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CALCULATION ANALYSIS OF ENERGY SAVING TOOLS FOR FAN AND PUMP APPLICATIONS

Examiners: Supervisor:

Lappeenranta x.x.2008 Teemu Taskinen Huhtiniemenkatu 12 as 6 53810 Lappeenranta Gsm. +358 40 568 1696

ABSTRACT Lappeenranta University of Technology Faculty of Technology Energy technology Teemu Taskinen Calculation analysis of energy saving tools for fan and pump applications Masters thesis 2008 189 pages, 92 figures, 31 tables and 7 appendices Examiners: Keywords: Professor Esa Marttila Lic.Sc. (Tech.) Simo Hammo FanSave, PumpSave, fan, pump, frequency converter

This thesis analyses the calculation of FanSave and PumpSave energy saving tools calculation. With these programs energy consumption of variable speed drive control for fans and pumps can be compared to other control methods. With FanSave centrifugal and axial fans can be examined and PumpSave deals with centrifugal pumps. By means of these programs also suitable frequency converter can be chosen from the ABB collection. Programs need as initial values information about the appliances like amount of flow and efficiencies. Operation time is important factor when calculating the energy consumption and information about it are the length and profile. Basic theory related to fans and pumps is introduced without more precise instructions for dimensioning. FanSave and PumpSave contain various methods for flow control. These control methods are introduced in the thesis based on their operational principles and suitability. Also squirrel cage motor and frequency converter are introduced because of their close involvement to fans and pumps. Second part of the thesis contains comparison between results of FanSaves and PumpSaves calculation and performance curve based calculation. Also laboratory tests were made with centrifugal and axial fan and also with centrifugal pump. With the results from this thesis the calculation of these programs can be adjusted to be more accurate and also some new features can be added.

TIIVISTELM Lappeenrannan teknillinen yliopisto Teknillinen tiedekunta Energiatekniikka Teemu Taskinen Pumppu- ja puhallinlaitteistojen energianssttykalujen laskennan analysointi Diplomity 2008 189 sivua, 92 kuvaa, 31 taulukkoa ja 7 liitett Tarkastajat: Hakusanat: Keywords: Professori Esa Marttila TkL Simo Hammo FanSave, PumpSave, puhallin, pumppu, taajuusmuuttaja FanSave, PumpSave, fan, pump, frequency converter

Diplomityn tarkoituksen on tarkastella energianssttykalujen, FanSave ja PumpSave, laskentaa. Ohjelmilla voidaan tarkastella puhaltimien ja pumppujen taajuusmuuttajakytn energian kulutusta ja vertailla sit muihin sttapoihin. FanSave ohjelmalla voidaan ksitell keskipakoisja aksiaalipuhaltimia ja PumpSave ohjelmalla keskipakoispumppuja. Ohjelmien avulla voidaan mys valita tarkasteltavalle puhaltimelle ja pumpulle sopiva taajuusmuuttaja ABB:n mallistosta. Ohjelmiin tytyy sytt alkuarvoina tietoja laitteistosta, kuten virtauksen mr ja hytysuhteita. Laitteiston kyttaika on trke tekij energian kulutusta laskettaessa ja sille voidaan mritt kokonaiskesto ja profiili. Diplomityss esitelln puhaltimien ja pumppujen toimintaan liittyv perusteoria ilman tarkempia selvityksi mitoitusperiaatteista. FanSave ja PumpSave ohjelmat sisltvt monia eri sttapoja virtaukselle. Nm sttavat esitelln tyss niiden toimintaperiaatteiden ja soveltuvuuden osalta. Mys puhaltimien ja pumppujen kyttn olennaisesti liittyvt oikosulkumoottori ja taajuusmuuttaja esitelln tyss. Tyss vertaillaan energiansstohjelmien laskentaa puhaltimien ja pumppujen ominaiskyrstjen perusteella laskettuihin tuloksiin. Vertailupohjaa ohjelmien laskentaan saatiin mys suorittamalla laboratoriotestej keskipakois- ja aksiaalipuhaltimilla sek keskipakoispumpulla. Tyss saatujen tuloksien perusteella ohjelmien laskentaa voidaan st tarkemmaksi sek list siihen ominaisuuksia.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................5 1.1 Background & objectives..............................................................................................5 1.2 Execution of the work...................................................................................................5 2. FANS ..................................................................................................................................6 2.1 Structure and operation of a centrifugal fan .................................................................6 2.1.1 Forward curved blades...........................................................................................7 2.1.2 Backward curved blades ........................................................................................8 2.1.3 Radial blades..........................................................................................................8 2.2 Structure and operation of an axial fan .........................................................................9 2.2.2 Axial fan with fixed blades..................................................................................10 2.2.3 Adjustable axial fans............................................................................................10 2.3 Fan theory ...................................................................................................................13 2.3.1 Specific fan power ...............................................................................................18 2.3.2 SFS ISO 5167 standard........................................................................................18 2.3.1 Characteristic curves for a fan .............................................................................21 2.4 Fan flow control methods ...........................................................................................21 2.4.1 No flow control....................................................................................................22 2.4.2 Rotational speed control ......................................................................................23 2.4.3 Outlet damper ......................................................................................................24 2.4.4 Slip coupling ........................................................................................................25 2.4.5 Voltage control ....................................................................................................25 2.4.6 Two speed motor .................................................................................................26 2.4.7 Cycling on/off ......................................................................................................26 2.4.8 Inlet box damper ..................................................................................................26 2.4.9 Inlet vanes for centrifugal fans ............................................................................27 2.4.10 Pitch angle adjustment in axial fans ..................................................................28 3. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS.................................................................................................28 3.1 Structure and operation of centrifugal pump ..............................................................29 3.2 Pump hydraulics .........................................................................................................30 3.2.1 Pump power demand and efficiency....................................................................30 3.2.2 System head and net positive suction head..........................................................31

3.2.3 Performance curves and affinity laws..................................................................34 3.3. Flow control methods in pumping .............................................................................36 3.3.1 Variable speed control .........................................................................................37 3.3.2 Throttling control.................................................................................................38 3.3.3 On/off control ....................................................................................................39 3.3.4 Other control methods .........................................................................................39 4 SQUIRREL GAGE MOTOR ............................................................................................40 4.1 Structure of squirrel gage motor .................................................................................41 4.2 Motor losses................................................................................................................41 5. FREQUENCY CONVERTER .........................................................................................42 5.1 Drive losses.................................................................................................................44 6. FANSAVE AND PUMPSAVE ENERGYSAVING TOOLS..........................................44 6.1 FanSave.......................................................................................................................45 6.1.1 Initial values.........................................................................................................45 6.1.2 Calculations .........................................................................................................46 6.2 PumpSave ...................................................................................................................50 6.2.1 Initial values.........................................................................................................50 6.2.2 Calculations .........................................................................................................51 7. COMPARISON BETWEEN FANSAVES CALCULATION AND PERFORMANCE CURVE BASED CALCULATION .....................................................................................55 7.1 Centrifugal fans...........................................................................................................56 7.1.1 Radial blades........................................................................................................57 7.1.2 Fans with forward curved blades. ........................................................................62 7.1.3 Fans with backward curved blades ......................................................................67 7.2 Axial fans ....................................................................................................................76 8. LABORATORY TEST RUNS WITH CENTRIFUGAL FAN........................................89 8.1 Laboratory equipment.................................................................................................89 8.2 Measurements and comparison of results to FanSaves calculation...........................91 8.2.1 Outlet damper ......................................................................................................91 8.2.2 Variable speed control .........................................................................................92 8.2.3 Two speed motor .................................................................................................94 8.2.4 Inlet box damper ..................................................................................................94 8.3 Energy consumption examination in operation time ..................................................96 9 LABORATORY TEST RUNS WITH AN AXIAL FAN .................................................96 9.1 Laboratory equipment.................................................................................................97

9.2 Variable speed drive ...................................................................................................97 9.3 Outlet damper .............................................................................................................98 9.4 Inlet damper ................................................................................................................99 10 PERFORMANCE CURVE BASED CALCULATION COMPARISON TO PUMPSAVES CALCULATION ......................................................................................101 10.1 VSD ........................................................................................................................101 10.2 Throttling ................................................................................................................115 11 LABORATORY TEST RUNS WITH A PUMP...........................................................129 11.1 VSD ........................................................................................................................130 11.2 Throttling ................................................................................................................133 12 SUMMARY...................................................................................................................137 12.1 Observation of the profitability of investment........................................................138 APPENDICES

Greek letters

Diameter ratio Expansibility factor Friction-coefficient Density Loss-coefficient Efficiency Isentropic exponent Dynaaminen viskositeetti Kinetic viscosity angular speed [rad/s] [Ns/m] [kg/m]

Roman letters A C c D E d g h l L n NPSH P p q R r quotient of a distance Rotational speed Net Positive suction head Power Pressure Flow rate Universal constant for gas Radius [rpm] [m] [W], [kW] [Pa] [m/s], [kg/s] [J/kgK] [m], [mm] Area Discharge coefficient Heat capacity Pipe diameter Energy Orifice plate diameter Gravitational factor Enthalpy [J/kgK] [m], [mm] [kWh] [m], [mm] [m/s] [J/kg] [m]

T u v

Subscript 0 1 2 e i m r s v vsd initial inlet outlet electricity flow amount mass friction isentropic volume variable speed drive

1. INTRODUCTION

Industry uses lots of different types of pumps and fans in needs of different processes. These devices run long times at fast speeds. All this needs lots of energy and use of pumps and fans cover a significant part of industrys electricity bill. Therefore it is essential that the use of pumps and fans is done as efficiently as possible. Flowing in pumps and fans can be controlled in many different solutions but variable speed drive has begun to become more and more common. This is caused by advancements in technology and cost reduction in investment. With variable speed drive pumps and fans can be used precisely matching the needs of the process. Therefore the whole process can be controlled more accurately. Also the wear and noise on machinery is reduced. By using variable speed drive energy can be saved and therefore also the emissions are reduced. In favour of variable speed drive are also constantly increasing price of electricity and tightening emission limits.

The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the calculations of two Excel based energy saving tools called FanSave and PumpSave by ABB Oy. With these tools the different flow control methods for pumps and fans can be compared. These programs calculate the costs of different flow control methods compared to variable speed drive. For fans and pumps basic theory is introduced but any specific dimensioning of devices is not processed because either FanSave or PumpSave do not include or demand so specific information. Also parallel connection or series connection of fans and pumps is not dealt with in this thesis because FanSave and PumpSave examine only one application at a time.

Thesis starts with introduction to structure and operation of fans and pumps. Also the basic theory of pumping and blowing is introduced. With FanSave axial and centrifugal fans can

be examined so these are the fan types studied in this thesis. PumpSave deals only with centrifugal pumps so other pump types were left aside. Flow during pumping and blowing can be adjusted in many different ways and the most common ones of these are examined and compared to FanSaves and PumpSaves calculation in different ways. All the other flow control methods and their operation principles are also introduced. Next part of the thesis consits of introduction of energy saving tools FanSave and PumpSave. Calculations of both of the programs are presented in equations. Results from the calculations of these programs are compared to calculations based on different types of fans and pumps performance curves and to tests performed in laboratory. Laboratory tests were performed in laboratories of Lappeenranta university of technology. All the flow control methods included in the programs could not be tested due to limitations of laboratory equipment and rareness of control methods. Results are presented in tables and as curves for clarification. Thesis ends with conclusions and proposals for improvements and corrections for the energy saving tools.

2. FANS

Fan is the most important part of a ventilation system. It is used to transfer air through ducts and spaces. Air movement is caused by a rotating impeller which is installed with blades. Fans are chosen by the purpose of use. Most important factors affecting the choice are the volume flow and pressure difference generated by the fan. For the most powerful fans also the changes in density and temperature of the fluid should be noticed when estimating the power demand of the fan. (Seppnen, 121)

Flow enters the centrifugal fan in the direction of the axel and leaves the fan at perpendicular to the axel. Three most common types of blades are forward curved blades, backward curved blades and radial blades. (Seppnen, 121)

2.1.1 Forward curved blades Characteristic for an impeller of a fan which has forward curved blades is that the impeller is small-sized and has low rotational speed and noise level for certain pressure and volume flow. Change in characteristic curve of a fan causes only a small change in pressure difference between inlet and outlet of a fan. Solid matter particles can easily stuck to a blade which is curved forward and that is why these types of blades are not used for blowing combustion gases. (Puhaltimet teollisuudessa ja LVI-laitoksissa, II 1, Fan Types) Pressure and power demand curve of a centrifugal fan with forward curved blades are illustrated in figure 1. At low flow rates the operation of fan is unstable this is shown in pressure curve which is descending at this operation area. Using fan in this operation area is not suitable but at the operation range where pressure curve is ascending. Instability of the system is shown also in the section angle of the system curve and the pressure curve which is small. If high pressure generation is needed without changing the radial velocity forward curved blades are a good option. Fan with forward curved blades can reach the efficiency of about 60 %. (VLV-kone luentomoniste 1, s 67 ; Systemair)

Figure 1. Pressure curve for a centrifugal fan with forward curved blades. (VLV-kone luentomoniste 1, sivu 68)

2.1.2 Backward curved blades Impeller which has backward curved blades it is characteristic to have high efficiency and higher noise level than an impeller with forward curved blades. When fans characteristic curve changes the volume flow doesnt really change. Impeller with backward curved blades is suitable for cases where low running costs are demanded. This type of impeller is also sensitive for gathering particles from gas. For energy efficiency the backward curved blades are better choice than forward curved blades or radial blades. (Puhaltimet teollisuudessa ja LVI-laitoksissa, II 1, Fan Types) Figure 2 illustrates pressure and power demand curves for a fan with backward curved blades. This type of fan is able to function at wide operation range. Fan with backward curved blades can reach the efficiency of 80 %. Power demand is at its highest at the same area the efficiency is at its highest. (VLV-kone luentomoniste 1, 67 ; Systemair)

Figure 2. Pressure curve for a centrifugal fan with backward curved blades. (VLV-kone luentomoniste 1, s 68)

Fan with radial blades is the best choice for blowing gas which has lots of solid particles because radial blades are better to resist particles sticking on them than curved blades. Radial blades are straight pointing directly to the ring of the impeller. Fan equipped with radial blades can gain maximum efficiency of 55 %. (Fan Types, Systemair)

Axial fan is suitable for many applications because it is easy to install and it is small-sized and cheap. Characteristic for axial fan is big volume flow with moderate pressure development. Two phased axial fan has become more general due to its better pressure development abilities. Two phased axial fan consists of two series-connected fans which rotate to opposite directions. This solution generates almost three times as much pressure as a single axial fan. When volume flow of air is big axial fan is a suitable choice for almost any general ventilation applications. Pressure generation in fan can be squared in function of impeller diameter. (Puhaltimet teollisuudessa ja LVI-laitoksissa, I 2-3, 10) Ern aksiaalipuhaltimen, jonka potkurin siipikulma on suuri, painekyr on kuvassa 3. Kuvassa nhdn sakkauskohta, jossa tehontarve kyr saavuttaa huippukohdan. Puhaltimen kynti sakkauskohdan vasemmalla puolella on epvakaata. Puhallinta tulisi kytt alueella, jossa painekyr on nouseva. Kuvassa 3 nkyv tehontarvekyr on riippuvainen impellerin siipiprofiilista eik siksi pde kaikille aksiaalipuhaltimille. Joillakin puhaltimilla tehontarve voi olla pienell virtauksella lhes kaksinkertainen sakkauspisteen tehontarpeeseen verrattuna. Tllin on vaarana kyttmoottorin ylikuormittuminen. Aksiaalipuhaltimen hytysuhde on normaalisti maksimissaan n. 75 %, mutta johtosiivill se voidaan nostaa n. 85 %:iin. (VLV-kone luentomoniste 1, s 67)

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2.2.2 Axial fan with fixed blades Axial fan with fixed blades is suitable for duct installation. Lack of flow adjusting abilities limits the fans suitability to applications where power consumption and noise level are not important selection criteria. (Puhaltimet teollisuudessa ja LVI-laitoksissa, I 1)

2.2.3 Adjustable axial fans There are types of axial fans which blade angle can be adjusted during operation or during downtime. With downtime adjustment the adjustment needs the fan to be stopped but when the fan operates at its optimum operation area its power consumption is small. It is suitable for any industrial ventilation applications where axial fans pressure development abilities are sufficient Some axial fans have the possibility to adjust blade angles during operation. With this type of adjustment the pressure and volume flow values can be rapidly changed to match processes needs. Adjustment can be done with power or compressed air. This type of fan is suitable for applications where maximum volume flow or maximum pressure is needed only momentarily. (Puhaltimet teollisuudessa ja LVI-laitoksissa, I 1-2)

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Centrifugal and axial fan have their own characteristic operational areas where they are more suitable than other types of fans. Figure 4 illustrates the operational ranges of the most common fan types. Uppermost operation area belongs to centrifugal fan which is suitable for smaller volume flows but then again for higher volume flows and higher pressure differences. Middle operation area belongs to two phased axial fan which can produce average pressure difference in high flow rates. Lowest operation area belongs to one phase axial fan. In practice these operational ranges can not be divided as clearly as in figure 4 but they overlap each other more or less. Also in some situations some other fan is more suitable to be used in some others nominal operation range.

Figure 4. Characteristic operation areas for different types of fans. (VLV-kone luentomoniste 1, s 68)

Typical efficiency curves for different types of fans are illustrated in figure 5. Total efficiency of the fan means the efficiency calculated by the theoretic power demand which is calculated by using the total pressure generated by the fan compared to the power provided to the impeller. Efficiencies calculated for the curves in figure 5 are average values from different types of fans so they may seem a little low. Upmost dash line represents the efficiency of a centrifugal fan with backward curved blades and axial fan. Lower dash line illustrates the efficiency of a centrifugal fan with forward curved blades. Curve does not reach the highest volume flows because this type of fan is not usually

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manufactured for such operation areas. Solid lines in figure 10 illustrate total efficiency of blowing. This means how many percentages of electric power from the network can be transformed into motion and pressure of fluid. Efficiency of the motor is presented as second to upmost line. (VLV-kone luentomoniste 1, 68-69)

Centrifugal fans impellers can be divided into three groups according to curvature of blades. Blades can be bent backward or forward or they can be radial. Due to curvature the wheels are described as F-wheel, B-wheel and R-wheel. Figure 6 illustrates these different solutions for fan impellers. First impeller from the left is impeller with backward curved wheels where angle 2 is below 90. One in the middle is impeller with radial blades. Blade angle equals 90. Last one illustrates forward curved blades and the blade angle is over 90. The best efficiency can be gained with backward curved blades as radial blades give the most power. Forward curved blades are the best choice if maximum pressure generation is necessary. (Puhaltimet teollisuudessa ja LVI-laitoksissa, II 1, VLV-kone luentomoniste 1, s 57)

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Figure 6. Different shapes of fan impeller blades and velocity triangles. (VLV-kone s 57)

Many factors affects on power demand of a fan. According to equation 1 main factors are volume flow and pressure difference between inlet and outlet of the fan. During blowing density and temperature of gas changes and these factors must be noticed too. Following part of this thesis deals with theory involved with fans. Isentropic power demand for a fan can be calculated as equation 1 shows. In this case the density of the gas is constant. Ps = pq v where Ps isentropic power demand [W] (1)

Isentropic power demand can be expressed as shown on equation 2 when density change in gas has been noticed.

qm

Ps = p

(2)

where

qm

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0 + 1 2

(3)

where

0

1

density of the gas before the fan [kg/m] density of the gas after the fan [kg/m]

p

h =

(4)

where

isentropic efficiency

Common value for isentropic efficiency for fans vary from 0,6 to 0,85.

h s

h =

s

isentropic change in enthalpy [kJ/kg]

(5)

where h s

Common theory of fluid machinery is also valid for fans. According to this isentropic change in enthalpy can also be presented with equation

h s = h c u 2 u 2 c u1 u 1 where

(6)

hydraulic efficiency

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c u1 c u2

u1 u2

tangential component for absolute speed at inlet edge [m/s] tangential component for absolute speed at discharge edge [m/s] tangential speed at inlet edge [m/s] tangential speed at discharge edge [m/s]

Components c u1 and u 1 are 0 when the air sucked into the fan is for example outside air and air is not blown into the inlet of the fan. Component c u 2 depends on the shape of the impeller blades, the blade angle 2 and the tangential speed u 2 as shown in figure 9. Hydraulic efficiency contains leakage from discharge outlet to suction inlet, secondary twirls and wall friction. Angular speed for fan can be calculated as equation 7 shows when rotation speed of the fan is known.

