Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 29

Hydraulic Systems Design Guidelines

1. Hydraulic Diagram Symbols

2. Types of Hydraulic Cylinder

3. Mountings Positions

4. Power Pack and Accessories

5. Hydraulic valves and Functions

6. Hydraulic Circuit Design

7. Calculations

valves and Functions 6. Hydraulic Circuit Design 7. Calculations Rajesh Kumdale Enginee r Design inpac@rediffmail.com

Rajesh Kumdale

Engineer Design

inpac@rediffmail.com

Hydraulic Circuits Design Symbols

Hydraulic symbols can provide a clear representation of the function of each hydraulic component and therefore laying each symbol out on the page in the same way the components are placed in the circuit allows for the complete function of the hydraulic equipment to be diagnosed and understood.

Lines

hydraulic equipment to be diagnosed and understood. Lines Circular Square Diamond Miscellaneous Symbols Triangle
hydraulic equipment to be diagnosed and understood. Lines Circular Square Diamond Miscellaneous Symbols Triangle
hydraulic equipment to be diagnosed and understood. Lines Circular Square Diamond Miscellaneous Symbols Triangle

Circular

equipment to be diagnosed and understood. Lines Circular Square Diamond Miscellaneous Symbols Triangle -continuous

Square

to be diagnosed and understood. Lines Circular Square Diamond Miscellaneous Symbols Triangle -continuous line -

Diamond

be diagnosed and understood. Lines Circular Square Diamond Miscellaneous Symbols Triangle -continuous line - flow line

Miscellaneous Symbols

Lines Circular Square Diamond Miscellaneous Symbols Triangle -continuous line - flow line -dashed line - pilot,

Triangle

Lines Circular Square Diamond Miscellaneous Symbols Triangle -continuous line - flow line -dashed line - pilot,

-continuous line - flow line

-dashed line - pilot, drain

-envelope - long and short dashes around two or more component symbols.

-large circle - pump, motor

-small circle - Measuring devices

-semi-circle - rotary actuator

-one square - pressure control function -two or three adjacent squares - directional control

-diamond - Fluid conditioner (filter, separator, lubricator, heat exchanger)

-Spring

-Flow Restriction

-solid - Direction of Hydraulic Fluid Flow

-open - Direction of Pnematic flow

-open - Direction of Pnematic flow

Pumps and Compressors

Fixed Displacement hydraulic pump

flow Pumps and Compressors Fixed Displacement hydraulic pump Variable displacement hydraulic pump Compressor

Variable displacement hydraulic pump

hydraulic pump Variable displacement hydraulic pump Compressor -unidirectional -bidirectional -unidirectional

Compressor

pump Variable displacement hydraulic pump Compressor -unidirectional -bidirectional -unidirectional

-unidirectional

-bidirectional

-unidirectional

-bidirectional

Motors

Fixed displacement hydraulic motor

-bidirectional Motors Fixed displacement hydraulic motor -unidirectional -bidirectional Variable displacement

-unidirectional

Motors Fixed displacement hydraulic motor -unidirectional -bidirectional Variable displacement hydraulic motor

-bidirectional Variable displacement hydraulic motor -unidirectional

Variable displacement hydraulic motor -unidirectional -bidirectional Pneumatic motor Rotary Actuator
Variable displacement hydraulic motor -unidirectional -bidirectional Pneumatic motor Rotary Actuator

-bidirectional

Pneumatic motor

motor -unidirectional -bidirectional Pneumatic motor Rotary Actuator -unidirectional -bidirectional - hydraulic -

Rotary Actuator

-unidirectional -bidirectional Pneumatic motor Rotary Actuator -unidirectional -bidirectional - hydraulic - pneumatic

-unidirectional

-bidirectional

- hydraulic

- pneumatic

Cylinders

Single acting cylinder

Cylinders Single acting cylinder Double acting cylinders Cylinders with cushions -returned by external force -returned by
Cylinders Single acting cylinder Double acting cylinders Cylinders with cushions -returned by external force -returned by

Double acting cylinders

Cylinders Single acting cylinder Double acting cylinders Cylinders with cushions -returned by external force -returned by
Cylinders Single acting cylinder Double acting cylinders Cylinders with cushions -returned by external force -returned by

Cylinders with cushions

cylinder Double acting cylinders Cylinders with cushions -returned by external force -returned by spring or extended

