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# CALCULATION EXAMPLES FEEDING VALUES FOR RUMINANTS 1 Energy value ruminants: VEM and VEVI

In the calculation example for the VEM and VEVI values for ruminants, a random batch of palmkernel expeller with a CFIBRE content < 220 g/kg has been taken as a basic assumption. Firstly, the following contents of the required components of this product are given: DM g/kg product: 914 g/kg DM : 1000 ASH 42 45,95 CP 148 161,93 CFAT 90 98,47 CFIBRE 180 196,94 NFE 454 496,72 SUG 19 20,79

In order to calculate the VEM value, the general formulas F3.004 until F3.008 have to be used for the calculation of the GE and ME values in kJ/kg. These are listed below in italic print. GE (kJ/kg DM) = 24.14 x CP + 36.57 x CFAT + 20.92 x CFIBRE + 16.99 x NFE - 0.63 x SUG* * adjustment for sugar only applies if the product contains over 80 g of sugar per kg DM In this example the GE value becomes (an adjustment for SUG is not in order for this product): GE = 24.14 x 161.93 + 36.57 x 98.47 + 20.92 x 196.94 + 16.99 x 496.72 = 20069 kJ/kg DM ME (kJ/kg DM) = 15.90 x DCP + 37.66 x DCFAT + 13.81 x DCFIBRE + 14.64 x DNFE - 0.63 x SUG* * adjustment for sugar only applies if the product contains over 80 g of sugar per kg DM For the calculation of ME (in DM), either product specific formulas for the calculations of the contents of DCP, DCFAT, DCFIBRE and DNFE, or the digestibility coefficients that are stated on the product sheets are to be used. Calculation of DCP, DCFAT, DCFIBRE and DNFE (g/kg DM): Through product specific formulasb Through digestibility coeff. on product sheet DCP = 0.929 x CP - 30 = 0.929 x 161.93 - 30 = 120.43 g/kg DM = 1.00 x CFAT 2.5 = 1.00 x 98.47 2.5 = 95.97 g/kg DM DCP = CPd/100 x CP = 74/100 x 161.93 = 119.83 g/kg DM = CFATd/100 x CFAT = 97/100 x 98.47 = 95.52 g/kg DM

DCFAT

DCFAT

DCFIBRE = 103 0.103 x (ASH + CFIBRE) = 103 0.103 x (45.95 + 98.47) = 88.12 g/kg DM DNFE = 0.998 x NFE 0.417 x CFIBRE = 0.998 x 496.72 0.417 x 196.94 = 413.60 g/kg DM

DCFIBRE = CFd/100 x CFIBRE = 45/100 x 196.94 = 88.62 g/kg DM DNFE = NFEd/100 x NFE = 83/100 x 496.72 = 412.28 g/kg DM

b As from edition 2004 of the Feedstuff Table, these formulas are no longer an integral part of the Explanation. They can however still be obtained at CVB.

The minor variations between both methods of calculation have their origins in differences as a result of rounding off. In the calculations that follow, the contents of DCP, DCFAT, DCFIBRE and DNFE as determined with the product specific formulas are used. As the contents of DCP, DCFAT, DCFIBRE and DNFE have been determined, the ME can be calculated (an adjustment for sugar is not in order for this product): ME = 15.90 x 120.43 + 37.66 x 95.97 + 13.81 x 88.12 + 14.64 x 413.60 = 12801 kJ/kg DM The value of q in this examples becomes: q = ME/GE x 100 = 12801 / 20069 x 100 = 63.785

1.1 Calculation of VEM For the calculation of VEM from ME and q the following formula applies:
VEM = (0.0003392 q + 0.0654656) x ME The value of VEM in this example becomes: VEM = (0.0003392 q + 0.0654656) ME = (0.0003392 x 63.78547 + 0.0654656) x 12801 = 1115.00 in the DM Represented on product base the value of VEM becomes: VEM in product = (VEM in DM) x DM/1000 = 1115.00 x 914/1000 = 1019

