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PHARM. D Chemical Pharmacognosy- I Lecture 2 February 21, 2011


M.M. AhsanAhsan KhalidKhalid,, B.PharmB.Pharm,, Pharm.Pharm. DD M.PhilM.Phil ScholarScholar (RIPS/RIU)(RIPS/RIU) HIPSHIPS--HUKICHUKIC



Lactose is made from galactose and glucose units:

• Lactose or milk sugar occurs in the milk of mammals - 4-6% in cow's milk and 5-8% in human milk. It is also a by product in the manufacture of cheese. The galactose and glucose units are joined by an acetal oxygen bridge in the beta orientation

manufacture of cheese . The galactose and glucose units are joined by an acetal oxygen bridge

Isolation of Lactose

• Several million tons are produced annually as a by- product of the dairy industry.

• Whey is made of up 6.5% solids of which 4.8% is lactose that may be purified by crystallization.

• Whey or milk plasma is the liquid remaining after milk is curdled and strained, for example in the production of cheese. • Lactose makes up about 2-8% of milk by weight. Lactose is purified from whey by adding ethanol. Since it is insoluble in ethanol, lactose precipitates in about 65% yield

Lactose Intolerance

Lactose intolerance is the inability to metabolize lactose, because of a lack of the required enzyme lactase in the digestive system.

• This inability results from a shortage of the enzyme lactase, which is normally produced by the cells that line the small intestine.

• Lactase breaks down the lactose, milk sugar, into glucose and galactose that can then be absorbed into the bloodstream.

• When there is not enough lactase to digest the amount of lactose consumed, produce some uncomfortable symptoms.

• The ingested lactose is not absorbed in the small intestine, but instead is fermented by bacteria in the large intestine, producing uncomfortable volumes of carbon dioxide gas.

Common symptoms include nausea, cramps, bloating, gas, and diarrhea, which begin about 30 minutes to 2 hours after eating or drinking foods containing lactose.

The severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of lactose each individual can tolerate.


• To assess lactose intolerance, the intestinal function is challenged by ingesting more dairy than can be readily digested.

• it is important to distinguish lactose intolerance from a milk allergy, which is an abnormal immune response to milk proteins. • This may be done by giving lactose-free milk to a person displaying a reaction to milk. If the condition is purely lactose intolerance, the sufferer's symptoms will vanish, but if it is a milk allergy, the person will have the same reaction to the lactose-free milk as to normal milk.


Hydrogen breath test

Stool acidity test

Intestinal biopsy

• In a hydrogen breath test, after an overnight fast, 50g of lactose is swallowed.

• If the lactose cannot be digested, enteric bacteria metabolize it and produce hydrogen. This, along with methane, can be detected in the patient's breath by a clinical gas chromatograph or a compact solid state detector. The test takes about 2 to 3 hours.

• In conjunction, measuring the blood glucose level every 10-15 min after ingestion will show a "flat curve" in individuals with lactose malabsorption, while the lactase persistent will have a significant "top", with an elevation of typically 50 to 100% within 1-2 hrs.

Stool Acidity Test can be used to diagnose lactose intolerance in infants, for whom other forms of testing are risky or impractical

• An Intestinal Biopsy can confirm lactase deficiency following discovery of elevated hydrogen in the hydrogen breath test.

• Modern techniques have enabled a test to be performed at the patient's bedside which identifies the presence/absence of the lactase enzyme in conjunction with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

Managing Lactose Intolerance

• Fortunately, lactose intolerance is relatively easy to treat by controlling the diet.

• No cure or treatment exists to improve the body's ability to produce lactase.

• Young children with lactase deficiency should not eat any foods containing lactose.

• Most older children and adults need not avoid lactose completely, but individuals differ in the amounts and types of foods they can handle.

Dietary control of lactose intolerance depends on each person's learning through trial and error how much lactose he or she can handle.



• Maltose or malt sugar is the least common disaccharide in nature. It is present in germinating grain, in a small proportion in corn syrup, and forms on the partial hydrolysis of starch. • The two glucose units are joined by an acetal oxygen bridge in the alpha orientation.

partial hydrolysis of starch. • The two glucose units are joined by an acetal oxygen bridge
partial hydrolysis of starch. • The two glucose units are joined by an acetal oxygen bridge

• Maltose can be broken down into two glucose molecules by hydrolysis.

• In living organisms, the enzyme maltase can achieve this very rapidly.

• In the laboratory, heating with a strong acid for several minutes will produce the same result

Malted Barley:

• Barley, a basic cereal grain, is low in gluten, and is not particularly good for milling into flour for use in products such as bread. Barley is the preferred grain to make beer. The barley grains must be "malted" before they can be used in the brewing process.

Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate by soaking in water and are then quickly halted from germinating further by drying with hot air. Malting grains develops enzymes that are required to modify the grain's starches into sugars including monosaccharides such as glucose or fructose, and disaccharides such as sucrose or maltose.

• The production of maltose from germinating cereals, such as barley, is an important part of the brewing process. • When barley is malted, it is brought into a condition in which the concentration of maltose- producing amylases has been maximized. • Mashing is the process by which these amylases convert the cereal's starches into maltose. Metabolism of maltose by yeast during fermentation then leads to the production of ethanol and carbon dioxide.