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Batch: Jan - May 2012

1
ME101: Engineering Mechanics
Instructor
Dr. Karuna Kalita
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
IIT Guwahati
Karuna.kalita@iitg.ernet.in

K. Kalita 2
Most of the content of these presentation slides are
taken from the power point presentation prepared by J.
Walt Oler and made available to us by McGraw-Hill
Education India.
Batch: Jan - May 2012 3
-These lecture slides were prepared and used by me to conduct lectures for 1
st
year B. Tech.
students as part of ME 101 Engineering Mechanics course at IITG.
- Theories, Figures, Problems, Concepts used in the slides to fulfill the course requirements
are taken from the following textbooks
- Kindly assume that the referencing of the following books have been done in this slide
- I thank the following authors for making their books available for reference

K. Kalita
1. Vector Mechanics for Engineers Statics & Dynamics, Beer & Johnston; 7
th
edition
2. Engineering Mechanics Statics & Dynamics, Shames; 4
th
edition
3. Engineering Mechanics Statics Vol. 1, Engineering Mechanics Dynamics Vol. 2, Meriam &
Kraige; 5
th
edition
4. Schaums solved problems series Vol. 1: Statics; Vol. 2: Dynamics, Joseph F. Shelley
5. Lecture notes of Dr. R. Ganesh Narayanan, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering
K. Kalita 4
What is Mechanics?
Mechanics is the science which describes and predicts the conditions
of rest or motion of bodies under the action of forces.
Categories of Mechanics:
- Rigid bodies
- Statics
- Dynamics
- Deformable bodies
- Fluids
Mechanics is an applied science - it is not an abstract or pure science
but does not have the empiricism found in other engineering sciences.
Mechanics is the foundation of most engineering sciences and is an
indispensable prerequisite to their study.
K. Kalita 5
Fundamental Concepts
Space - associated with the notion of the position of a point P given in terms of three
coordinates measured from a reference point or origin.
Time - definition of an event requires specification of the time and position at which it
occurred.
Mass - used to characterize and compare bodies, e.g., response to earths
gravitational attraction and resistance to changes in translational motion.
Force - represents the action of one body on another. A force is characterized by its
point of application, magnitude, and direction, i.e., a force is a vector quantity.
In Newtonian Mechanics, space, time, and mass are absolute concepts, independent of
each other. Force, however, is not independent of the other three. The force acting on
a body is related to the mass of the body and the variation of its velocity with time.
K. Kalita 6
Parallelogram Law
Principle of Transmissibility
Newtons First Law: If the resultant force on a
particle is zero, the particle will remain at rest or
continue to move in a straight line.
Newtons Third Law: The forces of action and
reaction between two particles have the same
magnitude and line of action with opposite
sense.
Newtons Second Law: A particle will have
an acceleration proportional to a nonzero
resultant applied force.
a m F

=
Newtons Law of Gravitation: Two particles
are attracted with equal and opposite forces,
2 2
,
R
GM
g mg W
r
Mm
G F = = =
Fundamental Principles
K. Kalita 7
Kinetic Units: length, time,
mass, and force.
Three of the kinetic units,
referred to as basic units, may be
defined arbitrarily. The fourth
unit, referred to as a derived unit,
must have a definition compatible
with Newtons 2nd Law,
a m F

=
International System of Units (SI):
The basic units are length, time, and
mass which are arbitrarily defined as
the meter (m), second (s), and
kilogram (kg). Force is the derived
unit,
( ) |
.
|

\
|
=
=
2
s
m
1 kg 1 N 1
ma F
U.S. Customary Units:
The basic units are length, time, and
force which are arbitrarily defined as
the foot (ft), second (s), and pound
(lb). Mass is the derived unit,
2
1lb
1slug
1ft s
F
m
a
=
=
Systems of Units
K. Kalita 8
Problem Statement:
Includes given data, specification
of what is to be determined, and a
figure showing all quantities
involved.
Free-Body Diagrams:
Create separate diagrams for each
of the bodies involved with a
clear indication of all forces
acting on each body.
Fundamental Principles:
The six fundamental principles
are applied to express the
conditions of rest or motion of
each body. The rules of algebra
are applied to solve the equations
for the unknown quantities.
Solution Check:
- Test for errors in reasoning by
verifying that the units of the
computed results are correct,
- test for errors in computation by
substituting given data and computed
results into previously unused
equations based on the six principles,
- always apply experience and physical
intuition to assess whether results seem
reasonable

Method of Problem Solution
K. Kalita 9
The accuracy of a solution depends on 1) accuracy of the given data, and
2) accuracy of the computations performed. The solution cannot be more
accurate than the less accurate of these two.
As a general rule for engineering problems, the data are seldom known
with an accuracy greater than 0.2%. Therefore, it is usually appropriate to
record parameters beginning with 1 with four digits and with three digits
in all other cases, i.e., 40.2 lb and 15.58 lb.
The use of hand calculators and computers generally makes the accuracy
of the computations much greater than the accuracy of the data. Hence,
the solution accuracy is usually limited by the data accuracy.
Numerical Accuracy
Syllabus
Rigid body static: Equivalent force system. Equations of equilibrium, Free body diagram, Reaction, Static
indeterminacy and partial constraints, Two and three force systems.

