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DEPARTMENT OF SURVEYING SCIENCE AND GEOMATICS FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING AND SURVEYING UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA BACHELOR OF SURVEYING

SCIENCE AND GEOMATICS (AP 220)

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM 1 SUG553

MINI PROJECT GIS

Prepared by: NURUL AINA FARHANIS BINTI JAILANI 2008286938 AP2205A

Prepared for: ASSOC. PROF DR WAN MOHD NAIM WAN MOHD

1.0 INTRODUCTION GIS is a computer system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analysing and displaying data related to positions on the Earth's surface. Typically, a Geographical Information System is used for handling maps of one kind or another. These might be represented as several different layers where each layer holds data about a particular kind of feature. Each feature is linked to a position on the graphical image on a map and a record in an attribute table. GIS can relate otherwise disparate on the basis of common geography, revealing hidden patterns, relationships, and trends that are not readily apparent in spreadsheets or statistical packages, often creating new information from existing data resources. Hidden in most data is a geographical component: an address, postal code, census block, city, county, or latitude/longitude coordinate. With GIS, you can explore the spatial element of your data to display soil types, track crime patterns, analyze animal migration patterns, find the best location for an expanding business, model the path of atmospheric pollution, and make decisions for many types of complicated problems. Understanding what GIS is and what it can be used for. With a GIS application we can open digital maps on computer, create new spatial information to add to a map, create printed maps customised to the needs and perform spatial analysis. In this worksheet we can explore the basic concepts behind Geographical Information Systems.

1.1 AIM The aim of this mini project is to identify suitable site/s for development based on the given criteria. 1.2 TASK Given TWO (2) datasets: Landuse.shp - Land use map (classified into 5 different classes i.e. water bodies, forest, agriculture land, developed areas and cleared land), 3758B.DXF -Digital topographic data of the study area

We are required to extract the following data layers from the given digital topographic data: Contour Road Major river

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Select suitable site/s based on the following criteria: Must be located within 1000 metres from existing road Must be located within agricultural land Must not be located within 500 metres from major river Must not be located within slope greater than 20% Area must be more than 20 hectares The final report should include the steps involved to:1. Extract the contour, road and river data layers 2. Perform spatial data analysis to identify suitable areas. 3. Display the identified areas in perspective view

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2.0 METHODOLOGY 1) ArcMap is launched and renamed the new layer as Mini_Project.

2) Clicked at file Add Data In Add data window, folder PROJSUR533 is opened and 3758B.DXF and lusemap.shp is added to the Mini_Project layer.

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3)When Unknown Spatial Reference warning window is popped-out, just ignored the message and clicked OK.

4) Lusemap and 3758B.DXF Group layer has been added under Mini_Project layer. Look at 3758B.DXF,it still in group layer. 2| Page

5)Next step is to ungroup the data layer.

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5) Ticked only polyline and unticked other data layer as shown below.

6)Next step is to extract contuor. Clicked at Selection and choosed Select By Attributes

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7) At Select By Attributes window, changed Layer to Polyline cont_line OK

Clicked at Layer= cont_index or

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8) Map will look liked as the map shown below.

9) Next right-clicked at Polyline

Data

Export Data

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10) At Export Data window,renamed Output shapefile or feature class as Contour.shp in PROJSUR533 folder. Clicked OK to close the Export Data window.

11) When ArcMap warning message window is popped out, clicked Yes to agree to add the exported data to the map as a layer.

11) Repeat step 6, for second layer (road layer), go to Selection Select By Attributes In Select By Attributes window clicked Layer= `SCAR_1W1BOR Layer= `SCAR_2W1A OK.

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12) The map will look map as shown below.

13)Next right-clicked at Polyline

Data

Export Data

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14) At Export Data window,renamed Output shapefile or feature class as Road.shp in PROJSUR533 folder. Clicked OK to close the Export Data window.

15) When ArcMap warning message window is popped out, clicked Yes to agree to add the exported data to the map as a layer.

16) Repeat step 6 and 11, for third layer (river layer), go to Selection Select By Attributes window clicked Layer= `DOU_DEF_RI

Select By Attributes In OK.

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17) The map will looked like map as shown bwlow.Next,right-clicked at Polyline Export Data as in step 9 and 13

Data

18) At Export Data window,renamed Output shapefile or feature class as River.shp in PROJSUR533 folder. Clicked OK to close the Export Data window.

