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The Changing Nature of Organizations, Work, and Workplace

by Judith Heerwagen, Ph.D., J.H. Heerwagen & Associates Kevin Kelly and Kevin Kampschroer, U.S. General Services Administration(http://www.gsa.gov/) Last updated: 02-08-2006

INTRODUCTION

Imagine you went to sleep and woke up to a work day in 1960. How different is your work life today, compared to what it was 40 years ago? Clearly, there would not be a Starbucks on every corner or a cell phone in every pocket—but what else has changed and why?

In today's world, the structure, content, and process of work have changed. Work is now:

more cognitively complexcontent, and process of work have changed. Work is now: more team-based and collaborative more dependent

more team-based and collaborativeof work have changed. Work is now: more cognitively complex more dependent on social skills more

more dependent on social skillsmore cognitively complex more team-based and collaborative more dependent on technological competence more time

more dependent on technological competenceteam-based and collaborative more dependent on social skills more time pressured more mobile and less dependent

more time pressuredon social skills more dependent on technological competence more mobile and less dependent on geography. In

more mobile and less dependent on geography.dependent on technological competence more time pressured In today's world, you will also be working for

In today's world, you will also be working for an organization that is likely to be very different due to competitive pressures and technological breakthroughs. Organizations today are:

leaner and more agileand technological breakthroughs. Organizations today are: more focused on identifying value from the customer

more focused on identifying value from the customer perspectiveOrganizations today are: leaner and more agile more tuned to dynamic competitive requirements and strategy

more tuned to dynamic competitive requirements and strategyfocused on identifying value from the customer perspective less hierarchical in structure and decision authority less

less hierarchical in structure and decision authoritymore tuned to dynamic competitive requirements and strategy less likely to provide lifelong careers and job

less likely to provide lifelong careers and job securityless hierarchical in structure and decision authority continually reorganizing to maintain or gain competitive

continually reorganizing to maintain or gain competitive advantage.less likely to provide lifelong careers and job security This Resource Page explores the changing nature

This Resource Page explores the changing nature of organizations and work, the drivers behind the changes, and the consequences for workers and the workplace.

DESCRIPTION

A. The Key Drivers for Changing Nature of Work

Although many factors ultimately contribute to the changing patterns of work, organizational theorists point to two key drivers:

Increasing pressures on organizations to be more competitive, agile, and customer focused—to be a "lean enterprise."of work, organizational theorists point to two key drivers: Communication and information technology breakthroughs,

Communication and information technology breakthroughs, especially mobile technologies and the Internet that enable work to be separated from time and space.and customer focused—to be a "lean enterprise." CHANGES IN ORGANIZATIONAL FOCUS: WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO

CHANGES IN ORGANIZATIONAL FOCUS: WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE LEAN?

The Lean Enterprise model was introduced to the world by Toyota in the 1970s. Since then, it has fueled changes in organizations across the globe, particularly—but not exclusively—in manufacturing and product development.

The key principles of Lean Enterprise (or "lean thinking", as it is sometimes called) are:

Define value from the customer's perspective.(or "lean thinking", as it is sometimes called) are: Identify internal activities and processes that add

Identify internal activities and processes that add value for the customer and identify linkages between them (theEnterprise (or "lean thinking", as it is sometimes called) are: Define value from the customer's perspective.

"value chain").

Eliminate non-value added activities (or "waste") across the organization."value chain"). Reduce waste and inefficiencies in support (e.g., overhead) functions. The lean enterprise

Reduce waste and inefficiencies in support (e.g., overhead) functions.activities (or "waste") across the organization. The lean enterprise principles enabled many organizations to

The lean enterprise principles enabled many organizations to respond more rapidly to the marketplace by reducing cycle time, developing mass customization processes, and supporting continual change and innovation.

CREATING THE LEAN MACHINE: CHANGES IN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND RELATIONSHIPS

Adopting lean principles and lean thinking has led to numerous changes in organizational structure to improve the efficiency of internal processes, with a goal of eliminating waste and defining customer value.