= 2 n

(7)

where

Tangential speed at discharge edge of the impeller can be calculated as equation 8 shows when radius of the impeller is known.

u 2 = r2

(8)

where

r2

Gas warms up when it flows through a fan because losses at the flow through the impeller are transformed into heat. How much gas warms up can be calculated by marking the loss power and the heat power equal.

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Ps

m

where

m

(1 m ) = 0 c p q v t t = Ps (1 m )

m 0cpq v

(9)

mechanic efficiency of the fan specific heat capacity for gas [kJ/kgK] temperature rise [C]

cp

t

Because the power transferred to gas is product of pressure rise and volume flow can equation 9 be written as equation

p 0 c p m

t =

(10)

Temperature after the fan can also be calculated as equation 11 shows if the enthalpy change in the fan can be calculated.

h cp

T1 = T0 +

(11)

where T0

T1

gas temperature before the fan [K] gas temperature after the fan [K]

Density of the gas can be resolved as equation 12 shows when temperature and pressure are known.

p RT

(12)

where

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P = where P

= hq m = Tc p q m

(13)

Paks =

P m

(14)

Mechanic efficiency or the fan contains losses in bearings and transmission. Demand for electric power can be resolved from equation

P m e

Pe =

(15)

18

where

total efficiency

Comparison of fans is made easier with SFP number which means specific fan power. It defines how much power is needed to move a cubic metre of air. In other words it determines the efficiency of air ventilation system regarding to the needed electric power. For a single fan SFP can be expressed with equation

Ptotal qv

SFP =

(17)

where SFP Ptotal specific fan power [kW/(m/s)] electric power input to fan application [kW]

Term Ptotal contains the power demand of frequency converter or some other adjusting device as well as the power demand of the driving motor. So it takes into account all the losses in application. For ventilation systems with multiple fans the SFP number is calculated otherwise. (SFP-opas)

Standard SFS ISO 5167 was applied for laboratory test results from centrifugal and axial fan test runs. Standard was used to calculate volume flow when observing fans power demand in different flow control methods. ISO 5167 standard contains instructions to solve different quantities with iteration. SFS ISO 5167 standard can be used for calculating different factors of flow. Mass flow measured with an orifice plate the mass flow can be calculated with equation

19

qm =

C 1

4

d 2 2p

(18)

Where

diameter ratio pressure difference over the orifice plate expansibility factor discharge coefficient diameter of the hole in the orifice plate

C d

Volume flow can be calculated by using density of the fluid as equation 19 shows. q v = q m Discharge coefficient C is calculated with equation

0, 7

(19)

2 8

+ (0,0188 + 0,0063A )

4 (1 0,11A ) 4

3, 5

10 6 Re D

0,3

1,1

(20)

1, 3

Where

L1

quotient of the distance of the upstream tapping from the upstream face of the plate and the pipe diameter

0 ,8

19000 A= Re D

(21)

20

' M2 =

2 L'2 1

(22)

Where

L'2

quotient of the distance of the downstream tapping from the downstream face of the plate and the pipe diameter

L1 = L'2 = 0

(23)

1 p2 1 = 1 0,351 + 0,256 + 0,93 p1

(24)

When

p2 0,75 p1

Where

p1

p2

isentropic exponent pressure before the orifice plate pressure after the orifice plate

A1 =

d 2 2p1 1 D 1 4

(25)

21

X 1 = Re D = CA 1

(26)

For discharge coefficient C at the first round of iteration is recommended to use value C which can be found from table in appendix C. Now Reynoldss number can be calculated with equation 27. With factor X 1 the first value to volume flow can be solved with equation

qm =

DX1

(27)

Second round in iteration is started by calculating value for the discharge coefficient C with the Reynoldss number. Iteration continues by calculating the value for factor X 1 . Iteration rounds are repeated until the value for volume flow has converged enough.

Fans characteristic curve is presented as pressure difference in the function of volume flow. Characteristic curve can also contain curves or areas for fans efficiency, power demand, rotation speed and noise level. With the characteristic curve operational values of a fan can be solved at different operation points and in different control methods. Throttling of the flow with dampers and rotational speed control are the most commonly used control methods for volume flow. When flow is throttled changes in fans operation can be solved by moving through fans curve to a new operation point. With rotation speed control the moving is performed through the system curve. Characteristic curves for different types of fans can be found from appendixes.

Adjusting the gas flow in fans to match the needs of process saves energy. Throttling was most commonly used control method when energy was cheap but nowadays technology

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has had to come up with new solutions to control air flow. Figure 7 illustrates dependencies of power demand to volume flow in different flow control methods. Fans compared are operating near their best efficiency with axel power ranging from 20 to 30 kW. At the total pressure 800 Pa this means that volume flow ranges from 20 to 30 m/s. Resistance curve of the duct is assumed to be a second-order parable. In figure 18 curve 1 illustrates a lossless power transferred to gas in rotational speed control, curve 2 illustrates a centrifugal fan with rotational speed control, curve 3 illustrates an axial fan with pitch angle adjustment, curve 4 illustrates a centrifugal fan with inlet vanes, curve 5 illustrates a centrifugal fan with throttling control and curve 6 illustrates an axial fan with throttling control. (Seppnen, 146-147)

This flow control method is used only with small applications and it can be used with many fan types like propeller fans, axial fans and centrifugal fans. The impeller of the fan is installed on the axel of the motor. Therefore there is no transmission loss. The motor is exposed to the gas going through the fan so it must endure all the temperatures of the gas.

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Rotational speed of the fan can not be changed in this flow control method so it is very important to choose the right type of fan for the application. (Seppnen, 142)

Applications with small power consumption speed control are carried out with the use of thyristors. Larger applications use frequency converters. Thyristor based speed control is cheap to implement but the receivable savings are not significant since motor power is small. Thyristor based speed control is feasible for applications such as heat extraction where gas flow and pressure generation through fan are small. Other control methods for rotational speed are squirrel gage motor, which has several windings for different rotational speeds, using a v-belt drive and changing belt pulleys, using a transmission and using a hydraulic clutch. (Puhaltimet teollisuudessa ja LVI-laitoksissa, I 7, Seppnen, 146) Use of frequency control can produce significant saving in energy because the volume flow of the gas can be exactly matched with process needs. Other benefits of using variable speed drive are that noise level drops when revs drop and that fan efficiency stays high at the whole control range. Frequency converters have been used for bigger applications for some time now but are becoming more and more general also in smaller applications. Figure 8 illustrates how fans operational values change when rotation speed changes. (Puhaltimet teollisuudessa ja LVI-laitoksissa, I 7-8 II 6, Seppnen, 146)

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Figure 8. Effects on characteristic curves of a fan when rotation speed changes. (Seppnen, 146)

Outlet damper means flow control method where adjustable dampers are installed after the fan to control the volume flow. This method is simple and cheap to implement but it increases flow resistance in the duct and can cause noise level increase. Outlet damper as a flow control method can be observed as a throttling control. (Puhaltimet teollisuudessa ja LVI-laitoksissa, II 5) Figure 9 illustrates the effect outlet damper flow control method has on the operation point of the fan. At operating point A the dampers are fully open and at point B dampers start to close. Closing the dampers produces always a new system curve when the operating point moves to the intersection point of the pressure curve and system curve. The pressure curve of the fan does not change. (Inlet and outlet dampers for centrifugal fans)

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Figure 9. Fan operating points with outlet damper flow control method. (Inlet and outlet dampers for centrifugal fans)

Slip coupling as a flow control method means any type of clutch which can be used to adjust torque from motor to fan. Slip coupling is usual only in big applications, power ranging over 150 kW. There are many solutions available for slip coupling control. A suitable clutch or coupling is selected according to the needed torque and rotational speed. Clutches that doesnt have any contact surface use eddy currents or magnetic fields for transmission. Between clutches discs there can also be liquid to transmit power. When this kind of hydraulic clutch operates the clutch discs are pressed together by the use of spring tension causing pressure rise in liquid. The bigger the pressure is in the liquid the more power is transmitted through the clutch. Using slip coupling is a lossy way to control volume flow because the power generated by the motor isnt transferred to the fan in its totality. (Torque Limiters and Slip Clutches Information on GlobalSpec, Seppnen, 143)

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Fans rotational speed can be changed by changing the voltage input to motor. This is usually implemented by using a triac which is a semiconductor. Triac can conduct current to both directions. It consists of two parallel connected thyristors which have shared grid control. Controlling voltage with a triac is not fast because of its structure. (Karjalainen, 2)

Two speed motor has two individual windings and it can be used in two different rotational speeds. Two speed motor as a flow control method is best suitable when the application the motor powers has two demand levels for power. It is cheaper to purchase and install than a variable speed drive. Two speed motors are available in variable torque, constant torque and constant horsepower versions depending on the application. These motors are about 60 % more expensive than single-speed motors. Big two speed motors are not very efficient at low loads. (Electric Ideas Clearinghouse, 1-3)

When flow control method is cycling (on/off) the fan and motor are running at the speed corresponding to the frequency of the input voltage or they are not operating. This flow control method is suitable for example in removal of gas. For example when sensor detects an overrun in limiting value fan starts and removes the gas from the space. It shuts down when the air in the space is gas free again. Continuous starting and stopping of the fan wears down the machinery.

Flow control method inlet box damper uses same kind of dampers as the control method called outlet damper but inlet dampers are installed before the fan. These dampers causes whirl in gas flow and due to this fan can not generate maximal pressure and volume flow. Fans power demand is reduced also due to inlet dampers and the result is similar to

27

reducing rotational speed in fan which has no flow control. (Inlet and outlet dampers for centrifugal fans) Inlet dampers effect on fans operating point is illustrated in figure 10. When dampers are closed the volume flow to the fan is decreased and so is the power demand. In operation point C in figure X the dampers are fully open and when operation point moves to points D and E as the dampers are closed new pressure and power demand curves are created. System curve remains the same. (Inlet and outlet dampers for centrifugal fans)

Figure 10. Centrifugal fans operating points with inlet damper. (Inlet and outlet dampers for centrifugal fans)

Inlet vanes are blades installed before the impeller of fan to direct the flow entering the fan. Vanes can be adjustable and when flow is decreased also fans power demand decreases. Inlet vanes are cheap and easy to install and almost maintenance free flow control method. This flow control method is used in applications which include relatively big pressures and flow velocities. Inlet vanes generate a swirl which is parallel to the direction impeller rotates. Disadvantages for inlet vanes are weakening efficiency in wide

28

control range. Also the fans noise level doesnt decrease because the fan rotates at the same speed regardless of the adjustment. (Puhaltimet teollisuudessa ja LVI-laitoksissa, II 5-6 ; Inlet and outlet dampers for centrifugal fans)

Pitch angle adjustment for axial fan changes the outlet flow from the fan. Angles of the fans blades can be changed during operation so adjusting the flow doesnt need the fan to be stopped. If the angle is too big the fan or duct can be damaged. If the angle is too small the fan can not transfer enough power to gas. Characteristic curves in appendixes F1, F2, F3 and F4 illustrates the effect pitch angle adjustment has on to the fans characteristic curve, efficiency and power demand.(Inlet and outlet dampers for centrifugal fan ; inlet vane control & dampers of any type ; Puhaltimet teollisuudessa ja LVI-laitoksissa, I 9)

3. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

Pumps used for transferring liquids are categorized into dynamic pumps, displacement pumps and other pumps. Dynamic pumps use different types of impellers, which are rotating wheels with blades, to generate kinetic energy for liquid. Displacement pumps use for example a piston to move liquid from pump case to discharge pipe. Other types of pumps are for example electromagnetic pumps and buoyancy pumps. In this thesis only centrifugal pumps are studied since they are the most common type of pumps in industry and the only type the PumpSave program can calculate energy savings to. The main characters of a pump can be discovered from the pumps characteristic curves. These curves are generated in a particular rotational speed and diameter of the impeller. Curves state out pumps head and efficiency in volume flows function. Pumps head means the total head which includes the heads demanded by suction inlet and discharge of the pump. Characteristic curves for different types and sizes of centrifugal pumps can be found at appendixes G1 to G17.

29

The density of the liquid does not affect on the head but it affects on the increase of the pressure in the pump as equation 28 shows. (VLV-koneet luentomoniste 1, 81) p = gh (28)

When designing a pumping system one main goal is to get the pumps working in their best efficiency as much of the running time as possible. Figure 11 shows the typical operating areas for different types of pumps.

Figure 11. Typical areas of operation for different pump types. (Luukkanen 2001, 45)

Centrifugal pumps are the most commonly used pump type in industry. About 80 % of process industry pumping needs is covered by centrifugal pumps. Main parts of a centrifugal pump are impeller, shaft and casing. Impeller has backward curved blades. Pump generates pressure to the liquid with the help of centrifugal force. Liquid discharges

30

out of the pumps case to a discharge pipe. One benefit of a centrifugal pump is its wide operational range. Volume flow can vary from 1 cubic meter per hour to over 10000 cubic meters per hour. Head can vary from less than a meter to about 3000 meters and the temperature of the liquid can be up to 400 C. Large centrifugal pumps can have efficiency as high as 80 %. Figure 12 shows the main components of a centrifugal pump. (Luukkanen 2001, 44)

Next chapters introduce the basic theory and equations of pumping. Main purpose of pumping is to transfer liquid from one place to another. Processes which need pumping this often means that the liquid is needed to be pumped upwards through a pipeline. Pumps function is to generate the needed pressure so this is possible.

Power input to liquid by pump is presented as equation 29 shows. Affecting factors to power are volume flow and density of the liquid as well as the total system head and gravitational constant.

31

P = qv g H where P qv g H power input to liquid [W] volume flow [m/s] gravitational constant [m/s] total system head [m]

(29)

Pump receives power usually from a squirrel cage motor via shaft and transfers it forward to liquid. Yet pumping is a lossy process so pumps demand for power can be expressed with equation qv g H

Ppump = where

pump

(30)

Ppump pumps demand for power [W] pump efficiency of the pump

While pumping liquid receives addition to total elevation head which is called the total system head and marked as H. Total system head can be divided into static head and dynamic head. Static head is the invariable part of the total head and it consist of geodetic head and the head which is result of pressure difference between suction inlet and discharge side of the pump. Geodetic head means the difference between liquid levels between suction side and discharge side. Static head can be presented with equation. p 2 p1 g

H st = H geo +

(31)

where

32

H geo H st

p2 p1

geodetic head [m] static head [m] pressure at discharge outlet [Pa] pressure at suction inlet [Pa]

Dynamic head is the part of the total head which is consists of pressure losses in the piping and the volume flow of the liquid. Dynamic head can be presented with equation

2 v 2 v1 2 + Hr 2g

H dyn =

(32)

where H dyn

v1 v2

dynamic head [m] flow velocity at suction inlet [m/s] flow velocity at discharge outlet [m/s]

r

Friction head means the part of total head which is due to friction. It can be presented with equation H r = kq 2 v where (33)

Friction head can also be presented as equation 7 shows. In equation 34 parts of piping which causes losses are taken into account. These parts are for example valves, curves and connections. Also the roughness of the pipes coating is taken into account.

l H r = + d v 2g

2

(34)

33

where

friction constant due to roughness of pipings coating friction constant due to valves, curves and connections in the piping l total length of piping [m]

Total head can be presented as equation 35 shows after all factors are taken into account.