1.2 Calculation of VEVI For the calculation of VEVI from ME en q fomula F3.009 applies:
VEVI = kf ME kf km 6.90 +1 APL km

Where: km = 0.00287 q + 0.554 kf = 0.0078 q + 0.006 APL = 1.5 Entering the values from this example gives: km kf = 0.00287 x 63.785 + 0.554 = 0.73706 = 0.0078 x 63.785 + 0.006 = 0.50352

VEVI =

+1

## 12801 = 1184.31 6.90

Represented on productbase the value of VEVI becomes: VEVI in product = (VEVI in DM) x DM/1000 = 1184.31 x 914/1000 = 1082

Protein value ruminants: DVE, OEB, DVMET, DVLYS (DVE/OEB system 1991)

In the calculation model for the values of DVE, OEB, DVMET and DVLYS for ruminants, the same batch of palmkernel expeller with a CFIBRE content < 220 g/kg as above has been used for the calculations of the energy values for ruminants. In this example the following (digestible) contents (in g/kg) and coefficients are used: DM 914 1000 DCP* 110.07 120.43 %BRE 58 MET 1.9 ASH 42 45.95 CP CFAT 148 90 161.93 98.47 CFIBRE NFE STAew 180 454 6 196.94 496.72 6.56 DNFE* 378.03 413.60 DOM* 656.36 718.12 FP 0 MVRAS 19

## DCFIBRE* 80.54 88.12

as percentage

%BZET %VRAS 0 35

g/16 g N
*:

LYS 3.0

See for the calculations of the contents of DCP, DCFAT, DCFIBRE and DNFE*in DM) paragraph 1; DOM is the sum of these contents

2.1 Calculation of Intestinal Digestible Protein (DVE) For the calculation of DVE formula F3.105 applies:
DVE = DVBE + DVME - DVMFE
Where DVBE: Intestinal digestible rumen undegraded crude protein DVME: Intestinal digestible microbial protein DVMFE: Intestinal digestible metabolic faecal protein The amount of intestinal digestible rumen undegraded crude protein is calculated using formula F3.106:

## DVBE = CP x 1.11 x %BRE/100 x %DVBE/100

Entering the data gives: DVBE = 148 x 1.11 x 58/100 x 82/100 = 78.13 g/kg product

(g/kg product)

The amount of intestinal digestible microbial protein is calculated using formula F3.107:

## DVME= 0.0956 x FOM

Where

(g/kg product)

FOM = DOM - CFAT - (CP x %BRE/100) - (STA x %BZET/100) - 0.50 x FP DOM = DCP + DCFAT + DCFIBRE + DNFE For the calculations of DCP, DCFAT, DCFIBRE and DNFE is referred to the calculations of the energy values for ruminants (see paragraph 1) Entering the data gives DOM = 110.07 + 87.72 + 80.54 + 378.03 = 656.36 FOM = 656.36 - 90 - (148 x 58/100) - (6 x 0/100) - 0.50 x 0 = 480.52 DVME = 0.0956 x 480.52 = 45.94 g/kg product The amount of intestinal digestible metabolic faecal protein is calculated using formula F3.108:

DVMFE

= 0.075 x UDM

(g/kg product)

Where UDM = (DM - DOM - DAsh) DAsh = ASHd/100 x ASH DAsh = MVRAS Entering the data gives DAsh = 35/100 x 42 = 14.70 UDM = 914.00 656.36 14.70 = 242.94 DVMFE = 0,075 x ODS = 0,075 x 242,94 = 18,22 g/kg product

## if ASHd/100 x ASH < MVRAS if ASHd/100 x ASH > MVRAS

In the end, the total amount of DVE equals the sum of DVBE + DVME DVMFE. In other words DVE = DVBE + DVME - DVMFE Entering the data gives DVE = 78.13 + 45.94 - 18.22 = 105.85 g/kg product

