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Explanation: Tems Investigation : Drive Test Tems Investigation : Drive Test In general, Drive Test can be define as a methode

that used to verify the actual condition of RF signal certain operator at certain place. Several functions of drive test : - Analyzing customer complaint of certain operator in their home or office area - Finding problem in BTS ( Timeslot Check, TRX Check, Swap Feeder) - Analyzing the result of optimization process (continuity and all of area) There are softwares can be used for drivetest that installed on laptop. TEMS Investigation (Ericsson), NEMO (Nokia). Here the steps to start learning drivetest with TEMS Investigation : a. Drive Test Equipment 1. TEMS Handset (complete with Charger, Headset, Data Cable) and USB Hub 2. Laptop (installed TEMS Investigation) and Adapter 3. GPS (Ext Antenna and Data Cable) 4. ATEN (Serial to USB) 5. Scanner for WCDMA (Ext Antenna GPS and RF, Data Cable) 6. Inverter and Terminal 7. Battery and Charger Example postion of that equipments in car : B. Laptop Configuration 1. Power Management Set Power Management Laptop always On : Start -> Settings -> Control Panel -> Power Options -> Set All Power Scheme never 2. Virtual Memory Set Virtual Memory : Start -> Settings -> Control Panel -> System Advance -> Performance Settings

C. TEMS Investigation : - Workspace Configuration After installition process, open Tems Investigation. >> All Programs -> TEMS Investigation -> Data Collect This is the example workspace for 2G (Mode Dedicated-Idle).

1. Open Worksheet Map & arrange size of window Map 2. GPS (Presentation -> Positioning -> GPS) 3. Port Configuration (Configuration -> Port Configuration) 4. Command Sequence (Control -> Command Sequence) 5. Serving + Neighbours GSM (Presentation -> GSM -> Serving + Neighbours GSM) 6. Current Channel (Presentation -> GSM -> Current Channel) 7. Event (Presentation -> Signalling -> Events) for benchmark workspace, add Serving + Neighbours GSM and Current Channel for MS3.

- Map Configurations Create Geoset : Click Geoset Manager on Map window 1. On layer control remove all layer except Pinpoint, Cell, Event, AMR, RF Quality and Coverage layer 2. Add layer Route, Road, MCOM Site, and other *.tab 3. Save Geoset 4. Load Cell file : Configuration -> General -> Cellfile Load 5. Use Cell Definition File then choose cell file 6. ie. Map window configured - Port Equipment Configurations (see my older post ) - Command Sequence Configurations Voice Call CS i.e 120/15 means 120 second on call then call end, 15 second wait and then call again. 1. Loop Start give the number of repetition for command below the loop start (General -> Loop Start) 2. Dial select the MS and give the destination number (Voice -> Dial)

3. Synchronize to synchcronize MS before go to the next command (General -> Synchronize)

4. 5. 6. 7.

Wait 120 wait 120s on call (General -> Wait) End Call (Voice -> End Call) Wait 15 wait 15 before call again (General -> Wait) Loop End (General -> Loop End)

Video Call CS In general cs for video call is same as voice call, but in video call in dial command we must add v. i.e Loop Start Dial v081384760975 Wait 120 End Call Wait 15 Loop End D. DRIVE TEST 1. Configure Recording Properties : Menu Tab Logfile -> Recording Properties 2. Select recording folder : Click Browse -> Select Directory 3. Select Quick logging and setup size of swap file after reaching message 4. Use 2G or 3G configured workspace (with spacific map : road, route, cell file) 5. Make sure all equipments configured to the right port 6. Connect all 7. After all equipments connected (symbol green), window gps, serving neighbour gsm, current channel and events will be full filled 8. Dont forget to lock TEMS Handset into GSM only or 3G only. 9. To start drive test, click record then start command sequence 10. After all route complete, wait untill call end then stop command sequence and stop recording. Here the flow step by step Go Drive Test !!!