2 p 2 p1 v 2 v1 + 2 + Hr g 2g

H = H st + H dyn = H geo +

(35)

Net positive suction head or NPSH informs how much pressure must exist at pumps suction inlet in addition to liquids steam pressure so that the pump wouldnt cavitate. NPSH can be expressed with equation

2 p1 + p b p v v1 + H r ,1 H 1,geo NPSH = g 2g

(36)

where pb pv H r ,1 barometric pressure [Pa] steam pressure in liquid [Pa] head due to losses at suction inlent [m]

H 1,geod is negative in equation 36 if the pump is placed below the tank water level and has positive suction. Figure 13 clarifies NPSH on suction lift. Cavitation means that pumps performance collapses producing lower head and flow than expected when steam bubbles form in the liquid. Bubbles collapse instantly and cause shock waves to the impeller and damage it. Strong corrosion will occur if cavitation continues for a longer period. Strongly cavitating pump will fill up of steam and isnt able to produce pressure. Cavitation can be noticed from a rattling sound and vibration. Using several impellers behind each other or

34

connecting pumps in series reduces the possibility of cavitation essentially. (Volk 2005, 89 ; VLV-koneet luentomoniste 1, 102-104)

Characteristic curves for pumps are usually presented in q v , H -coordinates where is drawn with q v , H -curve also q v , P , q v , and NPSH curves. With these curves pumps operation can be observed when different variables change. Pumps characteristic curves are created for specific rotational speed and diameter of impeller. q v , H -curve illustrates the relationship between volume flow and head, q v , P -curve illustrates the relationship between power demand and volume flow, q v , -curve illustrates the relationship between efficiency and volume flow and NPSH curve illustrates the change in demand of minimum suction head when volume flow changes. When pumps rotational speed changes moves the original operation point of the pump to a new characteristic curve provided by the new rotational speed. This happens through an affinity parable which goes via origin. Figure 14 illustrates pumps characteristic curves at

35

rotational speeds 0,8n, n and 1,2n. Pumps other features are unchanged in other words impellers diameter, blade angles and piping stays unchanged. (VLV luentomoniste 1, 96)

Figure 14. Effects of rotational speed change on to the operating point of the pump. (VLV-koneet luentomoniste 1, 96)

2

(37)

Efficiency of the pump doesnt change when moving via affinity parable. Next affinity laws have been able to be assigned for pumps. (VLV luentomoniste 1, 96 - 97)

36

qv n = q v0 n 0

(38)

2

H n = H0 n0

(39)

3

P n = P0 n 0

(40)

In process the pumping demand changes in accordance with how the plant is operated so pumping must adjust to the needs of the whole process. When selecting flow control method for pump, three things must be paid attention to. First of all what kind of affect does the control have on the volume flow on wanted pressure level. Secondly attention must be paid on the affect on the efficiency of pumping and last is the change in power demand. When adjusting flow in pumping it is important to be able to operate the pumps at their best efficiency. Most commonly used flow control methods are throttling control, changing rotational speed of the pump (variable speed control), cycling and organizing a current from discharge to suction inlet. (Karttunen 2004, 252)

37

It is possible to adjust the rotational speed of a pump while the motor rotates at a constant speed. These methods are for example a hydraulic clutch, hydraulic clutch and moment converter, inductive clutch or a mechanic variator which however is uncommon solution. Some electric motors are possible to use at different speeds but variable speed control has begun to establish more and more position at pump control in many processes. (Karttunen 2004, 252, VLV-luentomoniste 1, 99, Sarkomaa 1997, 6) Hydraulic clutch can transfer motors power to pump at rotational speeds from 0 % to 80 % of maximum speed. At speeds 80 % to 100 % of maximum the clutch is locked so that the motor is connected via planetary transmission directly to the pump. Inductive clutch is an electrical equivalent to hydraulic clutch. Other half of the inductive clutch contains a shortcircuit where currents induce if it moves regarding to magnetic field generated by a coil. In order to generate a magnetic field direct current must be used. Inductive clutches transmission ability depends on slipping and the magnitude of the current. Induced currents and the power they generate are dependent on the slipping of the clutch. (Sarkomaa 1997, 7) Using frequency converter in pumping isnt a new thing but it has become more and more competitive choice for flow control in pumping because of advancement in technology and reduced investment costs. Changing the rotational speed of the motor the head or the volume flow generated by the pump can be changed. Frequency converter controls the electric motor, which shaft the pumps impeller is connected to, and its rotation and at the same time collects data from pumping. Figure 15 illustrates the main components of a variable speed drive controlled pumping. (Volk 2005, 373)

38

Pumps operation point moves when the rotational speed of the pump changes. Operation point is located at the intersection of pump and system curves. Figure 14 shows how volume flow and head changes when rotational speed is changed. Main benefits of variable speed control executed by a frequency converter are energy saving, possibility to replace an existing flow control method with a frequency converter without replacing the whole system, wide range of control without massive energy losses, fine tuning possibility, lower loads on bearings and on pumps and the possibility to start and stop the pump carefully. Variable speed control is the best choice for flow control in cases where the flow of pumping has to be changed often. (Viholainen 2007, 33; Volk 2005, 374-375) Other benefits of variable speed is that the pumps efficiency doesnt reduce during and afnter adjustments especially if systems static head is small. With variable speed control there is no need for a loss causing throttling valve. (Viholainen 2007, 32)

In throttling control flow is controlled by a throttling valve which is installed to pipeline after the pump. It is not recommended to install throttling valve to a suction line because it would cause possibility to cavitation. Throttling control is very common flow control

39

method in pumping because it is cheap and easy to implement. Using throttling control though reduces efficiency in pumping. Pump produces bigger head when volume flow is reduced. This growth in head is wasted energy. Throttling control is justified when the pump is small and there is not much range for adjustments. It can also be used when the pump operates with too little pressure compared to normal operating point. Figure 16 illustrates the components of throttling controlled pumping system. (Karttunen 2004, 253, VLV-koneet luentomoniste 1, 99)

Cycling, or on/off control, means that the pump either runs or doesnt run. This control method can be used for example in situation where a tanks liquid level must be in between certain limiting values. If the liquid level drops below a certain limiting value, the pump starts and fills the tank to another limiting value. When it reaches the upper limiting value pump stops. Starting and stopping the pump strains especially when the pump gets a full load instantly. This could be resolved with variable speed control because the pump could be started and stopped with slowly accelerating and slowing.

40

Liquids speeds tangential component can be changed by bending the blades of impeller. This control method doesnt cause much of losses but it also has very limited adjusting possibilities. It also requires the pump to be stopped. It is a feasible control method for axial pumps and in cases where flow resistance of piping is small. Volume flow can be controlled also by blades which are installed just before the impeller. This control method is complicated and expensive and it is feasible for only half axial or axial pumps in cases where resistance from piping forms a significant part of the total head. (VLV-luentomoniste 1, 100, Pumpputekniikka, I 18) It is also possible to create a flow from pumps discharge outlet to suction inlet but this also isnt a efficient way to adjust flow. This method is mainly used with propeller pumps. In order to adjust a pumps volume flow changes can be made to the impeller by changing its diameter or by replacing the impeller to a whole new one which is geometrically different than the original one. Of course it needs the pump to be stopped and it is feasible only then when pumps productive values are needed to be changed substantially and permanently. (VLV-luentomoniste 1, 100, Pumpputekniikka, I 18)

Popularity of the squirrel gage motor is based on its reasonable price, small maintenance costs, working reliability and tolerance for tough environmental conditions. Squirrel gage motors are manufactured for power ranging from 50 W to 10 MW. Rotational speed is commonly 10, 12,5, 25 or 50 rounds per second. Rotational speed of a squirrel gage motor depends on terminal pair number, resistance of the rotor, magnitude input voltage and frequency and slipping of the load. Motor with two terminals running in 50 Hz electric network runs at the speed of 3000 rpm, motor with four terminals runs at the speed of 1500 rpm and motor with six terminals runs at the speed of 1000 rpm. Previously when unusual rotational speed has been required the choice has been a direct current motor but nowadays frequency converter is preferred. Squirrel gage motor with power more than 11 kW has efficiency from 90 % to 96 %. Smaller squirrel gage motors have efficiency below 90 %.

41

Squirrel gage motors are usually air cooled but big motors with power more than one megawatt can also be water cooled. (Sarkomaa 1997, 8)

Squirrel gage motor is simple and robust by its structure. The stator of a squirrel gage motor has three-phase winding where alternate current is led. Current generates a rotating magnetic field at the motors air gap and the magnetic field induces current and voltage to the rotor which makes it rotate. (Montonen 1985, 16) Squirrel gage motor is the most common type of electric motors in industrial use. Nowadays lots of electric motors are being manufactured to be used with frequency converter. Winding on the rotor of squirrel gage motor is done by pressure moulding or by copper bars. It is called short circuit winding. /1/, /3/

Loss power of the motor consists of sine losses and harmonic losses. This is presented with equation

Ploss = Psin loss + Pharmloss

(41)

where

Ploss Psin loss Pharmloss

Sine losses are formed from nominal loss of motor, loss caused by the rotational speed and loss caused by the load.

42

Plossnom

(42)

where Plossnom f f nom T Tnom motor nominal loss [kW] output frequency of the drive [1/s] nominal supply frequency [1/s] actual torque of the motor [Nm] nominal torque of the motor [Nm]

P = T 2

n 60

(43)

Harmonic loss can be presented with equation 43. It is not dependent on the load but is reversely dependent of the switching frequency of the frequency converter. 9 Pnom f sw

Pharmloss =

(44)

where

f sw Pnom

In calculation for the switching frequency value 3000 Hz can be used. (Ruuskanen, 51-52)

5. FREQUENCY CONVERTER

Frequency converters main function in industry is to adjust the rotation speed of ACmotor. AC means alternate current. Adjustment is based in changing the voltage and

43

frequency of the current fed into the motor. With frequency converter the acceleration speed and retardation speed of the motor can be changed to match the needs of the process. Benefits of frequency converter drive use are decrement of strain in the electric network which feeds the process and decrease in energy consumption in constant use. /1/, /2/ Frequency converters can be divided into direct frequency converters and frequency converters with intermediate circuit. Direct frequency converters can be divided into cyclone converters and matrix converters. Frequency converters with intermediate circuit can be divided into commutated frequency converters, frequency converters with current intermediate circuit and frequency converters with voltage intermediate circuit. Frequency adjustment for squirrel gage motor is commonly handled by frequency converter with intermediate circuit. Structure of this frequency converter is illustrated in figure 17. (Hirvonen 2007, 1-2)

Rectifier changes the alternate current from the network into direct current. Rectifier can be uncontrolled implemented with diode bridge or controlled thyristor rectifier. Inverter which creates the alternating voltage of wanted frequency is placed next to the motor. Function of the intermediate circuit is to filter the direct current provided by the rectifier and to separate the rectifier and the inverter from each other and operates as a harmonic filter. Other common components of frequency converters are network filter, cooling fan, processor and some power electronic components. (Montonen 1985, 20-21) Load commutated frequency converter contains two thyristor bridges which are linked with intermediate circuit with chokers. Other thyristor bridge is connected to the network and other to the electric motor. Bridge next to the network operates as a rectifier and the bridge next to the motor operates as an inverter. In frequency converters with current

44

intermediate circuit the diode bridge produces the direct current to the intermediate circuit. Voltage for the motor is controlled by modulating the pulse width because diode bridge is uncontrollable. In frequency converter with intermediate circuit the bridge next to the motor consists of commutation capacitors. They help to generate steadier torque than produced by load commutated frequency converter. (Hirvonen 2007, 7-8)

Power loss of a frequency converter can be calculated with equation 45. Drive loss consists of no-load basic loss, speed dependent no-load loss and load-dependent loss.

f Pdriveloss = 0,35 Pdrivelossnom + 0,1 f nom T Pdrivelossnom + 0,55 T nom Pdrivelossnom (45)

where Pdriveloss Pdrivelossnom (Ruuskanen, 53) drive loss [kW] drive nominal loss [kW]

With FanSave and PumpSave energy saving tools energy consumption when using different flow control methods can be compared. Comparison is always performed between variable speed drive and existing flow control method. Programs are based on Microsoft Excel and contain also some Visual Basic code. Both programs are quite easy to use and they have features that make the usage easier like fitting the view of the main window for the screen and saving the performed calculation as a separate file. Programs also have buttons for copying the suitable frequency converter model to clipboard and printing the calculation in hand. Calculation can be performed in SI-units and in American units. Programs also include a default model for the profile of the yearly operation time.

45

Calculation of energy costs is common feature in both programs and is performed the same way. In both programs energy price, investment cost, interest rate and lifetime of the application are input as initial values. As results programs provide consumed energy in both flow control methods and possible energy savings as a subtraction. Programs are also able to calculate yearly carbon dioxide emissions caused by the application. Production of CO2 can be defined per kWh. Other economic results are payback period and present value of the investment. Calculation of payback period is based on cumulative cash flow and present value informs if the investment is profitable or unprofitable.

6.1 FanSave

FanSave compares energy consumption between variable speed drive controlled fan and other flow control methods. In calculation program creates power demand curve in function of volume flow which helps the comparison between different flow control methods. FanSave includes axial and centrifugal fans. For centrifugal fan there is also three different blade curvatures to choose from. These are forward curved blades, backward curved blades and radial blades.

Program needs as input values data from fan, transmission and motor. Also profile for yearly operating time is needed to input for calculation of total energy consumption. Existing flow control method and type of frequency converter must also be selected from drop-down menus. Needed fan data along with fan type and blade curvature are nominal volume flow, generated pressure difference and efficiency. FanSave assumes that fluid is air with the density of 1,2 kg/m. It cannot be changed from the mainpage. If transmission is used its efficiency can be input in transmission data. Choices for existing flow control method are outlet damper, slip coupling, voltage control, two speed motor, cycling (on/off), inlet box damper, inlet vanes for a centrifugal fan and pitch angle for axial fan.

46

Initial values for the driving motor are input voltage, power and efficiency. Voltage can be chosen from 1-phase 115 or 230 V or 3-phase 230, 400, 460, 500 or 690 V. FanSave ads 10 % safety margin to the needed motor power which it calculates by using the fan data. Next program needs information about the annual operation time. Total operation time and percentual amount of time each flow rate is being used are needed for the calculation of total energy consumption. Last data about the appliances is what type of frequency converter is wanted to control the fan and the motor. Drop-down menu gives five options for frequency converter type. They are ABB component drive (ACS50), ABB component drive (ACS150), ABB general machinery drive (ACS350), ABB standard drive (ACS550) and ABB industrial drive (ACS800). Program presents suitable model for frequency converter when this selection is made.

6.1.2 Calculations

FanSaves calculation is studied in this part of the thesis. All the equations and factors of the program uses are introduced. FanSave assumes that the medium is air so the calculation is observed based on that. Shaft power of the fan is calculated with equation 46. It contains term K p which is calculated with equation 47. K p q v p 10 1,2 fan transmission

0,0035 p fan p atm

Paks =

(46)

Kp= 1

(47)

In practice term K p gets values which are very close to 1 so it doesnt have much relevance in what comes to results. Term K p would come up with values that have some effect to results if the fans produced pressure difference would be abnormally high. Equation 46 also contains term for fluid density at the numerator and value 1,2 at the denominator. When flowing fluid is air these components evert each other.

47

FanSave does not take into account any changes in fluids temperature during blowing. Therefore also the change in density is not correctly catered for. Density cannot be entered to the program as an initial value but it can be changed at the calculation sheet. Calculation could be added with possibility to take into account the temperature and density changes in fluid. Energy consumed at certain flow is written:

t i t total 100

E i = Pi

(48)

Energy consumed during the yearly operating period is a sum of energies consumed at each flow rates.

nom .flow i = 20%

E total =

(49)

Possible energy saving is calculated by subtracting the total energy consumed by variable speed drive from energy consumed by existing flow control method. E sst,kWh = E st ,total E vsd , total (50)

Savings in currency is solved by multiplication of energy price and saved energy. E sst, = E sst,kWh h shk (51)

Specific fan power is calculated by FanSave with equation 52. Constant factors before variables are to correct the unit of the result. FanSave deals with one fan at a time so the SFP should be calculated for only one fan. 0,001 p 0,01 transmission 0,01 motor

SFP =

0,01 fan

(52)

48

Power demand for most flow control methods in FanSave is calculated by using equation 53. For variable speed drive the efficiency of the frequency converter needs to be noticed also as equation 54 expresses. K p q v p 1000 1,2 fan transmission motor K p q v p 100000 1,2 fan transmission motor freq.conv.

Pi = xi

(53)

Pi , vsd = x i

(54)

Power demand for each flow control method at certain flow is dependent on a correcting factor xi which gets values depending on the flow rate. These factors are presented in Table 1. In table 1 for outlet damper the F-wheel stands for impeller with forward curved blades, B-wheel for backward curved blades and R-wheel for radial blades. Correcting factors are not dependent on the inintial values input to the program and they have been defined empirically according to FanSave manual.

Table 1. Correcting factors for power demand. Outlet damper Centrifugal VSD Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % 0,740 0,515 0,370 0,240 0,155 0,095 0,055 0,035 0,840 0,715 0,615 0,525 0,450 0,395 0,380 0,380 0,960 0,910 0,855 0,790 0,723 0,655 0,570 0,490 0,960 0,910 0,855 0,790 0,723 0,655 0,570 0,490 1,140 1,170 1,125 0,958 1,000 1,125 1,150 1,154 0,733 0,626 0,505 0,386 0,297 0,220 0,163 0,146 0,846 0,703 0,563 0,440 0,331 0,223 0,156 0,094 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,84 0,75 0,67 0,62 0,58 0,54 0,50 0,47 0,763 0,636 0,559 0,483 0,436 0,394 0,360 0,339 0,710 0,508 0,356 0,246 0,169 0,127 0,085 0,059 1,000 F-wheel 1,000 B-wheel 1,000 Rwheel 1,000 Axial 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,0 Slip coupling Voltage control On/off Inlet box damper 1,00 1,000 1,000 Inlet vanes Pitch angle

49

Factors for outlet damper flow control method with centrifugal fan are exactly the same whether the fan has backward curved blades or radial blades. Outlet damper is the only control method which is affected by the shape of the blades. Power demand curves for every fan case studied with FanSave are always the same shape because of these factors. These curves are illustrated in figure 18. Inlet vanes can only be used with centrifugal fan and pitch angle adjustment is a feature of axial fans.

1,4 1,2 Correcting factor 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Variable speed drive Outlet damper R-wheel Voltage control Inlet vanes

Outlet damper F-wheel Outlet damper axial Cycling (on/off) Pitch angle

Power demand curves created by FanSave for different flow control methods in figure 18 are quite well matching to corresponding curves in figure 7. So at least the shape of the curves is correct. FanSave has an option to study the power demand of the fan application if no flow control method is used. In this situation the power demand is calculated with equation 55. K p q v p 1000 1,2 fan transmission motor

Pnocontrol =

(55)

50

FanSave calculates power demand for two speed motor controlled fan by replacing the correcting factor xi with 0,25 when flow rate is 60 % of the maximum or lower. At higher flow rates the power demand is calculated according to equation 60 and the factor xi equals 1. This is studied more closely on the laboratory test section of the thesis. FanSaves calculation for on/off flow control method assumes that flow rate 20 % of the maximum requires 20 % power of the maximum power and 30 % flow rate requires 30 % power of the maximum etc. FanSaves calculation for on/off flow control method would be more accurate if it would be similar to PumpSaves calculation which is dependent on the total quantity of pumped water. When controlling fan with on/off flow control method the fan either operates at full speed or doesnt operate at all. With the profile of the operating period the total quantity of air blown could be solved. This would make possible to solve the time the fan needs to blow the total quantity when operating at full speed. Now the duty time could be solved with the nominal operating point of the fan and the total energy consumption could also be solved.

6.2 PumpSave

With PumpSave pump applications energy consumption can be compared between variable speed drive control and few other flow control methods. Comparison is presented also as bar diagram. PumpSave is designed for only centrifugal fans.

PumpSave needs data from the pump, piping, driving motor, possible throttling valve, exisiting flow control method and the annual operating time. Needed information about the piping are the density of the liquid and static head. Density is 1000 kg/m by default and static head determines the system curve in further calculations. Needed data of the pump are nominal volume flow, nominal head, maximum head and efficiency. These values can be found from the performance curve of the pump. If the piping has a throttling valve after the pump the addition to the total head can be input

51

where it says head over open throttling valve. It contains also a help box for more information. For the driving motor exactly the same information is needed as in FanSave. Also the profile and the total annual operating time are input the same way as in FanSave. For existing flow control method there is a drop-down box like in FanSave. For pump application the choices are throttling control, cycling (on/off) and hydraulic control. Frequency converter type can be selected as in FanSave and the options are the same.

