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DECOM-TT 2007 5-th IFAC INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN


DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: AUTOMATION IN INFRASTRUCTURE CREATION





ONLINE VIBRATION MONITORING OF MACHINES IN CEMENT PLANT TO PREVENT FAILURES


Salkan Rahmanovi
1
, Emir Omerdi
2



1
Cement Plant Lukavac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, s.rahmanovic@fclukavac.ba
2
Cement Plant Lukavac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, e.omerdic@fclukavac.ba




Abstract: A conventional system for on-line monitoring of vibration of rotating machines in
a cement plant used to prevent sudden failures is presented. The common causes of vibration
are explained and the forcing frequencies have been calculated to determine frequency range.
Than a type of vibration measurement has been chosen. Since this system usually gives only
warning- and alarm level the offline vibration measurement is used for faults diagnostic. This
paper examines the ability of a presented system to protect the machines from a sudden
failure and its support to offline vibration measurement for diagnosing of faults. Copyright
2007 IFAC.

Key words: causes of vibration, rotating machinery in cement plant, exciting frequencies,
on-line vibration monitoring, vibration signals analysis.




1. INTRODUCTION

Vibration monitoring of rotating machines is usually
a part of a general condition monitoring of the
equipment, therefore it is more and more
implemented in cement production plants. All
rotating machines in a cement plant produce a certain
vibration during their operation. The vibration can be
recorded to create vibration signatures for every
single rotating machine. These vibrations signatures
indicate condition of the machine. But even better
indication of the machine condition is a change of
vibration that would appear in a new-recorded
signature. The change in vibration is a first sign that
appears when the fault starts to develop inside of the
machine. All other symptoms such as increased
temperatures, strange noises and the worn particles in
oil will appear later on. Because of relatively low
capital cost and easy installation of components, the
vibration monitoring is applied to rotating machinery
much more than any other condition monitoring
technique. It has become the most powerful tool for
diagnosing faults in rotating machines well before
failure occurs. Implementation of vibration
monitoring in cement plants usually starts with
simpler system installed on the main machines. With
the increase of experience the vibration monitoring
volume can also be increased. The most important
main machines to monitor in a cement plant are
rotary kiln, tube mills with balls for grinding raw
material and clinker, vertical roller mills for grinding
coal and raw material, dynamic separator and process
fans. The reason that these machines must be
equipped with vibration monitoring system before
then the other ones lies in the fact that they are
singled and in a case of failure they would not be
replaced by spare machines, as it would be the case
with a pump or a blower, which are smaller machines
that can be replaced easily. Another reason for
monitoring the listed machines is that the cost of the
main rotating machine downtime in a cement plant is
incomparably higher than in the case of a smaller
common machine downtime.
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2. VIBRATION OF ROTATING MACHINERY
IN A CEMENT PLANT

2.1. Causes of vibration

The major causes of vibration of rotating machines in
a cement plant that are general in their nature are:
shortages in design
faults and damages produced by manufacturing
stresses during operation higher than designed
defects and damages produced during installation
incorrect reassembling during maintenance works
aging, poor lubrication, etc.
Listed causes of vibration result in faults that can be
recognized as imbalance, misalignment, increased
clearances, eccentricity of rotating components,
mechanical looseness, wear of fan blades, cracks and
other defects in journal-and rolling element bearings,
damages and faults on gears, mechanical damages of
rotor of the electric motor, permanent deformation
such as bent shaft of a fan, or bent cylindrical shell of
a ball mill and other similar faults. All these causes
of vibration leave their traces in the vibration
signature of machine making it possible to detect
them using vibration monitoring.

2.1. Determination of individual forcing frequencies
of rotating machines and frequency range

The rotating machines in a cement plant have their
specific set of forcing frequencies. The most
important frequency is always the rotational speed of
the shaft RPM, which is denoted as fundamental
frequency, 1X. All rotating machines even in good
condition will vibrate at frequency 1X due to
regularly present residual imbalance. However a lot
of other faults can cause increased vibration at
frequency 1X, therefore the additional indicators are
needed to determine the cause of vibration in every
specific case. The rotational speed frequency RPM is
connected to all other forcing frequencies that
originate from different components of a machine. In
that way this frequency is contained in forcing
frequencies of rolling bearings, gears, fans, electric
motor rotor and other components. Harmonics of this
frequency can often be seen in vibration signatures in
many cases. As a result of frequency and amplitude
modulation the sidebands appear in the spectrum of
vibration signal. Very often modulating frequency is
just the fundamental frequency RPM or 1X. There
are a lot of exciters of vibration in a cement plant
rotating machinery and each of them produces its
specific forcing frequencies. The most common ones
are briefly described in the following text.