Structures: 2D truss, Method of joints, Method of section. Frame, Beam, types of loading and supports,
Shear Force and Bending Moment diagram, relation among load-shear force-bending moment.

Friction: Dry friction (static and kinematics), wedge friction, disk friction (thrust bearing), belt friction,
square threaded screw, journal bearings (Axle friction), Wheel friction, Rolling resistance.

Center of Gravity and Moment of Inertia: First and second moment of area and mass, radius of gyration,
parallel axis theorem, product of inertia, rotation of axes and principal M. I., Thin plates, M.I. by direct
method (integration), composite bodies.

Virtual work and Energy method: Virtual Displacement, principle of virtual work, mechanical efficiency,
work of a force/couple (springs etc.), Potential Energy and equilibrium, stability.

Kinematics of Particles: Rectilinear motion, curvilinear motion rectangular, normal tangential, polar,
cylindrical, spherical (coordinates), relative and constrained motion, space curvilinear motion.

Kinetics of Particles: Force, mass and acceleration, work and energy, impulse and momentum, impact.

Kinetics of Rigid Bodies: Translation, fixed axis rotation, general planner motion, work-energy, power,
potential energy, impulse-momentum and associated conservation principles, euler equations of motion
and its application.
10
Mark distribution:
Tutorial 12%
Quiz 1 12%
Quiz 2 12%
Mid-Semester Examination 24%
End Semester Examination 40%
11
Lecture timing:
Monday 10:00 10:55 L3
Tuesday 11:00 11:55 L3
Friday 09:00 09:55 L3
Tutorial timing:
Thursday 08:00 08:55
12
A REMINDER

A student with less than 75%
attendance will not allowed to take
examination

13
AND

No phone calls in the lecture hall

14
15
Scalar quantity: Only magnitude
Examples: Time, Volume, Speed, Density, Mass etc.

Vector quantity: Both direction and magnitude
Examples: Force, Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration, Moment etc.
, where = magnitude, n = unit vector and
n dimensionless and in direction of vector V

In our course:


i, j, k unit vectors
y
x
z
j
i
k
V v n =
v
V
n
v
=
16
Dot product of vectors: A.B = AB cos ; A.B = B.A (commutative)
A.(B+C) = A.B+A.C (distributive operation)



A.B = (A
x
i+A
y
j+A
z
k).(B
x
i+B
y
j+B
z
k) = A
x
B
x
+A
y
B
y
+A
z
B
z



Cross product of vectors: A x B = C; ICI = IAI IBI Sin ; AxB = -(BxA)
C x (A+B) = C x A + C x B


A
B

i . i = 1
i . j = 0
k x j = -i;
i x i = 0
AxB = (A
x
i+A
y
j+A
z
k)x(B
x
i+B
y
j+B
z
k) = (A
y
B
z
- A
z
B
y
)i+( )j+( )k

i j k
A
x
A
Y
A
Z
B
X
B
Y
B
Z

i
j
k
17
Force:
- action of one body on another
- required force can move a body in the direction of action,
otherwise no effect
- some times plastic deformation, failure is possible
- Magnitude, direction, point of application; VECTOR


Force <
P kN
Force,
P kN
Direction of motion
Body moves
Body does not
move
P, kN
bulging
18
Force system:

P
WIRE
Bracket
Magnitude, direction and point of application is important
External effect:
Forces applied (applied force); Forces exerted by bracket, bolts, foundation..
(reactive force)
Internal effect:
Deformation, strain pattern permanent strain; depends on material properties
of bracket, bolts
Concurrent force:
Forces are said to be concurrent at a point if their lines of
action intersect at that point
A
F
1
F
2
R
F
1
, F
2
are concurrent forces
R will be on same plane
R = F
1
+F
2
Plane
Parallelogram law of forces
Polygon law of forces
A
F
1
F
2
R
F
2
F
1
A
F
1
F
2
R
Use triangle law
R = F
1
+F
2
A set of concurrent forces applied to a
particle may be replaced by a single
resultant force which is the vector sum
of the applied forces.
Vector force components: two or more
force vectors which, together, have the
same effect as a single force vector.
20
ME101: Engineering Mechanics
Lecture 2
Statics of Particles
Sample Problem 1
The two forces act on a bolt at
A. Determine their resultant.
SOLUTION:
Graphical solution - construct a
parallelogram with sides in the same
direction as P and Q and lengths in
proportion. Graphically evaluate the
resultant which is equivalent in direction
and proportional in magnitude to the the
diagonal.
Trigonometric solution - use the triangle
rule for vector addition in conjunction
with the law of cosines and law of sines
to find the resultant.