These changes have been supported and enabled by transformations in information and communications technology, especially the Internet and mobile computing and communication devices.

Key organizational changes include:

Reduced hierarchical structure—Hierarchies are cumbersome and cannot respond quickly to changing market demands, such as pressures for —Hierarchies are cumbersome and cannot respond quickly to changing market demands, such as pressures for reduced cycle time and continuous innovation. Hierarchies are being replaced by cross unit organizational groupings with fewer layers and more decentralized decision making.

Blurred boundaries—As organizations become more laterally structured, boundaries begin to breakdown as different parts of the —As organizations become more laterally structured, boundaries begin to breakdown as different parts of the organization need to work more effectively together. Boundaries between departments as well as between job categories (manager, professional, technical) become looser and there is a greater need for task and knowledge sharing.

Teams as basic building blocks—The move toward a team-based organizational structure results from pressures to make rapid decisions, to —The move toward a team-based organizational structure results from pressures to make rapid decisions, to reduce inefficiencies, and to continually improve work processes.

New management perspective—Workers are no longer managed to comply with rules and orders, but rather to be —Workers are no longer managed to comply with rules and orders, but rather to be committed to organizational goals and mission. The blurring of boundaries also affects organizational roles. As employees gain more decision authority and latitude, managers become more social supporters and coaches rather than commanders.

Continuous change—Organizations are expected to continue the cycles of reflection and reorganization. However, changes may be —Organizations are expected to continue the cycles of reflection and reorganization. However, changes may be both large and small and are likely to be interspersed with periods of stability. Kling and Zmuidzinas identify three types of change—"metamorphosis" (far reaching, fundamental change), "migration" (shifts toward a new form), and "elaboration" (changes that enhance some aspect of work).

B. How Work is Changing for Individuals and Groups

Over the past two decades, a new pattern of work is emerging as the knowledge economy realizes the full potential of both new technologies and new organizational models. The changes fall into the following domains:

Cognitive competencemodels. The changes fall into the following domains: Social and interactive competence The new "psychological

Social and interactive competencefall into the following domains: Cognitive competence The new "psychological contract" between employees

The new "psychological contract" between employees and employersCognitive competence Social and interactive competence Changes in process and place Although these domains are

Changes in process and placecontract" between employees and employers Although these domains are discussed separately, they

Although these domains are discussed separately, they overlap. We briefly discuss the overlaps, where they exist, and point to the benefits and concerns the new work patterns present for workers and managers.

COGNITIVE COMPETENCE

Cognitive workers are expected to be more functionally and cognitively fluid and able to work across many kinds of tasks and situations. The broader span of work, brought about by changes in organizational structure, also creates new demands, including:

Increased complexity of work—Workers need to know more, not only to do their jobs and tasks, but also —Workers need to know more, not only to do their jobs and tasks, but also to work effectively with others on teams. Many knowledge-based tasks require sound analytical and judgment skills to carry out work that is more novel, extemporaneous, and context based, with few rules and structured ways of working. Although demand for high cognitive skills are especially prominent in professional, technical, and

managerial jobs, even administrative tasks require more independent decision making and operational decision making.

Continuous competency development—Not only do workers need to keep their technology skills up to date, they need —Not only do workers need to keep their technology skills up to date, they need to be continuous learners in their knowledge fields and to also be more conversant with business strategy. Time to read and attend training classes is no longer a perquisite of only a few, it is essential for all workers.

Different ways of thinking—Rosabeth Kantor argues that cross-functional and cross boundary teams require "kaleidoscope thinking," the —Rosabeth Kantor argues that cross-functional and cross boundary teams require "kaleidoscope thinking," the ability to see alternative angles and perspectives and to create new patterns of thinking that propel innovation. Workers also need to be able to synthesize disparate ideas in order to make the cognitive leaps that underlie innovation.

COGNITIVE OVERLOAD: THE COST OF COMPLEXITY

Vastly increased access to information has made work both easier and more difficult. The ease comes from ability to rapidly locate and download information from diverse web sites. The difficulty comes with the need to consume and make sense of new information in a timely fashion. Information overload, coupled with time pressures and increased work complexity, lead to what psychologists call "cognitive overload syndrome (COS)." Symptoms of COS include stress, inability to concentrate, multitasking, task switching, and a tendency to focus on what is easy to do quickly rather than what is important.

