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GATE -1996

ME: Mechanical Engineering

1. Write in your answerbook the correct or the most appropriate answer to the following multiple choice questions by writing the corresponding letter A, B, C or D against the subquestions number.
(25 xl = 25)

(A) 0 Ans. (B)

(C) 2


ei logi ei(in/2)

1.2 The expression curl (grad f), where f is a scalar function, is (A) equal to V2 f (B) equal to div (grad t) (C) a scalar of zero magnitude (0) a vector of zero magnitude
Ans. (0)

1.3 The one dimensional

heat condietion parlial differential equation

(A) parabolic
Ans. (A)


= -ax..2'



(B) hyperbolic

(C) elliptic

(D) mixed

1.4 III the Gauss elimination method for solving a system of linear algebraic equations, triangularization leads to (A) diagonal matrix (B) lower triangular matrix (C) upper triangular matrix (0) singular matrix Ans. (C) 1.5 If the two principal strains at a point are 1000 x 10-<' and -600 x 10-<', hen the maximum shp-ar strain is t (A) 800 x 10-6 (B) 500 x 10-6 (C) 1600 X 10-6 (0) 200 x 10-6
Ans. (0)

(1000 - 600) ~ 600

x EBo

1000 " 10~

'600 x 10'"


Mulmumlhear au.in = 200 x 10-6

1.6 If the ratio of the diameter of rivet hole to the pitch of rivets;s (J.25, then the tearing efficiency of the joint is (A) 0.50 Ans. (8) 0.25 (8) 0.75 (C) 0.25 (D) 0.87

(P;d)x 100
75% 1.7 In thick film hydrodynamic journal bearing.~, the coefficient of friction (A) increases with increases in load (8) is independent of load (C) decreases with increase in load (0) may increase or decrease with increase in load Ans. (C) 1.8 A ball A of mass m falls under gravity from a height h and strikes another ball B of mass m wlrich is supported at rest on a spring of stiffness k. Assume peifeetly elastic impact. Immediately after the impact (A) the velocity of ball A is ~~2gh (C) the velocity of both balls is ~~2gh 2 Ans. (8) Explanation. impact. (8) the velocity of ball A is zero (0) none of the above

In a perfectly elastic collision between equal masses of two bodies, velocities exchange on

Velocity just before impact = Velocity immediately after impact. Before impact VA VB ~2gh 0 After impact VA = 0 VB =~2gh (8) axial force (0) torsion and bending moment.

1.9 The bolts in a rigid flanged coupling connecting two shafts transmitting power are subjected to (A) shear force and bending moment (C) torsion Ans. (A) 1.10 A wheel of mass m and radius r is in accelerated rolling motion without slip under a steady axle torque T. If the coefficient of killetic friction is p, the friction force from the ground on tire wheel is (A) !! mg (C) zero Ans. (A) (A) pitch circle (C) base circle Ans. (A) (8) T/r (0) none of the above

1.11 In spur gears, the circle on which the involute is generated is called the (8) clearance circle (0) addendum circle

1.12 The specific heats of an ideal gas depend on its (A) temper~ (C) volume Ans. (A) 1.13 For reversibile adiabatic compresslonUttl (A)fpdv (C) f T ds Ans. (B) 1.14 A cycle consisting of two reversible isothermal processes and two reversible isobaric processes is known as (A) Atkinson cycle (C) Brayton cycle Ans. (D) 1.15


pressure (D) molecular weight and structure steady flow process, the work transfer per unit mass is (B)fvdp (D) f s dT

(B) Stirling cycle (D) Ericsson cycle

flow through a pipe, the transition from laminar to turbulent flow does not depend on (B) density of the fluid (D) length of the pipe

(A) velocity of the fluid (C) diameter of the pipe Ans. (C)

t .16 For a given heat flow and for the same thickness, the temperature maximumfor (A) copper (C) glass-wool Ans. (C) I or q = -kA(B) steel (D) refractory brick

drop across the material will be


'k' should be least for

aT to be maximum

for a given q, A and

1.17 When wet steamflows through a throttle valve and remains wet at exit (A) its temperature and quality increases (B) its temperature decreases but quality increases (C) its temperature increases but quality decreases (D) its temperature and quality decreases Ans. (B)
.~t:'Nl. . The dimenation of surface tension is \ (A) ML-1

(B) UT-I (D) MT-2

Ans. (D)