22
Graphical solution - A parallelogram with sides
equal to P and Q is drawn to scale. The
magnitude and direction of the resultant or of
the diagonal to the parallelogram are
measured,
= = 35 N 98 o R
Graphical solution - A triangle is drawn with P
and Q head-to-tail and to scale. The
magnitude and direction of the resultant or of
the third side of the triangle are measured,
= = 35 N 98 o R
Sample Problem 1
23
Trigonometric solution - Apply the triangle rule.
From the Law of Cosines,
( ) ( ) ( )( ) + =
+ =
155 cos N 60 N 40 2 N 60 N 40
cos 2
2 2
2 2 2
B PQ Q P R
A
A
R
Q
B A
R
B
Q
A
+ =
=
=
=
=
20
04 . 15
N 73 . 97
N 60
155 sin
sin sin
sin sin
o
N 73 . 97 = R
From the Law of Sines,
= 04 . 35 o
Sample Problem 1
24
K. Kalita 25
a) the tension in each of the ropes
for a = 45
o
,
b) the value of a for which the
tension in rope 2 is minimum.
A barge is pulled by two tugboats.
If the resultant of the forces
exerted by the tugboats is a 25 kN
directed along the axis of the
barge, determine
SOLUTION:
Find a graphical solution by applying the
Parallelogram Rule for vector addition. The
parallelogram has sides in the directions of
the two ropes and a diagonal in the direction
of the barge axis and length proportional to
25 kN force.
The angle for minimum tension in rope 2 is
determined by applying the Triangle Rule
and observing the effect of variations in a.
Find a trigonometric solution by applying
the Triangle Rule for vector addition. With
the magnitude and direction of the resultant
known and the directions of the other two
sides parallel to the ropes given, apply the
Law of Sines to find the rope tensions.
Sample Problem 2
K. Kalita 26
Graphical solution - Parallelogram Rule
with known resultant direction and
magnitude, known directions for sides.
1 2
18.5 kN 2600kN T T = =
Trigonometric solution - Triangle Rule
with Law of Sines

=
105 sin
kN 25
30 sin 45 sin
2 1
T T
kN 12.94 kN 18.3
2 1
= = T T
Sample Problem 2
K. Kalita 27
The angle for minimum tension in rope 2 is
determined by applying the Triangle Rule and
observing the effect of variations in o.
The minimum tension in rope 2 occurs when
T
1
and T
2
are perpendicular.
( ) = 30 sin kN 25
2
T
kN 12.5
2
= T
( ) = 30 cos kN 25
1
T
kN 21.7
1
= T
= 30 90 o = 60 o
Sample Problem 2
Rectangular Components of a Force: Unit Vectors
Vector components may be expressed as products of the unit
vectors with the scalar magnitudes of the vector
components.


F
x
and F
y
are referred to as the scalar components of
j F i F F
y x

+ =
F

May resolve a force vector into perpendicular components so


that the resulting parallelogram is a rectangle.
are referred to as rectangular vector components and
y x
F F F

+ =
y x
F F

and
Define perpendicular unit vectors which are
parallel to the x and y axes.
j i

and
28
K. Kalita 29
S Q P R

+ + =
Wish to find the resultant of 3 or more concurrent
forces,

=
+ + =
x
x x x x
F
S Q P R
The scalar components of the resultant are equal to the
sum of the corresponding scalar components of the
given forces.

=
+ + =
y
y y y y
F
S Q P R
x
y
y x
R
R
R R R
1 2 2
tan

= + = u
To find the resultant magnitude and direction,
( ) ( )j S Q P i S Q P
j S i S j Q i Q j P i P j R i R
y y y x x x
y x y x y x y x