The rolling bearings have four specific forcing
frequencies or four bearing tones. They are:
Fundamental train frequency, FTF
Ball spin frequency, BSF
Ball pass frequency of the outer race, BPFO
Ball pass frequency of the inner race, BPFI
These frequencies are calculated as follows:

,
_

cos 1
2
d
d
P
B RPS
FTF , (1)


1
1
]
1

,
_


2
2
cos 1
2
d
d
d
d
P
B
B
P RPS
BSF ,
(2)

,
_

cos 1
2
d
d
P
B RPS
N BPFO , (3)

,
_

+ cos 1
2
d
d
P
B RPS
N BPFI ,
(4)

where: RPS rev. per second of inner race, B
d
ball
diameter, P
d
bearing pitch diameter, N number of
rolling elements, contact angle
Given formulas are derived assuming that the inner
ring of a bearing is rotating while the outer ring is
stationary. For the case that outer ring is rotating,
similar formulae can be derived using kinematical
relationships. The frequencies calculated according to
the given formulae can differ from the measured
frequencies due to bearing geometry deviations and
the certain amount of rolling element sliding instead
of pure rotation. When a defect such as crack appears
on the inner or outer race or if a rolling element is
deformed a strong peak will be produced in the
vibration signal at some of bearing forcing frequency
depending on location of the defect (Bodre, 2005).

Gearboxes produce following forcing frequencies,
(Eisenmann, 2001):
Driving gear or pinion rotational speed, F
PN

Driven gear rotational speed, F
GE

Gear mesh frequency, F
GM

Assembly phase passage frequency F
AP

Tooth repeat or hunting tooth frequency F
HT

Gear element and casing resonant frequencies
Frequencies F
PN
and F
GE
correspond to the RPM of
the pinion and of the gear, respectively..
Gear mesh frequency F
GM
is equal to the number of
teeth on gear multiplied by the gear RPM, as follows:

GE GE PN PN GM
T F T F F , (5)

Where: F
GM
gear mesh frequency, T
GE
number of
gear teeth , T
PN
number of pinion teeth.
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Assembly phase passage frequency F
AP
is defined
using the number of unique assembly phases N
A
. This
number for a pair of gears is equal to the product of
the prime factors common to the number of teeth in
the pinion and the gear. The next equation gives
assembly phase passage frequency as:
A
GM
AP
N
F
F , (6)
where: N
A
number of unique assembly phases

In the spectrum of a gearbox the hunting tooth
frequency, F
HT
may also be present (Klein, 1999). For
a pair of gears it can be calculated using the equation:

PN GE
A GM
HT
T T
N F
F

, (7)
Gearboxes with planetary gears produce besides all
above-mentioned frequencies also the following set of
forcing frequencies, (Eisenmann, 2001):
Sun gear rotational speed, F
SN

Planet gear rotational speed frequency, F
PT

Planet carrier rotational speed, F
CR

Ring gear rotational speed, F
RG

Planet gear mesh frequency, F
GMPT

Planet pass frequency, F
PP

Planet absolute frequency, F
PA

Sun gear mesh frequency, F
GMSN

Gear element and casing resonant frequencies.


Fig. 1. Gear boxes with helical and planetary gears
There are three types of planetary or epicyclical
gearboxes. First type that is applied most frequently
has a stationary ring gear, (F
RG
=0). With the second
type the planet carrier is stationary and with the third
type the sun gear is stationary. Using kinematical
relationship, all forcing frequencies can be calculated
for all three types of these gearboxes. The example of
calculation of forcing frequencies for planetary
gearbox of first type is given in this paper. Such an
planetary gearbox built into the drive of the vertical roller
mill for coal grinding in a cement plant is shown in Fig.1.
The forcing frequencies are calculated according to
the following formulae:


PT
RG
CR PT
T
T
F F ,
(9)


