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veerati (mv8627) Homework 4 sathasivan (48985) This print-out should have 15 questions.

ns. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page nd all choices before answering. 001 10.0 points Cell fractionation enables cell biologists 1. to identify the enzymes inside and outside of the organelles. 2. to separate the major organelles in order to study their composition and functions. correct 3. to crack the cell wall so the cytoplasmic contents can be released. 4. to determine the size of various organelles. 5. to view the structure of cell membranes. Explanation: Cell fractionation enables cell biologists to isolate specic cell components of cells in bulk quantity in order to study their composition and functions. 002 10.0 points One can denature DNA by changing pH or temperature because the DNA double helix molecules 1. are held together by hydrogen bonds. correct 2. are attached through a phosphate to hold the strands together. 3. are bound by phosphodiester bonds. 4. contain uracil but not thymine. 5. contain ribose and deoxyribose in opposite strands. Explanation: 4. III only

003 10.0 points Which of the following instruments produces highly magnied three-dimensional images of a cells surface? 1. light microscope 2. hand lens 3. x-ray microscope 4. transmission electron microscope 5. scanning electron microscope correct Explanation: Recall 004 10.0 points The backbone of nucleic acid molecules is made of 1. nitrogenous bases. 2. pyrimidines. 3. purines. 4. alternating sugars and phosphate groups. correct 5. nucleosides. Explanation: 005 10.0 points Which of the following microscopes do biologists use in order to study the internal ultrastructure of cells? I) a light microscope; II) a transmission electronic microscope; III) a scanning electron microscope. 1. I only 2. II only correct 3. I, II and III

veerati (mv8627) Homework 4 sathasivan (48985) 5. I and II only Explanation: The study of the internal structure of cells requires a much higher magnication than a light microscope can reveal; hence the necessity to use a transmission electron microscope that can magnify an object 10,000 or more. Biologists use the term cell ultrastructure to denote a cells anatomy under an electron microscope. 006 10.0 points During agarose gel electrophoresis DNA and RNA migrate towards anode that attracts anions. The negative charges of DNA come from 1. lipids in DNA and RNA. 2. carboxyl group. 3. phosphate group in each nucleotide. correct 4. nitrogenous bases. 5. ribose or deoxyribose sugar. Explanation: The negative charges on the DNA and RNA come from the phosphate charges. 007 10.0 points Miller-Urey showed that in any environment with conditions similar to those of Earth, 1. DNA would be synthesized. 2. an oxygen atmosphere would develop. 3. inorganic molecules would react to form organic molecules. correct 4. RNA would self-replicate. 5. organic molecules would form primitive cells. Explanation:

008 10.0 points Consider the four procedures in an experiment done to determine the type of mRNA present in a liver sample: I. Purify the mRNA from other molecules such as proteins and DNA; II. Break the liver cells by grinding them in a suitable buer; III. Select the right type of liver tissue from a right organism; IV. Load the mRNA in agarose gel electrophoresis and separate them. What is the correct sequence? 1. I, III, IV, II 2. II, III, I, IV 3. III, II, I, IV correct 4. IV, II, III, I 5. II, I, IV, III 6. III, IV, I, II 7. III, IV, II, I 8. III, II, IV, I 9. I, III, II, IV 10. IV, III, I, II Explanation: The correct sequence is 1) Select the right type of liver tissue from a right organism; 2) Break the liver cells by grinding them in a suitable buer; 3) Purify the mRNA from other molecules such as proteins and DNA; and 4) Load the mRNA in agarose gel electrophoresis and separate them. 009 10.0 points While you gradually increase the temperature of a solution containing various biological molecules as indicated below, what will be the rst bond or interaction that will be

veerati (mv8627) Homework 4 sathasivan (48985) broken? 1. -1,4 linkage of the glucose monomers 2. ester bond of a diglyceride 1. chaperonin. correct 3. phosphodiester linkage of RNA 2. denaturing protein. 4. -1,4 linkage of the glucose monomers 3. renaturing protein. 5. -pleated sheet of a polypeptide correct Explanation: 010 10.0 points What could be an objective of using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in molecular biology? 1. To separate the major organelles so their particular functions can be determined 2. To identify the enzyme 3-D structure 3. To determine the size of various proteins correct 4. To crack the cell wall of animal cells so the cytoplasmic contents can be released 5. To view the structure of cell membranes Explanation: 011 10.0 points Which of the following is not visible by use of a light microscope? 1. bacterium 2. large virus correct 3. paramecium 4. eukaryotic nucleus 5. red blood cell Explanation: Viruses are too small to be seen with a light microscope.
H2 C O O C

012 10.0 points A type of protein that functions by helping other proteins to fold correctly is called a

4. foldzyme. 5. hemoglobin.

Explanation: 013 10.0 points

Which of the molecules A)


O CH2 CH2 P O CH O C O CH2 O N (CH3 )3

B)

O C H H H H H H C C C C C C C H

OH H H H H H H H

H2 C H2 C H2 C H2 C H2 C H2 C H3 C

CH2 CH2 CH2 CH CH CH2 CH2

CH3

C)
O O O O O

O O

veerati (mv8627) Homework 4 sathasivan (48985) D)


H H OH HO H OH O CH2 OH O H H H O H OH H CH2 OH O H H OH OH CH2 OH H H OH HO H O H H OH OH O C H HO H H H C C C C C H OH H OH OH OH

1. A, B, and L 2. E, K, and N correct 3. C and D 4. I, M, and O 5. G and H

E)
HOCH2 H OH

F)
OH H H

OH

G)

H C H C C C C C H

O OH H H OH OH

H)

HO HO H H

Explanation: Comprehension 014 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

I)
H3 N+

H O C CH2 CH2 S CH3 H C O

J)

H3 C H

CH3 H

K)

O P O OH

Consider the following molecules H H O O H3 N+ C C H2 N+ C C O O H2 C CH2 CH CH2 H3 C CH3 Proline (Pro) Valine (Val) H O C C O CH2 H3 C CH CH3 H3 N+ H3 C H O C CH CH2 CH3 Isoleucine (Ile) H O C C O CH3 Alanine (Ala) H3 N+ O C H Glycine (Gly) C O C O

L)

H H H

C C C H

OH OH OH

M)
H2 N

H O C C OH CH2 SH

H3 N+

N)
N HC

NH2 C C C N H N CH

O)

H H N H H C C OH O

Leucine (Leu) H H3 N+

could be linked together to form a monomer of RNA?

veerati (mv8627) Homework 4 sathasivan (48985) H H3 N+ O C C O CH2 CH2 S CH3 Methionine (Met) H H3 N+ O C C O CH2 7. Leucine 8. Valine 9. Methionine Explanation: Tryptophan (Trp) H3 N+ H O C C O CH2 NH 1. Proline 2. Phenylalanine 3. Isoleucine 4. Tryprophan 5. Alanine 6. Glycine correct polar?

Phenylalanine (Phe) If a mutation in the DNA resulted in changing a critical amino acid from leucine to isoleucine, in a globular protein, what will happen to the position of this amino acid in relation to the protein placed in either aqueous or organic solvents? 1. It will break the polypeptide into two fragments when this change occurs. 2. It will not change the position in either of the solvents. correct 3. The new amino acid will stay interior in organic solvents. 4. The new amino acid will stay exterior in aqueous solutions. 5. The new amino acid will stay both interior and exterior in both solvents. Explanation: 015 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points Which amino acid side chain is least non-