+ + + + + =
+ + + + + = +
Resolve each force into rectangular components
Addition of Forces by Summing Components
Knowing that the tension in cable BC is 725-N, determine the resultant of the
three forces exerted at point B of beam AB.
SOLUTION:
Resolve each force into rectangular
components.
Calculate the magnitude and direction
of the resultant.
Determine the components of the
resultant by adding the corresponding
force components.
Sample Problem 3
30
SOLUTION:
Resolve each force into rectangular components.
Calculate the magnitude and direction.
Sample Problem 3
31
Equilibrium of a Particle
When the resultant of all forces acting on a particle is zero, the particle is
in equilibrium.
Newtons First Law: If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the particle will
remain at rest or will continue at constant speed in a straight line.
Particle acted upon by
two forces:
- equal magnitude
- same line of action
- opposite sense
Particle acted upon by three or more forces:
- graphical solution yields a closed polygon
- algebraic solution
0 0
0
= =
= =


y x
F F
F R

32
Free-Body Diagrams
Space Diagram: A sketch showing
the physical conditions of the
problem.
Free-Body Diagram: A sketch showing
only the forces on the selected particle.
33
K. Kalita 34
In a ship-unloading operation, a
8000-N automobile is supported by
a cable. A rope is tied to the cable
and pulled to center the automobile
over its intended position. What is
the tension in the rope?
SOLUTION:
Construct a free-body diagram for the
particle at the junction of the rope and
cable.
Apply the conditions for equilibrium by
creating a closed polygon from the
forces applied to the particle.
Apply trigonometric relations to
determine the unknown force
magnitudes.
Sample Problem 4
K. Kalita 35
Sample Problem 4
K. Kalita 36
SOLUTION:
Construct a free-body diagram for the
particle at A.
Apply the conditions for equilibrium.
Solve for the unknown force magnitudes.

=
58 sin
N 8000
2 sin 120 sin
AC AB
T T
N 8170 =
AB
T
N 329 =
AC
T
Sample Problem 4
Rectangular Components in Space
The vector is
contained in the
plane OBAC.
F

Resolve into
horizontal and vertical
components.
y h
F F u sin =
F

y y
F F u cos =
Resolve into
rectangular components
h
F
| u
|
| u
|
sin sin
sin
cos sin
cos
y
h y
y
h x
F
F F
F
F F
=
=
=
=
37
Rectangular Components in Space
With the angles between and the axes,
F

( )
k j i
F
k j i F
k F j F i F F
F F F F F F
z y x
z y x
z y x
z z y y x x


u u u

u u u
u u u
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
+ + =
=
+ + =
+ + =
= = =
is a unit vector along the line of action of
and are the direction
cosines for
F

z y x
u u u cos and , cos , cos
38
Rectangular Components in Space
Direction of the force is defined by
the location of two points,
( ) ( )
2 2 2 1 1 1
, , and , , z y x N z y x M
( )
d
Fd
F
d
Fd
F
d
Fd
F
k d j d i d
d
F F
z z d y y d x x d
k d j d i d
N M d
z
z
y
y
x
x
z y x
z y x
z y x
= = =
+ + =
=
= = =
+ + =
=

1
and joining vector
1 2 1 2 1 2

39
Sample Problem 4
The tension in the guy wire is 2500 N.
Determine:
a) components F
x
, F
y
, F
z
of the force
acting on the bolt at A,
b) the angles q
x
, q
y
, q
z
defining the
direction of the force
SOLUTION:
Based on the relative locations of the
points A and B, determine the unit
vector pointing from A towards B.
Apply the unit vector to determine the
components of the force acting on A.
Noting that the components of the unit
vector are the direction cosines for the
vector, calculate the corresponding
angles.
40
Sample Problem 4
SOLUTION:
Determine the unit vector pointing from A
towards B.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
m 3 . 94
m 30 m 80 m 40
m 30 m 80 m 40
2 2 2
=
+ + =
+ + =
AB
k j i AB


Determine the components of the force.
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )k j i
k j i
F F



N 795 N 2120 N 1060
318 . 0 848 . 0 424 . 0 N 2500
+ + =
+ + =
=
k j i
k j i


318 . 0 848 . 0 424 . 0
3 . 94
30
3 . 94
80
3 . 94
40
+ + =
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|

=
41
Noting that the components of the unit vector
are the direction cosines for the vector, calculate
the corresponding angles.
k j i
k j i
z y x