CR P PP
F N F
(10)


PT CR PA
F F F + ,
(11)


)
;

'

+
SN
RG
CR SN
T
T
F F 1 ,
(12)


SN SN GMSN
T F F ,
(13)


RG CR PL PL GMPT
T F T F F , (14)

where: T
RG
number of ring gear teeth, T
PT
number
of planet gear teeth, N
P
number of planets, T
SN

number of sun gear teeth.
For the process fan the most important forcing
frequencies are the rotational speed RPM and the fan
blade pass frequency. The fan blade pass frequency is
equal to the number of blades in a fan multiplied by
the RPM of fan rotor.
Forcing frequencies of dynamic separator used in
coal, clinker and raw meal grinding plants are
calculated in a similar way.
Electric motors have specific forcing frequencies too.
They can be set forth as follows:
Electric line frequency, F
L

Slip frequency, F
SL
=N
S
-RPM
Stator slot Pass Frequency, F
SP
= N
SS
x RPM.
Pole pass frequency, F
PP
= N
P
x F
SL

Rotor bar pass frequency, F
BP
= N
RB
x RPM
where: N
S
synchronous speed of motor, N
SS

number of stator slots, N
P
number of poles, N
RB

number of rotor bars.
Other forcing frequencies can also be identified and
added to the above-described ones to create a list of
all known exciting frequencies. The frequency range
and the individual components are determined in this
way.

2.2. Determination of a machine vibration class
Beside frequency range in which the machine
operates, the class of a machine must be determined
as well since the class to which the machine belongs
defines the limit of overall vibration level. These
classes are defined by VDI 2056 regulations, ISO
standard 10816 and other relevant standard as well.
Values determined by these standards are referent for
the set up of warning and alarm levels within the
online vibration monitoring system.
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3. TYPES OF VIBRATION MEASUREMENT

3.1. A choice of vibration measurement

While choosing the type of vibrations measurements
one should take into account that the same vibration
data shown as displacement, velocity and acceleration
versus frequency will have very different appearance,
(Wowk, 1991). The vibration signature representing
displacement will be dominated by the low frequency
components; therefore, it will be very difficult to read
at higher frequencies. With the same vibration data
displayed as acceleration of vibration, it will be quite
opposite. At that signature the distinct peaks can be
seen at high frequencies. Because of this the
displacement transducer are used to measure
vibrations in a low frequency range and the
acceleration transducer for vibration measurement in
a high frequency range, such that of high-speed turbo
machinery. At the other hand the vibration signature
plotted as velocity usually shows the most uniform
level over entire frequency range. This is the reason
why velocity transducers are suitable for most
industrial vibration measurement, hence also for
vibration measurement on rotating machines in a
cement plant. Still the calculation of forcing and
natural frequencies that lie in operating frequency
range is necessary and must be done prior to deciding
what type of measurement to choose. Vibration
signature in term of velocity or displacement can be
obtained from acceleration transducers by one or two
subsequent integration respectively. Since integration
is simpler operation than differentiation the
acceleration transducers will be used even more in
the future. They also can be used to pick up the high
frequency vibration generated by defects in rolling
element bearings or gear mesh.

3.2. The most frequently used measurement readings
The next readings are most frequently used as
indicator of vibrations, (Barron, 1996):
Overall velocity is measured in frequency range up to
a limit of about 2 kHz. It can be used for monitoring
RPM of a machine and its harmonics in accordance
with the standards BS 4675, VDI 2056 or ISO 10816.
Overall acceleration covers frequencies up to 20 kHz
and sometimes even more. It is suited for monitoring
gear mesh and fan blade passing frequencies.
Velocity spectra provide good sensitivity to lower
frequencies in the same way as overall velocity
readings. To identify all-important frequencies within
the determined frequency range the sufficient
resolution must be ensured.
Acceleration spectra are more appropriate for higher
frequencies (>500 Hz) such as generated by gears in a
gearbox. To obtain spectra in a higher frequency
range where the harmonics and sidebands can be
seen the resolution of the instrument must be
accordingly increased.

