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The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith Department of Engineering University of Cambridge U.K.

Society of Instrument and Control Engineers (SICE) Annual Conference Fukui, Japan 4 August 2003

Plenary Lecture

1

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Motivating Example – Vehicle Suspension Performance objectives 1. Control vehicle body in the face of
Motivating Example – Vehicle Suspension
Performance objectives
1. Control vehicle body in the face of variable loads.
2. Minimise roll, pitch (dive and squat).
3. Improve ride quality (comfort).
4. Improve tyre grip (road holding).

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Types of suspensions

1. Passive.

2. Semi-active.

3. Self-levelling.

4. “Fully active”.

Constraints

1. Suspension deflection—hard limit.

2. Actuator constraints (e.g. bandwidth).

3. Difficulty of measurement (e.g. absolute ride-height).

A Challenging set of Problems for the Designer

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Quarter-car Vehicle Model load F s disturbances m s z s Equations of motion: suspension
Quarter-car Vehicle Model
load
F s
disturbances
m
s
z s
Equations of motion:
suspension force
u
m s z¨ s
=
F s − u,
m u z¨ u
=
u + k t (z r − z u ).
m
u
z u
k t
road
disturbances
z r

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Invariant Equation The following equation holds m s z¨ s + m u z¨ u
Invariant Equation
The following equation holds
m s z¨ s + m u z¨ u = F s + k t (z r − z u )
independently of u.
This represents behaviour that the suspension designer cannot influence.
Consequence: any one of the following disturbance transmission paths
determines the other two.
sprung mass (z s )
road (z r )
suspension deflection (z s − z u )
tyre deflection (z s −
z u )
J.K. Hedrick and T. Butsuen, Invariant properties of automotive
suspensions, Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., 204 (1990), pp. 21–27.

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Invariant Points k t ω 1 = “tyre-hop” invariant frequency m u road (z r
Invariant Points
k
t
ω 1
=
“tyre-hop” invariant frequency
m
u
road (z r ) → sprung mass (z s )
0
10
−2
10
For any suspension:
−4
10
zˆ s
10 −1
10 0
10 1
10 2
10 3
(jω 1 ) = − m u
Frequency (rad/sec)
ω 1
zˆ r
m
s
0
−50
−100
−150
−200
−250
10 −1
10 0
10 1
10 2
10 3
Frequency (rad/sec)
ω 1
Phase (degrees)
Magnitude

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Further Work

1. What is the complete freedom on a given transfer function? [1]

2. What is the minimum number of sensors required to achieve a given behaviour? [1]

3. Are there conservation laws? [1]

4. Can disturbance paths for “ride” and “handling” be adjusted independently? [2]

[1] M.C. Smith, Achievable dynamic response for automotive active suspension, Vehicle System Dynamics, 24 (1995), pp. 1–33.

[2] M.C. Smith and G.W. Walker, Performance limitations and constraints for active and passive suspensions: a mechanical multi- port approach, Vehicle System Dynamics, 33 (2000), pp. 137–168.

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Conservation Laws grip transfer function (road → tyre deflection) 0 dB Area formula: Area of
Conservation Laws
grip transfer function (road → tyre deflection)
0 dB
Area formula: Area of
amplification is equal to
the area of attenuation.
magnitude
True for any suspension
system (active or passive).
rad/sec

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Active Suspension Design z¨ s m s m s c s s+k s (1) Modal
Active Suspension Design
z¨ s
m s
m s
c s s+k s
(1) Modal Decomposition
+
A
u K
(2) Decoupling
and Handling
of
Ride
c s
+
k s
z s − z u
m u
k t
[1] R.A. Williams, A. Best and I.L. Crawford, “Refined Low Frequency Active Suspension”,
Int. Conf. on Vehicle Ride and Handling, Nov. 1993, Birmingham, Proc. ImechE, 1993-9,
C466/028, pp. 285–300, 1993.
[2] K. Hayakawa, K. Matsumoto, M. Yamashita, Y. Suzuki, K. Fujimori, H. Kimura, “Robust
H ∞ Feedback Control of Decoupled Automobile Active Suspension Systems”, IEEE Transac-
tions on Automat. Contr., 44 (1999), pp. 392–396.
[3] M.C. Smith and F-C. Wang, Controller Parameterization for Disturbance Response Decou-
pling: Application to Vehicle Active Suspension Control, IEEE Trans. on Contr. Syst. Tech.,
10 (2002), pp. 393–407.