Check logfile by playing one by one or export into MapInfo-Tab file F. POST PROCESSING: - Report Generator 1. Open TEMS Data Collection : Start -> TEMS Products -> TEMS Investigations6.1.4 Data Collection 2. Menu Tab Logfile -> Report Generator 3. Add logfile 4. Setup Output directory 5. Setup Report properties 6. Setup IEs, Events, Mobiles, and User Details 7. Result of Report Generator in *.htm - Map Info (Plot IEs) Before post process in mapinfo, created *.tab file from logfile in TEMS : 1. Export logfile : Menu Bar Logfile -> Export Logfile 2. Click Add Order 3. Choose Format : MapInfo Tab-file 4. Setup IEs (Info Elements) for GSM Dedicated or Idle : - RxLev Full (dBm) - RxLev Sub (dBm) - RxQual Full - RxQual Sub - SQI - TA - Cell Id - Frequncy Band - Latitude - Longitude for WCDMA Dedicated / Idle / Scanner : - AS Cell Name - AS CPICH Ec/No - AS CPICH RSCP - SAN CPICH Ec/No - SAN CPICH RSCP - SAN Cell Id (CI Part) - Sc 1st Aggr Ec (dBm) -> Scanner - Sc 1st Aggr EcIo (dB) -> Scanner - Sc Best SC -> Scanner - Latitude

- Longitude 5. Configure Options Tab 6. Save *.mex 7. Choose Logfile : Click Browse file 8. If there are more than one logfile we can merge it by Merge Output 9. Choose Output directory : Click Browse dir 10. Give Prefix : Ded if Dedicated and Idle if Idle 11. Start process, click start 12. If done, status Success 13. There were created four files for each action (*.dat, *.id, *.map, *.tab) 14. Open the exported file into MapInfo : Menu Tab File -> Open 15. Create Thematic Map : Menu Tab Map -> Create Thematic Map 16. Choose Type -> Range 17. Template Name -> Region Ranges 18. Choose Table and Field (ie. Plotting RXQUAL_SUB from Dedicated mode) 19. Customize Ranges, Style and Legend. 20. Example Dedicated by RXQUAL_SUB EVENTS on RXQUAL_SUB 21. Create Events on RXQUAL_SUB 22. Open again the exported file (Ded_orinaica) 23. Create Thematic Map : Menu Tab Map -> Create Thematic Map 24. Choose Type -> Individual 25. Template Name -> Region IndValue Default 26. Choose Table and Field 27. Customize Style and Legend 28. Example Events on RXQUAL_SUB SPIDER GRAPH 29. Activate spider graph : Menu Tab Tools -> Tool Manager 30. Spider Graph Load and Autoload 31. See table structure of cell in MCOM Site : Menu Tab Table -> Maintenance -> Table Structure -> View/Modify Table choose MCOM Site

32. See table structure of CI in exported file : Manu Tab Table -> Maintenance -> Table Structure -> View/Modify Table choose exported file (ie. Ded_orinaica) -> Change type structure of CI 33. Click OK 34. Create Spider Graph : Tools -> Spider Graph -> Spider Graph 35. Choose Origin and Destination table 36. Save the Spider Graph table : Save Copy As -> (ie. orinaica) 37. From Spider Graph, We can analyze : - Dominant Cells - Overshoot Cells - Swap Feeder G. TROUBLESHOOTING : - 2G Frequency Scanning Purpose : to verify level signal each BCCH ARFCN plan 1. Setup frequency scan : Click Scan Properties 2. Select channels : Tab Scanned channels -> Manual selection -> Select 3. Setup Selected Channels (ie. BCCH ARFCN are 95-113) 4. Decode BSIC 5. Start Scanning : Click toolbar Start Scanning 6. See Scanner Bar Chart Window : Menu Bar Presentation -> GSM -> Frequency Scanner -> Scanner Bar Chart

- Time slot check Purpose : Check Time Slot in each TCH (if Freq Hop : NO or Base Band) 1. Setup Channel Verification : Menu Bar Control -> GSM Channel Verification 2. Setup test phone number : Click Properties on Channel Verification window 3. Green mark means time slot have been used - TRX Check Purpose : to verify damage TRX in each sector Where is TRX ? 1. Lock BCCH ARFCN certain sector : Click Toolbar Lock on Channel (ie. Check TRX Sector 1, Lock BCCH 111) 2. Disable Handover : Click Toolbar Disable Handover

3. See MAIO on Current Channel window - Swap Feeder Check Purpose : to verify intalation mistake on feeder cable to BTS 1. Lock BCCH ARFCN each sector : Click Toolbar Lock on Channel (ie. BCCH Sect 1 = 547, Sect 2 = 540, Sect 3 = 543 ) 2. Set HO Target : Equipment Properties -> Dedicated Mode -> Function -> Target HO (ie. BCCH 547, 540, 543) 3. Create drive route that can represent each sector 4. Export logfile into *.tab with IEs CI 5. Create thematic map for each CI (Cell Identity) Picture above indicate swap feeder between sector 2 and 3.

