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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT
Teachers Note

Page No.
1 2

Compilers Note

Group No.
1. Faisal Hassan Leader 2. M Abu Bakr Ashraf Leader 3. Sanya Raza Tiwana Leader 4. Yamna Khan Leader 5. Sidra Babar Malik Leader 6. Samana Yunus Leader 7. Anum Aslam Leader 8. M Ammar Ansari Leader

Group Theme
Militancy Political Integration of Tribal Areas Ethnic Polarization in Pakistan Palestinian Conflict

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20 37 56

Kashmir Dispute 73 Terrorism 92 Saindak Copper Gold Project Water Management 128 108

Teachers Note
Like all good universities, Bahria University strives to provide the right environment for producing business executives with ability to think out of the box. Taking full advantage of that and with a strong faith in the abilities and potential of our youth , the students of Bachelors of Business Administration 6th Semester Section A were encouraged to attempt writing case studies based on their personal observations/ knowledge or information gathered from someone else. They not only attempted this individual assignment with fair degree of success and produced some interesting and relevant conflict related cases but also successfully conducted valuable discussions in the class as part of our overall learning drive. There is a need to appreciate the first attempts by these budding business professionals in writing a case depicting a conflict situation notwithstanding the fact that there is considerable room to make improvements in these. What is of special significance is the originality of effort/work, and that this could serve as a humble beginning towards attaining greater creativity in times to come. These cases could also be further improved through further study and research by the students that follow. It is with this thought that these write ups are being compiled for appropriate placement. It will be unfair if the efforts put in by Mahira Tariq in completing this compilation assignment are not acknowledged. The final product amply speaks of her hard work and creative talent. I wish the contributing students as well as the compiler success. May Allah Almighty be their guide. Ameen. Prof Manzoor Iqbal Awan, Col (R) Faculty Member and Senior Consultant * USQ (Australia), COMSATS & NUML * Bahria, Air & Preston Universities * University of Lahore * Dual Matrix Inc. & MDi Cell: +92 321 854 3122 Email: integrated.consult@yahoo.com&awan9ff@gmail.com Profile: www.linkedin.com/in/manzooriqbawan Islamabad 1 January 2011

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COMPILERS NOTE
We as students had no know how of issues and conflicts existing in our own country. The projects given to us by Sir Manzoor were good which agitated our thought process. We were also engaged in class discussion activities which helped us think out of the box and relate to the issues prevailing in our country and also in various organizations and how to deal with thim. We developed many case studies on various topics and also their analysis which helped us look at the other side of the picture then what is visible to us. Our efforts were recognized and we the accredited students were also encouraged by our Professor to take a further deep look at the case studies presented to him. Me as the compiler of these case studies learned a lot in the sense that, I learned a lot about operating Microsoft office and the things I learned helped me with other projects as well. My work was appreciated by the professor. Moreover I am a very shy person and doubt my abilities but our professor made me believe in myself and also encouraged me. He boosted my self-confidence and I will always be grateful to him for that. MAHIRATARIQ Fall 2011 BBA 6-A Bahria University Email: me_t@hotmail.com
Islamabad January 6, 2012

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Who Says that Students Dont Work?

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Students only need the right environment..

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Militancy and Pakistan

Militancy and Pakistan

Over the last couple of decades, Pakistan has been suffering from the curse of militancy that continues to take a heavy toll in all respects of our national life. There is a need to arrest militancy and resultantly rid the country of this menace. Having identified parties to the conflict, prepare an all-inclusive case study for class discussion and possible online publication.