6.2.2 Calculations

This part of the thesis introduces all the equations and factors PumpSave uses for its calculations. PumpSave solves pumps power demand with equation 56. The program adds a 10 % safety margin for motor power. q v H nom g 3600 pump transmission

Pp =

(56)

Consumed energy for certain flow is calculated as equation 57 shows. Power required for certain flow is multiplied by the time pump was used in that flow

t i t total 100

E i = Pi

(57)

Yearly energy consumption is calculated by adding all the energies used at all flow rates. This is presented in equation

nom .flow i = 20%

E total =

(58)

Possible energy saving is calculated by subtracting the energy used by variable speed drive from the energy used by an existing flow control method. This is presented in equation

52

(59)

Saving in currency is solved by multiplying the amount of saved energy by the price of energy as equation E sst, = E sst ,kWh h shk (60)

Payback period of the investment is calculated by means of cumulative cash flow. Investment cost is divided by the yearly saving as equation

I E sst,

(61)

Throttling control

Power demand for throttling control for each flow rate is calculated as presented in equation 62. Change in head produced by pump is taken into account by the term H pi and the change in pumps efficiency is taken into account by the term k pi . Calculation for power demand and these variables are presented in equations 62, 63 and 64. q v ,i H pi ,i g 3600 k pi ,i pump motor

Pthi ,i =

(62)

where H pi ,i = H max

q v ,i q v

(63)

k pi ,i

1,44 q v ,i q v ,i 2,4 qv = qv

(64)

53

For on/off flow control method the most essential thing is the total amount of pumped water. By equation 65 can be calculated the amounts of pumped water at each flow rates.

ti % t total 100

Q i = q v ,i

(65)

All the pumped amounts are next added together so the total amount which is pumped can be solved. This can be done with equation

nom.flow i = 20%

q v , total =

(66)

Next PumpSave calculates the amount of water that would be pumped if the pump would operate at full speed through the yearly operating time. This is presented in equation q v ,nom = q v t total (67)

Now can be calculated the percentage of the total operating time which pump has to operate at full speed to achieve the required amount of pumped water. This duty time can be solved with equation q v ,total q v ,nom

t duty =

(68)

Next PumpSave calculates the time in hours which the pump has to operate at full speed. This is done with equation t on / off = t duty t total (69)

54

E on / off =

(70)

Power demand for each flow rate for hydraulic flow control is calculated by using equation 71. It contains term H si ,i which is the system head term and it is calculated by equation 72. Because clutch is used the power transmitted to pumps shaft changes during flow adjustment. This is taken into account by term transmission ,i which is calculated by equation 73. When pump operates at full flow the term transmission ,i equals 0,98. q v,i H si,i g 3600 pump motor 1 transmission,i

Phydr ,i =

(71)

H si ,i = H static

q v ,i + q v

(72)

transmission ,i

= 0,98 0,2 20% flow ...0,9 90% flow + 0,8 20% flow ...0,190% flow 0,75

H max H nom

(73)

Power demand for variable speed drive pump application is calculated by equation 74 for each flow rate. Term H si ,i in equation is the same factor for system curve as in hydraulic flow control method. Term k mi,i is correcting factor for driving motors efficiency. It is calculated with equation 75. Term k vsdi,i is correcting factor for frequency converters efficiency and it uses values shown in table 2.

55

Pvsdi,i =

(74)

k mi,i

q = v,i q v

0, 2

0 , 2H static H nom

(75)

Factor 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,99 0,99 0,99 0,98 0,97

Energy consumption of variable speed drive adjusted pump for each flow rate is calculated with equation 76. Total energy consumption is addition of energy consumption of each flow rate. This can be calculated as equation 77.

t i t total 100

E i , vsd = Pi , vsd

(76)

E vsd, tot =

nom.flow i = 20%

i , vsd

(77)

56

This part of the thesis compares the calculations of FanSave energy saving tool to calculation based on different sizes and types of axial and centrifugal fans. Compared flow control methods are outlet damper and variable speed drive. FanSave does not take into account any changes in temperature or density of the fluid. Used performance curves for fans are created at constant density at and therefore changes in temperature or density were not taken into account. FanSave calculates the power demand as a total power demand for the whole application including driving motor and possible frequency converter. Changes of motors efficiency were taken into account by equations 41, 42, 43 and 44 and changes of frequency converter by equations 45 in characteristic curve based calculation. Operational data for each motor was found from website of motor manufacturer called Tamel. Outlet damper flow control method was observed with performance curves by choosing a nominal operating point from fans curve. Flow was then throttled 10 % at a time and new operating point was found via fan curve. Operational values of the nominal point were entered in FanSave as an initial values. Reading values from performance curves is not absolutely precise so the results may contain small errors on one way or the other. Characteristic curve based calculation gave good image about the accuracy of FanSaves calculation and its applicability for different types of fans with different flow control methods. All the used performance curves for fans are found at appendixes E1 to E14 and F1 to F9.

Centrifugal fans for comparison were chosen from manufacturers called Flktwoods and Hrner Funken which provided good performance curves for their fans. Some curves include correcting factors for fans efficiency when rotational speed changes. These factors were taken into account when the total power demand was calculated.

57

In calculation comparison the fans are divided based on the curvature of the blades. Four models with radial blades, six models with backward curved blades and four models with forward curved blades were chosen for the comparison.

Nominal point for each fan was chosen at operational area where the flow rate is as large as possible and the fan operates at good efficiency. Operation range was also pursued to keep as wide as possible.

HF R 560 13 D/R

First fan in this series is 560-13 D/R which is powered by 5,5 kW electric motor. It operates at the efficiency of 85 % at the nominal operating point

Table 3. Calculations for HF R 560 13 D/R. Outlet Damper flow control n=1060 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 3,60 3,20 2,80 2,40 2,00 765 830 870 920 960 74 % 75 % 76,5 % 78 % 73 % 4,02 3,95 3,71 3,42 3,04 4,12 3,90 3,67 3,39 3,10 3,33 2,96 2,59 2,22 1,85 1,48 640 490 375 325 200 120 970 860 750 690 550 410 3,23 2,27 1,60 1,25 0,75 0,48 3,19 2,22 1,58 1,04 0,67 0,41 4,00 delta p [Pa] 690 73 % 4,30 4,,29 3,70 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 760 1060 4,19 4,31 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

58

0,79 0,78 0,77 0,76 0,75 0,74 0,73 0,72 0,71 0,7

Calculated power demand for outlet damper Calculated power demand for VSD Fan efficiency in outlet damper

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave

Figure 19. Power demand and efficiency curves for HF R 560 13 D/R centrifugal fan.

Results in table 3 and in figure 19 show that for this fan FanSaves calculation matches the characteristic curve based calculation extremely well for outlet damper flow control. Fans efficiency increases first when flow is choked for about 5 % and then decreases slowly towards the end of the operating range. Efficiency of the motor remains high during the adjustment. Results for power demand for fan operating under variable speed drive does not correlate as well as for fan with outlet damper. Power demand based on fans performance curve is a bit higher than power demand calculated by FanSave at all the operation points. Fans efficiency remains constant during the speed adjustment and motors efficiency decreases about 35 % during the adjustment. Drives efficiency decreases about 8 %. All in all FanSaves calculation is very accurate for this fan case.

HF R 200 48 R

Second fan in this series is 200-48 R and it is powered by 22 kW motor. Motor operates at 88 % efficiency at the nominal operating point.

Table 4. Calculations for HF R 200 -48 R. Outlet Damper flow control n=1640 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

Efficiency

59

Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 %

70 % 71 % 74 % 71 % 66 % 62 %

0,75 Efficiency 0,7 0,65 0,6 0,55 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave Fan efficiency in vsd

Calculated power demand for outlet damper Calculated power demand for VSD Fan efficiency in outlet damper

For outlet damper the power demand curves are not as well matching in this case than in previous. Power demand calculated by FanSave is higher than power demand calculated with fans performance curve through the whole operating range. Fans efficiency increases first when the flow is throttled and it may be one reason for the difference in power demands. Motors efficiency decreases only about one percentage during the throttling. For variable speed drive controlled fan the results for power demand are perfectly matching. Fans efficiency decreases first slowly and more rapidly when flow rate enters below 70 %. Motors efficiency decreases about 39 % and drives about 8 %. For this fan case FanSaves calculation is accurate for variable speed drive controlling and a bit inaccurate for outlet damper controlled flow.

HF R 710 13 D/R

60

Next fan under inspection is 710-13 D/R which is powered by 75 kW squirrel cage motor. It operates at the efficiency of 94,7 % at the nominal operating point.

Table 5. Results HF R 710 13 D/R. Outlet Damper flow control n=3000 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 11,70 10,40 9,10 7,80 6,50 3120 3450 3680 3875 4050 75 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 77 % 51,11 47,16 44,08 39,89 36,21 51,99 49,28 46,30 42,78 39,15 9,36 8,32 7,28 6,24 5,20 2800 2100 1600 1220 850 1530 1340 1170 1010 830 35,73 24,40 16,85 11,73 7,51 35,27 24,55 17,50 11,44 7,39 13,00 delta p [Pa] 2780 70 % 54,17 54,15 10,40 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control eta_fan=58 % q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 3400 1700 47,59 47,67 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

60,00 50,00 40,00 30,00 20,00 10,00 0,00 50 % 60 % 70 % Flow 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Calculated power demand for outlet damper Calculated power demand for VSD Fan efficiency in outlet damper

0,82 0,8 0,78 0,76 0,74 0,72 0,7 0,68 0,66 0,64

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave Fan efficiency in vsd

Figure 21. Power demand curves for HF R 710 13 D/R centrifugal fan.

For this fan the results for power demand in outlet damper flow control are quite well matching. Difference between power demands increases little bit when fans operation enters smaller flows. Efficiency of the fan increases first and then starts to decrease. Fans efficiency remains good through the whole operating range. Results for power demand when fan is operating under variable speed drive correlate extremely well. Efficiency of the fan decreases only few percentages during speed adjustment. Motors efficiency decreases about 13 % and drives efficiency about 7 %.

Efficiency

61

HF R 1000 13 D/R

Last fan equipped with radial blades is 1000-13D/R. It is connected to a 160 kW motor which operates at the efficiency of 95,9 % at the nominal point.

Table 6. Calculations for HF R 1000 13 D/R. Outlet Damper flow control n=3000 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 22,05 19,60 17,15 14,70 12,25 4000 4220 4450 4680 4780 81 % 80 % 79 % 78 % 77 % 114,25 108,50 101,41 92,67 80,08 117,91 111,77 105,01 97,03 88,80 19,80 17,60 15,40 13,20 11,00 3100 2400 1900 1350 960 1150 1015 900 730 620 82,42 57,72 41,45 26,52 17,00 85,46 59,47 42,40 27,72 17,90 24,50 delta p [Pa] 3640 75 % 124,76 122,82 22,00 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control eta_fan=58 % q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 4000 1300 116,80 115,48 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

140,00 120,00 100,00 80,00 60,00 40,00 20,00 0,00 50 % 60 % 70 % Flow 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Calculated power demand for outlet damper Calculated power demand for VSD Fan efficiency

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave

Figure 22. Power demand curves for HF R 1000 13 D/R centrifugal fan.

Results for power demand when fan operates under outlet damper flow control are quite well matching as figure 22 show. Power demand calculated by FanSave decreases slightly slower than power demand calculated with the fans performance curve. Fans efficiency behaves similarly as in previous cases. It increases first when the flow is throttled and then starts to decrease. Changes in efficiency depend on the chosen nominal operating point.

62

Good matching of the power demand curves point that this approach and this choice for nominal point match FanSaves calculation. Results for the variable speed drive controlled fan are similar to previous cases. Power demand curves between calculations are almost identical. Fans efficiency remains high during the adjustment only dropping about a percentage. Motors efficiency decreases nearly 10 % and drives about 8 % during the speed adjustment.

Next series of fans under the lens are models with forward curved blades. Like in the section of fans with radial blades also in this series the study starts with the least powerful fan and advances to more powerful models.

GTLF-3-025

First fan with forward curves blades is GTLF-3-025 and its impellers diameter is 250 mm. Fan is powered by 4,8 kW motor which operates at 80 % of efficiency at the nominal operating point.

Table 7. Calculations for GTLF-3-025. Outlet Damper flow control n=3000 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 0,82 0,73 0,64 0,55 0,46 0,36 0,27 2240 2230 2220 2210 2200 2200 2200 57 % 55 % 53,5 % 52 % 51 % 49 % 48 % 3,81 3,50 3,15 2,79 2,39 2,04 1,63 3,69 3,14 2,70 2,31 1,98 1,74 1,67 0,79 0,70 0,61 0,53 0,44 0,35 0,26 1800 1420 1080 800 560 370 200 2700 2400 2100 1800 1500 1200 900 3,01 2,18 1,53 1,06 0,72 0,50 0,35 3,19 2,22 1,58 1,03 0,67 0,41 0,24 0,91 delta p [Pa] 2250 58 % 4,17 4,39 0,88 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control eta_fan=58 % q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 2250 3000 4,10 4,31 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

63

5 4 3 2 1 0 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 %

Flow

Efficiency

0,6

Calculated power demand for outlet damper Calculated power demand for VSD Fan efficiency in outlet damper

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave

For VSD flow control the results for power demand are correlating through the whole operating range. A little difference is generated at the smallest and highest possible flows. Efficiency of the fan remains constant during the speed adjustment. Efficiency of the motor decreases about 55 % and the efficiency of the drive about 8 % during the adjustment. For outlet damper flow control the results for power demand are not as well matching as in vsd flow control. There is no big difference generated between the calculations but the power demand curves are in a bit different shape. Fans efficiency decreases about 10 % during the adjustment. Motors efficiency decreases nearly 8 %. However the calculation of FanSave for outlet damper flow control is quite well matching for this type of fan.

GTLF-3-040

Second studied fan is GTLF-3-040. It is a bit more powerful than the previous model and has impeller the size of 400 mm of diameter. Driving motor for the fan is 9 kW squirrel cage motor which reaches the efficiency of 87 % at the nominal operating speed.

Table 8. Calculations for GTLF-3-040. Outlet Damper flow control n=1700 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control eta_fan=65 % q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

64

Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 %

64 % 65 % 64 % 62,5 % 62 % 59,5 % 59 % 58 %

Efficiency

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave

When flow is controlled by an outlet damper the results for power demand are similar to previous case. Power demand calculated by FanSave decreases first more rapidly than in calculation based on the performance curve of the fan. Decreasing slows down when the operating area enters smaller flow rates giving the performance curve parabolic shape. Power demand curve based on the performance curve is more linear. Efficiency of the fan decreases only about 6 % during the adjustment. Motors efficiency decreases about 8 %. Results for vsd controlled fan are matching almost perfectly and there are no big differences in power demands between calculations. Efficiency of the fan remains constant during the adjustment and motors efficiency decreases about 37 % when the rotating speed decreases. Drives efficiency decreases about 9 %.

GTLF-3-056

65

Next fan model is GTLF-3-056. Its impeller diameter is 560 mm and the it is powered by 22 kW motor. Motors efficiency at nominal operating point is 88 %.

Table 9. Calculations for GTLF-3-056. Outlet Damper flow control n=1300 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 4,05 3,60 3,15 2,70 2,25 1,80 2000 2000 1985 1975 1975 1960 63,5 % 63 % 61,5 % 60,5 % 59,5 % 58 % 14,49 13,01 11,63 10,16 8,71 7,24 13,16 11,20 9,63 8,22 7,05 6,19 4,05 3,60 3,15 2,70 2,25 1,80 1580 1230 990 720 500 330 1140 1025 900 770 640 520 11,65 8,29 6,07 4,08 2,70 1,80 11,83 8,23 5,87 3,84 2,48 1,52 4,50 delta p [Pa] 2000 65 % 15,71 15,66 4,50 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control eta_fan=65 % q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 2000 1300 16,08 15,98 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave

Power demand curves for outlet damper controlled flow have the same shape as in previous cases. Performance curve based power demand is higher than power demand calculated by FanSave at all the operation points. Efficiency of the fan decreases about 7 % during the flow adjustment. Motors efficiency remains quite good also decreasing only about 6 %.

66

For vsd controlled fan the results for power demand are once again almost identical between calculations. Motors efficiency decreases about 31 % and drives about 9 %.

GTLF-3-071

Last fan with forward curved blades is GTLF-3-071 and it is equipped with impeller the size of 710 mm of diameter. The fan is powered by 22 kW squirrel cage motor which reaches the efficiency of 91,7 % at the nominal operating point.

Table 10. Calculations for GTLF-3-071. Outlet Damper flow control n=850 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 6,93 6,16 5,39 4,62 3,85 3,08 2,31 1550 1500 1450 1420 1400 1400 1400 68 % 67 % 66 % 65 % 62 % 58,5 % 55,7 17,31 15,11 13,00 11,13 9,64 8,25 6,48 16,53 14,07 12,11 10,33 8,86 7,77 7,48 6,53 5,80 5,08 4,35 3,63 2,90 1230 1000 770 560 400 255 760 680 595 505 425 330 13,13 9,62 6,66 4,37 2,83 1,73 13,71 9,54 6,80 4,45 2,87 1,76 7,70 delta p [Pa] 1600 68 % 19,88 19,68 7,25 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control eta_fan=69 % q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 1590 850 18,69 18,52 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

0,7

Efficiency

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave

67

Results for outlet damper flow control are seemingly better matching for this fan than the previous ones. There is very little difference between power demand curves at all points of operating range. Efficiency of the fan decreases about 12 % during the flow adjustment. Motors efficiency remains high during the adjustment decreasing only about 4 %. When fan is operating under variable speed drive the results for power demand between calculations are identical. Fans efficiency remains constant, motors efficiency decreases about 23 % and the drives efficiency drops about 8 %.

Last series of studied fans consists of fans with backward curved blades. First fan in the series is the least powerful model and the last is the most powerful. Performance curves of the fans are found at appendixes E9 to E14. Some curves have correcting factors for fans efficiency during rotation speed adjustment. These factors were taken into account when executing calculations.

GTLB-3-025

First fan of this series is GTLB-3-025. Diameter of the fans impeller is 250 mm and it is connected to a 2 kW motor which operates at the efficiency of 71 % at the nominal operating point.

Table 11. Calculations for GTLB-3-025. Outlet Damper flow control n=4500 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 0,70 0,62 0,55 1570 1780 1840 74 % 75,7 % 75,5 % 2,10 2,07 1,88 1,98 1,88 1,77 0,53 0,47 0,41 1470 1120 850 4100 3600 3130 1,52 1,09 0,80 1,48 1,03 0,73 0,78 delta p [Pa] 1320 70 % 2,07 2,07 0,59 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 1800 4500 1,99 2,00 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

68

60 % 50 % 40 %

0,47 0,39

2000 2070

74 % 73 %

1,79 1,58

2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 70 % Flow Calculated power demand for outlet damper Calculated power demand for VSD Fan efficiency in outlet damper 40 % 50 % 60 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

0,8

Efficiency

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave Fan efficiency in vsd

Power demand calculated by characteristic curve of the fan is a bit higher than power demand calculated by FanSave. Difference is not big and the curves are the same shape so FanSaves calculation matches the curve based power demand quite well. Fans efficiency increases first when the flow is throttled and starts to decrease when flow rate reaches 70 % of the maximum. Motors efficiency decreases only one percentage during the adjustment. Results for fan operating under variable speed drive are matching better though little difference is formed when operating point enters lower flow rates. This could be caused by changes in fans efficiency which decreases about 10 % during the adjustment. FanSave may not take into account any changes in fans efficiency when it is controlled by a frequency converter. Motors efficiency drops about 38 % and drives about 3 %.

GTHB-3-040

Next model with backward curved blades is GTHB-3-040. Diameter of the impeller is 400 mm and it is powered by 8 kW motor. Efficiency of the motor is 81 % at the nominal operating point.