Drive Testing

The Purpose of Drive Testing

Drive testing is principally applied in both the planning and optimisation stage of network development. However, there are other purposes for which drive testing can be used: To provide path loss data for initial site survey work To verify the propagation prediction during the initial planning of the network. To verify the network system parameters, as defined in the EG8: GSM/DCS System-Specific Parameters. To provide the initial test parameters used in Benchmarking (as defined in the Analysis section of the Network Performance and Monitoring Guideline). To verify the performance of the network after changes have been made e.g. When a new TRX is added; the removal or addition of a new site; any power Adjustments or changes to the antenna; any changes in clutter or traffic habits such as the addition of new roads etc. To measure any interference problems such as coverage from neighboring Countries. To locate any RF issues relating to traffic problems such as dropped or blocked calls. To locate any poor coverage areas. To monitor the network against a slow degradation over time, as well as

Monitoring the network after sudden environmental conditions, such as gales or electrical storms. To monitor the performance of a competitors network.

When to Drive Test Drive testing can take place during the day or at night and is dependant upon the Operators requirements and subscriber habits.

Drive testing during the day will mimic the conditions as seen by subscribers, but may clog up the network if call analysis is being performed.

Drive testing during the night will allow a greater area to be surveyed due to the reduction in vehicular congestion. It will also allow for certain test signals to be transmitted and

tested, particularly when setting up a new site, without interrupting normal operation. However, night-time testing does not mimic the conditions experienced by subscribers. For planning purposes, drive testing is typically performed at night and for maintenance purposes, drive testing is performed during the day.

Where to Drive Test

Some areas of a network will have greater performance problems than others. Drive testing should not be uniform throughout the whole network, but should be weighted

towards areas where there are significant RF problems.

There may be other areas of the network that require temporary coverage during a certain time of the year e.g. an exhibition centre or a sports stadium. These areas should be

examined and planned in greater detail.

It is important that a drive test is documented. This is specified by the Operator and can either take the form of creating a new item of documentation or filling in an existing


All documentation will be passed to Analysts and Engineers, who will need

accurate records of any test work carried out.

----Route Plans The area to be drive tested is ascertained before leaving the office. There are three levels of drive testing depending on the purpose of the test:

Primary Route: This includes all major roads, highways and throughfares and should be

given priority to all other roads when conducting a coverage test, unless a new site is put into service for a specific objective.

Secondary Route: This includes all streets, by-streets and compounds, where accessible,such as a University Campus. Secondary routes are used in areas where problems have been located during a primary route test and further investigation is needed. Miscellaneous Routes: This includes in-building and non-access routes to vehicles suchas shopping malls, golf courses, airports, hotels, conference centres etc. A route is prepared by photocopying a map and highlighting the route to be driven. For primary routes, a map of scale no less than 1:20,000 should be used, and a map of scale 1:10,000 is recommended for secondary routes. It is recommended that the route is marked in a contiguous circuit, taking account of one-way streets at this stage. A drive test should be planned in both directions, where possible, and at the same speed.This minimises any errors and checks the point of handovers and cell dimensioning. For new sites that are being tested, it is recommended that the transceiver is forced to camp onto the cell (forbidding any handovers) in order to ascertain the full coverage of the cell. The test should be re-driven with any forced handovers removed. Layer 1 Messages Other Layer 1 criteria that is useful for field measurements include: C1 criteria ARFCN of Serving Cell - (TCH in dedicated mode, BCCH in idle mode)) Time Slot (TS)

Layer 3 Messages

All Layer 3 messages should be collected where possible. Layer 3 Messages are used by Analysts to determine more accurately the cause of a problem within the network. Some field test equipment can perform basic analysis of particular Layer 3

messages during data collection. This enables certain conditions such as call classification or handovers to be flagged to the survey technician.