3.3. Location of the transducers

Transducers should be located close to all potential
sources of forced vibration. If a transducer is far from
the source of vibration the vibration signal can be
weakened due to the effect of a transmission path.
Generally the transducers should be placed on
locations where forces are transmitted from rotating
parts to the machine casing and further to the
foundation. These locations are mainly the housings
of bearings but they can be also the feet of the
machine. The purpose of measurement is decisive
factor for placement of a transducer. If the purpose is
to detect an imbalance then the best location of the
transducer will be horizontally radial to the shaft axis
on the bearing housing. The reason for this is the fact
that machines with horizontal shafts are always more
flexible in horizontal then in vertical direction and
therefore an imbalance will be seen much more
clearly in horizontal direction. If we need to measure
the vibration of rolling bearings the best position for
the transducer would be in vertical direction while
detection of misalignment can be done most
efficiently with the transducer placed horizontally in
axial direction. For periodic offline measurement it is
important that the transducers are always placed at
the same measuring points and that they are set up in
the same manner providing that operating parameters
are approximately the same. This state is very
difficult to achieve and generally this is one of the
shortages of periodic offline measurement. To reduce
this shortage a fitting with treaded stud can be
permanently installed at selected location and the
transducer can be connected to it while measuring.
On critical singled machines by which the bearings
are prone to damages it would be the best to install
two measuring points per bearing, one in vertical and
another in horizontal direction both radial to the
shaft axis. The third measuring point in axial
direction should be installed on the trust bearing.

3.3. Methods of mounting transducers
The mounting of transducers can be done by using
treaded stud, magnetic fitting, snap connector
screwed or glued by wax or attached by double sticky
tape. The method of mounting transducers makes
significant influence on its frequency response. The
resonant frequency of an accelerometer transducer
will be significantly lowered in all cases except in a
case when mounting is done by treaded stud, (Wowk,
1991). In this case the mounting frequency is far
above usable measuring range of the transducer.
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4. ON-LINE VIBRATION MONITORING IN A
CEMENT PLANT

Although modern equipment for offline vibration
monitoring can discover many of faults well before
failures occur a continuous online monitoring of
vibration is necessary to detect faults that arise
suddenly and develop rapidly leading to breakdown
in a short period of time. In order to justify its
implementation the vibration monitoring as a part of
general condition monitoring system must satisfy the
followings criteria, (Barron, 1996):
A clear relationship must exist between the
vibration and condition of a machine.
The vibration monitoring system must give fast
response to a fault in the machine to provide the
warning and alerts.
Comparing readings of measurements must make
the assessment of a machine condition.
A system should enable that the condition of a
machine can be predicted.

4.1. A conventional online vibration monitoring
system
The aim of implementation of a conventional online
vibration monitoring system is the following:
to ensure operation of the equipment in
accordance with designed parameters
to provide warning about changes in condition
to provide alarm and shut down to prevent failure
to provide accurate data about machine condition.
To satisfy the aim the conventional online vibration
monitoring system performs the following operations:
Vibration data acquisition
Creation of indicating values
Comparison of actual value to the limit values
Display and storing of measured vibration data
Activation of warning
Activation of alarm and shut down of a machine
The conventional online vibration monitoring system
is implemented in several steps. The first step is to
decide which machines are to be monitored. The
evaluation of machinery regarding design,
construction, class of a machine and the frequency
range is the next step. The third step is identification
of causes for vibrations and potential malfunction.
The following step is determination of a clear
relationship between vibrations and condition of the
machines. After that the method of monitoring and
protection is selected. In Fig. 2., a configuration of an
online vibration monitoring system of a coal grinding
plant in a cement plant is given. The main machines
are equipped with velocity sensors and monitoring
units. The system comprises electronic devices and
the dedicated PC.

Fig. 2. A common configuration of an online
vibration monitoring system in a cement plant

This vibration monitoring system detects change in
vibration level. Values of these levels are used to set
up warning and alarm level. If the vibration level
reaches the first set up limit, the system gives
warning. If the second set up limit is reached the
system sounds the alarm. If the set up value for alarm
is exceeded the protection system is activated and the
machine is shut down. Vibration signatures shown as
RMS value of vibration velocity, obtained by online
monitoring system during start up of a process fan in
a coal grinding plant in a cement factory, are given in
the Fig.3 and Fig. 4. The warning is set up on value
designated with Lim H, and the alarm is sounded
with the value Lim HH, see Fig. 3. and Fig. 4.