-returned by external force

-returned by spring or extended by spring force

-single piston rod (fluid required to extend and retract)

-double ended piston rod

- single fixed cushon

- double fixed cushion

- single adjustable cushion

- double adjustable cushion

Directional Control Valves

Directional control valve (2 ports / 2 positions)

-Normally closed directional control valve with 2 ports and 2 finite positions.Valves Directional control valve (2 ports / 2 positions) -Normally open directional control valve with 2

-Normally open directional control valve with 2 ports and 2 finite positions.control valve with 2 ports and 2 finite positions. Directional control valve (3 ports / 2

Directional control valve (3 ports / 2 positions)

-Normally closed directional control valve with 3 ports and 2 finite positions.positions. Directional control valve (3 ports / 2 positions) -Normally open directional control valve with 3

-Normally open directional control valve with 3 ports and 2 finite positions.control valve with 3 ports and 2 finite positions. Directional control valve (4 ports / 2

Directional control valve (4 ports / 2 positions)

-directional control valve with 4 ports and 2 finite postions2 finite positions. Directional control valve (4 ports / 2 positions) Directional control valve (4 ports

Directional control valve (4 ports / 3 positions)

-directional control valve with 4 ports and 3 finite postions *-(center position can have various flow paths) *-(center position can have various flow paths)

Directional control valve (5 ports / 2 positions) Normally a pneumatic valve

-directional control valve with 5 ports and 2 finite postionsvalve (5 ports / 2 positions) Normally a pneumatic valve Directional control valve (5 ports /

Directional control valve (5 ports / 3 positions) Normally a pneumatic valve

-directional control valve with 5 ports and 3 finite postionsvalve (5 ports / 3 positions) Normally a pneumatic valve Proportional directional control valve Electro-hydraulic

Proportional directional control valve Electro-hydraulic servo valve -The spool positions on these valves is variable allowing for variable flow conditions.

valves is variable allowing for variable flow conditions. -single-stage direct operation unit which accepts an analog
valves is variable allowing for variable flow conditions. -single-stage direct operation unit which accepts an analog

-single-stage direct operation unit which accepts an analog signal and provides a similar analog fluid power output

-two-stage with mechnical feedback indirect pilot operation unit which accepts an analog signal and provides a similar analog fluid power output

Control Methods

Manual Control

-general symbol (without showing the control type)

-general symbol (without showing the control type)

-pushbutton

-pushbutton

-lever

-lever

-foot pedal

-foot pedal

Mechanical Control

-plunger or tracer

-plunger or tracer

-spring

-spring

-roller

-roller

-roller(one direction only)

-roller(one direction only)

Electrical Control

-plunger or tracer -spring -roller -roller(one direction only) Electrical Control -Solenoid (the one winding)

-Solenoid (the one winding)

Pilot Operation

Pilot Operation -pneumatic -hydraulic Pilot operated two-stage valve -Pneumatic: Sol first stage -Pneumatic: Air pilot
Pilot Operation -pneumatic -hydraulic Pilot operated two-stage valve -Pneumatic: Sol first stage -Pneumatic: Air pilot

-pneumatic

-hydraulic

Pilot operated two-stage valve

-Pneumatic: Sol first stage

-Pneumatic: Sol first stage

-Pneumatic: Air pilot second stage

-Pneumatic: Air pilot second stage

-Hydraulic: Sol first stage

-Hydraulic: Sol first stage

-Hydraulic: Hyd pilot second stage

-Hydraulic: Hyd pilot second stage

Check valves, Shuttle valves, Rapid Exhaust valves

-check valve -free flow one direction, blocked flow in other direction

-check valve -free flow one direction, blocked flow in other direction

-pilot operated check valve, pilot to close

-pilot operated check valve, pilot to close

-pilot operated check valve, pilot to open

-pilot operated check valve, pilot to open

Shuttle valve

-pilot operated check valve, pilot to open Shuttle valve -to isolate one part of a system

-to isolate one part of a system from an alternate part of circuit.

Rapid exhaust valve/Pneumatic

an alternate part of circuit. Rapid exhaust valve/Pneumatic -installed close to an actuator for rapid movement

-installed close to an actuator for rapid movement of the actuator.