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Militancy and Pakistan

Group Leader:Faisal Hassan

Group Members: Saheer Omer Zakir Ullah Khan Noor-Ul-Haya Anum Riaz

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Militancy and Pakistan

Introduction:
Militancy is a major concern nowadays for Pakistan. The militancy is becoming a major threat for the security of Pakistan. Militants in Pakistan have two main demands. There are two major groups that the militancy in Pakistan can be divided into, one of the group wants Islamic way of living in Pakistan and have been fighting for Islamic Shariya to be introduced and are largely known as Muslim Fundamentalists. An example of such group is Pakistan Tehreek e Taliban; the militants of this group are fighting for making Pakistan a perfect Islamic society. They want to impose upon what they think is right. Imposing Shairya in Pakistan as it is Islamic Republic of Pakistan is their aim and they want to do this by hook or by crook. These militants are constantly targeting the officers of armed forces and also the Muslims of other sects. They are among the trouble makers; hence Pakistan Tehreek e Taliban has been declared a threat to security of Pakistan, and the rest of the world by Pakistan and rest of the world. The members of the militants group however call themselves good Muslims who are punishing bad people and are trying to spread the word of ALLAH. At the beginning their war was against the Army but now they are also targeting general public as well. These militant groups have taken the responsibilities of many major attacks in Pakistan and rest of the world. The other militants are the ones who have been trying to separate their areas from Pakistan; such groups are formed on the basis of ethnic, linguistic or racial basis. They want to see their states independent and want to have separate and distinct states. One of the major groups is the Baloch Republican Army, this militant group is fighting for independence of ethnic group The Blochs and they say tha t they have a separate and distinct identity which is in danger and they have a right to live and spend their lives a free people. This group is working on independent greater Balochistan and they want the Baloch dominant areas of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan to form an independent Balochistan. This group is led by Nawabzada Brahmdagh Bugti who is the grandson of Nawab Akbar Bugti. This militant group also has political affiliation with the political party Baloch Republican Party (BRP) Nawabzada Brahmda gh Bugti is also the leader of this political party. The Government of Pakistan is the other stakeholder of this conflict. This is the responsibility of the Government of the country to take corrective actions to control any kind of anarchy in

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Militancy and Pakistan


the country. Conflicts on this level cannot be solved by the effort of an individual they can only be solved by the corrective actions of the conflict.

Facts:
Cold War in Afghanistan:At that time the Afghanistan government had money power but what it lacked was a proper direction because its allies like Pakistan, America and Saudi Arab left it on their own. Having a lot of natural resources in Afghanistan, Afghanistan failed to get any major success in the fields of education and infrastructure. Till 2001 militant gr oups working under Mullah Umar did not performed any criminal or terrorist activity in the premises of Pakistan and these militant groups used to work for making their Government strong. Due to the lack of support of international world the Government of Afghanistan was not connected by the rest of the world and did not have good diplomatic relationship with other countries. 9/11 Bombing: After the attack of 11 Sep 2001 The American government declared Osama Bin Laden the master mind behind that attack and said that Osama Bin Laden is in Afghanistan. Taliban government asked for the proper evidence against Osama Bin Laden but American Gove rnment did not provided them with the evidence and imposed war against them. This all happened because Afghanistan did not have a proper platform to raise their voices on international level. Alliance with America: At that time Pakistan had two options one to join Taliban in the war against America or join America in war against Afghanistan. Pakistan government saw its benefit in joining hands with America and becoming a part of this US-Afghan war. That is the time when these militant groups became enemies with the Pakistan and declared a war against Pakistan as well. These militant groups had their roots in Pakistan because they were formed with the help of Pakistan intelligence agencies. All of the groups in Pakistan related with the Militant groups of Afghanistan declared war against Pakistan and that is when Pakistan Tehrek-e- Taliban was formed with the collaboration of the 13 small militant groups under the authority of BaitUllah Mahsood(2007,Saleem safi). Separation Of provinces: One of the major militant groups of that kind is Baluchistan Republican Army. This militant group is formed because many nationalist Baloch people think that Balochistan is not given the proper rights and facilities that they should have been given. That militant group is only formed because of the mismanagement of the government and giving proper attention to all the provinces. The Baloch separatists have been active science the independence of Pakistan. The conflicts among the militants and Pakistani government arose in 1958, 1963, 1973 (Abbas, 2004) but these all conflicts were resolved using military power and the militants were crushed every time, but this time when conflict arose in 2004 (Gal, 2006), after the death of Nawab Akbar Bugti the conflict could not be settled and the militants could not be crushed. (Gal, 2009) Nawab Akbar Bugti and then Mir Balach Marri were killed thinking that they were the backbone of the militants and the
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militants will give up if they were killed, but instead the militants had been gaining and winning support ever since. Many people are picking up arms and are fighting against the government because they think this is the only way to get their rights. Government officials say the men were being prosecuted for activities against the state but deny any involvement in their deaths. People are not convinced and say that while the men supported independence, they were not involved in the armed struggle. (Gal, 2009) The Interior Minister is quoted in the press as acknowledging having made 4,000 arrests in connection with the Balochistan situation, while speaking to the press in Turbat. This matter was later raised by a leader of PML (N).4. The charges against a number of these persons have not been disclosed to their families. In some cases it is not known where they are being detained, and furthermore the government has not disclosed the identity of persons arrested during these operations. (Human Rights Commissions, 2006)

