.A. 2. I learned Persian in Iran. 3. Is this the road to Isfahan? 4. His servant brought a letter for me yesterday. 5. We have studied thirty-three parts of this text.

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Conjugation of Verbs Subjunctive mood of the verb: Xordan (To eat)


Present agar bexoram agar bexori agar bexorad agar bexorim agar bexorid agar bexorand agar xorde bam agar xorde bi agar xorde bad agar xorde bim agar xorde bid agar xorde band Perfect

Negative
agar naxoram agar naxori agar naxorad agar naxorim agar naxorid agar naxorand agar naxorde bam agar naxorde bi agar naxorde bad agar naxorde bim agar naxorde bid agar naxorde band

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Lesson 34
kambi anjir farvn barg mirizad micinand preyi dame barfi boxri anbr sabok pam pami mipuand rav bzi dorost mikonand pyn yft nearly fig abundant leaf falls down they pluck a number snowman stove storage light wool woollen they wear usually play they make it is finished

Pyiz fasle zibyi ast. Dar in fasl kambi hameye miveh mirasand. Mivehye pyizi mnande anr, anjir, sib, portoql, nrangiyo limu farvn ast. Barghye deraxtn kam kam zard miavando mirizand. Kevarzan miveh r az deraxtne bqhye xod micinando dar anbr negah midrand t az sarm xarb naavand. Mardom jmehye pamiye zemestni mipuand. Mhe xare pyiz hav sardtar miavado sepas zemestne sard miyyad. Dar zemestn barf bridan rav asto hame j r sepid mikonad. Baceh barfbzi r dust drando az barf, dame barfi dorost mikonand.

Autumn is a beautiful season. In this season nearly all fruits ripen. Autumn fruits like pomegranates, figs, apples, oranges, tangerines, and lemons are abundant. The leaves slowly turn yellow and fall down. Farmers pluck the fruits off the trees in their gardens and keep them in storage so that they do not spoil. People wear woollen winter clothes. It gets colder the last month of autumn and then the cold winter arrives. It usually snows in the wintertime and white covers everywhere. Children love to play with snow, and make snowmen.

abhye zemestn mardom kamtar dar xiybnhye People are seldom seen in the streets on winter ahr dide miavand. nights.

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Naxoste ab be xnehye xod miravando kenre boxri mineinand. Preyi niz be sinem y tetr miravand. Mhe Espand hav ziyd sard nist. Espand ke pyn yft hav molyem miavado b madane bahr deraxtn dobre sabz mivand.

At the beginning of the night they go to their homes and sit by the heater. A number go to the movies or the theater. The weather is not cold during the month of Espand. By the end of Espand the weather is milder, and with the arrival of spring the trees turn green again.

Exercise 34.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Havye pyiz behtar ast y havye bahr? 2. Nme cahr miveye pyizi r beguyid? 3. Barge deraxtn key mirizand? 4. Keavarzn mivehyi r ke cidand koj migozrand? 5. Cer miveh r pyiz micinand? 6. Jmehye tbestni ce rang ast? 7. Ce hangm jmeye pami mipuim? 8. Ay havye zemestn sardtar ast y havye pyiz? 9. Dar ce fasli bitar bd miyyad? 10. Ay om zemestn r dust drid?

Exercise 34.2

Explain your daily program in Persian.


Exercise 34.3

Write the future tense of the verb goftan. Conjugation of Verbs Passive Voice - Indicative mood
Present xaste miavam xaste miavi xaste miavad xaste miavim xaste miavid xaste miavand xaste odeam xaste odei xaste ode ast xaste odeim xaste odeid xaste odeand Perfect Imperfect xaste miodam xaste miodi xaste miod xaste miodim xaste miodid xaste miodand

Pluperfect

Preterite

Future

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xaste ode budam xaste ode budi xaste ode bud xaste ode budim xaste ode budid xaste ode budand

xaste odam xaste odi xaste od xaste odim xaste odid xaste odand

xaste xham od xaste xhi od xaste xhad od xaste xhim od xaste xhid od xaste xhand od

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Lesson 35
vpasin seps xod bahre bebarim dnemand pyn ddim harf/gap zadan irin ern rete dstn xndani n odan qz kardan be sni mitavnim nevete ode ast andie farjm dne the last thank god to make use of/take advantage of authority/learned we finished to speak sweet/nice poets branch fable worth reading to become familiar with to begin easily we can has been written thoughts result/fruit science