SOCIAL AND INTERACTIVE COMPETENCE

In a 2001 report on the changing nature of work, the National Research Council called attention to the importance of relational and interactive aspects of work. As collaboration and collective activity become more prevalent, workers need well-developed social skills—what the report calls "emotional labor."

Good social skills are necessary for:

Team work and collaboration—Conflict resolution and negotiation skills are essential to collaborative work. Conflicts often occur about group —Conflict resolution and negotiation skills are essential to collaborative work. Conflicts often occur about group goals, work methods, assignments, workloads, and recognition. Team members with good conflict and negotiation skills are better equipped to deal openly with problems, to listen and understand different perspectives, and to resolve issues in mutually beneficial ways.

Relationship development and networking—Sharing important information, fulfilling promises, willingness to be influenced, and listening are building blocks of —Sharing important information, fulfilling promises, willingness to be influenced, and listening are building blocks of reciprocity and the development of trust. When workers trust one another, they are more committed to attaining mutual goals, more likely to help one another through difficulties, and more willing to share and develop new ideas.

Learning and growth—Many organizations strive to be learning centers—to create conditions in which employees learn not only —Many organizations strive to be learning centers—to create conditions in which employees learn not only through formal training but through relationships with coworkers. Learning relationships build on joint problem solving, insight sharing, learning from mistakes, and working closely together to aid transmission of tacit knowledge. Learning also develops from mentoring relationships between newcomers and those with experience and organizational know-how.

THE COSTS OF COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENTS

In a collaborative work setting, the fate of individuals is inextricably bound to collective success. Dependence on others for one's own success is often uncomfortable. As Susan Mohrman and Susan Cohen write in a chapter from The Changing Nature of Work:

"We have been socialized to value individual responsibility and individual achievement, and feel discomfort with the thought of relying on others."

Comments about the fear of not having individual efforts recognized are common in the literature on team work.

Collaboration and relationship development also take time and effort. Understanding coworkers' perspectives and "thought worlds" requires time spent listening, integrating, and synthesizing. For those workers recognized as both knowledgeable and approachable, the demands of interaction may be especially high.

C. The New Psychological Contract

As work changes, so does the nature of the relationships between employees and employers. In the new work context, the informal, "psychological contract" between workers and employers—what each expects of the other—focuses on competency development, continuous training, and work/life balance. In contrast, the old psychological contract was all about job security and steady advancement within the firm. As already discussed, few workers expect, or desire, lifelong employment in a single firm.

As job security declines, many management scientists see clouds on the horizon, including:

Corporate indifference—Shoshana Zuboff and James Maxmin, in The Support Economy , describe a new individualism among —Shoshana Zuboff and James Maxmin, in The Support Economy, describe a new individualism among U.S. workers. These new individuals are invested in "psychological self determination." They desire participation, expression, identity, and quality of life—all values which are espoused by organizations, but largely ignored in practice as organizations continue to focus on reducing fixed labor costs.

Reduced loyalty and commitment—With little expectation for advancement, workers feel less committed to organizational goals and more committed —With little expectation for advancement, workers feel less committed to organizational goals and more committed to their own learning and development. The knowledge and technological skills that employees bring with them to the workplace are transportable and are not lost when a new job is taken.

Increased time burdens—Years of downsizing and outsourcing have produced what Lesie Perlow calls a "time famine"—the feeling —Years of downsizing and outsourcing have produced what Lesie Perlow calls a "time famine"—the feeling of having too much to do and too little time to do it. In order to keep up with workloads, many workers are spending longer hours at work, according to reports by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Center for Workforce Development.

Flexible work arrangements do not keep up with employee preferences—The Work Trends 2000 report found that 74% of workers were not allowed flexible hours —The Work Trends 2000 report found that 74% of workers were not allowed flexible hours and work arrangements (such as telecommuting). Those with flex hours have limited freedom regarding when and where to work. The vast majority of workers have to commit to a specific day to work at home or a specific day to take off if they work four10-hour days.