Pressure Control Valves

Pressure Relief Valve(safety valve) normally closed

- line pressure is limited to the setting of the valve, secondary part is directed to tank. tank.

Proportional Pressure Relief

- line pressure is limited to and proportional to an electronic signal Sequence Valve -

- line pressure is limited to and proportional to an electronic signal

Sequence Valve

to and proportional to an electronic signal Sequence Valve - when the line pressure reaches the

- when the line pressure reaches the setting of the valve, valve opens permitting flow to the secondary port. The pilot must be externally drained to tank.

Pressure

Reducing

valve - pressure downstream of valve is limited to the setting of the valve

downstream of valve is limited to the setting of the valve Flow Control Valves Throttle valve

Flow Control Valves

Throttle valve

-adjustable output flowthe setting of the valve Flow Control Valves Throttle valve Flow Control valve -with fixed output

Flow Control valve

-with fixed output (variations in inlet pressure do not affect rate of flow)Throttle valve -adjustable output flow Flow Control valve -with fixed output and relief port to reservoir

-with fixed output and relief port to reservoir with relief for excess flow (variations in inlet pressure do not affect rate of flow)(variations in inlet pressure do not affect rate of flow) -with variable output -fixed orifice -metered

-with variable output(variations in inlet pressure do not affect rate of flow) -fixed orifice -metered flow toward right

-fixed orificepressure do not affect rate of flow) -with variable output -metered flow toward right free flow

-metered flow toward right free flow to leftaffect rate of flow) -with variable output -fixed orifice -pressure compensated flow control fixed output flow

-pressure compensated flow control fixed output flow regardless of load-fixed orifice -metered flow toward right free flow to left -pressure and temperature compensated -with variable

-pressure and temperature compensatedflow control fixed output flow regardless of load -with variable output and relief port to reservoir

-with variable output and relief port to reservoirregardless of load -pressure and temperature compensated Flow dividing valve -flow is divided equally to two

Flow dividing valve

-flow is divided equally to two outputs.compensated -with variable output and relief port to reservoir Flow dividing valve Shut-Off Valve -Simplified symbol

Shut-Off Valve

relief port to reservoir Flow dividing valve -flow is divided equally to two outputs. Shut-Off Valve

-Simplified symbol

Accumulators

Accumulators Filters, Water Traps, Lubricators and Miscellaneous Apparatus Filter or Strainer Water Trap Filter with water

Filters, Water Traps, Lubricators and Miscellaneous Apparatus

Filter or Strainer

Lubricators and Miscellaneous Apparatus Filter or Strainer Water Trap Filter with water trap -with manual drain

Water Trap

and Miscellaneous Apparatus Filter or Strainer Water Trap Filter with water trap -with manual drain -with
and Miscellaneous Apparatus Filter or Strainer Water Trap Filter with water trap -with manual drain -with

Filter with water trap

-with manual drain

-with automatic drained

-with manual drain

-with manual drain

-automatic drain

-automatic drain

Air Dryer

drained -with manual drain -automatic drain Air Dryer Lubricator refrigerant, or chemical removal of water from

Lubricator

refrigerant, or chemical removal of water from compressed air line

or chemical removal of water from compressed air line Conditioning unit -oil vapor is indected into

Conditioning unit

-oil vapor is indected into air line

-compound symbol of filter, regulator, lubricator unitline Conditioning unit -oil vapor is indected into air line -Simplified Symbol Heat Exchangers <> -air

line -compound symbol of filter, regulator, lubricator unit -Simplified Symbol Heat Exchangers <> -air or water

-Simplified Symbol

Heat Exchangers

<>lubricator unit -Simplified Symbol Heat Exchangers -air or water cooled unit designed to remove heat from

-air or water cooled unit designed to remove heat from oil returning to reservoir

Hydraulic Cylinder Types Cylinder

design

Description

Plunger

cylinder

Single-

action

cylinder

Single-

action

telescopic

cylinder

Double-

action

cylinder

(Differential

cylinder)

Double-

action

telescopic

cylinder

This single-action cylinder is pressurized only in one direction. Plunger cylinders are also available with an upper limit stop, which returns through its own weight. Application: Presses, construction machines, heavy vehicle construction, and so on.

According to pressurization of the piston area, this cylinder may be either a pressure or a traction cylinder. The unpressurized piston side has an air filter to prevent dust from penetrating into the cylinder and thus the wear connected with this problem. If a spring has been provided as reset force, the spring pretension must be determined.