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Passive Suspensions (Abstract Approach) Try to understand which vehicle dynamic behaviours are possible and which
Passive Suspensions (Abstract Approach)
Try to understand which vehicle dynamic behaviours are possible and which
are not — without worrying initially how the behaviour is realised.
This is a black-box approach.
Classical electrical circuit theory should be applicable.
i
Driving-Point Impedance
v
Electrical
Z(s) = vˆ(s)
Network
ˆ
i(s)
i

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Classical Electrical Network Synthesis Definition. A network is passive if for all admissible v, i
Classical Electrical Network Synthesis
Definition. A network is passive if for all admissible v, i which are square
integrable on (−∞, T ],
T
v(t)i(t) dt ≥ 0.
−∞
Theorem 1. A network is passive if and only if Z(s) is positive-real, i.e.
Z(s) is analytic and Re(Z(s)) ≥ 0 in Re(s) > 0.
Im
Re
forbidden
Z(jω)

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Fundamental Theorem of Electrical Network Synthesis Theorem 2. Brune (1931), Bott-Duffin (1949). Any rational function
Fundamental Theorem of Electrical Network Synthesis
Theorem 2. Brune (1931), Bott-Duffin (1949). Any rational function which
is positive-real can be realised as the driving-point impedance of an electrical
network consisting of resistors, capacitors and inductors.
Positive
Circuit
Real
Realisation
Function
Classic reference: E.A. Guillemin, Synthesis of Passive Networks, Wiley, 1957.

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Electrical-Mechanical Analogies

1. Force-Voltage Analogy.

voltage

force

current

velocity

Oldest analogy historically, cf. electromotive force.

2. Force-Current Analogy.

current

force

voltage

velocity

electrical ground

mechanical ground

Independently proposed by: Darrieus (1929), H¨ahnle (1932), Firestone (1933). Respects circuit “topology”, e.g. terminals, through- and across-variables.

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Standard Element Correspondences (Force-Current Analogy) v = Ri resistor ↔ damper cv = F di
Standard Element Correspondences (Force-Current Analogy)
v
= Ri
resistor
damper
cv
=
F
di
v
inductor
spring
kv = dF
= L dt
dt
C dv
m dv
= i
capacitor
mass
=
F
dt
dt
i
i
v
v
2
1
Electrical
F
F
Mechanical
v
v
2
1
What are the terminals of the mass element?

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

The Exceptional Nature of the Mass Element Newton’s Second Law gives the following network interpretation
The Exceptional Nature of the Mass Element
Newton’s Second Law gives the following network interpretation of the mass
element:
• One terminal is the centre of mass,
• Other terminal is a fixed point in the inertial frame.
Hence, the mass element is analogous to a grounded capacitor.
F
Standard network symbol
for the mass element:
v 2
v 1 = 0

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Table of usual correspondences Mechanical Electrical F F i i v v 2 1 v
Table of usual correspondences
Mechanical
Electrical
F
F
i
i
v
v
2
1
v
v
2
1
spring
inductor
F
i
i
v
v
2
1
v
v
= 0
2
1
capacitor
mass
F
F
i
i
v
v
2
1
v
v
2
1
damper
resistor

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Consequences for network synthesis

Two major problems with the use of the mass element for synthesis of “black-box” mechanical impedences:

An electrical circuit with ungrounded capacitors will not have a direct mechanical analogue,

Possibility of unreasonably large masses being required.

Question

Is it possible to construct a physical device such that the relative acceleration between its endpoints is pro- portional to the applied force?

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

One method of realisation rack pinions terminal 2 gear flywheel terminal 1 r = γ
One method of realisation
rack
pinions
terminal 2
gear
flywheel
terminal 1
r
=
γ
=
1
r
=
2
r
radius of rack pinion
radius of gear wheel
radius of flywheel pinion
m
=
radius of gyration of flywheel
mass of the flywheel
=
α 1 = γ/r 3 and α 2 = r 2 /r 1
3
2
Equation of motion:
F = (mα 2 α ) (v˙ 2 − v˙ 1 )
1
2
(Assumes mass of gears, housing etc is negligible.)

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

The Ideal Inerter We define the Ideal Inerter to be a mechanical one-port device such
The Ideal Inerter
We define the Ideal Inerter to be a mechanical one-port device such
that the equal and opposite force applied at the nodes is
proportional to the relative acceleration between the nodes, i.e.
F = b(v˙ 2 − v˙ 1 ).
We call the constant b the inertance and its units are kilograms.
1
The stored energy in the inerter is equal to 2 b(v 2 − v 1 ) 2 .
The ideal inerter can be approximated in the same sense that real springs,
dampers, inductors, etc approximate their mathematical ideals.
We can assume its mass is small.
M.C. Smith, Synthesis of Mechanical Networks: The Inerter,
IEEE Trans. on Automat. Contr., 47 (2002), pp. 1648–1662.