1.19 The rake angle in a drill (A) increases from centre to periphery (C) remains constant (B) decreases from centre to periphery (D) is irrelevant to the drilling operation

1.20 Light impurities in the molten metal are prevented from reaching the mould cavity by providing a (A) strainer (C) skim bob ADs. (D) 1.21 Prelreating before welding is done to (A) make the steel softer (C) prevent cold cracks ADs. (C) 1.22 Tirefit on a Irole-shaft system is specified as 117-.'~6.Tire type of fit is (A) clearance fit (C) push fit (transition fit)
ADS. (D)

(B) button well (D) all of the above

(B) bum away oil, grease, etc, from the plate surface (D) prevent plate distortion

(B) running fit (sliding fit) (D) force fit (interference fit)

1.23 Tire iron-carbon diagram and the TTT curves are determined under (A) equilibrium and non-equilibrium (C) equilibrium conditions for both (D) non-equilibrium ADS. (A) 1.24 If at the optimum in a linear programming problem, a dual variable corresponding primal constraint is zero, tlren it means tlrat (B) changing the right hand side of the primal constraint will disturb the optimum s~ution (C) the objective function is unbounded (D) the problem is degenerate Ans. (C) 1.25 Tire individual human variability in time studies to determine the production standards is taken care of to a particular conditions for both. conditions respectively (B) non-equilibrium and equilibrium conditions respectively

(A) right hand side of the primal constraint can be altered without affecting the optimum solution

(A) personal allowances (C) rating factor ADS. (C) (B) work allowances (D) none of the above

2. Write in your allswerbook the correct or the most appropriate anwer to the following multiple choice questions by writing the corresponding letter A, B, Cor D against the subquestion number.

2.1 Theeigenvalues of [ :
(A) 0, 0 0 (C) 0,0,3 ADS. (C)

(B) 0, 0 1 (D) 1, 1, 1


Given matrix is,

[ 1


(1- A) I I (3-A) 1 I

1 (1- A) I

I I (I-A)

(3- A) (3- A) (1- A) I 1 I (I-A) 1 I (I- A) 0 0 0 -A

(3- A)

(I-A) 1

(3- A)

-A 0

2.2 A ball falls from a height of Jm, hits the ground and rebounds with half its velocity just before impact. Then after rising itfalls and hits the ground and again rebounds with halfits velocity just before impact, and so on. The total distance travelled by the ball till it comes to rest on the ground is (A) 2 m (C) 5/3 m
ADS. (B)

(B) 5/3 m (D) 5/4 m

e2 x2gh h+---x2+e 2g


h [1+ 2e2 + 2e4 + ...] h + 2 e 2 h [1 + ~ + _1_ + ...

4 16

2.3 The particular solution for the differential equation

d d ----.L + 3 -.2:. + 2y
dx2 dx

5 cos x is

(A) 0.5 cos x + 1.5 sin x (C) 1.5 sin x Ans. (A)

(8) 1.5 cos x + 0.5 sin x (D) 0.5 cos x

I 02 + 3D + 2 (5 cos x) 5cosx 0 +30+2 5(30 -I) 2 cosx 90 -1 _5_[ -2 sin x - cosx]


-10 --+-2 2 0.5 cos x + 1.5 sin x.

2.4 A solid shaft can resist a bending moment of 3.0 kNm and a twisting moment of 4.0 kNm together, then the maximum torque that can be applied is (A) 7.0 kNm (B) 3.5 kNm (C)4.5 kNm (D) 5.0 kNm Ans. (D) Explanation. Maximum tensile stress due to bending, ~ cosx 3sin x

TR J _4_x_I_O_ _x_d_/_2 20;7 kPa. = ~xd4 d 32 maximum induced shear stress, ~[~(ft)2 nd3 -f 16 +4(fs)2 ]

When both the stress acts simultaneously,


1tl~3 (30~5358r+4(2~.~7r


2.5 A thick cylinder is subjected to an internal pressure of 60 MPa. If the hoop stress on the outer surface is 150 MPa, then the hoop . tress on the internal surface is (A) 105 MPa (C) 210 MPa Ans. (C) 2Pr2I (r; -r?) 2x60xrj2 (r; - r?)

(B) 180 MPa (D) 135 MPa

(r; - r?)