318 . 0 848 . 0 424 . 0
cos cos cos
+ + =
+ + = u u u

5 . 71
0 . 32
1 . 115
=
=
=
z
y
x
u
u
u
Sample Problem 3
42
ME101: Engineering Mechanics
Lecture 3
02
th
January 2012
Rigid Bodies: Equivalent Systems of Forces
K. Kalita 44
Rigid Bodies: Equivalent Systems of Forces
K. Kalita 45
Treatment of a body as a single particle is not always possible. In general,
the size of the body and the specific points of application of the forces
must be considered.
Most bodies in elementary mechanics are assumed to be rigid, i.e., the
actual deformations are small and do not affect the conditions of
equilibrium or motion of the body.
Current chapter describes the effect of forces exerted on a rigid body and
how to replace a given system of forces with a simpler equivalent system.
moment of a force about a point
moment of a force about an axis
moment due to a couple
Any system of forces acting on a rigid body can be replaced by an
equivalent system consisting of one force acting at a given point and one
couple.
Introduction
Forces acting on rigid bodies
are divided into two groups:
- External forces
- Internal forces
External forces are shown in a
free-body diagram.
If unopposed, each external force can impart a motion of translation or
rotation, or both.
External and Internal Forces
Principle of Transmissibility -
Conditions of equilibrium or motion are
not affected by transmitting a force
along its line of action.
NOTE: F and F are equivalent forces.
Moving the point of application of
the force F to the rear bumper
does not affect the motion or the
other forces acting on the truck.
Principle of transmissibility may
not always apply in determining
internal forces and deformations.
Principle of Transmissibility: Equivalent Forces
Concept of the moment of a force about a point is
more easily understood through applications of
the vector product or cross product.
Vector product of two vectors P and Q is defined
as the vector V which satisfies the following
conditions:
1. Line of action of V is perpendicular to plane
containing P and Q.
2. Magnitude of V is
3. Direction of V is obtained from the right-hand
rule.
u sin Q P V =
Vector products:
- are not commutative,
- are distributive,
- are not associative,
( ) Q P P Q =
( )
2 1 2 1
Q P Q P Q Q P + = +
( ) ( ) S Q P S Q P =
Vector Product of Two Vectors
Vector products of Cartesian unit vectors,
0
0
0
= = =
= = =
= = =
k k i k j j k i
i j k j j k j i
j i k k i j i i





Vector products in terms of rectangular
coordinates
( ) ( ) k Q j Q i Q k P j P i P V
z y x z y x


+ + + + =
( ) ( )
( )k Q P Q P
j Q P Q P i Q P Q P
x y y x
z x x z y z z y


+
+ =
z y x
z y x
Q Q Q
P P P
k j i


=
Vector Products: Rectangular Components
A force vector is defined by its magnitude and direction.
Its effect on the rigid body also depends on it point of
application.
The moment of F about O is defined as
F r M
O
=
The moment vector M
O
is perpendicular to the
plane containing O and the force F.
Any force F that has the same magnitude and direction as F,
is equivalent if it also has the same line of action and
therefore, produces the same moment.
Magnitude of M
O
measures the tendency of the force
to cause rotation of the body about an axis along M
O
.
The sense of the moment may be determined by the
right-hand rule.

Fd rF M
O
= = u sin
Moment of a Force About a Point
Two-dimensional structures have length and breadth
but negligible depth and are subjected to forces
contained in the plane of the structure.
The plane of the structure contains the point O and
the force F. M
O
, the moment of the force about O is
perpendicular to the plane.
If the force tends to rotate the structure counter
clockwise, the sense of the moment vector is out of
the plane of the structure and the magnitude of the
moment is positive.
If the force tends to rotate the structure clockwise,
the sense of the moment vector is into the plane of
the structure and the magnitude of the moment is
negative.
Moment of a Force About a Point
The moment about a give point O of the resultant of
several concurrent forces is equal to the sum of the
moments of the various moments about the same
point O.
Varigons Theorem makes it possible to replace the
direct determination of the moment of a force F by
the moments of two or more component forces of
F.
( )

+ + = + +
2 1 2 1
F r F r F F r
Varignons Theorem
( ) ( ) ( )k yF xF j xF zF i zF yF
F F F
z y x
k j i
k M j M i M M
x y z x y z
z y x
z y x O


+ + =
=
+ + =
The moment of F about O,
k F j F i F F
k z j y i x r F r M
z y x
O

+ + =
+ + = = ,
Rectangular Components of the Moment of a Force
The moment of F about B,
F r M
B A B

=
/
( ) ( ) ( )
z y x
B A B A B A B
F F F
z z y y x x
k j i
M =

( ) ( ) ( )
k F j F i F F
k z z j y y i x x
r r r
z y x
B A B A B A
B A B A



+ + =
+ + =
=
/
Rectangular Components of the Moment of a Force
For two-dimensional structures,
( )
z y
Z O
z y O
yF xF
M M
k yF xF M
=
=
=

( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( )
z B A y B A
Z O
z B A y B A O
F y y F x x
M M
k F y y F x x M
=
=
=

