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(Under the theme of soft computing)

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The control technology has been changing at fast pace in the last few decades. Artificial intelligence techniques have received much attention in almost every field of science and engineering due to their enormous potential. This paper highlights the need of fuzzy logic and its application in air conditioner Fuzzy Logic is an innovative approach to help systems control with unpredictable Air conditioners use the concept of fuzzy logic, in which the room temperature is compared temperature with and reference an error

temperature is developed and its value is defined by fuzzy sets. Depending on this an appropriate rule is applied and heating or cooling valve is adjusted to maintain room temperature constant. Modified air conditioner is also presented where the humidity is also taken into account. This paper also presents some of the future implementations of fuzzy logic. This paper is helpful in understanding some of the fundamentals of fuzzy logic.

accuracy. It provides a simple way to arrive at a definite conclusion based on vague, ambiguous or missing input information. It incorporates a simple, rule based IF X AND Y THEN Z approach in solving a control problem.



The control symbol-manipulating, ruletechnology has been changing at fast pace in the last few decades. The introduction of the latest technology has been used to only glamorize the controls but deep inside it's the same old algorithms where the user has to feed the data. The user demands more comfortable conditions where the controls have to understand the feelings of the user, and to achieve this, these controls will have to think like humans (artificial intelligence). For a control to be truly intelligent, it must possess the implementing proficiency that characterizes human reasoning. Many scientists have struggled for decades to develop the concept At of last, artificial Simon intelligence.

describes his first ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE program in 1955. This logic is based on approximate reasoning and is called FUZZY LOGIC. The Fuzzy set, the basis of Fuzzy Logic,was developed by Professor Lotfi Zadeh in 1965.


Fuzzy superset partial of truth.



Boolean Fuzzy

logic logic

dealing with the concept of replaces Boolean truth values

with degrees of truth which are very similar to probabilities, except they need not add up to 100%.

The above fuzzy set can be any shape triangular, trapezoidal or a bell curve. The triangle shape is used most often today because it is easy to work with. Fuzzy logic can be implemented in hardware, software, or a combination of both .It provides a simple way to
FIGURE arrive at a definite conclusion

based on vague, ambiguous, imprecise, noisy or missing input information

Fuzzy Logic is an innovative approach to help control unpredictable systems with accuracy. It incorporates a simple, rule based IF X AND Y THEN Z approach to solving a control problem rather than attempting to model a system mathematically. Fuzzy control, which directly uses fuzzy rules, is the most important application in fuzzy theory. The operation of a fuzzy expert system depends on the execution of FOUR major tasks

provides an excellent solution. FUZZIFICATION: It involves the choice of variables, de fuzzy input output functions and output variables and justified variable(s), definition of membership for the input variables and the description of fuzzy defined rules. The functions membership The fuzzy logic analysis and control method is given as Receiving of one, or large number of measurements. Processing inputs all these to


human based, fuzzy "IfThen" rules, which can be expressed in plain language words Averaging and weighting the resulting outputs from all the individual rules into one single output decision or signal which decides what to do. The output signal arrived is a defuzzified value.

on the input

variables are applied to their actual values to determine the degree of truth for each rule premise. INFERENCE: truth-value computed conclusion for and applied The the the to

premise of each rule is

each part of the rule.

MIN and PRODUCT are two inference methods. Fuzzy Logic more closely PID (Proportional/Integral/Derivative ) control methods do. Since some process control systems are difficult to control with only PID, the addition of Fuzzy Logic approximates human thought process than standard COMPOSITION: All the fuzzy subsets assigned to each output variable are combined together to form a single fuzzy subset for each output variable. and SUM are MAX two

composition rules DEFUZZIFICATIO

Two defuzzification techniques CENTROID

popular are the and

N: The fuzzy value

produced by the composition stage needs to be converted to a single number value.

MAXIMUM techniques

In order to appreciate why a fuzzy based design methodology is very attractive in embedded control applications, we examine a typical design flow. Figure of illustrates design a sequence steps

required to develop a controller using a conventional and a Fuzzy approach.

Using the conventional approach First step is to parameters of a PID controller. Fourth step is to

understand the physical system and its control requirements. Second includes step the is to

develop an algorithm for the simplified controller. Fifth step is to simulate the design including the effects of non-linearity, noise, and parameter variations.

develop a model which plant, sensors and actuators. Third step is to use linear control theory in order to determine a simplified version of the controller, such as the

Using fuzzy logic:

First step is to and the performance is not satisfactory we only need to modify some fuzzy rules and re-try. Although design step design is to the similar, the the two are understand

characterize the system behavior by using our knowledge experience. Second directly fuzzy rules. Third step is to simulate and debug the design. If and


fuzzy-based substantially

methodology results benefits, in some such

control algorithm using

simplifies the design loop. This significant as time, reduced simpler


design and faster time to market:


An air conditioner is an appliance designed to extract heat from a humanly occupied space air temperature using a refrigeration conditioning cycle systems .Air are

increasingly desirable to apply these safe by systems environment sometimes Fuzzy an in is varying often situations. A comfortable and difficult to define and affected contradictory logic control and to this effective factors. provides problem.