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19) Changed the data layers color to make the map look more attractive. I have choosed river=blue, road=red and contour = yellow. The map will looked like as shown below..

20) Next step is to do the road buffer. Open ArcToolbox window, extended the Analysis Tools, extended the Proximity and choosed Buffer.

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21) At Buffer window, select Road at Input Feature, determined that Output Feature Class is Road_Buffer.shp. Typing 1000 and select meters as the Linear Unit. Dissolve type choosed ALL from its dropdown menu. Clicked OK to closed the Buffer window.

22) After the buffering for road is completed, the map will looked like as shown below.

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23) Step 21 is repeated, but this time is for River Buffer. At Buffer window, select River at Input Feature, determined that Output Feature Class is River_Buffer.shp. Typing 500 and select meters as the Linear Unit. Dissolve type choosed ALL from its dropdown menu.

24) Clicked OK to closed the Buffer window. The map will now looked like as shown below.

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25) For Landuse map adding. Right clicked at lusemap to open the Attributes table of lusemap. Clicked Option Add Field

26) At Add Field window, changed name to Lu_Code and clicked OK to closed. At Attributes of Lusemap window, right clicked at Lu_Code and choosed Field Calculator.

27) When the Field Calculator warning message window is popped out, just clicked Yes. Next, at Field Calculator window, make Lu_Code = GRIDCODE and clicked OK to close the window. Lu_Code tab at Attributes of lusemap window will have the value of GRIDCODE as shown below.

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28) Next step is to do contour. Unticked all other data layer, just contour layer is ticked as shown below.

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29) Clicked 3D Analyst and choosed Create/Modify TIN TIN From Features At Create TIN From Features window ticked at Contour, Height Source choosed Elevation from dropdown menu, Triangulate as mass point. At Output TIN, saved output as tin.

30) The map produced is as shown below.

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31) To do slope, first clicked at 3D Analyst Surface Analyis Slope. At Slope window, output measurement is make sure in degree and changed output raster to slope then clicked OK to close

32) The slope will appear at map as shown below.

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33) Next step is to convert TIN To Raster. Clicked 3D Analyst Convert TIN to Raster. In Convert TIN to Raster window, changed the attribute to Slope (in degrees), and saved Output raster as tingrid.

34) The Map produced will look like as shown below.

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35) Clicked 3D Analyst Reclassify. At Reclassify window clicked Classify to open Classification window. Changed Classes to 2, and Break Values = 20. Saved the Output Raster as Slope_2_Class.

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36) The map produced is as shown below.

37) Clicked Spatial Analyst Convert Raster to Features.. At Raster to Features window save output as Slope_Raster_To_Features and clicked OK. The map produced is as shown below.

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38) Right-clicked at Slope_Raster_To_Features and Open Attribute Table. At Attributes of slope_raster_to_features window, clicked Option Add Field.. 2| Page

39) At Add Field window, changed the Fields name to SLOPECODE. At Attributes of slope_raster_to_features window, right-clicked at SLOPECODE Field Calculator. Clicked Yes when popped out window of warning message is appeared. At Field Calculator window, make SlOPECODE = GRIDCODE. Clicked OK to closed all windows.

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40) The table shown as below.Closed the window.

41) Opened ArcToolbox. Go to Analysis Tools Overlay Intersect. At Intersect window choosed lusemap and slope_raster_to_features as Input Features. Renamed Output Feature Class as lusemap_Intersect_Slope and selected ALL for JoinAttributes. Closed all windows.

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42) The map produced is as below.

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43) Step 41 is repeated, but this time intersect the lusemap_Intersect_Slope with Road_Buffer and renamed it as Intersect_02. Select All for Join Attributes. Clicked OK to close the window.

44) The map produced is as shown below.

45) Unticked all except Intersect_02. The map will look like below.

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46) Ticked River_Buffer and drag River_Buffer to the most top. The map will look like below.

47) Open ArcToolbox Analysis Tools Overlay Erase. At Erase window, Input Features = Intersect_02, Erase Features = River Buffer, Output Feature Class = Intersect_02_Erase.shp

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48) Clicked Close when Erase is completed. Then unticked for River_Buffer and Intersect_02. The map will look like below.