Rectangular Components of the Moment of a Force
A 500-N vertical force is applied to the end of a
lever which is attached to a shaft at O.
Determine:
a) moment about O,
b) horizontal force at A which creates the same
moment,
c) smallest force at A which produces the same
moment,
d) location for a 1200-N vertical force to produce
the same moment,
e) whether any of the forces from b, c, and d is
equivalent to the original force.
Sample Problem 3.1
a) Moment about O is equal to the product of the force
and the perpendicular distance between the line of
action of the force and O. Since the force tends to
rotate the lever clockwise, the moment vector is into
the plane of the paper.
( )
( )( ) m 0.3 500
3 . 0 300 60 cos 600
N M
m mm mm d
Fd M
O
O
=
= = =
=
SOLUTION:
Sample Problem 3.1
b) Horizontal force at A that produces the same
moment,
( )
( )
m 0.5196
m . N 150
5196 . 0 m . N 150
m 0.5196 mm 519.6 60 sin mm 600
=
=
=
= = =
F
m F
Fd M
d
O
Sample Problem 3.1
c) The smallest force A to produce the same
moment occurs when the perpendicular
distance is a maximum or when F is
perpendicular to OA.
( )
m 0.6
m . N 150
m 0.6 m . N 150
=
=
=
F
F
Fd M
O
N 250 = F
Sample Problem 3.1
d) To determine the point of application of a
1200 N force to produce the same moment,
( )
mm 125 cos60
mm 125
N 1200
m . N 150
N 1200 m . N 150
=
= =
=
=
OB
d
d
Fd M
O
mm 250 = OB
Sample Problem 3.1
e) Although each of the forces in parts b), c), and
d) produces the same moment as the 500-N
force, none are of the same magnitude and
sense, or on the same line of action. None of
the forces is equivalent to the 500-N force.
Sample Problem 3.1
3 - 62
e) Although each of the forces in parts b), c), and
d) produces the same moment as the 500-N
force, none are of the same magnitude and
sense, or on the same line of action. None of
the forces is equivalent to the 500-N force.
Sample Problem 3.1
The rectangular plate is supported by the brackets at A and B and by a wire
CD. Knowing that the tension in the wire is 200 N, determine the moment
about A of the force exerted by the wire at C.
SOLUTION:
The moment M
A
of the force F
exerted by the wire is obtained by
evaluating the vector product,
F r M
A C A

=
Sample Problem 3.2
Sample Problem 3.2
SOLUTION:
128 96 120
08 . 0 0 3 . 0

=
k j i
M
A

( ) ( ) ( )k j i M
A


m N 8.8 2 m N 8.8 2 m N 68 . 7 + + =
( ) ( ) j i r r r
A C A C


m 08 . 0 m 3 . 0 + = =
F r M
A C A

=
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
200 N
0.3 m 0.24 m 0.32 m
200 N
0.5 m
120 N 96 N 128 N
D C
D C
r
F F
r
i j k
i j k
= =
+
=
= +
Sample Problem 3.2
The scalar product or dot product
between two vectors P and Q is defined
as
( ) result scalar cosu PQ Q P = -

Scalar products:
- are commutative,
- are distributive,
- are not
associative,
P Q Q P

- = -
( )
2 1 2 1
Q P Q P Q Q P

- + - = + -
( ) undefined = - - S Q P

Scalar products with Cartesian unit
components,
0 0 0 1 1 1 = - = - = - = - = - = - i k k j j i k k j j i i





( ) ( ) k Q j Q i Q k P j P i P Q P
z y x z y x


+ + - + + = -
2 2 2 2
P P P P P P
Q P Q P Q P Q P
z y x
z z y y x x
= + + = -
+ + = -


Scalar Product of Two Vectors
Angle between two
vectors:
PQ
Q P Q P Q P
Q P Q P Q P PQ Q P
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
+ +
=
+ + = = -
u
u
cos
cos

Projection of a vector on a given
axis:
OL
OL
P P
Q
Q P
PQ Q P
OL P P P
= =
-
= -
= =
u
u
u
cos
cos
along of projection cos


z z y y x x
OL
P P P
P P
u u u

cos cos cos + + =


- =

For an axis defined by a unit vector:
Scalar Product of Two Vectors: Applications
Mixed triple product of three vectors,
( ) result scalar = - Q P S

The six mixed triple products formed from S, P,
and Q have equal magnitudes but not the same
sign,
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) S P Q Q S P P Q S
P S Q S Q P Q P S


- = - = - =
- = - = -
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
z y x
z y x
z y x
x y y x z
z x x z y y z z y x
Q Q Q
P P P
S S S
Q P Q P S
Q P Q P S Q P Q P S Q P S
=
+
+ = -

Evaluating the mixed triple product,
Mixed Triple Product of Three Vectors
Moment M
O
of a force F applied at the
point A about a point O,
F r M
O

=
Scalar moment M
OL
about an axis OL is the
projection of the moment vector M
O
onto
the axis,