69

Table 12. Calculations for GTHB-3-040. Outlet Damper flow control n=3500 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 2,14 1,90 1,67 1,43 1,19 2450 2750 3100 3250 3300 79 % 80,5 % 80 % 78 % 76 % 7,66 7,51 7,45 6,88 6,00 7,86 7,45 7,00 6,46 5,92 1,67 1,48 1,30 1,11 0,93 0,74 0,56 2375 1880 1450 1070 715 330 240 3170 2830 2500 2170 1750 1300 1000 5,83 4,23 2,99 2,05 1,34 0,76 0,60 6,02 4,19 2,99 1,95 1,26 0,77 0,45 2,38 delta p [Pa] 2100 75 % 7,69 8,18 1,85 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 2850 3500 7,64 8,14 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave Fan efficiency in vsd

Results for power demand when fan is controlled by outlet dampers are rather well matching. At highest volume flows power demand calculated by FanSave is a bit higher but at lower flow rates performance curve based power demand is higher. Nevertheless the differences are very small so the FanSaves calculation is pretty accurate for this type of fan. Efficiency of the fan increases first quite rapidly and then starts to decrease when flow rate moves lower than 80 % of the maximum. Fan can not operate at lower flow rates than 50 % of the maximum flow rate.

Efficiency

70

Results for power demand when flow is controlled by a variable speed drive are correlating extremely well. No big differences in power demands between calculations are formed at any point of operation. Fans efficiency decreases 8 %, motors efficiency 53 % and drives efficiency about 9 % during the speed adjustment.

GTHB-3-056

Next examined fan is GTHB-3-056. Its impellers diameter is 560 mm and it is connected to a 17 kW motor. Motor operates at 86 % of efficiency at the nominal operating point.

Table 13. Calculations for GTHB-3-056. Outlet Damper flow control n=1900 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 4,01 3,56 3,12 2,67 2650 2980 3200 3350 80,5 % 82 % 80,5 % 79 % 15,34 15,04 14,39 13,14 14,10 13,36 12,55 11,6 3,11 2,76 2,42 2,07 1,73 1,38 2400 1920 1420 1070 770 500 2240 2000 1740 1500 1280 1050 10,95 7,97 5,39 3,73 2,52 1,64 11,24 7,82 5,58 3,65 2,36 1,44 4,45 delta p [Pa] 2140 75 % 14,76 14,68 3,45 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control eta_fan=84 % q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 3070 2500 15,34 15,19 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave Fan efficiency in vsd

Efficiency

71

Results for power demand when fan operates under outlet damper fan control differ between calculations. Based on the performance curve of the fan power demand is higher through the whole operating range. This is caused by high pressure difference generated by fan when the flow is throttled. Though the efficiency increases at first the power demand also increases. In FanSaves calculation there is no possibility of power demand rising when flow is decreasing. Motors efficiency remains constant during the adjustment. For variable speed drive controlled fan the results for power demand are almost identical. Fans efficiency decreases only few percentages, motors about 28 % and drives efficiency about 8 %.

GTHB-3-071

Next model in this series is GTHB-3-071. Diameter of the impeller is 710 mm and it is connected to a 30 kW motor which operates at the efficiency of 93,2 % at the nominal operating point.

Table 14. Calculations for GTHB-3-071. Outlet Damper flow control n=1900 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 7,2 6,4 5,6 4,8 4,0 2400 2700 2900 3100 3200 81 % 82,5 % 83 % 80 % 76 % 22,80 22,40 20,94 19,91 18,06 21,89 20,72 19,47 17,99 16,46 5,3 4,7 4,1 3,5 2,95 2,4 1,8 2350 1800 1400 1000 700 480 270 1720 1540 1320 1130 950 790 600 16,33 11,32 7,91 5,10 3,29 2,14 1,29 16,36 11,39 8,12 5,31 3,43 2,10 1,22 8,0 delta p [Pa] 2000 75 % 22,80 22,77 5,9 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control eta_fan=84 % q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 2900 1900 22,19 22,11 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

72

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave Fan efficiency in vsd

Like in previous case also in this case power demand for outlet damper controlled fan based on the characteristic curve is higher than power demand calculated by FanSave through the whole operating area. In this case also the power demand of the fan does not start to decrease immediately after the flow is throttled because of the high pressure difference generated by the fan. Efficiency reaches its highest point when flow rate is 70 % and then starts to decrease rapidly. Fans operating range reaches 50 % flow of the maximum flow. Results for variable speed drive controlled fan are seemingly better than fan with outlet dampers. Power demand curves between calculations match perfectly. Efficiency of the fan decreases two percents. Motors efficiency decreases about 37 % and drives about 17 %.

GTHB-3-100

Second to last fan in this series is GTHB-3-100. Diameter of the fans impeller is 1000 mm and it is powered by 55 kW motor which reaches 94,2 % efficiency at the nominal operating point.

Table 15. Results for GTHB-3-100. Outlet Damper flow control n=1360 rpm Flow q_v delta eta_fan P_total P_FanSave VSD flow control eta_fan=82,2 % q_v delta n P_total P_FanSave

Efficiency

73

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave Fan efficiency in vsd

For more powerful fans the results for outlet damper seem to be quite similar and this case is not an exception. Based on the performance curve the power demand is higher than power demand calculated by FanSave. Cause is once again the rising pressure difference when the flow is choked. Operating range of the fan is quite narrow reaching only flow rate of 70 % of the maximum. Driving motors efficiency remains high through the adjustment. Power demands between calculations for variable speed drive controlled fan are well correlating for this fan also. Fans efficiency remains high during the adjustment. Motors efficiency drops about 18,5 % and drives about 10 %.

GTLB-3-140

Efficiency

74

Last centrifugal fan with backward curved blades is GTLB-3-140 and its impellers diameter is 1400 mm. The fan is powered by 75 kW motor which operates at 94,3 % efficiency at the nominal operating point.

Table 16. Results for GTLB-3-140. Outlet Damper flow control n=900 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 23,13 20,56 17,99 15,42 12,85 1760 2120 2370 2500 2650 79 % 82,5 % 85 % 84 % 82,5 % 54,82 56,21 53,37 48,86 44,01 49,18 46,62 43,80 40,47 37,04 15,93 14,16 12,39 10,62 8,85 7,08 1920 1500 1200 830 600 380 815 720 640 450 460 370 39,66 28,10 20,22 12,71 8,36 5,08 39,08 27,20 19,39 12,67 8,19 5,02 25,70 delta p [Pa] 1320 70 % 51,57 51,23 17,70 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control eta_fan=85 % q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 2360 900 53,56 52,81 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave

Power demand for outlet damper controlled fan based on the performance curve of the fan is a lot higher than power demand calculated by FanSave. This result is valid at all other flow rates than at the nominal flow. Efficiency of the fan increases when the flow is

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throttled at first and starts to decrease when flow rate goes below 60 % of the maximum. Motors efficiency remains at 94 % through the adjustment. When fan is operating under a variable speed drive the power demands between calculations are correlating. Efficiency of the fan remains constant during the speed change. Motors efficiency decreases about 22 % and frequency converters efficiency decreases about 11 %.

Conclusions

For variable speed drive controlled fans the results from this part of the thesis show that FanSaves calculation is accurate. There are no big differences in power demands generated between calculations for any of the fans. Surprisingly though FanSave uses same correction factors for power demand for fans with radial and backward curved blades the calculation is still accurate. Driving motors and frequency converters efficiency changes during speed change is taken into account accurately and there is no need to adjust FanSaves calculation for variable speed drive controlled fan. FanSaves calculation is a bit inaccurate for fans with radial blades when they are controlled with outlet dampers. For most of the fans FanSave calculates too high power demand through the operating range. Difference between FanSaves calculation and performance curve based calculations are not big. Correcting factors which FanSave uses for calculating power demand could be adjusted to a little bit lower level. For more accurate adjustments more examinations with different types and sizes of fans should be executed. Results for fans with forward curved blades show that FanSaves calculation gives a bit too low values for power demand at most parts of the operating range when fan is controlled by outlet dampers. Curves created from values of power demands are in a bit different shape. Curve created from FanSaves calculation is more parabolic and curve created from power demand values based on fans performance curve is more linear. Based on these observations FanSaves correcting factors for power demand at lowest and highest flow

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rates are accurate and little adjustment should be made when flow rate is between 40 and 80 % of the maximum. For outlet damper controlled fans with backward curved blades FanSaves calculation produces a bit too low values for power demand at the possible operation range for most observed fan cases. Difference between calculations seems to grow larger as the fan sizes get bigger. So maybe in this case should be different correcting factors be used for more powerful fans than smaller fans. More accurate results would also be achieved by adjusting the existing factors. No changes are needed to make for FanSaves calculation for fan controlled by a variable speed drive. Calculation for power demand is perfectly balanced and accurate for each fan case and this conclusion is valid for each studied fan regardless of blade curvature.

This part of the thesis consists of comparison of power demand for different sizes of axial fans to FanSaves calculation. Power demand for each fan is calculated by using the fans performance curves. These can be found from appendixes F1 to F9. First studied flow control method is pitch angle adjustment and the fans under the lens come from manufacturer called Hrner Funken. Nominal operating point for each fan was chosen from operating area of high volume flow and pitch angle. Flow was decreased 10 % at a time by moving to a suitable pitch angle curve. Fans were also studied by choosing the nominal point from the area of best efficiency but these studies did not match FanSaves calculations as well as above-mentioned method. Results are presented in tables and illustrated as power demand curves in figures. Other studied fans come from manufacturers called Applied Energy and Ebm-Papst. Applied Energy XLCA1000 fan was chosen for inspection in order to get information from operation of a highly powerful fan. Ebm-Papst fans are inspected under outlet damper and variable speed flow control methods. First fan of the series is the least powerful and the

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next fan in line is more powerful than previous one. Operational values for motors were looked up from motor manufacturer Tamels website.

HF A 630

HF A 630 is the first studied fan and it is the smallest one of the Hrner Funken axial fans. It is driven by a 1,1 kW motor at the efficiency of 73 %.

Table 17. Results for HF A 630 axial fan. q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 3,02 2,68 2,35 2,01 1,68 1,34 140 125 115 105 88 75 70 % 70 % 70 % 70 % 75 % 60 % 45 40 35 30 25 20 0,17 0,14 0,13 0,12 0,11 0,11 78 % 77 % 75 % 70 % 65 % 60 % 0,77 0,62 0,52 0,40 0,32 0,28 0,74 0,53 0,37 0,26 0,18 0,13 0,09 0,06 3,35 deltap [Pa] 152 65 % eta_fan Pitch angle [] 50 0,21 79 % 0,99 1,00 P_motorloss [kW] eta_m P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

1,20 1,00 0,80 0,60 0,40 0,20 0,00 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % Flow 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

100 % 60 % 40 % 20 % 0% Efficiency 80 %

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Power demand based on pumps performance curve is higher through almost whole operating range. At high flow rates the power demand is well matching between calculations. Fans efficiency remains quite high through the operating range but motors efficiency decreases nearly 20 %. This contributes to the difference in power demands.

HF A 800

This fan is driven by a 4 kW electric motor which operates at the efficiency of 86,5 % at the nominal operating point.

Table 18. Results for HF A 800 axial fan. q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 6,17 5,48 4,80 4,11 3,43 2,74 225 205 200 165 145 105 75 % 75 % 78 % 75 % 70 % 60 % 45 40 35 30 25 20 0,27 0,25 0,23 0,22 0,21 0,21 87 % 86 % 84 % 81 % 77 % 70 % 2,12 1,74 1,46 1,12 0,92 0,69 2,00 1,43 1,00 0,69 0,48 0,36 0,24 0,17 6,85 deltap [Pa] 245 70 % eta_fan Pitch angle [] 50 0,32 88 % 2,71 2,80 P_motorloss [kW] eta_m P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

Efficiency

100 % 80 %

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Results for this fan are quite similar compared to the previous one. Power demand based on the characteristic curve is higher through most part of the operating range. It seems like FanSave does not take into account any changes in motors efficiency, because if it remains constant during the adjustment the power demand curves correlate seemingly better.

HF A 1000

Last fan from Hrner Funken is more powerful than previous ones. It is powered by 11 kW squirrel cage motor which operates at the efficiency of 91 % at the nominal operating point.

Table 19. Results for HF A 1000 axial fan. q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 11,61 10,32 9,03 7,75 6,45 5,16 365 330 310 280 225 190 75 % 75 % 75 % 75 % 70 % 65 % 45 40 35 30 25 20 0,55 0,49 0,45 0,42 0,40 0,39 91 % 90 % 89 % 87 % 84 % 79 % 6,20 5,03 4,19 3,32 2,48 1,90 5,76 4,12 2,89 2,00 1,37 1,03 0,69 0,48 12,90 deltap [Pa] 390 70 % eta_fan Pitch angle [] 50 0,65 92 % 7,84 8,10 P_motorloss [kW] eta_m P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

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For this fan also the results for power demand are similar as with previous fans. Characteristic curve based power demand is higher than power demand calculated by FanSave through the whole operation range. Fans efficiency remains quite good through the adjustment dropping about 10 % when entering the lowest possible flow rates. Efficiency of the motor decreases about 13 % during the pitch angle adjustment.

The last fan which operation was studied under pitch angle adjustment is Applied Energy XLCA1000 axial fan. Driving motor for this fan produces 30 kW and has the efficiency of 93,2 % at the nominal operating point. Operation of this fan was observed with different approaches and compared to results from FanSaves calculation. First approach was to choose the nominal point at operating area where fan operates at relatively high volume flow and efficiency. Flow was decreased 10 % at a time and operating point was moved to a suitable pitch angle curve. Fans efficiency decreased from 73 % to 65 % during the adjustment. This approach did not match FanSaves calculation at all. Power demand was a lot higher based on the fans performance curve than in results of FanSave through the whole operating range. Next approach was to choose the nominal operating point at the operating area where pump operates at the best possible efficiency. For this pump this means 60 % flow of the maximum possible flow. Flow was decreased 10 % at a time just like before. Every

Efficiency

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operating point was chosen so that the pressure generation would be as low as possible and the efficiency as high as possible. Therefore the power demand would be as low as possible. Still a large difference is formed between the power demands of the calculations. Also the operating range of the fan was very narrow. Last approach matched the FanSaves calculation the best. Now the nominal operating point of the fan was chosen at area of high volume flow and pitch angle. The efficiency of the fan is lower at first but when the flow is adjusted smaller it gets better. Results for this case are presented in table 20 and as power demand and efficiency curves in figure 36. Fans performance curve can be found in appendix F4.

Table 20. Results for XLCA1000. q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 17,49 15,54 13,60 11,66 9,72 7,77 5,83 785 707 580 488 560 544 582 70,5 % 73,3 % 73 % 74 % 73,5 % 72 % 68 % 28 24 20 18 14 10 8 93 % 93 % 92 % 90 % 89 % 87 % 86 % 20,86 16,14 11,79 8,58 8,29 6,73 5,83 18,18 13,01 9,12 6,30 4,33 3,25 2,18 19,43 800 67,5 % deltap [Pa] eta_fan Pitch [] 32 93 % angle eta_m P_total [kW] 24,65 P_FanSave [kW] 25,60

30,00 25,00 20,00 15,00 10,00 5,00 0,00 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Efficiency

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Ebm-Papst fans

Next flow control methods observed are outlet damper and rotational speed control handled by a frequency converter. Fan models come from manufacturer called Ebm-Papst and they are relatively small powered and their operating ranges cannot match the smallest flow rates calculated by FanSave. Each fans performance curve is marked with operation points which were used in observing the operation of the fan and in calculation of power demand. Outlet damper flow control method was studied by moving along fan curve to a new operating point. Rotational speed adjustment was studied by tracing the new operating point via system curve. Curves for fans are found in appendixes F5 to F9.

3G400

First observed fan in this series is 3G400 which is driven by 0,5 kW motor. It operates at efficiency of 72 % at its nominal operating point.

Table 21. Results for 3G400. Outlet Damper flow control n=1660 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 1,14 1,02 0,89 0,76 125 160 180 190 62 % 59 % 55 % 53 % 0,30 0,35 0,37 0,34 0,28 0,28 0,27 0,23 1,14 1,02 0,89 0,76 70 55 42 30 1450 1300 1150 1000 0,18 0,14 0,11 0,08 0,18 0,13 0,09 0,06 1,27 delta p [Pa] 88 64 % 0,23 0,24 1,27 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 88 1660 0,24 0,25 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

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70 % 60 % 40 % 30 % 20 % 10 % 0% 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave Efficiency 50 %

For outlet damper flow control method there is clear difference in power demands as can be seen from figure 37. Based on pumps performance curve the power demand is higher than power demand calculated by FanSave through the whole operating range. Figure 37 contains also the efficiency curve for the fan in outlet damper flow control. Efficiency decreases about 11 % during the flow adjustment. Efficiency in speed control remains constant and therefore it is not illustrated in figure 37. Power demands in variable speed control are well matching for this pump case. A little difference starts to build up when operation enters smaller flow rates. All in all it is clear that for this case FanSaves calculation is more correct in variable speed control than in outlet damper control.

3G990

Next fan is 3G990. It is powered by 1,1 kW electric motor which operates at 78 % of efficiency at the nominal operating point.

Table 22. Results for 3G990. Outlet Damper flow control n=650 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. 7,64 delta p [Pa] 40 72 % 0,54 0,54 7,64 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 40 650 0,56 0,56 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

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flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 6,88 6,11 5,35 4,58 70 93 116 135 71 % 67 % 60 % 54 % 0,84 1,05 1,29 1,44 0,62 0,64 0,61 0,52 6,88 6,11 5,35 4,58 35 26 19 15 580 565 450 400 0,45 0,32 0,23 0,18 0,51 0,29 0,20 0,13

1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 0,800 0,600 0,400 0,200 0,000 60 % 70 % 80 % Flow 90 % Nom. flow

80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % 10 % 0%

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave

Fan curve for this case is very steep and it causes the difference in power demands when fan operates under outlet damper flow control method. Because the fan curve is so steep the pressure difference generated by the fan increases rapidly. Also the fans efficiency decreases about 18 % which also contributes to the difference between power demands. For rotational speed control the power demands are quite well matching. Power demand based on the fans performance curve is slightly higher than the power demand based on FanSave. Efficiency in speed control decreases about 2 %.

3G800

Next fan is 3G800 and it is second to last in this series. It is driven by 1,8 kW motor at the efficiency of 77 %.

Table 23. Results for 3G800. Outlet Damper flow control n=1030 rpm Flow q_v delta eta_fan P_total P_FanSave VSD flow control q_v delta n P_total P_FanSave

Efficiency

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p [Pa] 110 90 70 54 40

2,500 Power demand [kW] 2,000 1,500 1,000 0,500 0,000 60 % 70 % 80 % Flow Calculated power demand for outlet damper Calculated power demand for VSD Fan efficiency 90 % Nom. flow

70 % 60 % 40 % 30 % 20 % 10 % 0% Efficiency 50 %

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave

For outlet damper in this case the results are similar to previous cases. Based on the fans performance curve power demand is higher than based on FanSaves calculation through the whole operating range. Power demand rises through the adjustment according to the characteristic curve but according to FanSave the power demand starts to drop when flow rate is decreased below 80 %. Efficiency decreases about 18 % during the flow adjustment. During speed adjustment the power demands are well matching between calculations. Efficiency of the fan decreases only about 2 % when adjusting the flow.