In dars vpasin darse ketbe naxost ast. Seps xod r ke in ketb r pyn ddimo aknun mitavnim kami Prsi r bexnimo benevisimo harf bezanim. Prsi zabne irini asto, har kas mitavnad be sni n r yd begirad. Agar yeki do sle digar in zabn r bexnim, mitavnim az ketbhyi ke be zabne Prsi nevete odeand bahre bebarim. erne Irni erhye ziydi be zabne Prsi gofteand; dnemandne Irni ketbhye ziydi dar retehye gungune dne be in zabn neveteand; dstnhye Prsi irino xndani hastand. Agar in zabn r dorost yd begirim, mitavnim hameye in ketbh r bexnimo b andieye Irniyn sn avim. Omidvrim betavnim cizi r ke qz kardeim be anjm rasnim t kuee m bi farjm namnad.

This is the last lesson of the basic text. Thank God that we finished this textbook and can now somewhat read, write, and speak in Persian. Persian is a nice language, and anyone can easily learn it. If we continue studying this language for another two years, we would be able to take advantage of the books written in the Persian language. Iranian poets have written many poems in Persian; learned Iranians have written various scientific books in this language; Persian stories are nice and worth reading. If we learn this language properly, we could read all these books and become familiar with Iranian thoughts. I hope we can finish what we have begun, so that our efforts would not be fruitless.

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Exercise 35.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Cand mh Prsi xndeid? 2. Prsi zabne kodm mellat ast? 3. y om mitavnid Prsi r tond benivisid? 4. y om mitavanid Prsi harf bezanid? 5. y ere Prsi r mitavnid bexnid? 6. Zabne Englisi r zudtar yd gereftid y Prsi? 7. y zabne lmni az zabne farsi dovrtar ast? 8. y om Frnsavi hastid? 9. Dovrtarin zabn kodam ast? 10. Ce zabni az hame sntar ast?

Exercise 35.2

Put the following words in the right order:


1. dovri - ziyd - Prsi - zabn - nist 2. Englisi - zabn - dovrtar - az - Prsi - zabn - ast 3. u - Englisi - ast - pedar 4. zabn - man - Frnsavi - nemidnam - xub 5. xharam - Prsi - zabn - r - behtar - man - az - harf - mizanad 6. Cini - zabne - dovri - besyr - ast 7. hend - mardom - be - zabnhye - harf - gungun - mizanand 8. mardom - hame - Englisi - mrik - harf - mizanand 9. zabne - Prsi - ast - irin 10. Rusi - zabne - besyr - dovri - ast

Exercise 35.3

Write five simple sentences about the class room.


Exercise 35.4

Explain the difficulties you had in learning Persian.

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PERSIAN VERBS
Persian verbs like the verbs of English and German languages have three Principal Parts:

I) Present root II) Past root III) Past participle


All different tenses of the verbs are derived from the above three parts; and the auxiliary verbs used in conjugating the different tenses are: odan, budan, xstan. Let us take the verb xordan (to eat) as an example and show its different tenses.

I) Present root: xor II) Past root: xord III) Past participle: xordei I) Verbs Formed from the Present Root: xor 1. Subjunctive Mood Let me eat I may eat If I eat
agar bexoram = ( be + xor + im ) agar bexori = ( be + xor + i ) agar bexorad = ( be + xor + ad ) agar bexorim = ( be + xor + im ) agar bexorid = ( be + xor + id ) agar bexorand = ( be + xor + and )

2. Indicative Mood I eat I am eating I shall eat


mixoram = ( mi + xor + am ) mixori = ( mi + xor + i ) moxorad = ( mi + xor + ad )

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mixorim = ( mi + xor + im ) mixorid = ( mi + xor + id ) mixorand = = ( mi + xor + and )

Imperative Singular: xor/bexor Imperative Plural: xorid/bexorid Present participle: xorn

II) Verbs Formed from the Past Root: xord 3. Indicative mood: Preterite I ate
xordam = ( xord + am ) xordi = ( xord + i ) xord xordim = ( xord + im ) xordid = ( xord + id ) xordand = ( xord + and )

4. Indicative mood: Imperfect I was eating/I used to eat


mixordam = ( mi + xord + am ) moxordi = ( mi + xord + i ) mixord = ( mi + xord ) mixordim = ( mi + xord + im ) mixordid = ( mi + xord + id ) mixordand = ( mi + xord + and )

5. Indicative Mood: Future I shall eat


xham xord = ( xh + am + xord )

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xhi xord = ( xh + i + xord ) xhad xord = ( xh + ad + xord ) xhim xord = ( xh + im + xord ) xhid xord = ( xh + id + xord ) xhand xord = ( xh + and + xord )