Analysis: Wrong Steps


First mistake made by the Pakistani Government was to support Hizbi-e-Islami in forming the government in Afghanistan in 1992 (2010, Hamid Gul, Nazir Naji) becoming a part of US-Afghan War in 2001 Pakistan government should have taken the stand and means shouldnt have become the part of that war. At that time Pakistan could have brought different International Organizations to solve the conflict without using armed forces. Dialogues with the help of third party assistance like Saudi Arabia could have brought both parties together so that the final decisions could have been accepted. Government before joining hands with the American forces did not take all the political parties in confidence. Division of People : The decision of entering into this war was not a decision of majority population thats why the country divided into two schools of thoughts one who supported Government and others who supported Talibans and considered this to be a war of Islam. Pakistani government has always preferred army operation over the dialogues and negotiations but that has been proved to be wrong because suicide bombing is still continued in Pakistan. A lot of military officials are getting killed and Pakistan has become a war zone (2011, Imran khan, Mehmood Achakzai). Also at that time the Militant groups should have raised their voices in the International media and should have asked for their rights but they also preferred war. At the beginning this war was only between the forces but because of the lack of communication between the parties this war spread and now is affecting the whole country.

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Faisal Hassan, Group 1

Militancy and Pakistan Flaws In Strategies


Pakistan government adopted different strategies to handle the angry militant groups in Pakistan and to make friends with them. As the militant groups started suicide bombing in the mosques cities and killing innocent people the government decided to make under table deals with them but it did not helped because Pakistani government used to break or violate the agreement. Lal Mosque and Waziristan Operation: Like proper armed conflict between Tehrek-eTaliban and Pakistani army stared in 2004 when Pakistani army started military operation in Waziristan. But later on peace deals were signed between BaitUllah Mahsud and Pakistani Government but these agreements were never worked upon properly and peace was never maintained. Sometimes military took actions against them and sometimes they did bombing in Cities and killed People. Officially these agreements came to an end in August 2007 after the Lal Masjid Military operation. After Lal masjid operation suicide bombings increased in Pakistan and military started its operation in SWAT in 2007. Pakistani army took complete control of SWAT in Feb 2009. After that Army started operation in Bajur and that operation is still continued in Mumaand Agency. Militant groups replied government every time with arms they could have used the democratic means to express themselves and brought a revolution against the wrong policies of the government. For overcoming the conflict they should have shown some flexibility.

Role of Religious Scholars


Islamic scholars did not take any active part to control this issue and many known Aalims were not ready to give fatwas because they had life threats. At that time the biggest mistake made by the government was of not giving Aalims proper protection and providing a proper platform to the Aalims to give a collective fatwa against the acts of militant groups that were against Islam. Religious scholars were also lacking in providing the students p roper education so that they can take decisions. Government did not have any attention on education people of the tribal areas. Government should have given proper facilities to the Madrisas and educated the teachers. They should have monitored the education that they were giving to the students.

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Shariya Law: As many Militant groups are fighting for imposing Shariya Law and Shariya Law can only be defined properly by the religious scholars so it was the responsibility of the government to bring the Militan group leaders on the negotiations so that the deals can be t made according to the Islamic Shariya law. Both the parties the Government and the Militant groups agree that Shariya law should be imposed but now the problem is on defining the Shariya law properly. That can only be done if the Islamic Scholars take a step forward with the help of Government in educating the people about Shariya law.

Rights Distribution
Government took the same actions when dealing with the militant groups of Baluchistan they did not made any proper negotiations but took army actions and made Muslims fight with Muslims and Pakistanis with Pakistanis. External Forces: The militant groups that are working for the separation of provinces are supported by external powers like India to destabilize Pakistan so taking military action is considered the as the most appropriate solution to this problem. But instead of military action people should be given proper education including the part of about their social responsibilities. Militants that are fighting are Pakistanis and they should have been brought to the negotiations table. Killing our own people only because they were getting support from external forces was not the best way of solving this conflict. A country is nothing without the support of the people of the country so the first priority behind every policy should be the betterment of the majority people of the country because they are the real stake holders of the country. The separatist militant groups instead of coming on the negotiation table started taking help from other countries they should have thought that no other country would like to support or help them without their own benefits in it. Military Actions: Government made a huge mistake when they took military action against the Baloch Leaders like Nawab Akbar Bugti. They did not killed a person but they produced thousands of militants. After that operation people lost their trust in Government and they took step of fighting against the Government. This step destroyed the democratic culture of the country and showed to the people that only way to solve a conflict by the Government is through forces.