D. The Changing Workplace

The changing workplace is driven by the organizational issues described above and enabled by technologies that support mobility and easy access to information. These pressures and opportunities, however, have not resulted in a specific new workplace model. Many models and ideas exist concurrently, with designs depending upon the organization, its work practices, culture, and customers. Table 1 highlights key drivers, solutions, and potential issues raised by the solution.

Table 1. Drivers, Solutions, and Issues for the Changing Workplace

Drivers

Workplace and technology solutions

Issues and concerns

Increased use of teams and cross unit work; more pressure for communication and information flow

More meeting spaceIncreased use of teams and cross unit work; more pressure for communication and information flow Increased

Increased noiseIncreased use of teams and cross unit work; more pressure for communication and information flow More

Greater variety of meeting spaces (open & enclosed, large & small)Increased distractions and interruptions

Increased distractions and interruptionsGreater variety of meeting spaces (open & enclosed, large & small)

Potential for "over communicating"& small) Increased distractions and interruptions Smaller individual workspaces Cultural barriers to

Smaller individual workspacesCultural barriers to behavioral change

Cultural barriers to behavioral changeSmaller individual workspaces

More open individual workspacesIndividuals working longer hours to compensate for lack of time to do individual tasks Expectations

Individuals working longer hours to compensate for lack of time to do individual tasksExpectations that workers are always available

Expectations that workers are always availableIndividuals working longer hours to compensate for lack of time to do individual tasks

Unassigned workspacestasks Expectations that workers are always available   Greater interior visibility to support awareness

 

Greater interior visibility to support awarenessMobile supports(/design/integrate_tools.php) (phones, laptops, PDAs, wireless)

Mobile supports(/design/integrate_tools.php) (phones, laptops, PDAs, wireless) Mobile supports(/design/integrate_tools.php) (phones, laptops, PDAs, wireless)

Personal video, instant messaging, desktop team software 

 

More use of project roomsvideo, instant messaging, desktop team software   Displayed information and work progress Small rooms for

Displayed information and work progressdesktop team software   More use of project rooms Small rooms for individual focus Lockers for

Small rooms for individual focususe of project rooms Displayed information and work progress Lockers for personal belongings Greater use of

Lockers for personal belongingsand work progress Small rooms for individual focus Greater use of dispersed work groups—often global

Greater use of dispersed work groups—often global

Increased use of video conferencing, computer-based team toolsGreater use of dispersed work groups—often global Expansion of the workday to accommodate geographically dispersed team

Expansion of the workday to accommodate geographically dispersed team meetingsGreater use of dispersed work groups—often global Increased use of video conferencing, computer-based team tools

More reliance on conference callsto accommodate geographically dispersed team meetings   Greater need for mobile technological supports for

 

Greater need for mobile technological supports for meeting rooms  Loss of opportunity to develop trust through face to face interaction

Loss of opportunity to develop trust through face to face interaction  Greater need for mobile technological supports for meeting rooms

 

Use of facilities beyond normal working hours  More difficulty managing and coordinating

More difficulty managing and coordinating  Use of facilities beyond normal working hours

Continual reorganization and restructuring

Flexible infrastructure(/design/design_change.php) to support rapid reconfiguration Flexible infrastructure(/design/design_change.php) to support rapid reconfiguration

Mobile furnishingsFlexible infrastructure(/design/design_change.php) to support rapid reconfiguration

Acoustical problems with loss of good enclosurerestructuring Flexible infrastructure(/design/design_change.php) to support rapid reconfiguration Mobile furnishings

Potential for reduced ergonomic effectivenessAcoustical problems with loss of good enclosure Reduced costs/more efficient space use Shared or

Reduced costs/more efficient space use

Shared or unassigned workspacesReduced costs/more efficient space use Increased distractions and interruptions

Increased distractions and interruptionsReduced costs/more efficient space use Shared or unassigned workspaces