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

A new correspondence for network synthesis Mechanical Electrical F F i i 1 Y (s)
A new correspondence for network synthesis
Mechanical
Electrical
F
F
i
i
1
Y (s)
= k
Y
(s)
=
s
v
v
Ls
2
1
v
v
2
1
dF
di
1
=
k(v 2 − v 1 )
spring
=
L (v 2 − v 1 )
inductor
dt
dt
F
F
i
i
Y (s)
= bs
Y
(s)
= Cs
v
v
2
1
v
v
2
1
= b d(v 2 −v 1 )
F
inerter
i
capacitor
dt
= C d(v 2 −v 1 )
dt
F
F
i
i
1
Y (s)
= c
Y (s)
=
v
v
R
2
1
v
v
2
1
1
F
= c(v 2 − v 1 )
damper
i =
R (v 2 − v 1 )
resistor
1
Y (s)
= admittance =
impedance

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

A New Approach to Vibration Absorption m y M 2 mω x 0 2 k
A New Approach to Vibration Absorption
m
y
M
2
x
0
2
k 1 /ω
inerter
k
1
0
M
x
c
k
c
k
1
2
3
z
z
Conventional vibration absorber
Solution using inerters

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

The Inerter applied to Passive Vehicle Suspensions F s m s z s Y (s)
The Inerter applied to Passive Vehicle Suspensions
F s
m s
z s
Y (s)
m u
z u
The design of a passive suspension
system can be viewed as the search
for a suitable positive-real admittance
Y (s) to optimise desired performance
measures.
k t
z r

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Traditional Suspension Struts Im Theorem 3. The driving-point admittance Y (s) of a finite network
Traditional Suspension Struts
Im
Theorem 3. The driving-point admittance Y (s)
of a finite network of springs and dampers only
has all its poles and zeros simple and alternating
on the negative real axis with a pole being rightmost.
Re
|(Y (jω))|
Corollary. For ω ≥ 0:
ω
0 dB
−20 dB ≤ Bode-slope(|Y (jω)|) ≤ 0 dB,
−90 ◦ ≤ arg(Y (jω)) ≤ 0 ◦ .
+90 ◦
arg(Y (jω))
ω
−90 ◦

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Realisations in Foster form Theorem 4. Any admittance comprising an arbitrary interconnection of springs, dampers
Realisations in Foster form
Theorem 4. Any admittance comprising an arbitrary interconnection of
springs, dampers (and levers) can be realised in the following form:
k 1
k 2
k n
k
c 1
c 2
c n

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Three Candidate Admittances I. One damper: Y 1 (s) = k (T 2 s +
Three Candidate Admittances
I. One damper:
Y 1 (s) = k
(T 2 s + 1)
s(T 1 s + 1)
where T 2 > T 1 > 0 and k > 0.
II. Two dampers:
Y 2 (s) = k
(T 4 s + 1)(T 6 s + 1)
s(T 3 s + 1)(T 5 s + 1)
where T 6 > T 5 > T 4 > T 3 > 0 and k > 0.
III. Same degree as two damper case but general positive real:
Y 3 (s) = k
a 0 s 2 + a 1 s + 1
s(d 0 s 2 + d 1 s + 1)
where d 0 , d 1 ≥ 0 and k > 0. (Need: β 1 = a 0 d 1 − a 1 d 0 ≥ 0, β 2 := a 0 − d 0 ≥ 0,
β 3 := a 1 − d 1 ≥ 0 for positive-realness.)

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Design Comparison m s = 250 kg, m u = 35 kg, k t =
Design Comparison
m s = 250 kg, m u = 35 kg, k t = 150 kNm −1
Problem: maximise the least damping ratio ζ min among all the system poles
subject to a static spring stiffness of k h = 120 kNm −1 .
Results: Y 1 and Y 2 : ζ min = 0.218. Y 3 : ζ min = 0.481.
6
10
1.8
1.6
5
10
1.4
1.2
4
10
10 0
10 1
10 2
10 3
1
ω (rad/sec)
0.8
50
0.6
0
0.4
−50
0.2
−100
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
10 0
10 1
10 2
10 3
ω (rad/sec)
t (seconds)
Step response: Y 1 , Y 2 (solid)
and Y 3 (dot-dash).
Bode plot of Y 3 (s) showing
phase lead.
z r → z s
Phase
Magnitude

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Brune Realisation Procedure for Y 3 (s) A continued fraction expansion is obtained: Y 3
Brune Realisation Procedure for Y 3 (s)
A continued fraction expansion is obtained:
Y 3 (s)
=
k
a 0 s 2 + a 1 s + 1
s(d 0 s 2 + d 1 s + 1)
k
b
k
1
=
s +
s
1
k
+
k
1
b
c
c 3 +
4
1
1
+
c
c
b 2 s
3
4
b
where k b = kβ 2 , c 3 = kβ 3 , c 4 = kβ 4 , b 2 = kβ 4 and
2
d
β
β
0
1
2
2
β 4 := β
− β 1 β 3 .
2
Numerical values in previous design:
k = 120 kNm −1 ,
k b = ∞,
b 2 = 181.4 kg,
c 3 = 9.8 kNsm −1 ,
c 4 = 45.2 kNsm −1