(:~+rh J per;

2.6 AB and CD two uniform and identical bars of mass 10 kg each, as shown in Fig. 2.6. The hinges at A and Bare frictionless. The assembly is released from rest and motion occurs in the vertical plane. At the instant that the hinge B passes the point B, the angle between the two bars will be




(A) 60 degrees (C) 30 degrees Ans. (C)


(B) 37.4 degrees (D) 45 degrees

2.7 A rod of length 1 m is sliding in a corner as shown in Fig. 2.7. At an instant when the rod makes an angle of 60 degrees with the horizontal plane, the velocity of point A on the rod is 1mls. The angular velocity of the rod at this instant

(A) 2 rad/s (B) J.5 rad/s (C) 0.5 rad/s (0) 0.75 rad/s Ans. (A) Explanation :




2.8 A mass of 1 kg is suspended by means of 3 springs as shown in Fig 2.8. The spring constants XI' X:z and XJ are respectively 1 kN/m, 3kN/m and 2 kN/m. The natura/frequency of the system is approximately (A) 46.90 Hz (B) 52.44 Hz (C) 60.55 Hz (0) 77.46 Hz

I I 4 -+-=I 3 K, +K3 - +2 4


!!.kN 1m

I I x 103 4xl

= 52.44 Hz

2.9 A mercury manometer is used to measure the static pressure at a point in a water pipe as shown in Fig. 2.9. The level difference of mercury in the two limbs is 10mm The gauge presure at that point is (A) 1236 Pa (B) 1333 Pa (C) zero (D) 98 Pa Ans. (B) Explanation: pgh . 10 13,600 x 9.81 x -= 1333 Pa 1000 H2O -- ~ J... . : 10mm; Hgl--.1lt~ ..::. ... : -U' :::::

2.10 A solar energy based heat engine which receives 80 kJ of heat at 100 deg C and rejects 70 kJ of /reat to the ambient at 30 deg C is to be designed. The thermal efficiency of the heat engine is (A) 70% (C) 12.5%

(B) 1.88% (D) indetermjnate

(C) (80-70)

1 8 12.5%


For two cycles coupled in series, the topping cycle has an efficiency of 30% and the bottoming cycle has an efficiency of 20%. The overall combined cycle efficiency is (A) 50% (B) 44% (C) 38% (D) 55%


High Temperature

Q2 From equation (i) and (ii)


A steam plant has the boiler effICiency of92%, trubine efficiency (mechanical) of94%, generator efficiency of 95% and cycle efficiency of 44%. If 6% of the generated power is used to run the auxiliaries, the overall plant efficiency is (A) 34% (C) 45% Ans. (A) Explanation. (B) 39% (D) 30%




11> Staam cycle

1411> Turbine

Useful output Energy input Overall plant efficiency


Qin X 0.92





Qin 0.92 x 0.44 == 0.34 = 34% 0.94 0.95 0.94

2.13 For laminar fiow through a long pipe, the pressure drop per unit length increases (A) in linear proportion to the cross-sectional area (B) in proportion to the dimeter of the pipe (C) in inverse proportion to the cross-sectional area (D) in inverse proportion to the square of cross-sectional area Ans. (C) 2.14 For a current wire of 20 mm diameter exposed to air (h when thickness of insulation (k = 0.5 W/mK) is (A) 20 mm (C) 20 mm Ans. (B) r
= = 20

W/m1 K), maximum heat dissipation occurs

(B) 25 mm (D) 10 mm

-=-=-m=25mm h 20 40


2.15 Tool life of 10 hours is obtained when cutting wi~h single point tool at 63 m/min. If Taylor's constant C = 257.35, tool life on doubling the velocity will be (A) 5 hours (C) 38.3 min Ans. (B) Explanation. .. or

(B) 25.7 min. (D) unchanged

VT" 63

C 257.35

where, V in m/min; and T in minutes. (10


60)n n


When velocity is doubled, ~ C 2V

= 0.22

257.35 2x63

25.69 minutes", 25.7 min.