Centralized filing systemIncreased noise

Increased noiseCentralized filing system

 

Reduced workstation size and increased overall densities  May meet with employee resistance

May meet with employee resistance  Reduced workstation size and increased overall densities

More difficult for paper intensive workoverall densities May meet with employee resistance Greater overall spatial variety to enable different kinds of

Greater overall spatial variety to enable different kinds of work to be accommodated at same timeemployee resistance More difficult for paper intensive work Improved quality of work life and attraction of

Improved quality of work life and attraction of new workers

Resistance from those who support hierarchical space allocationlife and attraction of new workers More equitable access to daylight(daylighting.php) , views, and other amenities

More equitable spatial allocation and workspace featuresfrom those who support hierarchical space allocation   Amenities for stress reduction and quiet relaxation

 

Amenities for stress reduction and quiet relaxation 

APPLICATION

Examples

DENVER FEDERAL CENTER, DENVER, COLORADO. OWNER: U.S. GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION (GSA)

The Denver workplace project was responding initially to GSA's "Worldclass Workplace for a Worldclass Workforce" program to provide better work environments for associates and to ultimately attract and retain new workers. However, as the project developed, the GSA Public Buildings Service (PBS) team grew more interested in using the workplace as a catalyst for social change and the development of work relationships with the ultimate goal of improving responsiveness to customers.

Key Goals

Improve internal working relationships, especially cross-group communication and collaborationgoal of improving responsiveness to customers. Key Goals Reduce workplace stress and increase the overall quality

Reduce workplace stress and increase the overall quality of life for GSAespecially cross-group communication and collaboration associates Use the workplace as way to show that PBS is

associates

Use the workplace as way to show that PBS is a thought leader, not a follower, in workplace designand increase the overall quality of life for GSA associates Workplace Solutions Photo 1. The new

Workplace Solutions

not a follower, in workplace design Workplace Solutions Photo 1. The new daylit entry space in

Photo 1. The new daylit entry space in the GSA building at the Denver Federal Center creates not only a positive impression, but also a central social space where associates frequently encounter one another on their way to different areas in the building.

Open spaces at central notes for spontaneous interactionone another on their way to different areas in the building. More meeting spaces of a

More meeting spaces of a greater varietyOpen spaces at central notes for spontaneous interaction centrally located café for meetings and lunch new

centrally located café for meetings and lunchinteraction More meeting spaces of a greater variety new daylit entry space "de-stress" space with pool

new daylit entry spacevariety centrally located café for meetings and lunch "de-stress" space with pool table, ping pong,

"de-stress" space with pool table, ping pong, exercise room and lounge furnishings (all paid for by the staffa greater variety centrally located café for meetings and lunch new daylit entry space A A

A

A

A

through fundraising efforts)

Photo 2 (Left) The de-stress space (known as "The Pit") supports group social occasions, exercise,
Photo 2 (Left) The de-stress space (known as "The Pit") supports group social occasions, exercise,

Photo 2 (Left) The de-stress space (known as "The Pit") supports group social occasions, exercise, and pool playing during breaks. The furnishings and equipment in "The Pit" were provided through fundraising efforts by the staff. Photo 3 (Right) The skylight café, located right off of the entryway, is used for informal meetings as well as lunchtime gatherings.

Outcomes for the Denver Project

A research program is currently underway to assess changes in social networks and communication behaviors,

workplace stress, and workplace quality. Preliminary findings show that:

Compared to other GSA workplaces, the new Denver workplace scored higher on a number of social outcomes as measured by a web-based survey administered by the University of California, Center for the Built Environment.and workplace quality. Preliminary findings show that: A preliminary social network analysis conducted by

A preliminary social network analysis conducted by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show that face-to-face interactions are significantly higher than virtual communications among associates in the space. The social network survey will be administered again when the final phase of the workplace renovation is completed.University of California, Center for the Built Environment. Workplace stress research is currently underway. Physicians

Workplace stress research is currently underway. Physicians and psychologists at the National Institutes of Health are using innovative technologies to monitor stress over a 24-hour period and are also using behavioral sampling to gather periodic data on mood, activity, and location.