Telescopic cylinders adapt to limited installation possibilities and, at the same time, fulfill the requirement for the longest stroke possible. All stages of the cylinder are pressurized on one side and the cylinder releases its power during extension. Its own weight on the consumer side makes the cylinder retract. Applications: Vehicle, excavator, and machine construction, and so on.

These cylinders are the most commonly used hydraulic cylinders. They are also manufactured with damping on the piston or rod side or on both sides.In the case of this model, a force can be transmitted in both directions of movement.

This telescopic cylinder does not return through its own weight and is thus effective in every position. Application: Feed mechanism for large furnaces and brick kilns.

Symbol

weight and is thus effect ive in every position. Application: Feed mechanism for large furnaces and
weight and is thus effect ive in every position. Application: Feed mechanism for large furnaces and
weight and is thus effect ive in every position. Application: Feed mechanism for large furnaces and
weight and is thus effect ive in every position. Application: Feed mechanism for large furnaces and
weight and is thus effect ive in every position. Application: Feed mechanism for large furnaces and

Rod End Connection

Mountings

Fix and Rigidly Guide

Fix and Rigidly Guide

Pivoted and Rigidly Guide

Pivoted and Rigidly Guide

Fix and Rigidly Guide

Fix and Rigidly Guide

Pivoted and Rigidly Guide

Pivoted and Rigidly Guide

Pivoted and Rigidly Guide

Pivoted and Rigidly Guide

Supported but not Rigidly Guide

Supported but not Rigidly Guide

Pivoted and Rigidly Guide

Pivoted and Rigidly Guide

Supported but not Rigidly Guide

Supported but not Rigidly Guide

Supported but not Rigidly Guide

Supported but not Rigidly Guide
not Rigidly Guide Pivoted and Rigidly Guide Supported but not Rigidly Guide Supported but not Rigidly

Power Pack.

1) Hydraulic Driven Power Unit and Sizing

Power Pack. 1 ) Hydraulic Driven Power Unit and Sizing 2) Hydraulic Motor 3) Valve Panel
Power Pack. 1 ) Hydraulic Driven Power Unit and Sizing 2) Hydraulic Motor 3) Valve Panel

2) Hydraulic Motor

Power Pack. 1 ) Hydraulic Driven Power Unit and Sizing 2) Hydraulic Motor 3) Valve Panel

3) Valve Panel Assembly

Power Pack. 1 ) Hydraulic Driven Power Unit and Sizing 2) Hydraulic Motor 3) Valve Panel
l
l

Reservoir Size

Suction Strainer 4 to 5 times pump Flow capacity

4 to 5 times pump capacity

1. Oil reservoir

2

Filler/breather

3

Float switch

4

Thermostat with display

5

Return filter

6

Electric motor

7

Axial piston pump

8

Pressure safety block

9

Pressure relief valve

10

Directional valve

11 Pressure gauge

12 Pressure hose

13 Check valve

14 Suction hose

15 Check flap with monitoring of the position

16 Motor pump assembly

17 Filter

18 Oil/water cooler 19 Water control valve, electric

Required for Design the Hydraulic Circuit, Pump capacity / Hose Power required by Driven the Pump / Working pressure and size of Reservoir Service to Store for Hydraulic Oil.

2) Breather Filter. Function this filter the air which breathes into and out of the reservoir, helping to maintain hydraulic fluid purity. As well as help to fill tank.

Choose a Breather Filter of 5 CFM Air flow capacity when the reservoir less than 50 Ltr, Flow Over 50 Ltr 25 CFM air flow breather can select.

3) Flot Switch . Float switch is a highly reliable product used for automated liquid control the regulator can be used for filling or empying function, according with the demands

4) Electronic Contact thermometer. Serve the temperature control of hydraulic system

The contact thermometer have two or four programmable temperature switching output alternatively one program mobile switch out put one analog output 4-20 mA with display and control unit.

Hydraulic Pump Power Calculations.