3G650

Second to last fan of the series is 3G650. It is driven by a squirrel cage motor which produces 3 kW at the efficiency of 78 %.

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Table 24. Results for 3G650. Outlet Damper flow control n=1350 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 4,67 4,15 3,63 3,11 180 235 280 325 71 % 67 % 63 % 58 % 1,50 1,81 1,99 2,15 1,08 1,10 1,06 0,90 4,67 4,15 85 65 1200 1050 0,81 0,67 0,71 0,50 5,19 delta p [Pa] 105 74 % 1,01 0,94 5,19 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 105 1350 1,04 0,96 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

2,500 Power demand [kW] 2,000 1,500 1,000 0,500 0,000 60 % 70 % 80 % Flow 90 % Nom. flow

80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % 10 % 0%

Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave Fan efficiency in VSD

For this fan in outlet damper the power demands between calculations differs even more than in previous fan case. Fans power demand increases at smaller flow rates due to higher pressure development and decrease of efficiency. Efficiency drops about 16 % during the flow adjustment. In variable speed control fans operating range is very narrow for this fan. Power demand is slightly higher when calculation is based on fans characteristic curve than when power demand is calculated by FanSave. This result is valid through the whole operating range. Efficiency decreases 10 % during speed adjustment.

3G710

Efficiency

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Last fan of the series is 3G710 and it is powered by 2,2 kW motor. It has 77 % efficiency at the nominal operating point.

Table 25. Results for 3G710. Outlet Damper flow control n=1230 rpm Flow q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 4,93 4,38 204 257 67 % 63 % 1,90 2,27 1,73 1,78 4,93 4,38 3,83 123 98 75 1100 970 880 1,14 0,84 0,61 1,15 0,80 0,57 5,47 delta p [Pa] 152 71 % 1,48 1,52 5,47 eta_fan P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW] VSD flow control q_v [m/s] delta p [Pa] 152 1230 1,52 1,55 n [rpm] P_total [kW] P_FanSave [kW]

2,500 Power demand [kW] 2,000 1,500 1,000 0,500 0,000 70 % 80 % Flow 90 % Nom. flow Calculated power demand for outlet damper Calculated power demand for VSD Fan efficiency in outlet damper

72 % 70 % Efficiency 68 % 66 % 64 % 62 % 60 % 58 % Power demand for outlet damper by FanSave Power demand for VSD by FanSave

This fan has very limited operating range. For outlet damper results for power demand are similar to previous cases. Fan reaches only 80 % of the maximum flow as the lowest flow rate. Efficiency decreases about 8 % during the adjustment When fan operates under variable speed drive the results for power demand correlate between performance curve based calculations and FanSaves calculations. Efficiency remains at 71 % through the adjustment.

Conclusions

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Results for pitch angle adjustment are similar for each fan case. Power demand calculated by FanSave is smaller than power demand calculated with each fans performance curve. This result is valid for each fan when flow rate is below selected nominal flow. Behaviour of fan efficiency is also quite similar in all cases. It increases first when flow is decreased and then starts to decrease when the operating range gets near its end. Anyway the changes are not drastic and dont have much effect on the power demand. Efficiency of the driving motor is calculated by using equations 40, 41, 42 and 43. It decreases from 7 to 19 % depending on the fan case. Changes in motors efficiency affect on the total power demand. It is hard to say what changes in fan applications operation FanSaves constant factors for power demand covers. However these results show that the factors should be revised. A little higher values would produce more truthful results for pitch angle flow control method. When controlling flow with outlet dampers the pressure difference generated by fan increases rapidly when flow is choked. Based on the performance curves of inspected fans the power demand increased through the whole operating range in all cases but one. On the other hand the operating ranges for the fans were so narrow that the power demand didnt have time to decrease until the operating range reached its limits. There was much less changes in power demands for fans according to FanSaves calculations. Power demand in FanSaves calculation increased at first a little bit when the flow was choked and then decreased when flow rate went below 80 % of the maximum. Efficiencies of the fans decreased quite a lot at each fan case which also increases the power demand. Constant factors FanSave uses should be corrected so that the increase of power demand is more rapid at first when the flow is choked and the turning point where the power demand starts to decrease should be moved to operating area of smaller flow rate. When fans are controlled by a variable speed drive the results for power demand between calculations are well matching for each fan case. Efficiencies of fans decrease only few percents during the adjustment and thereby dont have much effect on power demands. Driving motors efficiencies decrease a lot more but factors of FanSave seem to take this into account because there is not much difference in power demands.

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Based on these examinations FanSaves calculation is very accurate for variable speed drive controlled axial fans and not so accurate for axial fans with outlet dampers or pitch angle adjustment. When the calculation of power demand is inaccurate also the results for total energy consumption of the application is incorrect. How much it differs depends on the length and profile of the operation time.

To compare calculation results of FanSave energy saving tool, laboratory test runs were performed at Lappeenranta university of technology. Fan which was used was a Ventur GMT-100T centrifugal fan equipped with straight radial blade impeller. The manufacturer of the fan didnt have any information about the efficiency of the fan and there were no efficiency curves created either. Frequency converter used in the tests was a Mitsubishi Freqrol Z200 and the electric motor used in the tests was a Tamel SKg 71-2B squirrel cage motor. Manufacturer states that motors efficiency is 75 %. This value was used in FanSaves calculation for comparison. Fans impeller was installed directly to the axel of the motor so there were no transmission losses generated. Input voltage to the motor was 400 V at 50 Hz and the motor and the fan rotated at 2790 rpm. Duct consisted suction pipe and discharge pipe which had an orifice plate for pressure measurement and a throttling valve for adjusting the flow. Diameter of the hole in the orifice plate was 59,998 mm and the diameter of the piping was 108,14 mm.

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Figure 42. Ventur GMT 100 T centrifugal fans characteristic curve and dimensions (Ventur).

Flow could be adjusted with the choke valve at the discharge pipe and by adjusting the rotational speed of the fan with the frequency converter. Also the inlet box damper flow control was simulated by choking the inlet of the fan. Two speed motor as a flow control method was also simulated by operating the fan at two different rotation speeds. Frequency converter was used to adjust the speed. Pressure difference transmitters were used to measure the total pressure difference generated by the fan and the pressure difference at the both sides of the orifice plate. Pressure difference transmitters were connected to the orifice plate as corner tapping. The discharge pipe contained a thermoelement so the rise in the temperature could be measured. Fluke hydra data logger was used to measure the temperature and the pressure differences. Input power to the electric motor was measured with Fluke power logger 1735 measuring device. Rotational speed was calculated with the frequency shown on the display of the frequency converter.

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Measurement report is shown in appendix H1 for full results of the tests. Volume flow in all the test runs was calculated by using iteration according to SFS ISO 5167 standard. Tables for discharge coefficient and expansibility factor can be found in the appendixes C and D. In order to be able to compare the laboratory test results and the results received from FanSaves calculation the initial values for FanSave were the same values produced by the fan used in laboratory tests. These test results are comparable only for same size centrifugal fans. More tests should be made with various size of equipment to attain allinclusive information about FanSaves calculation.

Throttling valve was used for adjusting the flow in throttling control and simulating the outlet damper flow control method. Due to the structure of the valve the flow could only be adjusted to about 70 % of the maximum flow. Fan was operated at its full capacity at first and the flow was reduced 10 % at a time. Results of the throttling valve test can be red from table 26.

Table 26. Calculations for outlet damper controlled fan. Flow q_v [m/s] delta p eta_fan P_motorloss eta_m P_total P_FanSave

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[Pa] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 0,0846 0,0758 0,0678 1372 1418 1451 45 % 43 % 40 % 0,0941 1377 47 %

0,36 Power demand [kW] 0,34 0,32 0,3 0,28 0,26 70 % 80 % Flow 90 % Nom. flow

Fan efficiency

Figure 44. Power demand curves for outlet damper controlled fan.

Results in table 26 and in figure 44 show that calculation of FanSave is well correlating with results from laboratory test when flow rate is 80 % of the maximum or higher. Entering lower flow rates test applications power demand curve straightens and starts to differ from curve created by FanSaves calculation. Main cause for this is the decreasing of fan efficiency which speeds up a bit. One cause may be found from the constant factors FanSave uses for both backward curved and radial blades equipped fans.

Rotational speed and volume flow through the fan was adjusted by frequency converter. Flow was decreased 10 % at the time starting with nominal flow. Throttling valve at the discharge pipe was open fully during this test. Results of the tests are presented in table 27. Testiss kytetyn taajuusmuuttajan nimellisteho oli 2,2 kilowattia, joten se ei toiminut sille ominaisella toiminta-alueella, mist selittyy sen heikohko hytysuhde. Tm huomioitiin

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mys FanSave ohjelman laskennassa, jossa taajuusmuuttajan hytysuhteelle sytettiin puhaltimen nimellisvirtausta vastaava arvo 91 %.

Table 27. Calculations for variable speed drive controlled fan. FanSave q_v [m/s] Nom. flow 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % 0,0847 0,0759 0,0659 0,0565 0,0471 0,0380 0,0287 0,0190 1185 1061 919 788 656 525 398 218 50 % 55 % 62 % 67 % 66 % 46 % 25 % 5% 2673 2376 2079 1782 1485 1188 891 594 0,061 0,052 0,045 0,040 0,037 0,036 0,038 0,075 77 % 74 % 69 % 62 % 56 % 55 % 55 % 51 % 0,033 0,031 0,030 0,029 0,028 0,028 0,028 0,031 89 % 86 % 83 % 79 % 75 % 74 % 75 % 83 % 0,295 0,231 0,173 0,136 0,112 0,107 0,112 0,184 0,283 0,197 0,140 0,092 0,059 0,036 0,021 0,013 0,0914 deltap [Pa] 1377 47 % eta_fan n [rpm] 2970 P_motorloss [kW] 0,072 79 % eta_m P_driveloss [kW] 0,034 91 % eta_drive P_total [kW] 0,383 0,382 P [kW]

0,5 Power demand [kW] 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Fan efficiency

Figure 45. Power demand curves for variable speed drive controlled fan.

Results show that the generated factors for power demand for this fan follows the factors at the FanSave calculations well as the flow decreases to 60 % of the nominal flow. Flows smaller than 60 % of the nominal flow the power demand starts to differ compared to FanSave calculations. Power demand for laboratory test application is greater at 20 % and 30 % of the nominal flow than at 40 % of the nominal flow. This is because the efficiency of the fan collapses rapidly. Efficiency curve is also shown in figure 45. Power demand

Efficiency

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curve was generated to clarify the results and there is a clear difference between the shapes of the power demand curves. When the power demand differs from laboratory test application the amount of used energy differs also. This affects on the amount of used energy during the operation time of the fan. It also has effect on the energy costs. How much the energy consumption and the costs differ depends on the size of the application and the operation profile during the operation time.

Two speed motor as a flow control method was simulated by using the frequency converter and operating the fan and the electric motor at two different rotation speeds. FanSave assumes that when the flow rate is 60 % or less of the nominal flow the shaft power demand is 25 % of the maximum power demand. Power demand for two speed motor controlled fan can be examined by using table 27 which includes the results from variable speed drive controlled test. According to FanSave 60 % flow rate needs 25 % power of the maximum. So 60 % flow demands about 0,107 kW power according to table 27 when power demand increase caused by frequency converter efficiency is ignored. For this fan case 25 % power of maximum power equals 0,08 kW of power and it is not enough for 60 % flow. So for this case FanSaves calculation is inaccurate.

Inlet box damper flow control method was simulated as choking the inlet of the fan. Results can be seen in table 28 and figure 45. Also the power demand curves were created based on laboratory tests and FanSaves calculations.

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As can be seen from table 28 and power demand curves in figure 46 there is considerable difference between power demand for laboratory equipment and a fan application calculated by FanSave.

Table 28. Calculations for inlet damper controlled fan.

q_v [m/s] 0,0942 0,0845 0,0759 0,0657 0,0564 0,0468 0,0377 0,0284 0,0188

delta_p [Pa] 1377 1185 1065 926 795 649 536 398 225

eta_fan 47 % 39 % 33 % 26 % 20 % 15 % 10 % 6% 2%

P_motorloss eta_m [kW] 0,072 0,070 0,068 0,066 0,064 0,062 0,061 0,060 0,059 79 % 79 % 79 % 78 % 77 % 77 % 76 % 76 % 75 %

P_total [kW] 0,349 0,329 0,317 0,298 0,284 0,269 0,259 0,249 0,235

P_FanSave [kW] 0,345 0,290 0,259 0,231 0,214 0,200 0,186 0,172 0,162

0,4 0,35 0,3 0,25 0,2 0,15 0,1 0,05 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Fan efficiency

Figure 46. Power demand curves for inlet damper controlled fan.

Power demand calculated by FanSave is smaller through the operation area. This being also the total energy consumption in operating time is smaller in FanSave calculation depending on the length of the operating time and on the size of the application. Efficiency curve is also shown in figure 46 and it collapses rapidly when flow is decreased.

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Energy consumption between FanSaves calculation and results from laboratory tests are compared in this part of the thesis. Annual operation time is chosen to be 5000 hours and profile for the operation time was generated with FanSaves default button for all other flow control methods except for outlet damper control. Outlet damper control was created its own profile for operation time because due to limitations of equipment power demand for smallest flow rates was not possible to test. Results from energy consumption comparison is presented as bar diagrams in figure 47. Results show that there are no big differences between fan tested in laboratory and similar fan calculated with FanSave. Though over 100 kWh difference is generated between calculations for outlet damper and inlet damper control methods. For outlet damper energy consumption is higher based on fan tested in laboratory and for inlet damper control FanSave calculates higher energy consumption.

Energy consumption

2000 FanSave Lab 1500 kW h 1000 500 0 Lab FanSave FanSave Lab

FanSave Lab

Outlet damper Variable [kWh] speed control 1617 1483 636 592

FanSave Lab

Figure 47. Energy consumption comparison between FanSave and laboratory equipment.

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Axial fan used in laboratory tests was connected to the same piping as the centrifugal fan with the exception that the suction pipe was not connected to the fan. Fan sucked air from the surrounding space. Used fan is a compact appliance consisting of a fan impeller, an electric motor and a frequency converter with a remote control panel. Specific information about the machine was not available so data from similar appliances was applied in calculations. Data for the driving motor was used from Tamel Sg71-2A squirrel cage motor which produces 0,7 kW and operates at the efficiency of 70 % at the nominal operating point. Devices used in measuring were the same used for centrifugal fan. Examined flow control methods are variable speed control, outlet damper and inlet damper. Though dampers are seldom used with axial fans they were simulated because of the opportunity to do so.

Efficiency of the frequency converter was assumed to be 90 % at the nominal operating point of the application. Efficiencies were calculated by using the power losses calculated with equations 41, 42, 43, 44 and 45. Results are presented as power demand and efficiency curves in figure 48.

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0,4 0,35 Power demand [kW] 0,3 0,25 0,2 0,15 0,1 0,05 0

1,000 0,900 0,800 0,700 0,600 0,500 0,400 0,300 0,200 0,100 0,000

Measured power demand Fan efficiency Drive efficiency Power demand by FanSave Motor efficiency

Results for power demand in figure 47 show that measured power is little bit higher than power demand calculated by FanSave when flow rate is below 90 % of the maximum. However the difference is very small so FanSaves calculation is quite accurate for this type of fan operating under variable speed drive. Calculated efficiency of the fan behaves quite oddly reaching its highest values when flow rate is 30 and 40 % of the maximum. Assumption of motors efficiency may have been too high because of the shape of the efficiency curve in figure 48. First it decreases rapidly when speed decelerated and later the decreasing is not so fast anymore. Drives efficiency decreases quite rectilinearly through the operating range.

Outlet damper flow control was simulated in laboratory by throttling the flow 10 % at a time at the outlet of the fan. Driving motor operated at full 3000 rpm speed trough the test run. Power loss caused by the frequency converter was not taken into account. Results are presented as power demand and efficiency curves in figure 49.

Efficiency

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Outlet damper

0,4 Power demand [kW] 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. Flow flow Measured power demand Power demand by FanSave Appliance efficiency 0,1 Efficiency 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 0

Power demand for the application was constant through the test. Shape of the power demand curve created by FanSaves calculation is in totally different shape. Power demands are matching when flow rate is 50, 60 or 100 %. Otherwise FanSave calculates higher power demand for this type of fan application. Efficiency illustrated in figure 49 is for the whole appliance. It is the result of multiplication of motors assumed efficiency and fans calculated efficiency. It is decreasing because the power demand of the appliance remains constant and the flow rate decreases. Pressure difference of the fan does not increase much during the throttling.

Inlet box damper flow control was simulated by throttling the flow from the intake of the fan 10 % at a time. Driving motor operated at full speed through the test and the power loss caused by the frequency converter was not taken into account. Results are presented as power demand and efficiency curves in figure 50.

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Inlet damper

0,350 0,300 0,250 0,200 0,150 0,100 0,050 0,000 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. Flow flow Measured power demand Power demand by FanSave Appliance efficiency 0,100 Fan efficiency 0,080 0,060 0,040 0,020 0,000 Power demand [kW]

Measured power demand is seemingly higher through the whole operating range than power demand calculated by FanSave. Measured power demand does not decrease very much during the adjustment when power demand calculated by FanSave splits in half when fan is operating at the lowest flow rate. Efficiency illustrated in figure 50 is for the whole appliance. It is the result of multiplication of motors assumed efficiency and fans calculated efficiency.

Conclusions

For variable speed control the results for power demands are quite well correlating between measuring and calculation of FanSave. Because FanSave uses constant factors to calculate power demand at different flow rates it is impossible to say how the program assumes the behaviour of efficiencies for different devices. For outlet damper flow control method performed test run does not give very realistic results. Measured power demand is constant through the test run and curve created from FanSaves calculation is wavy and achieves high points at two different flow rates. Increase in pressure difference is very little. This may be caused by the leaks in the pipeline.

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Power demand results for inlet damper flow control are not matching at all between measured values and FanSaves values. Measured power demand remains quite high during the adjustment and decreasing of power demand calculated by FanSave is parabolic. Changes in FanSaves calculation based on these test runs are not necessary. FanSaves calculation for variable speed drive is proven to be accurate and damper flow control with axial fans is extremely rare. A lot more test runs with different types and sizes of axial fans should be performed to achieve comparable results for FanSaves calculations.

In this part of the thesis PumpSaves calculation is compared to different types and sizes of centrifugal pumps. Calculation comparison is based on each pumps characteristic curve. Flow controls observed are throttling control and rotational speed control driven by a frequency converter. Hydraulic control was left aside because it is not as common flow control method than throttling or rotational speed control. Reading pumps characteristic curve is not absolutely precise so the calculations done based on the characteristic curves may contain little errors. PumpSave calculates power demand for throttling control according to equation 62 where changes in head are noticed by term H pi ,i and changes in pumps efficiency are noticed by the term k pi ,i . Term H pi ,i is affected by pumps nominal flow, throttled flow and maximum and nominal head as equation 63 shows. Equation 64 shows that pumps efficiency changes are dependent on pumps nominal flow and throttled flow. Calculation performed with pumps characteristic curve also examines how these factors change during throttling and changes are compared to PumpSaves calculation.