( ) F r M M
O OL


- = - =
Moments of F about the coordinate
axes,
x y z
z x y
y z x
yF xF M
xF zF M
zF yF M
=
=
=
Moment of a Force About a Given Axis
Moment of a force about an arbitrary
axis,
( )
B A B A
B A
B BL
r r r
F r
M M


=
- =
- =

Moment of a Force About a Given Axis


Before the trunk of a large tree is felled,
cables AB and BC are attached as shown.
Tensions in cables AB and BC are 555-N
and 660-N, respectively.
Determine the moment about O of the
resultant force exerted on the tree by the
cables at B.
Sample Problem 3.3
SOLUTION:
Sample Problem 3.3
ME101: Engineering Mechanics
Lecture 4
03
th
January 2012
Two forces F and -F having the same
magnitude, parallel lines of action, and
opposite sense are said to form a couple.
Moment of the couple,
( )
( )
Fd rF M
F r
F r r
F r F r M
B A
B A
= =
=
=
+ =
u sin

The moment vector of the couple is


independent of the choice of the origin of
the coordinate axes, i.e., it is a free vector
that can be applied at any point with the
same effect.
Moment of a Couple
Two couples will have equal moments if

2 2 1 1
d F d F =
the two couples lie in parallel planes,
and
the two couples have the same sense
or the tendency to cause rotation in
the same direction.
Moment of a Couple
Consider two intersecting planes P
1

and P
2
with each containing a couple
2 2 2
1 1 1
plane in
plane in
P F r M
P F r M

=
=
Resultants of the vectors also form
a couple
( )
2 1
F F r R r M

+ = =
By Varigons theorem
2 1
2 1
M M
F r F r M

+ =
+ =
Sum of two couples is also a couple that is
equal to the vector sum of the two couples
Addition of Couples
A couple can be represented by a vector with magnitude and
direction equal to the moment of the couple.
Couple vectors obey the law of addition of vectors.
Couple vectors are free vectors, i.e., the point of application is not
significant.
Couple vectors may be resolved into component vectors.
Couples Can Be Represented by Vectors
Force vector F can not be simply moved to O without modifying its action on
the body.
Attaching equal and opposite force vectors at O produces no net effect on the
body.
The three forces may be replaced by an equivalent force vector and couple
vector, i.e, a force-couple system.
Resolution of a Force Into a Force at O and a Couple
Moving F from A to a different point O requires the addition of a
different couple vector M
O

F r M
O

' =
'
The moments of F about O and O are related,
( )
F s M
F s F r F s r F r M
O
O

+ =
+ = + = = '
'
Moving the force-couple system from O to O requires the addition of the
moment of the force at O about O.
Resolution of a Force Into a Force at O and a Couple
Determine the components of
the single couple equivalent to
the couples shown.
SOLUTION:
Attach equal and opposite 100-N forces
in the +x direction at A, thereby
producing 3 couples for which the
moment components are easily
computed.
Alternatively, compute the sum of the
moments of the four forces about an
arbitrary single point. The point D is
a good choice as only two of the
forces will produce non-zero moment
contributions..
Sample Problem 3.4
Sample Problem 3.4
The three couples may be represented
by three couple vectors,
( )( )
( )( )
( )( ) m . N 22.5 m 0.23 N 100
m . N 30 m 0.30 N 100
m . N 67.5 m 0.45 N 150
+ = + =
+ = + =
= =
z
y
x
M
M
M
( ) ( )
( )k
j i M


m . N 22.5
m . N 30 m . N 67.5
+
+ =
Sample Problem 3.4
Alternatively, compute the sum of the
moments of the four forces about D.
Only the forces at C and E contribute to the
moment about D.
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) | | ( )i k j
k j M M
D


N 100 m 0.30 m 0.23
N 150 m 0.45
+
= =
( ) ( )
( )k
j i M


m . N 22.5
m . N 30 m . 67.5
+
+ =
Sample Problem 3.4
A system of forces may be replaced by a
collection of force-couple systems acting a given
point O
The force and couple vectors may be combined
into a resultant force vector and a resultant
couple vector, ( )

= = F r M F R
R
O


The force-couple system at O may be moved to
O with the addition of the moment of R about
O ,
R s M M
R
O
R
O


+ =
'
Two systems of forces are equivalent if they
can be reduced to the same force-couple
system.
System of Forces: Reduction to a Force and Couple
If the resultant force and couple at O are mutually
perpendicular, they can be replaced by a single force
acting along a new line of action.
The resultant force-couple system for a system of
forces will be mutually perpendicular if:
1) the forces are concurrent,
2) the forces are coplanar, or
3) the forces are parallel.
Further Reduction of a System of Forces
System of coplanar forces is reduced
to a force-couple system
that is mutually perpendicular.
R
O
M R

and
System can be reduced to a single
force by moving the line of action
of until its moment about O
becomes
R
O
M