Power

Pinkw

PxQ

600 xn

P

= Pressure in Bar

Q

= Flow rater of Pump LPM

N

= Efficiency 80 % (0.8)

 

Maximum Pressure

Maximum Flow

 

Type of Pump

(bar)

(l/min)

Comment

Centrifugal

20

3000

 

Gear

175

300

Positive displacement

Vane

175

500

Positive and variable displacement

Axial Piston - port- plate

300

500

Positive and variable displacement

Axial Piston - valved

700

650

Positive and variable displacement

In-line Piston

1000

100

Positive and variable displacement

Hydraulic Valves.

Directional Control Valve, Hydraulic - Description

Hydraulic valves function to control pressure, control flow or direct flow in response to external commands. Directional valves are valves that direct flow in response to external commands. Directional valves are referenced by the number of positions the spool will take (2, 3 or 4 positions are typical) and the number of hydraulic ports in the valve (2 way, 3 way and 4 way are typical). Examples are shown below.

3 way and 4 way are typical). Examples are shown below. Two way, Two Position (2/2)

Two way, Two Position (2/2) Valve

In a two way, two position valve, the servo can be in one of two positions and the two ways because there are 2 fluid ports in the valve (or, if you prefer, the valve housing). Although a spool arrangement is shown, any type of check valve could be considered a two way, two position valve.

(Two Positions Shown)

a two way, two position valve. (Two Positions Shown ) Three way, Two Position (3/2) Valve

Three way, Two Position (3/2) Valve

In a three way, two position valve, there are three inlet/outlet ports in the valve and the spool can be in one of two positions. A 3/2 valve would be used to allow fluid flow into or out of actuator or motor.

Four Way, Two Position (4/2) Valve In a four way, two position valves there are

Four Way, Two Position (4/2) Valve

In a four way, two position valves there are four inlet/outlet ports in the valve and the spool can be located in one of two positions. For 4/2 valve fluid is always flowing through the valve with system pressure supplied to one of the two outlet ports at all times. The other port would then be ported to return. 4/2 valves would normally be used in hydraulic systems in conjunction with an upstream shut valve (or 2/2 valve). In this case a 4/3 valve usually makes more sense. However, 4/3 valves can be found in power control units (PCUs), where a shutoff valve is installed in the PCU where a shut valve is not packaged with the 4/2 valve due to other design considerations in the PCU.

the 4/2 valve due to other design considerations in the PCU. Four way, Three Position (4/3)

Four way, Three Position (4/3) Valve

In a four way, three position valve, the spool is in one of three positions and there are 4 inlet/outlet ports in the valve. In the midstroke position there is no flow through the valve. A good application of a 4/3 valve is actuator control, where the actuator control goal is to extend, retract or hold a position. 4/3 valves are used in servovalves, where the spool is controlled by a flapper valve or a jet pipe valve.

When specifying a directional control valve, the following parameters should be evaluated:

Pressure Rating – make sure valve is rated for your system pressure Pressure Drop – this is the manufacturer’s pressure drop at a rated flow through the valve. There may be a tolerance on the pressure drop which may need to be evaluated.

Pressure and Flow Characteristics for a 4/3 Valve

Pressure and Flow Characteristics for a 4/3 Valve Reference the 4/3 directional schematic above, note the

Reference the 4/3 directional schematic above, note the flow areas from P s to P A and P B to P r are

equal (matched and symmetrical valve). Ignoring leakage through the servo piston, the flow rates

are characterized by the orifice flow equations,

Flow Control Valve, Hydraulic - Description

The two methods of controlling flow rate in a hydraulic circuit are (i) using a fixed orifice and (ii)

using a flow control valve. For accurate flow control, a device that regulates to a Δp across an orifice

is required – referred to as pressure compensated flow control valve. Figure 1 shows a simplified

pressure compensated flow control valve.

shows a simplified pressure compensated flow control valve. Schematic of a Inlet Pressure Regulated Flow Control

Schematic of a Inlet Pressure Regulated Flow Control Valve

As the Δp (force balance) across the servo varies the flow opening by the servo, the metering orifice inlet pressure is regulated. Hence as P1 increases (or P2 decreases), the servo moves to the left and reduces the servo flow area. And as P1 reduces (or P2 increases), the servo moves to the right thereby increasing the flow area. The flow control valve shown in Figure 1 modulates P1 to control

flow. Calibration of the flow control valve is obtained by adjusting the metering orifice. The spring preload may also be adjustable. A second example of the flow control valve is shown in Figure 2. In this valve, the servo modulates P2. However, the overall function of the valve is similar to the valve in Figure 1. Regulating P2 may be an advantage over regulating P1 if the servo port in Figure 1 could become the controlling orifice (flow area becomes smaller than the metering orifice). In this case the servo port opening would be controlling flow.