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Darlington Synthesis I I 1 2 Realisation in Darlington form: V V Y 3 (s)
Darlington Synthesis
I
I
1
2
Realisation in Darlington form:
V
V
Y 3 (s)
1
2
Lossless
a lossless two-port terminated
in a single resistor.
R Ω
network
k 3
k 2
λ 2
λ 1
Corresponding mechanical network
realisation of Y 3 (s) has one damper
and one inerter but employs a lever.
b
c
k
1

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Simple Suspension Struts k b c k k b k c k c b c
Simple Suspension Struts
k b
c
k
k
b
k
c
k
c
b
c
(c) layout S1
(d) layout S2
(e) layout S3
(f) layout S4
parallel
series
M.C. Smith and F-C. Wang, Performance Benefits in Passive Vehicle
Suspensions Employing Inerters, 42nd IEEE Conference on Decision
and Control, December, 2003, Hawaii, to appear.

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Series Arrangements with Centring Springs k b k b k c k k k c
Series Arrangements with Centring Springs
k b
k b
k
c
k
k
k
c
1
k
c
k
c
1
1
1
k
k
b
b
b
b
k
k
k
k
1
2
1
2
(g) layout S5
(h) layout S6
(i) layout S7
(j) layout S8

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Performance Measures

Assume:

Road Profile Spectrum = κ|n| 2

(m 3 /cycle)

where κ = 5 × 10 7 m 3 cycle 1 = road roughness parameter (typical British principal road) and V = 25 ms 1 . Define:

J 1

 

E z¨

2

(t)

=

s

ride comfort

= r.m.s. body vertical acceleration

J 3

= E (k t (z u z r )) 2

= r.m.s. dynamic tyre load

grip

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Optimisation of J 1 (ride comfort) 2.6 18 2.4 16 2.2 14 2 12 1.8
Optimisation of J 1 (ride comfort)
2.6
18
2.4
16
2.2
14
2
12
1.8
10
1.6
8
1.4
6
1.2
4
1
2
0.8
0.6
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
static stiffness
x 10 4
static stiffness
x 10 4
(a) Optimal J 1
(b) Percentage improvement in J 1
Key: layout S1 (bold), layout S3 (dashed), layout S4 (dot-dashed), layout
S5 (dotted) and layout S6 (solid)
J
1
% J 1

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Optimisation of J 3 (dynamic tyre loads) 700 16 14 650 12 600 10 550
Optimisation of J 3 (dynamic tyre loads)
700
16
14
650
12
600
10
550
8
6
500
4
450
2
400
0
350
−2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
static stiffness
x 10 4
static stiffness
x 10 4
(a) Optimal J 3
(b) Percentage improvement in J 3
Key: layout S1 (bold), layout S2 (bold), layout S3 (dashed), layout S4
(dot-dashed), layout S5 (dotted) and layout S7 (solid)
J
1
% J 1

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Rack and pinion inerter made at Cambridge University Engineering Department mass ≈ 3.5 kg inertance
Rack and pinion inerter
made at
Cambridge University
Engineering Department
mass ≈ 3.5 kg
inertance ≈ 725 kg
stroke ≈ 80 mm

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Damper-inerter series arrangement with centring springs
Damper-inerter series arrangement
with centring springs

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Laboratory Testing Schenck hydraulic ram Cambridge University Mechanics Laboratory
Laboratory Testing
Schenck hydraulic ram
Cambridge University Mechanics Laboratory

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Experimental Results Bode plot of admittance 4 10 2 10 10 −2 10 −1 10
Experimental Results
Bode plot of admittance
4
10
2
10
10 −2
10 −1
10 0
10 1
10 2
Hz
50
0
−50
10 −2
10 −1
10 0
10 1
10 2
Hz
experimental data (—)
theoretical without inerter damping (– –)
theoretical with inerter damping (—)
phase (degrees)
magnitude

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Alternative Inerter Embodiments I screw nut flywheel screw nut gears flywheel
Alternative Inerter Embodiments I
screw
nut
flywheel
screw
nut
gears
flywheel

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Alternative Inerter Embodiments II hydraulic T1 t2 t1 T2 lever arm rotary See Cambridge University
Alternative Inerter Embodiments II
hydraulic
T1
t2
t1
T2
lever arm
rotary
See Cambridge University Technical Services Ltd patent PCT/GB02/03056 for further details.

The Inerter Concept and Its Application

Malcolm C. Smith

Conclusion

A new mechanical element called the “inerter” was introduced which is the true network dual of the spring.

The inerter allows a complete synthesis theory for passive mechanical networks.

Performance advantages for problems in mechanical vibrations and suspension systems have been described.

It is expected that future work will continue to explore both the theoretical and practical advantages as well as its applicability in collaboration with interested commercial partners.