Vibration on process fan - 23.05.2006 during start up
00:12:21 - 02:09:14
-0.5
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
1 98 195 292 389 486 583 680 777 874 971 1068 1165 1262 1359
Samples
m
m
/
s
LimHH
LimH

Fig. 3. RMS of Velocity of vibration of a process fan

Vibrations on process fan- 15.01.2007 during start up
0:25:07 - 2:23:29
-0.5
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
1 87 173 259 345 431 517 603 689 775 861 947 1033 1119 1205 1291 1377
Samples
m
m
/
s
LimHH
LimH

Fig. 4. RMS of Velocity of vibration of a process fan
exceeding warning level limit

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4.2. Offline vibration measurement

To determine the causes of increased vibration and to
make diagnosis of faults the offline vibration
measurement and analysis must be performed. In
offline measurement vibration is usually recorded in
three directions at each bearings. The measurement
can be performed with the simple vibration meters or
using more sophisticated instruments like Vibrotest
60 (Bruel-Kjaer) or Microlog (SKF), both the hand
held devices capable to perform FFT, bearing
condition analysis, field balancing in 1 and 2 planes,
cepstrum analysis and other diagnostic tasks.


Fig. 5. Time domain vibration of a ball mill gearbox


Fig. 5. Spectrum of vibration of a ball mill gearbox

The Vibrotest 60 is equipped with an accelerometer
for manual offline measurement. It can also be
connected to the installed monitoring units such as
Vibrocontrol 1100 (Bruel-Kjaer) that can be parts of
a conventional online vibration monitoring system.
Vibrations signatures in time and frequency domains,
obtained by measurement with Microlog on the ball
mill gearbox are given in the Fig. 5. and Fig. 6. The
high peak in the spectrum at gear mesh frequency of
409.4 Hz indicates the fault on the gear teeth.
Harmonics of this frequency are seen clearly as well
as the sidebands at modulating frequency of 16.2 Hz,
which is RPM of the gear shaft.
4.3. A diagnostic vibration monitoring system

A diagnostic vibration monitoring system, often
called as expert diagnostic system, is an upgrading of
the conventional online vibration monitoring system
given in Fig.2. In an expert diagnostic system the
measurement of vibration is regularly performed in
time, frequency and time-frequency domain (Becker
and Cools, 2002). The statistical values such as crest
factor and kurtosis are also commonly used. The
system includes a computer with appropriate software
for vibration analysis for example
VIBROEXPERTCM-400, (Brel-Kjr). The newest
development of expert diagnostic systems includes
remote service via e-mail and Internet, (Becker and
Dahlhaus, 2001).

5. CONCLUSION

Using conventional online vibration monitoring
system that provide warning and alarm in a right
time it is possible to protect the main rotating
machines in a cement plant from sudden failures.
However that vibration monitoring system is not able
to give enough information for diagnosing of faults.
Combining a conventional online vibration moni-
toring system with the periodic offline vibration
measurement and analysis it is possible to achieve
both prevention from sudden failures and sufficient
diagnostic information. In this way it becomes
possible to detect faults in the cement plant rotating
machinery at the early stage of their appearance.

6. REFERENCES

Barron R.: Engineering Condition Monitoring,
Practise, Methods and Applications, Addison
Wesley Longman, New York, 1996.
Klein, U.: Schwingungsdiagnostische Beurteilung
Von Maschinen und Anlagen. Dsseldorf:
Verlag Stahleisen, 1999.
Eisenmann C.R. Sr., Eisenmann C.R., Jr.: Machinery
Malfunction Diagnosis and Correction,
Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting for the
Process Industry, Prentice Hall PTR, New
Jersey, 2001.
Bodre, R.: Introduction to Machine Vibration, DLI
Engineering Corporation, Bainbridge Island
WA 98110, 2005
Wowk, V.: Machinery Vibration: Measurement and
Analysis, McGraw Hill inc., USA, 1991.
Becker, E., Cools, K.: Condition Monitoring on girth
gear unit-Experience and developments, ZKG
International 55 (2002) No.8, pp.85-94.
Becker, E., Dahlhaus, N.: Fernberwachung von
Getrieben ber das Internet, Z. Antriebstechnik
(40), (2001) No. 7 .