this case the servo port opening would be controlling flow. Pilot operated directional valve This symbol

Pilot operated directional valve

would be controlling flow. Pilot operated directional valve This symbol shows a complete pilot operated directi

This symbol shows a complete pilot operated directional valve. This would probably be a large, high flow, hydraulically operated bottom valve with a smaller electrically operated pilot valve. The solenoids show the hydraulic pilot as well as an external pilot pressure supply X and external pilot pressure drain Y. The symbol also shows and open centre P to T spool.

Proportional directional valve

and open centre P to T spool. Proportional directional valve The proportional valve symbol includes several

The proportional valve symbol includes several key differences from the ON/OFF type directional valve. Firstly the outside of the spool section contains lines either side. The solenoids also have arrows running through them to show they operate gradually rather than just on and off. The square box with the triangle inside represents internal electronics although this will not be present on all proportional valves. Schematic of a Outlet Pressure Regulated Flow Control Valve

Check Valve, Hydraulic, Description

The function of a check valve is to prevent flow in one direction and allow flow in the other direction.

Check valves commonly use a poppet and light spring to control flow as shown in the figure below.

If P 1 A 1 > P 2 A 2 + spring force + friction, then flow occurs in the direction of the arrows. If P 1 A 1 < P 2 A 2

+ spring force + friction, then the poppet would be pushed to the left, against the stop, prohibiting

flow in the reverse direction.

the stop, prohibiting flow in the reverse direction . Check Valve Schematic The most common method

Check Valve Schematic

The most common method for designing a check valve is illustrated in the Figure 1. Different manufacturers may utilize other design approaches. For example, another type of check valve is a ball that pushes against a spring. Operation is similar to the check valve shown in Figure 1 except a ball replaces the piston.Check valves are used in hydraulic systems anytime flow in a selected direction is not desirable or may create a problem. Check valves are not used in bidirectional flow lines, such as to and from actuators. Some examples where check valves are used are

Accumulator Operation and Applications

Accumulator Operation and Applications An accumulator : - is an energy storage device. It stores potential

An accumulator: - is an energy storage device. It stores potential energy through the compression of a dry inert gas (typically nitrogen) in a container open to a relatively incompressible fluid (typically hydraulic oil). There are two types of accumulators commonly used today. The first is the bladder type (including diaphragm designs) and the second is the piston type. While other types of accumulator designs exist, compressed gas accumulators’ ar far and away the most common. The bladder style uses a compressible gas contained in an elastic bladder mounted inside a shell.

Working: - 1.) When the hydraulic pump in the system is turned on it causes fluid to enter the accumulator. When fluid fills the shell, accumulator charging begins as the nitrogen in the bladder is compressed by a fluid pressure greater than its pre-charge pressure. This is the source of stored energy. (2.) As the bladder compresses due to the fluid filling the shell, it "deforms" in shape, taking up less space in the shell while at the same time, pressure in the bladder increases. This bladder "deformation" ceases when the pressure of the system fluid and the now compressed nitrogen become balanced. (3.) Upon downstream system demand, fluid system pressure falls and the stored fluid is pushed out of the accumulator shell and returned to the system under pressure exerted by the compressed nitrogen, whose pressure is now greater than the fluid pressure. Upon completion of whatever hydraulic system function the accumulator was designed to do, the cycle starts all over again with step one. One of the most important considerations in applying accumulators is calculating the correct pre-charge pressure for the type of accumulator being used, the work to be done and system operating parameters. Pre-charge pressure is generally 80 - 90% of the minimum system working pressure to allow a small amount of fluid to remain in the accumulator. cause accumulator damage or failure. Conversely, a properly designed and maintained accumulator should operate trouble-free for years.