2.16 A wire of 0.1 mm diameter is drawn from a rod of 15 mm diameter. Dies giving reductions of 20%, 40% and 80% are available. For minimum error in thefinal size, the number of stages and reduction at each stage respectively would be (A) 3 stages and 80% reduction for all three stages (B) 4 stages and 80% reduction for first three stages followed by a finishing stage of20% reduction (C) 5 stages and reduction of 80%, 80%.40%,40%,20% (D) none of the above Ans. (D)

in a sequence

Reduction required


= 22500

Reduction achievable (A) 5 x 5 x 5 = 125 (B) .5 x 5 x 5 x 1.25 = 156.25 (C) 5 x 5 x 2.5 x 4.5 x 1.25 (D) None. 2.17 A 50 mm diameter disc is to be punched outfrom punch should be (A) 49.925 mm (C) 50.075 mm Ans. (D) Explanation. (B) 50.00 mm (D) none of the above a carbon steel sheet 1.0 mm thick. The diameter of the


Clearance required for punching carbon steel sheet = 7% of thickness lx7 --=0.07mm. 100 50 -2 x 0.07 49.860 mm.

2.18 In an assembly linefor assembling toys, five workers are assigned tasks which take times of 10,8,6,9 and 10 minutes respectively. The balance delay for the line is (A) 43.5% (C) 14.0% Ans. (D) (10-8) (10-6) (10x 5) 16% ~ 16.3% 2.19 Preliminary work sampling studies show that machine was idle 25% of the time based on a sample of 100 observations. The number of observations needed for a confidence level of95% and an accuracy of
, 5% is

(B) 14.8% (D) 16.3%


x 100

(A) 400 (C) 3600 Ans. (D)

(B) 1200 (D) 4800


2 for 95% confidence level

0.05 (accuracy)

P 0.25 (idle time) Number of observations needed for 95% wnfidence level and 5% accuracy is K2(P) (I-P) N = ----S2P2 (2)2(0.25) (1-025 (0.05)2 (025)2

= 4800

2.20 The probability of a defective piece being produced in a manufacturing that out of 5 .\uccessi"e pieces, only one is defective, is (A) (0.99)4 (0.01) (B) (0.99) (0.01)4 (C) 5 x (0.99) (0.01)4 Ans. (D) Explanation. Probability (D) 5 x (0.99)4 (0.01) 5C,(0.OI)' (0.99)4 5

process is 0.01. The probability

(0.99)4 (0.01) questions 3.1 through 3.5 below. No credit will be (5 x 2 = 10) List II 1. Euler's equation of motion 2. Minimum kinetic energy 3. Minimum potential energy 4. Impulse-momentum principle 5. Conservation of moment of momentum

3. Match 4 correct pairs between List 1 and List IIfor given for partially correct matching.

List I (A) (B) (C) (D) Collision of particles Stability Satellite motion Spining top

List I (A) (B) (C) (D) Fourier number Weber number Grashoffnumber Schmidt number

List II 1. Surface tension 2. Forced convection 3. Natural convection 4. Radiation 5. Transient heat conduction 6. Mass diffusion

List I (A) Cetane number (B) Approach and range

List II 1. Ideal gas 2. VAn der Waals gas 3. S.l. engine



*0 even when pressure varies

(D) dh = edT, p

4. C.l. engine 5. Cooling towers 6. Heat exchangers

List I
(A) Rivets for aircraft body (B) Carburettor body (C) Crankshafts
(0) Nails

List II
1. Forging 2. Cold heading 3. Aluminium-based 5. Investment casting alloy

4. Pressure die casting

List I
(A) Welding of aluminium aIloy (B) Ship building (C) Joining of HSS drill bit to carbon steel shank (0) Deep penetration precision welds ADs. (A)-~ (B)-I, (C)-3, (D)-2

List II
1. Submerged arc welding 2. Election beam welding 3. TIG welding 4. Gas welding

4. A thin cylinder of JOOmminternal diameter and 5mm thickness is subjected to an internal pressure of 10MPa and a torque of 2000 Nm. Calculate the magnitudes of the principal stresses. (5)

0.1 m = 0.005 m pd 4t lOx 10 x 0.1 = 50 x 107 N / m 4 x 0.005 10 x 106 Pa = 107 N/m2 pd = 100 MN 1m2
6 2

= 50 MN / m

Torque = 2000 = 4oo N Radius 0.05 Force 1tdt

40000 = 25464 x 106 N / m2 = 2546MN 1m2 x OJ x 0.005

PI ;P2 (PI ;P2


10 + 50 . 100 - 50 \2 (25464)2 -2-:LV~ 2 ) + 7525.129



100.129 MN/m1 and 49.871 MN/m1

5. Two bars AB and BC are connected by afriction less hinge at B. The assembly is supported and loaded as shown in Figure 5. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the combined beam A C, clearly labelling the important values. Also indicate your sign convention. (5)