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Militancy and Pakistan


Major Mistakes: According to our findings after researching on militancy we have found that the major demands of the militant groups are not to collaborate with American Army implementation of Islamic Law and on the rights of the provinces. These issues were difficult to address but they were not impossible to solve and both the parties made mistakes in taking the proper steps for the solutions. The government thought of the ways that were not democratic and militant groups thought of fulfilling their demands by spreading terror in the country. Both the parties made mistakes and still it is not impossible to solve the issue the condition of the situation has worsened but still the hope is there.

Recommendations:
There are many actions that can be taken by the Government and Militant Groups such as following: Dialogues with the Militant: Pakistan should stop all the military actions and start dialogues with the major militant groups. And make an agreement not to take any military actions until the final solution have been made. Militant groups should also seize fire until the dialogues are in process. Agreements should be made with the help of third parties. Religious Islamic scholars have never given any proper Fatwas against killing of the innocent people by these militant groups. The militant scholars should sit with the Islamic Scholars to find a solution that depicts the true image of Islam. Merits: This is the way through which the solution can be achieved without bloodshed. Peace will be stored and general public will not get affected. Dialogues will create an environment of trust. This will make the country strong and stable. Economic development will be effected and by the help of dialogues national sovereignty will be protected. Demerits: If any one of the parties will break the agreement it will destroy the whole peace process. It is also very difficult to bring all the militant groups on the dialogues table at the same time. By this America will declare Pakistan as a country helping militants. Development and Education: The under developed areas of Pakistan should be highlighted and the infrastructural development should be made over there. The living standards of the people living over there should be improved. Madrissa system in Pakistan has been a major area of concern for government because the education they are providing over there is not

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properly monitored so the probability of the brain washing of children that do not know anything increases. Merits: Standard of living will be high and people will be more inclined towards the development of the country. Education system will help in changing the mind-sets of people of tribal areas about armed forces. The image of Pakistan armed forces has been destroyed in the eyes of people because of the military operations in the country. Demerits: if not controlled properly this strategy can go against the Government. It is also difficult to keep the record of all madrisas and checking the education provided over there.This step cannot be taken until local people are ready to accept the education system provided by the government. Clear Policies and Laws: The foreign policies should be made by keeping in mind the fact that sovereignty of Pakistan lies with Allah Almighty and Pakistan should always consider the interest of their people first. We can see the practical implementation of this point by the actions of Iran. Rules and laws should be made so that everyone should be given justice on time and no one should be neglected. This will help decrease the militancy that is working for the separation of the provinces. Hypocrisy should be eliminated by both the parties to get the solution because they should not only think of their personnel interest but they should think of the interest of all the people of Pakistan. Merits: Pakistan will be able to protect its national sovereignty. By not helping America in war the government will gain the trust of people. When people will receive timely justice they will not be take the path of fighting for getting their rights. Demerits: Pakistan can face economic sanctions. International trade will be disturbed. Pakistan is not in a position to risk its relation with other countries. The judicial system should be according to the needs of the people like in tribal areas Jirgas are held for taking decisions. The government should help in supporting and protecting Jirgas. Special Consider ations: Militants should be given special seats in the parliaments so that they can participate in the decision making process by the democratic means and they can raise their voices in people by the proper means this way these groups will get the power through democratic means. The provincial Government should be given more power and the as stated in the constitution of Pakistan the control of the resources of a province should be in
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the hands of that province. This will enable the province to take some special steps for development. Pakistani Government should try to not only reach the leaders of the militant groups but also the followers of these militant groups. Merits: Militant groups will get a platform to raise their voices. This will encourage peace process. With this every decision will be taken by the help of dialogues and according to the democratic style. Demerits: Resources can be exploited.If the federal government fails to keep proper check and balance the parliament seats given to militant groups will send a wrong message to the rest of the world. Proper monitoring of the militant groups should be done and certain standards should be set before giving them those seats otherwise the image of Pakistan could be harmed.