Hydraulic Hose Sizing

Hydraulic Hose Sizing

Hydraulic Formula

 

(v)VELOCITY OF FLUID IN PIPE (m/s)

d = bore of pipe (mm)

 

f

21.22

 
 

f

= flow rate (l/min)

V=

 

d

2

Note: Normally accepted flow range for intake lines 0.6 – 1.2 (lit/min) for pressure lines 2 – 5 (lit/min). Stated flow rates for continuous duty application, for intermittent duty cycles, with due considerations to t pressure lines could be exceeded. Example Hitachi EX450 dipper cylinder annulus (rod side) delivery flow v = 10.2 m/s head side exhaust flow v = 20 m/s.

t = TEMPERATURE RISE DUE TO PRESSURE DROP IN A SYSTEM

p

=

pressure drop (bar)

p

t = 600

= Kw

In

a pipeline system the total heat produced will be dissipated over the whole length of the run via radiation &

convection. That may be sufficient in effecting sufficient heat dissipation to maintain acceptable oil temperature 650 - 700C.

(p) PRESSURE REQUIRED IN A CYLINDER TO LIFT A LOAD (bar) (1bar = 10N/cm2 )

F

=

Newtons (N)

 

F

 

A

= Area (cm2)

P

= A

 

p

= Pressure

 

(

CYLINDER (Newtons) (N)

F

) FORCE GENERATED BY A

(bar)=(10N/cm2)

A =Area (cm2)

p

x A

( A ) AREA (cm2) OF A CYLINDER REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN FORCE

p

= Pressure

 

F

 

(bar)=(10N/cm2)

 

F

= Newtons (N)

A =

p

 

Example

 

Force (F) = 5000N

 
p A
p
A

F

 

5000

Pressure(p) 50 bar (50 x 10 = 500Ncm2)

 

P =

10

= 500 N/cm2 = 50

bar

 

Area (A) = 10 cm2

 
 

F = 500 10 = 5000 N

 

POWER REQUIRED TO DRIVE A PUMP

 

l / minbar

 
 

600

 

= kW

TORQUE REQUIRED TO DRIVE

 

kW 9550

 

A

PUMP

 

rpm

 

= Nm

TORQUE GENERATED BY A HYDRAULIC MOTOR

   

bar cc (rev / min)

 

Nm =

 

20

CONVERSION FACTORS

 
 

100,000 pascal (Pa) / 100 kilo pascal (kPa) / 10Ncm2 / 100,000 (105) Nm / 14.504 psi

/ 1.02kgf/cm2 /

(10 bar = 1 mega pascal (1 MPa)

 

1 bar =

The SI standard unit for pressure is the “pascal” (Pa) though used mainly in academic applications

1 newton (N) =

0.1019367 kgf

1 kiogram force (kgf) =

9.81N / 2.204 lbf

1 Pound force (lbf) =

4.45N

1 Kilo watt (kW) =

1.34

hp

1 Horse power (hp) =

0.745

kW / 2545 British thermal units / hour (BTU/h)

1 Litre (ltr) =

0.22

Imperial gallons

1 Imperial gallon (gall) =

4.546

l

gallons 1 Imperial gallon (gall) = 4.546 l F acts on a piston, this force creates

F acts on a piston, this force creates a pressure on the piston area Ak. Conversely, this force is also a resistance that the pump delivery Q meets. In this way, a pressure builds that acts evenly on all sides, including the piston area Ak. The piston can thus now exert a force itself according to the following formula:

F pxAk

F = p * Ar (Analogously for the return flow)

F

=

Piston force

(D² x 3,14)

in [N]

Ak

 

=

Piston area

in [mm²]

   
 

4

(D²-d²) x 3,14

Ar

=

Piston ring area

in [mm²]

 

4

D

=

Piston diameter

in [mm]

d

=

Piston rod diameter

in [mm]

h

=

Stroke length

in [mm]

Q

=

Pump delivery

in [l/min]

t

=

Stroke time

in [s]

v

=

Speed

in [m/s]

Since friction and pressure losses reduce the piston force, a safety margin of 15-25% should be allowed for compensation when you select a cylinder. The theoretical compressive or attractive forces of the hydraulic cylinders can be found in the documents for every series.

Piston Speed

The feed flow or return flow speeds are calculated using the flows of liquid coming from the pump, which fill the stroke volume of the hydraulic cylinder within a certain unit of time. For the speeds specified above, the following equations result under consideration of the usual units:

V

V

Q

Ak

Q

Ar

= Feed Flow

= Return Flow

Please observe that the volume of liquid flowing away during the return flow is always greater than the in-flowing liquid due to the difference in area.