CISCO SYSTEMS, CONNECTED WORKPLACE PROOF OF CONCEPT, SAN JOSE, CA

Like many other organizations today, Cisco came to the conclusion that their workplace environment was at odds with the way they worked. People were seldom at their desks. Meeting spaces were in short supply. Communication was ever more variable-face-to-face, instant messaging, desktop video, phone, e-mail. And work hours shifted dramatically as the need to work globally increased. With these changes in mind, Cisco created the "Connected Workplace." It is currently in the Proof of Concept phase with a new demonstration office space on their campus in San Jose.

Key Goals

Encourage collaborationoffice space on their campus in San Jose. Key Goals Reduce real estate costs Reduce infrastructure

Reduce real estate coststheir campus in San Jose. Key Goals Encourage collaboration Reduce infrastructure costs Accommodate different work

Reduce infrastructure costsKey Goals Encourage collaboration Reduce real estate costs Accommodate different work styles Project Hypothesis Photo

Accommodate different work stylesReduce real estate costs Reduce infrastructure costs Project Hypothesis Photo 4. The Connected Workplace enables

Project Hypothesis

costs Accommodate different work styles Project Hypothesis Photo 4. The Connected Workplace enables Cisco employees to

Photo 4. The Connected Workplace enables Cisco employees to work alone or in small groups at workstations or in informal work areas. (Copyright by Cisco Systems)

A flexible collaborative workspace could improve productivity and increase

,

employee satisfaction while reducing real estate space and costs by increasing user density (from "Cisco Connected Workplace Enhances Work Experience and Cuts Costs," www.cisco.com(http://www.cisco.com)).

Workplace Solutions

Unassigned workspaceswww.cisco.com(http://www.cisco.com) ). Workplace Solutions Increased number and variety of meeting spaces, from

Increased number and variety of meeting spaces, from enclosed conference rooms and informal areas with comfortable chairs to a centrally located café). Workplace Solutions Unassigned workspaces Small individual workstations Highly mobile furnishings and

Small individual workstationsareas with comfortable chairs to a centrally located café Highly mobile furnishings and space dividers Lockers

Highly mobile furnishings and space dividersto a centrally located café Small individual workstations Lockers for personal items Increased density; the space

Lockers for personal itemsworkstations Highly mobile furnishings and space dividers Increased density; the space used for the POC would

Increased density; the space used for the POC would normally hold 88 employees compared to the 140 actually assigned to the workplacefurnishings and space dividers Lockers for personal items High visibility throughout the space High daylight and

High visibility throughout the spacecompared to the 140 actually assigned to the workplace High daylight and views to the surrounding

High daylight and views to the surrounding outdoor landscapeto the workplace High visibility throughout the space Enabling Technologies Wireless infrastructure and wireless

Enabling Technologies

Wireless infrastructure and wireless LANSto the surrounding outdoor landscape Enabling Technologies Laptops and docking stations Cisco work support software for

Laptops and docking stationsTechnologies Wireless infrastructure and wireless LANS Cisco work support software for individuals and groups Cisco

Cisco work support software for individuals and groupsand wireless LANS Laptops and docking stations Cisco IP Communications Technology, including software that

Cisco IP Communications Technology, including software that enables calls over PCs using wired or wireless headsetsCisco work support software for individuals and groups Mobile video conferencing tools and software for web

Mobile video conferencing tools and software for web meetingsthat enables calls over PCs using wired or wireless headsets Interactive white boards Instant messaging, e-mail

Interactive white boardsvideo conferencing tools and software for web meetings Instant messaging, e-mail and voice mail Tools for

Instant messaging, e-mail and voice mailtools and software for web meetings Interactive white boards Tools for enabling workers to quickly locate

Tools for enabling workers to quickly locate each other in different areas of the building of the building

Outcomes

Although project evaluation is still underway, preliminary results show:

Employees expressed generally high levels of satisfaction with theevaluation is still underway, preliminary results show: Photo 5. A long table next to the window

expressed generally high levels of satisfaction with the Photo 5. A long table next to the