2.2 Ruminal Protein Balance (OEB) The ruminal protein balance is calculated using formula F3.111:
OEB = {CP x (1 - 1,11 x %BRE/100)} - {FOM x 0,150}
Entering the data gives OEB = {148 x (1 - 1.11 x 58/100)} - {480.52 x 0.150} = -19.36 g/kg product

2.3

## Intestinal digestible amino acids for ruminants

Intestinal Digestible Methionine (DVMET) The formulas for the calculations of the content of intestinal digestible methionine (DVMET) are as follows:
DVMET DVBMET DVMMET DVMFMET Where = methionine contribution from intestinal digestible rumen undegraded crude protein (= DVBE) DVMMET = methionine contribution from intestinal digestible microbial protein(= DVME) DVMFMET = methionine contribution from intestinal digestible metabolic faecal protein (= DVMFE) MET = methionine content in the feedstuff (in g/16 g N, i.e. in g/100 g CP) Entering the data gives DVBMET = 1.9 /100 x 78.13/ 0.96 = 1.546 = 0.025 x 45.94 = 1.149 DVBMET = DVBMET + DVMMET DVMFMET = MET/100 x DVBE / 0.96 = 0.025 x DVME = 0.015 x DVMFE

DVMMET

DVMFMET = 0.015 x 18.22 = 0.273 DVMET = DVBMET + DVMMET DVMFMET = 2.42 g/kg product

Intestinal Digestible Lysine (DVLYS) The formulas for the calculations of the content of intestinal digestible lysine (DVLYS) are as follows: DVLYS = DVBLYS + DVMLYS DVMFLYS DVBLYS = LYS/100 x DVBE DVMLYS = 0.077 x DVME DVMFLYS = 0.057 x DVMFE
Where = lysine b contribution from intestinal digestible rumen undegraded crude protein (= DVBE) DVMLYS = lysine contribution from intestinal digestible microbial protein(= DVME) DVMFLYS = lysine contribution from intestinal digestible metabolic faecal protein (= DVMFE) LYS = lysine content in the feedstuff (in g/16 g N, i.e. in g/100 g CP) Entering the data gives DVBLYS = LYS/100 x DVBE = 3.0/100 x 78.13 = 2.344 = 0.077 x DVME = 0.077 x 45.94 DVBLYS

DVMLYS

= 3.537 DVMFLYS = 0.057 x DVMFE = 0.057 x 18.22 = 1.039 DVLYS = DVBLYS + DVMLYS DVMFLYS = 2.344 + 3.537 1.039 = 4.84 g/kg product

## Other systems for ruminants: Structure Unit and Feed intake

3.1 Calculation of the Structure Unit (SW) The Structure Unit of ingredients for compound feeds are, dependent on the feedstuff in hand, calculated with the formulas F3.113 or F3.121:
The formula based on CFIBRE:

## SW (kg DM-1) = 0.321+0.00098 x CFIBRE+0.00025 x BZET- 0.00112 x(SUG+a x STAd)

The formula base don NDF:

## SW (kg DM-1) = 0.175+0.00082 x NDF+0.00047 x BZET-0.00100 x (SUG+a x STAd)

Where BZET = STAam x %BZET/1000 a = 0.9 1.3 x (%BZET/100) STAd = rumen degradable starch (= STA - BZET) And all contents in g/kg DM In general the RC based formula is used. Exceptions are pointed out by footnotes on the product sheets. In the calculation model for the SW value for ruminants the same batch of palmkernel expeller with a CFIBRE content < 220 g/kg as above has been used for the calculations of the energy values for ruminants. The following composition applies: DM g/kg product: 914 g/kg DM : 1000 CFIBRE NDF SUG STAam 180 565 19 2 196.94 618.16 20.79 2.19 %BZET BZET a 0 0 STAd

0.9 2.19

For palmkernel expeller, CFIBRE < 220 g/kg the Structure Unit is calculated with use of the CFIBRE based formula. Entering the data gives: SW (kg DM-1) = 0.321+0.00098 x 196.94+0.00025 x 2.19 x 0 0.00112 x (20.79+0.9 x (2.19 - 0)) = 0.489 Recalculation to the Structure Unit in the product gives: 0.489 x 0.914 = 0.446 = 0.45.