essential in most of our daily lives. Our expectations of such systems have been raised to demand more than just temperature control, and it is

economic approach

The rules that are used to control the air conditioner can be expressed as a cross product:

The rules governing the air conditioner are as follows: RULE 1: IF TEMP is COLD THEN SPEED is MINIMAL RULE 2: IF TEMP is COOL THEN SPEED is SLOW RULE 3: IF TEMP is PLEASENT THEN SPEED is

Temperature control is widely processes. in satisfactory used in various Conventional temperature control inference temperature which

employs an integrated fuzzy development environment (FIDE)

approach usually does not result control. So we use fuzzy logic to





In, this we here we do not provide FIU (Fuzzy Inference Unit) source code. concentrate on the input/output variables of the fuzzy controller for an air conditioning system,

A Basic Model:
Let us start with the simplest air conditioning system, which is shown in figure. The only control target in this system is temperature which can be changed valves. by two adjustment

Air Conditioning System: Basic Model

There is a sensor in the room to monitor temperature for feedback control, and there are . two control elements,

cooling valve and heating valve, to adjust the air supply temperature to the room

similar to: Figure 2 Fuzzy Controller for Air Conditioning System: Basic Model Rules for this controller may be formulated using statements are defined by fuzzy sets If temperature is low then open heating valve greatly

Values such as low

(membership functions). We can use the MF-edit function in FIDE to define the fuzzy sets. Generally, membership

functions of fuzzy sets take on a triangular shape because they are effective and easy to manipulate.

A Modified Model:
In the real world, however, enough it to is usually an not air with manage system system: one to monitor temperature and one to monitor humidity. There are three control elements: cooling valve, heating valve, and humidifying valve, to adjust temperature and humidity of the air supply.


temperature control only. We need to control humidity as well. A modified air conditioning system is shown in Figure 3. There are two sensors in this

Figure 3 Air Conditioning System: Modified Model A fuzzy controller for this modified air conditioning system is shown in Figure 4. The two inputs to the controller are measured temperature and humidity. The three outputs are control signals to the three valves.

Figure 4 Fuzzy Controller for Air Conditioning System:

Modified Model

temperature and humidity into Rules adding control rules to for for those for this account. For example, in winter, when we use heat to raise temperature, humidity is usually reduced. The air thus becomes too dry. To a address rule this condition, similar appropriate: statement

controller can be formulated by humidity already temperature


control in the basic model. Additional rules must take the interference between

to the following is

If temperature is low then open humidifying valve slightly This rule acts as a predictor of humidity (it leads the humidity value) and is also designed to prevent overshoot in If humidity is low then open humidifying valve slightly But it's action, if acting as the only rule for low humidity, will be late when low humidity is already the case the output humidity curve. We could have used the following rule:

Some companies are developing new products that will incorporate existing fuzzy logic technology in order to update their aging product lines.

Here are a few companies who have various degrees of interest in fuzzy logic:

has used fuzzy logic technology in developing a Home Cleaning Robot. Previously robots used to learn the dimensions of dusty carpet by traveling around the edge of the room. Then, it moves back to its starting point and vacuums until the

carpet is clean, or its batteries The are depleted. will stop robot

Because of the built-in fuzzy logic technology, the Robot Home can Cleaning determine

vacuuming when it only has enough power to travel back to its recharging stand. It will repeat this pattern until it finishes

how much suction power and beater bar speed it needs to complete each job




envisions a "smart" air comfort and maintains the

conditioner that will learn to regulate according conditioner room to temperature your that exact starts

room's temperature, humidity and air flow to your liking." Researchers are developing fuzzy and other AI systems so that, if more than one person is in the room, the air conditioner can regulate an environment which pleases everybody.

specifications "Imagine an air automatically ... the moment you walk into the room. And what's more, it recognizes you, remembers your preference for

Fewer values, rules and decisions are required. More observed variables can be evaluated Fine tuning by changing the membership functions. Fuzzy logic is flexible. Fuzzy logic is tolerant of imprecise data.

Though they are easier to design and faster to

prototype conventional

than control

Saturation problems if membership functions are not defined properly.

systems, fuzzy systems require more simulation and fine-tuning before they are operated.

Limited system.


We conclude that for an engineer, an ideal machine is one in which human requests are automatically interpreted and responded by adjusting itself appropriately to variations in the environment. Fuzzy logic can help make this ideal a reality and makes the effort easier. Fuzzy logic was conceived as a better method for sorting and handling data and an excellent choice for many control system applications. It is very robust. In this context, Fuzzy logic is a problem-solving control system methodology that lends itself to implementation in Many countries have capitalized on "big science" space and defense applications. On the contrary, if they have invested on fuzzy logic, appliance innovation would have taken place at a faster rate. Artificial intelligence systems like Fuzzy Logic hold the key for the development. future economic systems ranging from simple, small, embedded PC microor data controllers to large networked multi-channel workstation-based

acquisition and control systems.