Photo 5. A long table next to the window serves as a work setting for both a small group and individuals working on their laptops. (Copyright by Cisco Systems)

working on their laptops. (Copyright by Cisco Systems) Photo 6. A wireless Bluetooth headset, coupled with

Photo 6. A wireless Bluetooth headset, coupled with Cisco-developed software, enables workers to use their laptops to send and receive phone calls while they are working in ad hoc spaces in the Connected Workplace.

technologies, light, openness, and increased opportunity for collaboration

Those who typically spent the most time at their desks were more challenged by the mobilitylight, openness, and increased opportunity for collaboration Cost savings of 37% to 60% across categories such

Cost savings of 37% to 60% across categories such as rent, construction, furniture, cabling, and workplace services.time at their desks were more challenged by the mobility ADDITIONAL RESOURCES WBDG BUILDING / SPACE

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

WBDG

BUILDING / SPACE TYPES Applicable to building types(/design/buildingtypes.php) and space types(/design/spacetypes.php) that are regularly occupied or visited.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Publications

"A Few Thoughts on Cognitive Overload" by D. Kirsh. Intellectia , 1(30): 19-51, 2000. by D. Kirsh. Intellectia, 1(30): 19-51, 2000.

The Changing Nature of Work by A. Howard, Ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1995. by A. Howard, Ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1995.

The Changing Nature of Work: Implications for Occupational Analysis by National Research Council, Committee on Techniques for Enhancement of Human Performance: Occupational Analysis. by National Research Council, Committee on Techniques for Enhancement of Human Performance: Occupational Analysis. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

Cisco Connected Workplace Enhances Work Experience and Cuts Costs by Cisco Systems, 2003. Available: by Cisco Systems, 2003. Available:

Cisco IT Case Study/Real Estate/Cisco Connected Workplace Available: www.cisco.com(http://www.cisco.com) . Available: www.cisco.com(http://www.cisco.com).

The Machine that Changed the World by J.P. Womack, D.T. Jones, and D. Roos. Old Tappan, N.J.: Macmillan, by J.P. Womack, D.T. Jones, and D. Roos. Old Tappan, N.J.: Macmillan,

1990.

"The New Workforce Meets the Changing Workplace" by R. M. Ranter. In The Nature of Work: Sociological Perspectives . K.Erikson and S.P. by R. M. Ranter. In The Nature of Work: Sociological Perspectives. K.Erikson and S.P. Vallas (Eds). New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1990.

The Support Economy by S. Zuboff and J. Maxmin. New York: Penguin Group, Viking Press, 2002. by S. Zuboff and J. Maxmin. New York: Penguin Group, Viking Press, 2002.

"Technology, Ideology, and Social Transformation: The Case of Computerization and Work Organization" by R. Kling, and M. Zmuidzinas. Revue Internationale de Sociologie , 2-3: 28-56, 1994. by R. Kling, and M. Zmuidzinas. Revue Internationale de Sociologie, 2-3: 28-56, 1994.

The Time Bind by A. Hochschild. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1977. by A. Hochschild. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1977.

"The Time Famine: Toward a Sociology of Work Time" by L. Perlow. Administrative Science Quarterly , 44: 57-81, by L. Perlow. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 57-81,

1999.

Tomorrow's Organization by S.A. Mohrman, J.A. Gailbraith, E.E. Lawler III, and Associates. San Francisco: by S.A. Mohrman, J.A. Gailbraith, E.E. Lawler III, and Associates. San Francisco:

Jossey-Bass, 1998.

The Toyota Way by J. Liker. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. by J. Liker. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

When People Get Out of the Box by S.A. Mohrman and S. G. Cohen. In The Changing Nature of Work . A. by S.A. Mohrman and S. G. Cohen. In The Changing Nature of Work. A. Howard (Ed). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1995.

Work Trends, 2000. Nothing but Net: American Workers and the Information Economy by John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development, Rutgers University and Center for Survey Research by John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development, Rutgers University and Center for Survey Research and Analysis, University of Connecticut.

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