As a result, the return flow is faster than the feed flow.

If the length of the cylinder stroke is known, the stroke time t can be calculated as follows:

t

A kxh

t

Q

A rxh

Q

=

=

Feed Flow

Return Flow

Buckling strength of the Piston Rod

The danger of the piston rods buckling during long strokes and an additional unfavorable cylinder mounting determine the cylinder sizes and their limits. The calculations are usually carried out according to Euler since the piston rods are to be seen as slender rods. The following applies:

F k

2 x ExI

L k 2

Fk

=

Force at which the piston rod buckles

N

E

=

Modulus of elasticity (Steel 210000 N/mm2)

N/mm2

I

=

Moment of inertia (for circle cross-section)

mm4

Lk

=

Free buckling length

mm

Th e f o ll ow i ng di agram s h ows th e

The following diagram shows the four so-called Eulerian load cases. The permissible stroke lengths of every hydraulic cylinder series are listed in the appendix.

the case of end position damping, the kinetic energy is converted to heat energy. At a constant delay, the following applies:

m

 

2

m

=

v

=

A

=

p

=

s

=

=

A*p*s

(Energy conservation law)

Moved mass

[kg]

Speed

[m/s]

Effective damping area

[m²]

N

Average damping pressure in

 

Damping distance

[m]

This results in the average damping pressure:

P

mxv 2

2 xAxs

Stroke and Total Length Tolerances According to DIN 7169G

L + Stroke = Installation Length in mm

Permissible Deviation in mm

0

499

+/-1,5

500

1249

+/- 2

1250

3149

+/- 3

3150

8000

+/- 5

Formula

Recommended Maximum Oil Velocity in Hydraulic Lines mps = meters per second Pump suction lines -0 .6 to 1.2 mps Pres. lines to 35 bar - 3 to 4½ mps Pres. lines to 206.8 bar - 4½ to 6 mps Pres. lines over 200 bar - 7½ mps Oil lines in air/oil system - 1¼ mps Note:- Avoid Flow rate > 8 m/sec.resulting force is high can be destroy tube lines.

Line Sizing.

The velocity of hydraulic fluid through a conductor (pipe, tube or hose) is dependent on flow rate and Cross sectional area. Recommended fluid velocities through pipes and hoses in hydraulic systems are as Follows

Service

Velocity ( Ft/Sec)

Velocity ( m/sec)

Suction / intake

2-4

0.6 to 1.2

Return

4- 13

1.5 to 4

Pressure / discharge

7- 18

2, to 5.5

Use values at the lower end of the range for lower pressures or where operation is continuous. Refer to the flow/velocity nomograms on pages four and five for more information, alternatively, fluid velocity

In metric units

Flow calculated formula Tube ID

=

4.61

FlowLPM Vm /sec
FlowLPM
Vm /sec

Where

V = velocity in meters per second (m / Sec)

Q

= Flow rate in liters per minute

(L / min)

D

= inside diameter of pipe or hose in millimetres (mm)

Pressure drop

Friction between the fluid flowing through a conductor and its inside wall causes losses, which are Quantified as pressure drop. Pressure drop in conductors is an important consideration for the designer

Q

= Flow rate in litres per minute (L/min)

D

=

Inside diameter of pipe or hose in millimetres (mm)

(cSt) = Kinematic viscosity of fluid (at operating temperature) in centistokes

P = Density of the fluid in kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m³)

L = Length of the pipe, tube or hose in metres (m)

Calculate the Reynolds Number (Re)

=

1000 xVxD V
1000 xVxD
V

Calculate Friction factor: - F = 64 / Re f = Friction Factor. Re = Reynolds Number < 2300

If the Reynold Number is between 2300 and 4000 flow is transition and greater than 4000 Flow is turbulent for reynold Numbers greater than 2300 and less than 1000,000 the following formula can be used to calculate the friction factor.

Calculate Pressure drop

P

V

2

xFxLxP

2 D

p

= Pressure drop in Pascal (Pa)

V

= velocity in meter per second (m /sec)

F

= Friction factor

L

= Length of Pipe in meter (m)

P

= density of fluid in kilogram cubic meter (870 - 890 kg/m3 for hydraulic oil)

D

= inside diameter of pipe in (m)

Flow / Velocity (Metric)
Flow / Velocity (Metric)