Infinitive mood: xordan Infinitive mood shortened form: xord Gerundive (adjective): xordani

III) Verbs Fomed from the Past Participle: xorde 6. Indicatice mood: Present I have eaten
xordeam = ( xorde + am ) xordei = ( xorde + i ) xorde ast = ( xorde + ast ) xordeim = ( xorde + im ) xordeid = ( xorde + id ) xordeand = ( xorde + and )

7. Indicatice mood: Pluperfect (Past Perfect) I had eaten


xorde budam = ( xorde + bud + am ) xorde budi = ( xorde + bud + i ) xorde bud = ( xorde + bud) xorde budim = ( xorde + bud + im ) xorde budid = ( xorde + bud + id ) xorde budand = ( xorde + bud + and )

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8. Subjunctive mood: Perfect I may have eaten


xorde bam = ( xorde + b + am ) xorde bi = ( xorde + b + i ) xorde b = ( xorde + b) xorde bim = ( xorde + b + im ) xorde bid = ( xorde + b + id ) xorde band = ( xorde + b + and )

Passive Voice Infinitive: xorde odan ( to be eaten )


9. Indicative mood: Present

xorde miavam = ( xorde + mi + av + am ) xorde miavi = ( xorde + mi + av + i ) xorde miavad = ( xorde + mi + av + ad ) xorde miavim = ( xorde + mi + av + im ) xorde miavid = ( xorde + mi + av + id ) xorde miavand = ( xorde + mi + av + and )

10. Indicative mood: Perfect I have been eaten


xorde odeam = ( xorde + ode + am ) xorde odei = ( xorde + ode + i ) xorde ode ast = ( xorde + ode + ast ) xorde odeim = ( xorde + ode + im ) xorde odeid = ( xorde + ode + id ) xorde odeand = ( xorde + ode + and )

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11. Indicative mood: Imperfect I would be eaten


xorde miodam = ( xorde + mi + od + am ) xorde miodi = ( xorde + mi + od + i ) xorde miod = ( xorde + mi + od ) xorde miodim = ( xorde + mi + od + im ) xorde miodid = ( xorde + mi + od + id ) xorde miodand = ( xorde + mi + od + and )

12. Indicative mood: Pluperfect (Past Perfect) I had been eaten


xorde ode budam = ( xorde + ode + bud + am ) xorde ode budi = ( xorde + ode + bud + i ) xorde ode bud = ( xorde + ode + bud ) xorde ode budim = ( xorde + ode + bud + im ) xorde ode budid = ( xorde + ode + bud + id ) xorde ode budand = ( xorde + ode + bud + and )

13. Indicative mood: Preterite (Past Participle) I was eaten


xorde odam = ( xorde + od + am ) xorde odi = ( xorde + od + i ) xorde od = ( xorde + od ) xorde odim = ( xorde + od + im ) xorde odid = ( xorde + od + id ) xorde odand = ( xorde + od + and )

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14. Indicative mood: Future I will be eaten


xorde xham od = ( xorde + od + am ) xorde xhi od = ( xorde + od + i ) xorde xhad od = ( xorde + od ) xorde xhim od = ( xorde + od + im ) xorde xhid od = ( xorde + od + id ) xorde xhand od = ( xorde + od + and )

15. Subjunctive mood: Present I may be eaten


xorde avam = ( xorde + av + am ) xorde avi = ( xorde + av + i ) xorde avad = ( xorde + av + ad ) xorde avim = ( xorde + av + im ) xorde avid = ( xorde + av + id ) xorde avand = ( xorde + av + and )

16. Subjunctive mood: Perfect I may have been eaten


xorde ode bam = ( xorde + ode + b + am ) xorde ode bi = ( xorde + ode + b + i ) xorde ode bad = ( xorde + ode + b + ad ) xorde ode bim = ( xorde + ode + b + im ) xorde ode bid = ( xorde + ode + b + id ) xorde ode band = ( xorde + ode + b + and )

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Active Voice
Negative 17. Indicative mood
Present Perfect Imprefect Pluperfect Preterite Future nemixoram naxordeam nemixordam naxorde budam naxordam naxham xord

Subjunctive mood
Present Perfect naxoram naxorde bam

Passive Voice
18. Indicative mood
Present Perfect Imprefect Pluperfect Preterite Future xorde nemiavam xorde naodeam xorde nemiodam xorde naode budam xorde naodam xorde naxham od

19. Subjunctive mood


Present Perfect xorde naavam xorde naode bam

THE END PAYAN

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