Conclusion:
Every conflict has its own bad and its own good and if managed properly conflict can be beneficial. Every conflict has its solution within the conflict the only thing that is mainly required is believe that the solution of that conflict exists. Same is the case with the conflict of militancy in Pakistan. For the solution of this conflict Government and militants should try to find the solution which does not include arms in it. The only thing that is required is the determination that the solution exists and efforts by t e both parties should be made to h achieve it and the most important thing that is required from the government end is the proper management of every sector so that the future conflicts can be avoided. Both of the parties in this conflict means Militant Groups and Government are talking from the extreme points they have never tried properly to negotiate and work together. But now even United States has found out that the only way to win the war against terrorism is with the dialogs. Dialog means that both parties should believe in give and take situation. Militant groups are a major force that has been made by the US and Pakistan and now it is not the time to neglect them or try to kill them all with the force there could be a middle way to solve the conflict and the leaders of the militant groups should also think that this bloodshed will counties until or unless they will show some flexibility.

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Militancy and Pakistan References:


Owen Bennett Jones, Pakistan: Eye of the storm (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002) p.133 Selig S Harrison, In Afghanistans Shadow, pp.2728 "Pakistan: The Worsening Conflict in Balochistan," International Crisis Group, Asia Report No. 119, p.4 Tribal Leader's Killing Incites Riots, New York Times, August 28, 2006 Another Insurgency Gains in Pakistan By CARLOTTA GALL. July 11, 2009 Flucher Ray, 2006, Baluchistans History of in urgency. Grare Fredric, 2006, Pakistan: The Resurgence of Baluch Nationalism. 23rd November 2011, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balochistan_conflict Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balochistan_Liberation_Army 23rd November 2011 23rd November 2011, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baloch_Republican_Army 25th November 2011, Baloch Republican Army, http://www.balochrepublicanarmy.com/ 25th November 2011, Pakistan Institute of Legislative development and Transparency (PILDAT), http://www.pildat.org/Publications/publication/balochistanc onflict/TheBalochistanCo nflict.pdf 25thNovember 2011, Bloch Media, http://www.balochmedia.com/story/balochistanconflict.html Disarmament and Reintegration in Afghanistan, Asia Report, 30 September 2003 Central Asia: Islam and the State, Asia Report , 10 July 2003 Afghanistan: The Problem of Pashtun Alienation, Asia Report, 5 August 2003

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Militancy and Pakistan

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Political Integration Of Tribal Areas

POLITICAL INTEGRATION OF THE TRIBAL AREAS

The birth of Pakistan did not bring about any significant political and administrative change in its tribal areas since we virtually adopted all the British policies. In fact it only accentuated the issue, and led to divergent positions on their political future.

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M.Abubakr Ashraf, Group 2

Political Integration Of Tribal Areas

Group Leader:M.Abubakr Ashraf

Group Members: Anum Khurshid Mubashir Us Saadain Komal Nazir Obaidullah

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Political Integration Of Tribal Areas Introduction


The tribal areas lying North-West of Indian sub-continent remain the most mysterious land in the region. The area has a rich history as it lies on North Western entrance into the subcontinent. Many invading armies passed through this area to ravage fertile indo- magnetic plains. The invading nomadic tribe moved in and out always leaving behind ruins of their victory, but the local power remained unchanged. This power has and will remain to be, The Tribal Pukhtoons.

Political History of FATA


British Era: The British policy towards the tribal areas was dictated by the imperative of containing Russia. Under this policy, this was called The Close Border Policy, the British established direct rule in the settled areas of North West Frontier Region, while the tribes in the tribal areas were left to administer their own affairs. The tribesmen were allowed entry into the British territory and to trade freely; but British officers were instructed not to cross into tribal territory. Agreements were made with the tribes obliging them to maintain peaceful and friendly relations with the Government.

Independence of Pakistan: The year 1947 marked a turning point in the history of the Tribal Areas, as a new and independent state of Pakistan replaced the alien rule of the British migrants. With the termination of the British rule in India in 1947, all those agreements and treaties, which bound the Tribal Areas with the British Government in Delhi, were abolished under the Indian Independence Act, 1947. Constitutionally, the tribal areas became independent and it was up to the new state of Pakistan to enter into fresh agreements and Government of Pakistan entered into agreements with the tribal chiefs in 1951-52 acquiring greater control and authority in the Tribal Areas (blog:Wabash Choudhary). These agreements were concluded with the willing cooperation and the good will of the Tribal people, and were meant to enlarge the scope of the existing agreements.