Call Classification

In principle there are five call classifications, some of which can be sub-divided further. Good Calls: These are calls that are successfully placed on the network and maintained for the required duration. Dropped Calls: These are calls that are successfully placed on to the network but are terminated without authorisation. Using Layer 3 Messages, these calls can be sub-divided into: End User Hang-up System Hang-up Other Blocked Calls: These are calls that cannot be placed on to the network. Again, using Layer 3 messages, these can be sub-divided as follows: System Busy End User Engaged No Service Other

Roamed Calls: These are calls that are successfully placed on another network. Roamed calls may also be good calls or dropped calls. Noisy Calls: These are calls which have been successfully completed for the duration of the call but which experienced a number of noise bursts that a subscriber may find intolerable. The threshold for determining the level of poor audio is programmed during the set-up of the test. In GSM, this particular classification is very difficult to determine with great accuracy. It should be noted that it is not enough to monitor just the RxLEV and the RxQUAL.


No Data Collected Occasionally, the equipment fails to trigger the collection device to save the data to file. Check all cables Ensure the Processing Unit is powered Re-start the laptop computer Re-start the equipment Re-drive the test.

No Positional Information Collected If data is collected using GPS only, it may be possible that satellite reception was lost during a drive through a tunnel etc. It is important that back-up equipment is used, such as a Dead-Reckoning device, since a GPS receiver will re-transmit the last known position until it receives an update. If the vehicle moves without GPS cover, the data will be inaccurate and cannot be analysed. Check the GPS antenna cable to the receiver Drive to an open area and ensure that the GPS system is working correctly If required, install a back-up positional device to safeguard against lost GPS Coverage Holes If there are patches of poor coverage in unexpected areas, it may indicate the fringes of a coverage hole. It is important to re-drive this particular area. Complete a route plan using secondary roads as far as possible Make notes of any buildings / obstructions that may cause shadowing Take note of pedestrian / vehicular habits in the area

Dropped Calls

Dropped calls can be caused by either RF environments or incorrect system parameters. The following data should be checked to ensure that it has been collected properly. Layer 3 Messages Neighbour Cell List (BA Table) RxLEV (Server & Neighbour) RxQUAL (Server & Neighbour)

Finally, ensure that the automatic setting for the call length is not shorter than that for the timer monitoring for unauthorised call drop-outs. The setting should be a minimum of 30 seconds.

Handover Problems

Handover problems are generally caused by inaccurate settings of the handover boundary. This can cause ping-ponging, where the server will keep changing, and congestion at the switch. Check the following. The transceiver antenna is fitted correctly Collection of Layer 3 Messages Collection of Neighbour Cell List (BA Table) Collection of Scanning Information Collection of Cell Identities Collection of T.Adv for the Serving Cell Also, ensure that the collection of data from the new serving cell immediately after the handover has occurred (particularly RxLEV and RxQUAL) is not timed to occur prior to the-synchronisation of the transceiver itself. If a particular serving cell can be isolated as a potential cause of handover problems, slowly drive around the cell in a radius of around 500m - 1km, checking when handovers occur. Blocked Calls / System Busy If calls are repeatedly classified as blocked, it is recommended that the drive test is temporarily halted in order to try and locate the cause. Check that the number called is fully functional Check that there is adequate coverage from the expected serving BTS Check the equipment transceiver is functioning correctly by using an ordinary mobile to call the office If all appears functional, try to place calls through an alternative BTS. If this succeeds, inform the office immediately and re-suspend the drive test. List of free E-books Sites List of free E-books General sites

http://www.ebookee.com/ http://www.freebookspot.in/ O'Reilly online http://www.oreilly.com/openbook/ http://sysadmin.oreilly.com/ Computer books and manuals http://www.hoganbooks.com/freebook/webbooks.html http://www.informit.com/itlibrary/ http://www.fore.com/support/manuals/home/home.htm http://www.adobe.com/products/acroba...freebooks.html The Network Book http://www.cs.columbia.edu/netbook/ http://www.extrema.net/books/links.shtml Pimpas online books (Indonesia) Security, privacy and cryptography http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/~rivest/crypto-security.html http://www.oberlin.edu/~brchkind/cyphernomicon/ My own misc online reading material http://www.eastcoastfx.com/docs/admin-guides/ http://www.eastcoastfx.com/~jorn/reading/ Computer books http://solaris.inorg.chem.msu.ru/cs-books/ http://sweetrude.net/~cab/books/ http://alaska.mine.nu/books/ http://poprocks.dyn.ns.ca/dave/books/ http://58-160.skarland.uaf.edu/books/ http://hooligans.org/reference/ Linux documentation http://www.linuxdoc.org/docs.html FreeBSD documentation http://www.freebsd.org/tutorials/ Sun documentation http://osiris.imw.tu-clausthal.de:8888/ http://uran.vvsu.ru:8888/ SGI documentation http://newton.unicc.chalmers.se/ebt-...b/dynaweb;td=2 http://techpubs.sgi.com/library/tpl/cgi-bin/init.cgi IBM Online Redbooks http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/ Digital Unix documentation