In terms of rectangular
coordinates,
R
O x y
M yR xR =
Further Reduction of a System of Forces
For the beam, reduce the system
of forces shown to (a) an
equivalent force-couple system at
A, (b) an equivalent force couple
system at B, and (c) a single force
or resultant.
Note: Since the support reactions
are not included, the given system
will not maintain the beam in
equilibrium.
SOLUTION:
a) Compute the resultant force for the
forces shown and the resultant couple
for the moments of the forces about
A.
b) Find an equivalent force-couple
system at B based on the force-couple
system at A.
c) Determine the point of application for
the resultant force such that its
moment about A is equal to the
resultant couple at A.
Sample Problem 3.5
SOLUTION:
a) Compute the resultant force and the
resultant couple at A.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) j j j j
F R


N 250 N 100 N 600 N 150 + =
=

( ) j R

N 600 =
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) j i
j i j i
F r M
R
A

250 8 . 4
100 8 . 2 600 6 . 1
+
+ =
=

( )k M
R
A

m N 1880 =
Sample Problem 3.5
b) Find an equivalent force-couple system at B
based on the force-couple system at A.
The force is unchanged by the movement of
the force-couple system from A to B.
( ) j R

N 600 =
The couple at B is equal to the moment about
B of the force-couple system found at A.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )k k
j i k
R r M M
A B
R
A
R
B


m N 2880 m N 1880
N 600 m 8 . 4 m N 1880
+ =
+ =
+ =
( )k M
R
B

m N 1000 + =
Sample Problem 3.5
Angle between two
vectors:
PQ
Q P Q P Q P
Q P Q P Q P PQ Q P
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
+ +
=
+ + = = -
u
u
cos
cos

Projection of a vector on a given
axis:
OL
OL
P P
Q
Q P
PQ Q P
OL P P P
= =
-
= -
= =
u
u
u
cos
cos
along of projection cos


z z y y x x
OL
P P P
P P
u u u

cos cos cos + + =


- =

For an axis defined by a unit vector:
Scalar Product of Two Vectors: Applications
3
0 = F
Two forces of the same magnitude P act on a cube of side a as shown. Replace the two
forces by an equivalent wrench, and determine (a) the magnitude and direction of the
resultant force R, (b) the pitch of the wrench, (c) the point where the axis of the wrench
intersects the yz plane.
x
y
z
a
a
a
1

Pi = F
2

Pj = F
A
A
B
C
D
E
Three cables are attached to the
bracket as shown. Replace the
forces with an equivalent force-
couple system at A.
SOLUTION:
Determine the relative position vectors for
the points of application of the cable forces
with respect to A.
Resolve the forces into rectangular
components.
Compute the equivalent force,

= F R

Compute the equivalent couple,
( )

= F r M
R
A

Sample Problem 3.6


SOLUTION:
Determine the relative position
vectors with respect to A.
( )
( )
( ) m 100 . 0 100 . 0
m 050 . 0 075 . 0
m 050 . 0 075 . 0
j i r
k i r
k i r
A D
A C
A B

=
=
+ =
Resolve the forces into rectangular
components.
( )
( ) N 200 600 300
289 . 0 857 . 0 429 . 0
175
50 150 75
N 700
k j i F
k j i
k j i
r
r
F
B
B E
B E
B


+ =
+ =
+
= =
=

( )( )
( ) N 1039 600
30 cos 60 cos N 1200
j i
j i F
D


+ =
+ =
( )( )
( ) N 707 707
45 cos 45 cos N 1000
j i
j i F
C


=
=
Sample Problem 3.6
Compute the equivalent force,
( )
( )
( )k
j
i
F R


707 200
1039 600
600 707 300
+
+ +
+ + =
=

( ) N 507 439 1607 k j i R




+ =
Compute the equivalent couple,
( )
k
k j i
F r
j
k j i
F r
k i
k j i
F r
F r M
D A D
c A C
B A B
R
A

9 . 163
0 1039 600
0 100 . 0 100 . 0
68 . 17
707 0 707
050 . 0 0 075 . 0
45 30
200 600 300
050 . 0 0 075 . 0
= =
=

=
=

=
=

k j i M
R
A


9 . 118 68 . 17 30 + + =
Sample Problem 3.6
Instructions for TUTORIAL
Bring pen, pencil, tagged A4 sheets, calculator, text books
Submitted in same tutorial class
Solve more problems as home work
Tutorial: 12 % contribution in grading
Do not miss any tutorial class
QUIZ 1 FEB, 09
th
, 2012