3.2 Calculation of the Food intake In the Feedintake system the total dry matter intake per day (TDMI) is estimated by deviding the feed intake capacity of a cow (FIC) by the satiety value of the ration (VW ration). In formula (F3.114):
TDMI = FIC / VWration (kg DM/day)

The satiety value of the ration in estimated by fractionally accumulating the satiety values of the distinguished ration components (VW p ) (fp = fractional contribution of the component to the ration). In formula (F3.115):

VWration = fp x VWp
Combining both formulas gives F3.116: TDMI = FIC fp x VWp

(VW/kg DM)

(kg DM /day)

## Where TDMI FIC fp VW p

= = = =

Total DM intake (kg DM per day) Feed Intake Capacity (VW per day) Fractional contribution of the component to the ration Satiety value of the components contributing to the ration (VW per kg DM)

Calculation of the feed intake capacity For the calculation of the feed intake capacity (FIC) formula F3.118 applies:
FIC = { [8.0838 + 3.2956 x (1 - e 1.258 x a )] x e 0.3983 x (1 e -0.05341 x d ) } x (1 0.06907 x (g/220))

(VW/day)

Where: FIC = a = d = g =

Feed intake capacity (VW/day) lactation age = parity - 1+ days of lactation/365 days of lactation days in calf

For a third parity cow that is in lactation for 60 days and not in calf, the following applies a = 3-1+60/365 = 2.164 d = 60 g= 0
FIC = { [8.0838 + 3.2956 x (1 - e 1.258 x 2.164 )] x e 0.3983 x (1 e -0.05341 x 60 ) } x (1 0.06907 x (0/220))

(VW/day)

## FIC = 12.5958 12.60 VW/day

Calculation of the VW value of concentrates For the calculation of the satiety value of compound feeds and their ingredients the following formula is used:
(0.001335 x (CF 140)) VWCompound feed = 0.317 x e

(VW/kg DM)

In the calculation model for the VW value for ruminants the same batch of palmkernel expeller with a CFIBRE content < 220 g/kg as above has been used. The following composition data apply: DM 914 1000 CFIBRE 180 196.94

## Entering the data in the formula gives:

(0.001335 x (196.94 140)) VWpalmkernel expeller CFIBRE < 220 = 0.317 x e

## (VW/kg DM) VW palmkernel expeller CFIBRE<220 = 0.3420 (VW/kg DM)

Recalculating to values in product the value of VW becomes: 0.3420 x 0.914 = 0.313 0.31

VW/kg prod

Calculation of the satiety value of a ration (VW-ration) The satiety value of a ration can be estimated by fractionally accumulating the satiety values of the distinguished ration components (VW p ) as follows(fp = fractional contribution of a feedstuff to the ration):
VW ration = fp x VW p % in ration (on DM basis) 30 35 35 VW-value (in DM) 0.320 0.805 1.005

(VW/kg DM)

## = 30/100 x 0.320 + 35/100 x 0.805 + 35/100 x 1.005 = 0.7295

(VW/kg DM)

Calculation of the total dry matter intake In the feed intake system the total intake of dry matter per day (TDMI) can be estimated by dividing the feed intake capacity of the cow (FIC) by the satiety value of the ration (VW ration):
TDMI = FIC / VW ration

(kg DM/day)

In this calculation it is assumed that: FIC = 12.60 VW/day (Third parity cow, 60 days in lactation, not in calf) VW ration = 0.7295 VW/kg DM (corresponds with the above calculation model) Entering the data into the formula gives:: TDMI = 12.60 / 0.7295 = 17.27 17.3 kg DM/day