http://www.unix.digital.com/faqs/pub...ML/LIBRARY.HTM Filesystem Hierarchy Standard http://www.pathname.com/fhs/2.0/fhs-toc.html http://www.linuxbase.com/ UNIX stuff http://www.ucs.ed.ac.uk/~unixhelp/index.html http://www.uwsg.indiana.edu/usail/ http://www.isu.edu/departments/comco...unixindex.html http://www.franken.de/users/lorien/unix.html http://www.cs.buffalo.edu/~milun/unix.programming.html Programmers reading http://www.programmersheaven.com/ http://www.cs.monash.edu.au/~alanf/se_proj97/ Programming Pearls 2nd edition http://www.cs.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/pearls/ C stuff http://www.strath.ac.uk/CC/Courses/N...e/ccourse.html http://www.cm.cf.ac.uk/Dave/C/CE.html http://www.cprogramming.com/tutorial.html http://www.cs.virginia.edu/c++programdesign/slides/ http://www.icce.rug.nl/docs/cplusplus/cplusplus.html Perl stuff http://www.webdesigns1.com/perl/ir.html http://www.ictp.trieste.it/texi/perl/perl_toc.html http://www.itknowledge.com/tpj/ http://www.plover.com/~mjd/perl/ Java stuff http://www.cs.brown.edu/courses/cs016/book/ http://polaris.cis.ksu.edu/~schmidt/CIS200/ http://www.daimi.au.dk/dProg1/java/l...1.0/index.html Lisp stuff http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs.cmu.edu...l/mirrors.html http://www.cs.tulane.edu/www/Villamil/lisp/ Ada stuff http://www.adahome.com/Tutorials/ Database reading http://www.bus.orst.edu/faculty/brow...utor/index.htm SQL stuff http://w3.one.net/~jhoffman/sqltut.htm http://www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/STAFF/E.Ferneley/SQL/index.htm http://www.daimi.au.dk/~oracle/sql/index.html Visual Basic stuff http://www.vb-world.net/books/ Handbook of Applied Cryptography

http://www.cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca/hac/ X Window System http://tronche.com/gui/x/ http://www.cen.com/mw3/refs.html http://www.gaijin.com/X/ GTK and Gnome stuff http://developer.gnome.org/doc/GGAD/ggad.html QT and KDE stuff http://www.troll.no/qt/ http://developer.kde.org/documentati...als/index.html http://www.arrakis.es/~rlarrosa/tutorial.html Corba stuff http://www.iona.com/hyplan/vinoski/ TCP/IP info http://www.tunix.kun.nl/ptr/tcpip.html Misc programmers reading http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~chilimbi/Pubs.html http://www.ic.arizona.edu/~nromano/spri ... adings.htm Some useful tech articles http://www.sysadminmag.com/ http://www.dotcomma.org/ Considering Hacking Constructive http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/iss...sle/index.html Eric's Random Writings http://www.tuxedo.org/~esr/writings/ IBM's History http://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/story/text.html Electronic Publishing http://www.civeng.carleton.ca/~nholtz/E ... shing.html Digital processing http://www.dspguide.com/pdfbook.htm The Hardware Book http://sunsite.auc.dk/hwb/ Network iQ Router Reference Manual http://www.teltrend.co.nz/documentat...html/rmtoc.htm Cisco Product Documentation http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/ Novell developers appnotes http://developer.novell.com/research/appnotes/ Icons for your desktop http://nether.tky.hut.fi/iconstore/ Hackers' Hall of Fame at Discovery Online http://www.discovery.com/area/techno...s/hackers.html Symbols and signs and ideograms and stuff

http://www.symbols.com/ Dictionaries http://www.ohiolink.edu/db/oed.html http://www.ohiolink.edu/db/ahd.html http://www.ohiolink.edu/db/columbia.html http://www.ohiolink.edu/db/thes.html http://www.eb.com:180/ Misc reading material