10.1 VSD

PumpSave calculates power demand for variable speed drive controlled pump application as equation 74 shows. It pays attention to changes efficiencies of frequency converter and

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driving motor when flow rate changes. PumpSave uses constant factors when calculating change in frequency converters efficiency. These factors are presented in table 2. PumpSave uses equation 75 to calculate change in driving motors efficiency. It depends on flow rate, static head and pumps nominal head. Static head affects also on system curve which PumpSave calculates by equation 72. Static head and system curve was created for each pump case separately. Operation range for each pump was attempted to keep as large as possible. Therefore also the comparison to PumpSaves calculation could be done in wide operation range. Change in pump efficiency was observed with affinity parable. Comparison between characteristic curve based calculation and PumpSaves calculation was executed by choosing wide range of different types of pumps. Pumps were chosen from manufacturer called Goulds Pumps which offer wide range of pumps for different purposes. Companys website provides a useful tool for selecting pumps. Review of pumps starts from least powerful model and next pump in line is always more powerful than previous one. Operational values for driving motors were looked up from electric motor manufacturer Tamels website. For efficiency changes of drive motor equations 41, 42, 43 and 44 were used. Frequency converters efficiency change was calculated with equation 45. Pumps characteristic curves can be found at appendixes.

Goulds 3298

First studied pump is Goulds CDS 5309-1 model 3298 which operates at high rotational speed and reaches quite high head. Static head was chosen to be 15 m for this pump and system curve was generated according to it. Driving motor was selected to operate at 37 kW power and 93,3 % efficiency at the nominal operating point.

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35 Power demand [kW] 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow Calculated pow er demand Head

Nom. flow

80 60 40 20 0

From power demand curves at figure 51 can be seen that the power demand curves between calculations correlate almost perfectly together. Head curves in figure are equal to system curves of calculations. These curves match also extremely well. Pump does not reach the smallest flow rate calculated by PumpSave. Pumps efficiency changes for better at first when flow is decreased and decreases when operating point enters smaller flow rates. However the changes are so small that they dont have effect on total power demand.

Figure 52 shows driving motors and frequency converters efficiencies as curves between calculations. Based on characteristic curve based calculations motors efficiency is better

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through most part of the operation range. Efficiency starts to decrease more rapidly when flow rate reaches about 40 % of the maximum. Based on PumpSave frequency converters efficiency remains better than when efficiency is calculated using equation 45 through the whole operating range. Curve created for drives efficiency calculated by PumpSave is always the same shape due to the constant factors PumpSave uses.

GOUDLS IC/ICB/ICP/ICV

Next compared pump produces relatively small volume flow but high head. Static head was chosen to be 35 m. Motor driving the pump is 55 kW producing squirrel cage motor which operates at 94 % efficiency at nominal operating point.

70,000 Power demand [kW] 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0,000 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow

Calculated pow er demand Head

Results in figure 53 show that PumpSaves calculation for power demand is well matching at most points of operating range. When entering the smallest possible flow rates power demand according to characteristic curve is slightly bigger than PumpSaves calculated power demand. This is caused by changes in pumps efficiency. It collapses when flow and rotation speed decreases enough. Pumps efficiency curve is illustrated in figure 53. PumpSaves calculation doesnt take into account any changes in pumps efficiency when changing rotation speed. Figure 52 also shows that head curves between calculations correlate almost perfectly.

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1,200 1,000 Efficiency 0,800 0,600 0,400 0,200 0,000 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow Motor efficiency Drive efficiency Pump efficiency Motor efficiency by PumpSave Drive efficiency by PumpSave

Figure 54 illustrates efficiency changes among devices. In this case pumps efficiency curve is also included because pumps efficiency changes considerably during speed adjustment. This also has an affect on total power demand of the application. Driving motors efficiency is better based on characteristic curve based calculation than in PumpSaves calculation through whole operating area. Situation is the opposite for frequency converter. These changes in efficiencies does not really have an effect on the total power demand.

Goulds 3638

Next pump produces big volume flow but lower head than previous models. Pump operates at high 85 % efficiency at its nominal operating point. Static head and starting point of system curve was chosen to be 5 meters. Driving motor for pump operates at 90 kW power and 95 % efficiency at its nominal operating point.

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90 80 Power demand [kW] 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow Calculated pow er demand Head 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

40 35 30 Head [m] 25 20 15 10 5 0

For this pump the results for power demand and head are well matching through whole operating range between calculations. Pump does not reach the smallest flow rate calculated by PumpSave. Pumps efficiency decreases about 1,5 % during the speed adjustment so it does not really affect on the total power demand. Pumps lowest possible operating point sets to about 40 % of the maximum flow.

1,2 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow Motor efficiency Drive efficiency Motor efficiency by PumpSave Drive efficiency by PumpSave

Efficiency

Motors efficiency for this case is better through whole operating range when it is calculated with equations 41, 42, 43 and 44 than when it is calculated by PumpSave.

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Frequency converters efficiency starts to decrease sooner and faster when it is calculated with equation 45 than when PumpSave calculates it. Even so the differences are quite small so they only have a small effect on the power demands.

Goulds 3628

Next inspected pump is Goulds 3628. Static head was chosen to be 10 m. Driving motor produces 132 kW at the efficiency of 95,8 %.

140 120 Power demand [kW] 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. Flow flow Calculated pow er demand Head

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Figure 57 illustrates that for this pump also the power demand and head curves correlate almost pefcetly. Pumps operating range reaches about 40 % of the maximum flow.

Head [m]

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1,2 1 PumpSave 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow Motor efficiency Drive efficiency Motor efficiency by PumpSave Drive efficiency by PumpSave

Efficiency curves created for figure 58 are similar to previous cases. Motors efficiency is better through the operating range when it is calculated using the values from pumps characteristic curve than when it is calculated by PumpSave. For frequency converter the situation is opposite. Pumps efficiency decreases only about a percentage during the speed adjustment.

Goulds 5500

Next pump is again more powerful than previous one. This pump is Goulds 5500 and it is driven by a squirrel cage motor which produces 220 kW at 96,5 % efficiency. Static head for this case was chosen to be 17 meters.

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100,000 40 50,000 0,000 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow Calculated pow er demand Head 20 0

Power demand curves shown in figure 59 are well matching for most parts of the operating range. A little difference develops at the small flow rates because of the decrease in pumps efficiency. PumpSave doesnt calculate any changes for pumps efficiency so the power demand calculated by PumpSave is smaller than power demand based on pumps characteristic curve. Head curves are identical between calculations.

1,200 1,000 Efficiency 0,800 0,600 0,400 0,200 0,000 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. Flow flow Motor efficiency Drive efficiency Pump efficiency Motor efficiency by PumpSave Drive efficiency by PumpSave

Efficiency curves for pump, motor and frequency converter are illustrated in figure 60. Motors efficiency based on the values from pumps characteristic curve remains better through the whole operating range than when it is calculated by PumpSave. For frequency

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converter the situation is yet again the opposite. Pumps efficiency starts to decrease quickly when flow is decreased to about 40 % of the maximum flow.

Goulds 3635

Next studied pump is Goulds 3635. Driving motor for the pump produces 280 kW and has the efficiency of 97 % at the nominal operating point. Static head and the starting point of the system curve are 16 meters.

300,000 Power demand [kW] 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0,000 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. Flow flow Calculated pow er demand Head

Power demand curves and head curves are yet again very well matching between calculations as can be seen from figure 61. Pump does not reach the smallest possible flow rate calculated by PumpSave.

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1,200 1,000 Efficiency 0,800 0,600 0,400 0,200 0,000 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow Motor efficiency Drive efficiency Pump efficiency Motor efficiency by PumpSave Drive efficiency by PumpSave

Efficiency curves for devices are illustrated in figure 62. No difference in results for motors and frequency converters efficiencies compared to previous cases. In this case the motors and frequency converters efficiencies based on the characteristic curve are very close to each other through the whole operating range. Pumps efficiency decreases about 6 percentages during the flow adjustment.

Goulds 3652

Next pump is Goulds 3652 which can produce relatively large volume flow. Driving motor for this pump produces 320 kW and operates at 97 % efficiency at the nominal operating point. Static head is chosen to be 20 meters.

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60 50 Head [m] 40 30

150,000 100,000 50,000 0,000 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow Calculated pow er demand Head Pow er demand by PumpSave Head by PumpSave 20 10 0

Figure 63 illustrates the power demand and head curves between calculations. Again the results between calculations are well matching. Pumps operating range stops at about 50 % of the maximum flow.

1,200 1,000 Efficiency 0,800 0,600 0,400 0,200 0,000 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow Motor efficiency Drive efficiency Motor efficiency by PumpSave Drive efficiency by PumpSave

Efficiency curves for driving motor and frequency converter are shown in figure 64. In this case the results are similar but differences between calculations are not as big as in some other previous cases. Pumps efficiency decreases about 3 % during the flow adjustment.

Goulds CWX

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Second to last pump under the lens is Goulds CWX. It is driven by a squirrel cage motor which produces 400 kW at the efficiency of 97 % at the nominal operating point. Static head is 30 meters.

Results as power demand and head curves are shown in figure 65. Power demand calculated by pumps characteristic curve is slightly smaller than power demand calculated by PumpSave at the middle part of the operating range. Reason for this can be found from the changes in efficiencies because the head curves are almost identical. Efficiency curves are illustrated in figure 66.

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Results for motors and frequency converters efficiencies are similar to previous cases. Based on the characteristic curve motors efficiency remains better and frequency converters efficiency remains worse through the whole operating range compared to efficiencies calculated by PumpSave. Pumps efficiency increases first when rotation speed decreases but starts to decrease when flow rate reaches about 60 % of the maximum flow.

Goulds 5500

Last observed pump is the most powerful pump of the series. It can produce the volume flow of over 2800 m/h at the best efficiency point. Static head was chosen to be 7,62 meters and driving motor produces 900 kW and operates at 97 % efficiency at the nominal operating point.

900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. Flow flow

Calculated pow er demand Head

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Like previous cases the power demand and head correlate almost perfectly between calculations as can be seen from figure 67. Pump does not reach the smallest possible flow calculated by PumpSave.

Head [m]

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Results for efficiencies are also similar compared to previous cases. Motors efficiency is better through the operating range when it is calculated with the values from pumps characteristic curve than when it is calculated by PumpSave. For frequency converter the situation is the opposite. Pumps efficiency remains good during the adjustment only decreasing about a percentage.

10.2 Throttling

Throttling control is examined next as a flow control method for centrifugal pumps. Pumps under examination are from manufacturer called Afton pumps Inc. First pump has the lowest power demand and the last one is the most powerful. This study is based on the characteristic curves of the pumps. All pumps operate at the rotational speed of 3000 rpm. When throttling the flow the new operation point of pump is found along the pumps characteristic curve. Pumps power demand can be solved when flow, head and efficiency is known. These factors at each operation point are compared to PumpSaves calculation. Results are shown as power demand, head and efficiency curves. Static head is not taken notice and no imaginary system curves were created in characteristic curves. Noticing static head does not affect on the calculation of PumpSave when examining throttling control. PumpSave does not calculate any changes in driving

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motors efficiency during throttling control. Changes in motor efficiency are taken notice of in calculations based on pumps characteristic curve.

First pump under inspection is Afton ILVS 1.5x2-7A. Diameter of the pumps impeller is 184 mm. Driving motor produces 4 kW of power and its efficiency at nominal operating point is 85 %.

4 Power demand [kW] 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 Head [m]

Power demand and head curves for this pump are shown in figure 69. As can be seen from the power demand curves there is difference in the values between calculations. According to PumpSave the power demand decreases more rapidly than in calculations based on the characteristic curve of the pump when the flow is choked. When flow is 40 to 80 % of the maximum flow calculated power demand based on the characteristic curve is larger than the power demand calculated by PumpSave. Head curves are also illustrated in figure 69 and there is quite similar difference as in power demand. Head based on the pumps characteristic curve is larger at the whole operating range. This has an affect on the power demand.

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0,6 0,5 Efficiency 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Pump efficiency

Efficiency curves based on PumpSaves calculation and pumps characteristic curve are illustrated in figure 70. According to PumpSave the efficiency remains higher during the whole throttling than pumps characteristic curve indicates. PumpSave does not take into account the change in motors efficiency in throttling control. When using equations 41, 42, 43 and 44 to resolve power loss and efficiency of the motor it drops about 2 % during the throttling. Pump does not reach the smallest possible flow calculated by PumpSave.

Next pump is a bit more powerful than previous one producing larger volume flow and higher head. Its impellers diameter is 229 mm and driving motor operates at the power of 7,5 kW and 87,5 % efficiency rate.

75 70 65 60 55 50 Head [m]

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For this case power demand curve based on PumpSaves calculation is very linearly descending. Power demand curve based on pumps characteristic curve on the other hand differs dramatically from PumpSaves curve when flow rate is 40 to 60 % of maximum. This is caused by rapid collapse of efficiency at that operation area. Efficiency curves by PumpSave and pumps characteristic curve are created in figure 72. Characteristic curve based power demand is higher than power demand by PumpSave through almost whole operating area. This is supported also by change in pumps produced head during throttling. Head based on pumps characteristic curve is also higher than head calculated by PumpSave at all points of operation range. However the head curves are more congruent than power demand curves.

0,6 0,5 Efficiency 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow Pump efficiency Pump efficiency by FanSave 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Efficiency for this pump is clearly worse than efficiency calculated by PumpSave through whole operating range. When flow is throttled from 60 % to 50 % of maximum the efficiency collapses rapidly and causes a rise in power demand curve seen before. Efficiency of the motor drops about 1,5 % during the throttling.

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Next pump under inspection is Afton ILVS 1.5x3-11H and its impellers diameter is 279 mm. Applicable motor for the pump is a squirrel cage motor which produces 30 kW power and has an efficiency of 92,9 % at the nominal operating point.

25 20 15 10 5 0 20 % 60 % Flow Calculated power demand Head 30 % 40 % 50 % 70 % Nom. flow Power demand by PumpSave Head by PumpSave 80 % 90 %

For this pump as can be seen from figure 73 the power demand calculated by pumps characteristic curve is higher than PumpSaves power demand during the whole operating range. The main factor causing this difference is the head generated by the pump. Pumps characteristic curve is steeply descending when moving in area of larger flows. When the flow is choked to about 70 % of the maximum flow the pumps characteristic curve is almost horizontal and the head does not increase much. PumpSaves curve is more linear and the biggest difference in head is formed when flow is 70 % of maximum. The head by pumps characteristic curve is about 2 meters higher than the head calculated by PumpSave.

Head [m]

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0,7 0,6 0,5 Efficiency 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow Pump efficiency Pump efficiency by PumpSave 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Efficiency curves between pumps characteristic curve and PumpSaves are illustrated in figure 74. Again there is clear difference how the efficiency changes during the throttling adjustment. Pumps efficiency starts to decrease much quicker according to characteristic curve than PumpSaves calculation. This contributes also to the difference in power demands. Drive motors efficiency decreases only about one percent during the throttling. Smallest flow the pump reaches is about 40 % of the maximum flow.

Next pump is Afton ILVS 2x3-13H and it produces quite high head and a little bit higher volume flow than the previous pump. Impellers diameter is 343 mm and the driving motor operates at 55 kW power and efficiency of 94 %.

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175 170 165 160 155 150 145 140 135 Head [m]

Results in figure 75 shows that pumps characteristic curve which is shown as head curve in figure X is steeper than the head curve calculated by PumpSave. This causes the power demand to be higher than the power demand calculated by PumpSave at the range the pump is able to operate.

Efficiency

Pump efficiency

For this pump case the efficiency curves are quite congruent at the range the pump operates. Efficiency of the motor connected to the pump decreases about one percent during the throttling.

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Next pump is Afton ILVS 3x4-10 with the impeller diameter of 254 mm. Motor connected to the pump is a squirrel cage motor and it produces power 55 kW at the efficiency of 94 %.

40 Power demand [kW] 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow Calculated power demand Head 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

95 90 85 80 75 70 Head [m]

Differences in power demand and in head between PumpSaves calculation and characteristic curve based calculation are similar to previous pump cases. At the most points of operation the head and therefore the power demand are higher based on characteristic curve than based on PumpSaves calculation. Pumps power demand descends below PumpSaves calculated value at the smallest possible flow. Reason for this is shown in figure 78 where efficiency curves are illustrated.

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0,8 0,7 0,6 Efficiency 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow Pump efficiency Pump efficiency by FanSave

Efficiency curves between PumpSaves calculation and characteristic curve are quite congruent for this pump case. When the flow is throttled to about 45 % of maximum the efficiency curves cross and for smaller flows the efficiency based on the characteristic curve is better than the efficiency calculated by PumpSave. This shows up also in power demand curves at flow rate of 40 % in figure 77 where power demand based on characteristic curve is lower than power demand calculated by PumpSave

Next pump under inspection is Afton ILVS 4x6-11H. Diameter of the impeller is 279 mm. Driving motor operates at 90 kW power and at the efficiency of 95 %.

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90 80 Power demand [kW] 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow Calculated pow er demand Head 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Power demand and head curves are illustrated in figure 79. Once again the power demand and head curves based on the pumps characteristic curve go through higher values than curves based on PumpSaves calculation. Efficiency curves are illustrated in figure 80. Difference between head and efficiency curves are the reason the power demand based on characteristic curve differs from the power demand calculated by PumpSave.

0,8 0,7 0,6 Efficiency 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Pump efficiency

Shapes of efficiency curves are similar to previous pump cases. Efficiency based on characteristic curve starts to decrease sooner than efficiency based on PumpSaves calculation when flow is throttled. This contributes to the difference in power demands.

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Driving motors efficiency stays high during throttling decreasing only few decimals of percent.

Next observed pump is Afton ILVS 3x4-13L with the impeller of 343 mm of diameter. Pumps driving motor produces 110 kW at the efficiency of 95,8 %.

Head curves for this pump are almost perfectly matching between pumps characteristic curve and calculation of PumpSave as can be seen from figure 81. However the power demands between these two are not so well matching. Power demand based on calculations done by characteristic curve is higher than power demand calculated by PumpSave at almost whole operating area. Only at the highest and lowest possible flow the power demands are matching. Difference is caused by difference in efficiencies between pumps characteristic curve and PumpSaves calculations.

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Efficiency

0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow Flow Pump efficiency Pump efficiency by PumpSave

Figure X illustrates the efficiency curves created by pumps characteristic curve and PumpSaves calculations. Efficiency indicated by pump curve decreases more quickly than efficiency calculated by PumpSave. Drop in efficiency is not so rapid when pump is operating at small flow rates and characteristic curve based efficiency is better than efficiency calculated by PumpSave at the smallest possible flow. Driving motors efficiency decreases less than a percent during throttling.

Last studied pump is Afton ILVS 4x6-13H and it is the most powerful pump of the series. Pumps impeller has the diameter of 343 mm and it is driven by a squirrel cage motor which produces 132 kW of power at the efficiency of 95,8 %.