49)Clicked Selection Select By Attributes At Select By Attributes window changed Layer to Intersect_02_Erase. Then clicked Lu_Code= 3 AND SLOPECODE= 1. This step is to establish the site to be located within agricultural land and make the slope not be located within slope greater than 20%. Clicked OK to close the window.

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50) The map produced is as shown below.

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51) Right-clicked at at Intersect_02_Erase Data renamed Output as Final_01. Clicked OK to close window.

Export Data At Export Data window

52) Warning message window will popped out as shown below,just clicked Yes to close it. Then, unticked other data layer except Final_01,the map is as shown below. Stop editing.

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53) Clicked Editor and choosed Start Editing. Then clicked at the map. The map choosed many area instead of an area.

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54) To resolve this, right clicked at any space, and ticked Advanced Editing tools Start Editing. At Start Editing choosed source that contains all of work data layer. Next step clicked again at the map to

enables the button. Then clicked again at the map..The map will only highlighted one area at a time of our clicked.

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55) From the dropdown menu of Editor tools, Stop Editing. Then save our edits.

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56) Next step, right-clicked at Final_01 Option Add Field.

Open Attributes Table. At Attributes of Final_01, clicked

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At Add Field Window, Name = Area, Type = Float,clicked OK to close the window. That Full Select at Area,right- clicked Calculate Geometry

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At Calculate Geometry warning message, clicked Yes to futher the action. At Calculate Geometry window, property = Area,clicked OK. The attributes of Final_01 will show area that have been calculated as shown below.

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57) Repeat step 56, clicked Options Add Field. At Add Field window, Changed name to Hectare and Type to Float. Clicked OK to dismissed Add Field window.

58) Right-clicked at Hectare Field Calculator. Clicked Yes to agree to calculate. Then at Field Calculator window, typed Hectare=Area/10000.

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The calculated Area in hectare is as shown in attributes table below.

59) Next step, go to Selection Select By Attributes.. At Select By Attributes window,changed layer to Final_01 and clicked hectare > 20 clicked OK to close window. Map produced is as below.

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60) Right-clicked at Final_01 data Export data.. At Export data window, renamed the output file as Final.shp. Clicked OK to close window.

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Warning message will popped out, just clicked Yes to agree exported the data to the map. The result map is as below.

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RESULT 1

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61) For second task, to create ArcScene of the map. Clicked ArcScene at 3D Analyst tools. At ArcScene window, clicked Add Data symbol and added Final.shp, River.shp, Road.shp and tin.

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62) Right-clicked at Final and selected Properties.. At layer Properties window changed the extrusian to 90.

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The result of the ArcScene is as below. I have changed the color and size of River,Road and Final to make it more clear in top of the Tin.

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RESULT 2

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CONCLUSION The Geographic Information System has been an effective tool for implementation and monitoring of municipal infrastructure. The use of GIS has been in vogue primarily due to the advantage mentioned below: Planning Of Project Advantage of GIS is often found in detailed planning of project having a large spatial component, where analysis of the problem is a pre requisite at the start of the project. Thematic maps generation is possible on one or more than one base maps, example: the generation of a land use map on the basis of a soil composition, vegetation and topography. The unique combination of certain features facilitates the creation of such thematic maps. With the various modules within GIS it is possible to calculate surface, length, width and distance. Making Decisions The adage "better information leads to better decisions" is as true for GIS as it is for other information systems. A GIS, however, is not an automated decision making system but a tool to query, analyze, and map data in support of the decision making process. GIS technology has been used to assist in tasks such as presenting information at planning inquiries, helping resolve territorial disputes, and siting pylons in such a way as to minimize visual intrusion. Visual Analysis Digital Terrain Modeling (DTM) is an important utility of GIS. Using DTM/3D modeling, landscape can be better visualized, leading to a better understanding of certain relations in the landscape. Many relevant calculations, such as (potential) lakes and water volumes, soil erosion volume (Example: landslides), quantities of earth to be moved (channels, dams, roads, embankments, land leveling) and hydrological modeling becomes easier. Improving Organizational Integration Many organizations that have implemented a GIS have found that one of its main benefits is improved management of their own organization and resources. Because GIS has the ability to link data sets together by geography, it facilitates interdepartmental information sharing and communication. By creating a shared database one department can benefit from the work of another--data can be collected once and used many times.

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