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1. The table below shows the number of floating-point operations executed in three different programs and the runtime for those programs on three different computers: Program Program 1 Program 2 Program 3 Floatingpoint operations 5 x 109 20 x 109 40 x 109 Execution time in seconds Computer A Computer B Computer C 2 20 200 5 20 50 10 20 15

Suppose the total number of floating-point operations executed in the workload is equally divided among the three programs. That is, program 1 runs 8 times for every time program 3 runs, and program 2 runs twice for every time program 3 runs. Find which computer is fastest for this workload and by what factor. How does this compare with the total execution time with equal numbers of program executions?

2. Consider executing the following code on the pipelined datapath of Figure 1 shown below. lw sub add $4, $6, $2, 100($2) $4, $3 $3, $5

How many cycles will it take to execute this code, considering all the dependencies?

Figure
1.
Pipelined
Datapath

3. Your colleague at AMD suggests that, since the yield is so poor, you might make chips cheaper if you placed an extra core on the die and only threw out chips on which both processors had failed. We will solve this exercise by viewing the yield as a probability of no defects occurring in a certain area given the defect rate. Calculate probabilities based on each Opteron core separately (this may not be entirely accurate, since the yield equation is based on empirical evidence rather than a mathematical calculation relating the probabilities of finding errors in different portions of the chip). (a) What is the probability that a defect will occur on no more than one of the two processor cores? (b) If the old chip cost $20 dollars per chip, what will the cost be of the new chip, taking into account the new area and yield? 4. The following table presents the power consumption of several com- puter system components. In this exercise, we will explore how the hard drive affects power consumption for the system. Component type Processor DRAM Hard drive Product Sun Niagara 8-core Intel Pentium 4 Kingston X64C3AD2 1 GB Kingston D2N3 1 GB DiamondMax 16 DiamondMax Plus 9 Performance 1.2 GHz 2 GHz 184-pin 240-pin 5400 rpm 7200 rpm Power 72-79W peak 48.9-66W 3.7W 2.3W 7.0W read/seek, 2.9W idle 7.9W read/seek, 4.0W idle

(a) Assuming the maximum load for each component, and a power supply efficiency of 80%, what wattage must the servers power supply deliver to a system with an Intel Pentium 4 chip, 2 GB 240-pin Kingston DRAM, and one 7200 rpm hard drive? (b) How much power will the 7200 rpm disk drive consume if it is idle roughly 60% of the time? (c) Given that the time to read data off a 7200 rpm disk drive will be roughly 75% of a 5400 rpm disk, at what idle time of the 7200 rpm disk will the power consumption be equal, on average, for the two disks?

5. One critical factor in powering a server farm is cooling. If heat is not removed from the computer efficiently, the fans will blow hot air back onto the computer, not cold air. We will look at how different design decisions affect the necessary cooling, and thus the price, of a system. Use the table in Question 4 for your power calculations. (a) A cooling door for a rack costs $4000 and dissipates 14 KW (into the room; additional cost is required to get it out of the room). How many servers with an Intel Pentium 4 processor, 1 GB 240pin DRAM, and a single 7200 rpm hard drive can you cool with one cooling door? (b) You are considering providing fault tolerance for your hard drive. RAID 1 doubles the number of disks (see Chapter 6). Now how many systems can you place on a single rack with a single cooler?

(c) Typical server farms can dissipate a maximum of 200 W per square foot. Given that a server rack requires 11 square feet (including front and back clearance), how many servers from part (a) can be placed on a single rack, and how many cooling doors are required?

6. On August 24, 2005, three Web sites managed by the Gap Gap.com, OldNavy.com, and BananaRepublic.comwent down for improvements. They were virtually inaccessible for the next two weeks. Using the statistics in Figure 1.25 in page 61 of the textbook answer the following questions. (a) If the sites were down for just December 12th, what would the cost be? (b) Imagine that 20% of their business is due to return customers. During the downtime, imagine they lost 1% of their return customers. How much money would they have in their budget to have bought and tested their new upgrade software on separate servers rather than taking down their site for twoweek maintenance? (c) OldNavy.com had 4.2 million visitors in July 2005 [AP 2005]. On average, a user views 8.9 pages per day on OldNavy.com. Given that a high- end server running SQLServer software, running the database benchmark TPCC, costs $5.38 per transaction, how much does it cost for them to support their online traffic at the two Web sites?

7. In a server farm such as that used by Amazon or the Gap, a single failure does not cause the whole system to crash. Instead, it will reduce the number of requests that can be satisfied at any one time. (a) If a company has 20,000 computers, and it experiences catastrophic failure only if 2/5 of the computers fail, what is the MTTF for the system? (b) Given Amazons highest quarterly income, and assuming that all computers are equally and fully loaded (which is not true), how much money is lost, per day, to computers failing? (c) If it costs an extra $500, per computer, to double the MTTF, would this be a good business decision? Show your work.

8. Imagine that your company is trying to decide between a single-processor system and a dualprocessor system. Figure 1.26 (Refer to the Figure 1.26 Performance of several processors on two benchmarks in page 61) gives the performance on two sets of benchmarksa memory benchmark and a processor benchmark. You know that your application will spend 30% of its time on memorycentric computations, and 70% of its time on processor-centric computations. (a) Calculate the weighted performance of the benchmarks for the Pentium 4 and Athlon 64 X2 3800+. (b) How much speedup do you anticipate getting if you move from using a Pentium 4 to an Athlon 64 X2 3800+ on a memory-intensive application suite?

9. Your company has just bought a new dual Pentium processor, and you have been tasked with optimizing your software for this processor. You will run two applications on this dual Pentium, but the resource requirements are not equal. The first application needs 75% of the resources, and the other only 25% of the resources. (a) Given that 60% of the first application is parallelizable, how much speedup would you achieve with that application if run in isolation? (b) Given that 95% of the second application is parallelizable, how much speedup would this application observe if run in isolation? (c) Given that 60% of the first application is parallelizable, how much overall system speedup would you observe if you parallelized it, but not the second application? (d) How much overall system speedup would you achieve if you parallelized both applications?

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