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140 120 Power demand [kW] 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow Calculated pow er demand Head 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Results between calculations are not surprising at this point. Values for power demand and head based on pumps characteristic curve are once again higher than PumpSaves calculated values. Difference in power demands is affected by difference in efficiencies which is shown in figure 84.

0,8 0,7 0,6 Efficiency 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Pump efficiency

Effciency curves based on pumps characteristic curve and PumpSaves calculations are quite congruent as figure 84 shows. Still the efficiency calculated by PumpSave is better than efficiency based on characteristic curve at the whole operating range of the pump. Driving motors efficiency remains high through the throttling.

Head [m]

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Conclusions

PumpSaves calculations for throttling control are fairly competent based on these examinations. In throttling control PumpSave starts the throttling at the best efficiency point of operation and the efficiency does not get better at any point of throttling. So it is important to check with the pumps characteristic curve what the point of nominal flow for the pump is where the throttling of the flow is planned to start. PumpSaves calculation presents a bit too low values for pumps characteristic curve through the whole operating area. Each pumps characteristic curve is shown in figures as a head curve. For one pump the curves between PumpSaves calculation and the pumps characteristic curve are almost perfectly matching but for other cases the head values differ more or less. This also contributes to the calculated power demand which was higher based on calculations done by pumps characteristic curve than calculated power demand by PumpSave for each pump through nearly whole operation range. Results for pump applications power demand presented in previous chapter is supported by results acquired from efficiency examination. Comparison of efficiency for each pump case showed that PumpSaves calculation produces higher values than pumps characteristic curve indicates. Each pumps efficiency starts to decrease much sooner according to pumps characteristic curve than in PumpSaves calculation when throttling the flow. Based on acquired results PumpSaves calculated values for efficiency and head should be corrected a bit. Curves created by means of these values should be steeper. Pumps characteristic curve should rise more rapidly and efficiency curve should decrease more rapidly when throttling the flow. For more exact results much more pump cases should be studied so the calculation would be more universal for all possible pumps. For one of the studied pumps its efficiency collapses so much at one stage of throttling that its power demand at that point rose higher than at previous operating point where the flow rate was larger. This is of course a special scenario and PumpSave can not predict it but

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these kinds of situations can happen. All in all PumpSave gives fairly good prediction for pump applications total power demand and energy consumption.

In this part of the thesis PumpSaves calculation is compared to results gathered from laboratory testing. Flow control methods studied were throttling control and rotational speed control by frequency converter. Tests were done in Lappeenranta university of technology where is a specific laboratory for testing pumps. Pump used in test was made by G.A. Serlachius Oy model DC 80/260. It was powered by Strmberg HXUR 328A2 B3 electric motor which produces 15 kW. Speed of the motor was controlled with ACS 800 variable speed drive. A layout of the laboratory equipment is illustrated in figure 85.

A venturi tube was used to measure the speed and volume of the flow. Pressures at pump inlet and outlet were measured to make possible to calculate the total head of the pump. Measured data was lead to Fluke Hydra Data Logger. Also the torque provided by the motor was measured with separate device. Rotational speed, input frequency and shaft power could be red from the panel of the variable speed drive.

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11.1 VSD

First flow control method under observation is variable speed drive. Pump was first driven at full speed and adjustments were done by decreasing the rotational speed so that flow produced by the pump was decreased 10 % at a time. Rotational speed was adjusted by regulating the input frequency at the panel of the frequency converter. All the valves in the pipeline were fully open during the speed adjustment. Results and the most important variables are presented in table 29. Power demand and head between calculations are illustrated as curves in figure 86. Pumps efficiency curve is illustrated in figure 87.

Table 29. Results of test run for VSD flow control. PumpSave q_v [m/s] 0,0354 0,0319 0,0283 0,0248 0,0212 0,0177 0,0142 0,0106 0,0071 p_imu [Pa] 82500 88125 92500 96250 99375 102500 105000 106875 108125 p_paine [Pa] 177000 171000 162000 156000 150000 145500 141000 138000 136500 deltap_vent. [Pa] 50413 40700 32098 24975 18130 12580 8140 4625 2035 Vnt [Nm] 60,0 47,5 38,0 30,6 24,2 18,8 14,5 11,2 8,5 n [rpm] 1500 1311 1158 1035 915 801 699 609 537 f [Hz] 50 43,7 38,6 34,5 30,5 26,7 23,3 20,3 17,9 H [m] 9,63 8,45 7,08 6,09 5,16 4,38 3,67 3,17 2,89 eta_p [%] 35,5 40,5 42,7 44,7 46,3 48,3 48,2 46,4 42,1 P_displ [kW] 9,60 6,48 4,55 3,26 2,29 1,55 1,04 0,69 0,47 P_calc [kW] 9,43 6,52 4,61 3,32 2,32 1,58 1,06 0,71 0,48 P [kW] 9,41 7,39 5,71 4,32 3,24 2,34 1,65 1,12 0,71 9,63 8,28 7,06 5,99 5,07 4,28 3,64 3,14 2,79 H[m]

131

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Nostokorkeus [m]

From curves illustrating shaft power in figure X can be seen that the shaft power red from the display of the VSD correlates with the calculated power demand. Calculated power demand is calculated on the basis of the measured values. Apposed to that shaft power calculated by PumpSave differs from measured and calculated shaft power through almost whole operating range. This is caused by changes in pumps efficiency which PumpSave does not take into account. PumpSave is fed with the efficiency of the pump at the nominal operating point and it remains constant at each point of operation. There is also a power demand curve in figure X which illustrates power demand calculated by PumpSave and it is calculated with an average efficiency of the operation range. This curve matches the curves created with results from laboratory tests much better than curve created with efficiency at the nominal operating point. With this curve the biggest difference to curves from laboratory tests is formed when pump operates at maximum flow. This is because pumps efficiency is worse than average in actual situation. Figure X shows also the head produced by the pump and head calculated by PumpSave. Values are well matching through the operation range though the head values calculated by means of the pressure difference of the pump are a bit higher at most part of the operation range. However the difference is so small that it hardly affects the total power demand of the application.

132

Figure 87 illustrates pumps efficiency curve during the speed adjustment. Efficiency reaches its maximum value when the flow rate is 50 % of the maximum. At the nominal flow pumps efficiency is at its lowest being only 35,5 %. This takes PumpSaves calculation on the wrong track. Efficiency is not constant when pumps rotation speed is changed and this causes difference on results for power demand.. Next is examined situation where point of nominal flow is also the best efficiency point. Nominal point is chosen to be 50 % of the maximum flow based on the previous study. Results of power demand and pump efficiency are illustrated in figure 88.

1,8 1,6 Power demand [kW] 1,4 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % Flow 80 % 90 % Nom. flow

Akseliteho by PumpSave

133

Results show that all the power demands are now well matching. This way of inspecting pumps operation matches best PumpSaves calculation. This also was proved in section of the work where PumpSaves calculation was compared to calculation based on pumps characteristic curve. Figure X also shows points and trend line of pumps efficiency.

11.2 Throttling

Other flow control method which could be studied at the laboratory was throttling control. Pump operated at full speed through the test and at the nominal point all the valves on the pipeline were fully open. Flow was adjusted by throttling the last valve before the upper tank so that flow was decreased 10 % at a time. Results of calculations are shown in table 30 and as shaft power and head curves in figure 89. Efficiency curves of the pump are illustrated in figure 90.

Table 30. Results for throttling control. PumpSave q_v [m/s] 0,0354 0,0319 0,0283 0,0248 0,0212 0,0177 0,0142 0,0106 0,0071 p_imu [Pa] 82500 86875 91875 95625 99375 101875 104375 106250 107500 p_paine [Pa] 177000 238500 270000 288000 304500 319500 330000 336000 340500 deltap_vent. [Pa] 50413 40700 32098 24975 18130 12580 8140 4625 2035 Vnt [Nm] 60,0 58,0 53,9 50,5 46,2 42,8 31,9 35,4 31,6 H [m] 9,63 15,46 18,16 19,61 20,91 22,18 23,00 23,42 23,75 eta_p [%] 35,5 53,1 59,5 60,1 59,9 57,3 52,2 43,8 33,3 P_displ [kW] 9,51 9,12 8,46 7,95 7,28 6,72 6,15 5,57 4,95 P_calc [kW] 9,43 9,11 8,47 7,93 7,26 6,72 6,14 5,56 4,96 P [kW] 9,41 10,89 11,62 11,94 12,02 11,91 11,67 11,32 10,88 9,63 12,38 14,84 17,01 18,89 20,48 21,78 22,80 23,52 H[m] eta_p [%] 35,5 35,5 35,5 34,4 32,7 29,8 25,9 20,9 14,9

134

25 20 15 10 5 0 Head [m]

Shaft power curves in figure 89 show that values calculated by PumpSave differ drastically from measured and calculated power demand. This is caused by pumps efficiency which is rather low when operating at full speed. Efficiency starts to increase rapidly when flow is throttled and reaches its maximum point at 70 % of the maximum flow. Efficiency input as an initial value for PumpSave does not get any better at any point of throttling but starts to decrease when flow is about 80 % of the maximum. Efficiency curves are illustrated in figure 90 and are the main reason to the difference between shaft powers. Figure 89 shows also that head curves differ from each other quite a bit. Difference between curves is larger when pump is operating at larger volume flows and decreases when operating point enters the area of smaller flow rates. In reality pump produces higher head than PumpSave calculates at almost whole operating range. In this case it reduces the difference of shaft powers.

135

0,7 0,6 0,5 Efficiency 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. Flow Flow Pump efficiency Pump efficiency by PumpSave

Next is studied a situation which matches PumpSaves calculation much better. Nominal operating point of the pump is equal to best efficiency point. In performed throttling control test best efficiency point was found at 70 % of the maximum flow. So this point is chosen to be the nominal operating point and at this point flow is throttled 10 % at a time. Results are shown in figures 91 and X where shaft power, head and efficiency curves are illustrated.

9 8 7 Shaft power [kW] 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow Calculated shaft pow er Shaft pow er by PumpSave Head 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. Flow

25 20 15

10 5 0

Head by PumpSave

Head [m]

136

In this case values for shaft power are quite well matching between calculations. Shaft power red from the panel of the frequency converter matched the calculated power demand perfectly so it was left a side from the figure 91. Head curves are also almost identical in this case as can be seen from figure 91.

0,7 0,6 0,5 Efficiency 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Flow Pump efficiency Pump efficiency by PumpSave 70 % 80 % 90 % Nom. Flow

Efficiency curves for this case are illustrated in figure 92. Now the curves are considerably closer to each other through the whole operating range than previously. Naturally this contributes to the good results gained for shaft power.

Conclusions

Results of laboratory testing are quite similar to results gained from comparing PumpSaves calculation to characteristic curve based calculation. PumpSaves calculation works correctly when the pumps nominal operation point equals the best efficiency point. In variable speed control PumpSave does not take into account any efficiency changes during rotation speed adjustment. Based on first introduced test run, pumps efficiency changes through the operation range quite a bit. When setting the nominal operating point equal as the best efficiency point the results for efficiencies match PumpSaves calculation better. Program could be installed with some correcting factors for pumps efficiency at different flow rates but this would require more testing and studying of different types and sizes of pumps in laboratory and with characteristic curves. These kind of correcting

137

factors PumpSave and FanSave uses are always some kind of a compromise among different sizes of applications. For throttling control the results from laboratory test runs are well matching when the nominal operation point where the throttling starts equals the best efficiency point. PumpSaves calculation does not match the results at all if the throttling is begun at the descending area of the efficiency curve. When using PumpSave to observe the power demand and energy consumption of different applications the user should be aware how the pumps efficiency behaves when moving on to some other operating point than the nominal point. It is also good to remember that the characteristic curves for each pump are based on an ideal situation and in real life those values are hard or impossible to reach.

12 SUMMARY

For powerful fans it would be good to include FanSave with possibility to calculate change in density and in temperature of gas during blowing. Change in gass temperature affect the power demand of the fan when change is big enough. Adding this feature into the program would require tests with different sizes of fans. At different flow rates density changes different amount so if the changes to the program would be made with constant factors which FanSave uses a lot different types of fans should be tested to find the average factors valid for various fans. One way could also be to add the option to input as initial values the temperatures for incoming and outgoing flow. FanSave could then solve the average density based on these values. FanSaves manual does not contain any information about the SFP. Also the calculation of SFP in FanSave is incorrect. This could easily be corrected to match calculation presented in equation 17. Also the manual of the program should be added information about the SFP number.

138

Previous studies for different sizes of pumps controlled by a variable speed drive prove that PumpSaves calculations are almost perfectly accurate. Power demands and heads for each cases are almost identical for each pump case. For some cases pumps efficiency changes several percentages during the flow adjustment and has affect on the power demand. Especially when operating point enters the lowest flow rates PumpSave assumes that in variable speed control pumps efficiency remains as a constant. Motors efficiency differs from PumpSaves calculation when it is calculated with equations presented in chapter X. through the operating range for each pump motors efficiency calculated by PumpSave is worse than efficiency calculated using pumps characteristic curve. If PumpSaves calculation would be changed to match calculation presented in equations 41, 42, 43 and 44 more information about the driving motors operation would be required. At least torque and rotational speed at each operation point should be calculated.

FanSave and PumpSave examines the investment of the variable speed drive with present value which has been subtracted the investment cost. If the present value is positive the investment is profitable. Present value is calculated with equation

n

NA =

t =1

(1 + i )

St

(1 + i )n

JA

(78)

where i n t St JA H interest rate utilization time [a] time annual net savings or profit [] residue value [] investment cost []

139

Payback period is calculated directly as the quotient of the investment cost and the annual saving. This method is called interest free payback period. Particularly for the larger investments it would be appropriate to calculate the payback period with interest. This could be calculated by using equation 78 or 79. This feature could also be added to both of the programs. All the factors are already included.

np

(1 + i )

t =1

St

H =0

(79)

1 H ln ln(i ) i S t n= ln (1 + i )

(80)

140

REFERENCES

Electric Ideas Clearinghouse. North Seattle Community College Two-Speed Motors Case Study. 1993. [Viitattu 20.11.2007] Saatavilla www-muodossa: http://www.p2pays.org/ref/36/35282.pdf Fan Types. Environmental Protection Agency. [Viitattu 9.10.2007] Saatavilla www-muodossa: http://www.epa.gov/eogapti1/module5/fans/types/types.htm Flktwoods Oy. SFP-opas. [Viitattu 21.11.2007] Saatavilla www-muodossa: http://www.flaktwoods.fi/476d6be3-be6e-42e9-bd82-6152ff71a7aa Goulds Pumps. Pump Selection System. [Viitattu 5.2.2008] Saatavilla wwwmuodossa: http://www.gouldspumps.com/pss.html Hirvonen Sampsa. Taajuusmuuttajan vaihtaminen pakkaajarobottiin. Insinrity. Helsingin ammattikorkeakoulu Stadia. Shktekniikka. 2007. Inlet and outlet dampers for centrifugal fans, 1999, [Viitattu 1.10.2007] Saatavilla www-muodossa: http://greenheck.com/pdf/centrifugal/centrifugal_damper_cat.pdf Inlet vane controls & dampers of any type, [Viitattu 1.10.2007] Saatavilla wwwmuodossa: http://www.damper-designs.co.uk/ Invertteri. Lappeenrannan teknillinen yliopisto. Shktekniikan osasto. [Viitattu 23.9.2007] Saatavilla www-muodossa: http://www.ee.lut.fi/taajuusmuuttaja.html Jokinen Markku. Induktiomoottorikytn paikkasdn suorituskyky. Diplomity. LTY. Shktekniikan koulutusohjelma. 2004 Karjalainen Veikko. Huoltokoulu osa 10: Diodit, zenerit ja triakit. [Viitattu 29.2.2008] Saatavilla www-muodossa: http://physics.uku.fi/studies/kurssit/ELE1/luennot/hk_diodit.pdf

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Karttunen Erkki. 2004. RIL 124-2 Vesihuolto II. 1. edition. Helsinki: Suomen Rakennusinsinrien Liitto RIL ry. 314 pages. ISBN 951-758-431-8 Luentomoniste 1 Virtaus- ja lmpvoimakoneet, kompressorit, puhaltimet, pumput. 2004. LTY Luukkanen Petteri. Pumpunvalitsimet integroidussa toimintaympristss. Diplomity. LTY. Kemiantekniikan osasto. 2001. Montonen Arto. Taajuusmuuttajalla sytetty oikosulkumoottori valssilaitosten kelauskytss. Diplomity. Lappeenrannan teknillinen korkeakoulu. Energiatekniikan laitos. 1985. Partanen Jarmo. Shkenergiatekniikan perusteet. Opetusmoniste EN C-98. 1997 Puhaltimet teollisuudessa ja LVI-laitoksissa. Insinrijrjestjen koulutuskeskus. 40. painos. 1986. INSKO ry. ISBN 951-794-939-1 Pumpputekniikka nesteiden pumppaus. Insinrijrjestjen koulutuskeskus. 35. painos. 1981. Insinritieto Oy. ISBN 951-793-513-7 Ruuskanen Anne. Optimization of energy consumption in wastewater pumping. Diplomity. LTY. Energia- ja ympristtekniikan osasto. 2007. Sarkomaa Pertti. 1997. Pumppujen taloudellinen kytt. Lappeenrannan teknillinen korkeakoulu. ISBN 951-764-110-9 LVI-talotekniikkateollisuus ry. SFP-opas. 2. painos. 2005. Viitattu [20.12.2007] Saatavilla www-muodossa: http://www.teknologiateollisuus.fi/files/9727_sfpopas2_200705.pdf

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SFS ISO 5167-1:2003 Measurement of fluid flow by means of pressure differential devices inserted in cicular cross-section conduits running full. Part 1: General principles and requirements. SFS ISO 5167-2:2003 Measurement of fluid flow by means of pressure differential devices inserted in circular cross-section conduits running full. Part 2: Orifice plates. Seppnen Olli. 1988. Ilmastointitekniikka ja sisilmasto. LVI-Kustannus Oy. ISBN 951-96098-0-6 Systemair. Teoria. [Viitattu 16.12.2007] Saatavilla www-muodossa: http://www.systemair.fi/data/attachments/teoria2.pdf Varttinen Sami. Taajuusmuuttajat voimalaitosten pumppauksissa, erityisesti syttveden pyrimisnopeussdn vaikutus ruiskutusvesijrjestelmiin. Diplomity. LTY. Energiatekniikan koulutusohjelma. 2004. Ventur Centrifugal fan GMT. [Viitattu 29.11.2007] Saatavilla www-muodossa: http://www.ventur.fi/content/att/06_GMT_eng.pdf Viholainen Juha. Developing of the Variable speed drive control in simulated parallel pumping systems. Diplomity. LTY Energia- ja ympristtekniikan osasto. 2007. Volk Michael. 2005. Pump Characteristics and Applications. 2. edition. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Torque Limiters and Slip Clutches Information on GlobalSpec. GlobalSpec. [Viitattu 9.10.2007] Saatavilla www-muodossa: http://motioncontrols.globalspec.com/LearnMore/Motion_Controls/Clutches_Brake s/Slip_Clutches?SrchItem=1&frmqry=slip%20coupling

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