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System of Government: From 1947 till the formation of One unit in 1955, the Governor NWFP, acted as agent to the Governor General of Pakistan in relation to the administration of the Tribal Areas, and exercised immediate authority in those areas. His Secretariat, known as the Local Administration of NWFP, headed by the Chief Secretary, dealt with all matters in respect of the Tribal Area. Political Agents used to correspond directly with the local administration. Article 1 of the 1973 constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan treats FATA as a separate entity, to be administered by the Federal Govt as prescribed in article 247 of the Constitution. Accordingly FATA is outside the executive authority of the province of NWFP and the Governor NWFP, in his capacity as an agent to president regulates its affairs. No act of legislature extends to FATA unless approved by the president and the jurisdiction of superior courts is very limited in its applicability to matters relating to the region. This period can further be divided into three parts, the period of Soviet occupation (1979-1989), the period of mujahedeen rule in Afghanistan (1992-1996), the period of Taliban rule (1996-2001).

Present Political Setup: President enjoys the executive power to rule the tribal area. President has delegated his authority to Governor of the North West Frontier Province. The Ministry of state and Frontier Regions (SAFRON), at Islamabad look after the administrative affairs and development activities in the area. The Governor NWFP as agent to the President, representing the Federal Government, administers the Tribal Areas.

Political Problems in FATA


Aspects Related to Legislation: The newly born state of Pakistan already confronted with host of problems decided to continue all the treaties, agreements and allowances and to avoid from interfering with the tribal traditional freedom. The basic understanding was that internally the area would remain autonomous and the government of Pakistan would look after the external security and help in development of the area.

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Frontier Criminal Regulations (FCR): The FCR give excessively vast powers to political agent. Before creation of Pakistan, the British Government used to appoint experienced and selected officers in agencies who invoked provisions of the regulation carefully and administered Justice in fair and equitable manner. Unfortunately, the prevailing state of affairs is completely reversed. The tribesmen have lost confidenc e in political officers and the administration. In accordance with the rules, political agent has to refer invariably every case to Jirga and considers objections, if any, of the parties to the nomination of members of Jirga. Political agent has to accept the decision or else refer the matter to a fresh Jirga if some how he does not feel inclined to accept its findings and recommendations. Contrary to the provisions of law, the political agent mostly decides the matters through executive orders without let or hindrance.

FATA Representatives in National Assembly: The President, considering the growing demand of FATA people, on 14 December 1996 decided to replace the restricted mode of elections through Preparation of Electoral Roll (FATA) Order Amendment. Grant of adult franchise was received well and a lot of enthusiasm was witnessed in General Elections 1997 throughout FATA. Presently, 12 members represent FATA in the National Assembly whereas 8 seats are reserved in Senate.

Sensitivities of Politics in FATA: Article 25 of the Constitution allows politics and political parties and Article 19 freedom of speech, yet these basic rights are taboos in tribal area. Except for the religious parties who use the umbrella of Islam to hold their meetings, others including tribesmen turned politician are barred from taking parts in politics or forming political parties since introduction of the 1935 Indian Act. The various governments since partition have gone a step further by making certain provisions to suppress any voice for rights or equality and criticism of government policies or wrongs of political administration. To transform the political culture and argument the level of political awareness in FATA, it is imperative to change constitutional status of the region. However, it is deemed that an abrupt swap over of the entire area from its special status to settled area may lead to rebuffs. Particular attention is required to be paid to the systems

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Political Integration Of Tribal Areas


Political System: During last couple of decades, tribal culture and political culture of FATA has considerably weakened. The controls of tribal elders, Maliks and Mashrans have reduced to name alone. Ulema (clerics) have gained stronger feet and enjoy immense control virtually over all affairs of the society. This is fully manifested from the fact that most of the members of various elected bodies e.g. the National Assembly, the Senate and the Agency Councils are Ulema rather than tribal heads / elders / Maliks. This denotes that common people of the area have started siding with religious rather than tribal elite. This facet has its own dynamics. Due to dwindling influence of political tribal leaders and growth in the power of clergy, people of the area do not bother much about political activities. Because of this, and also due to deep religiosity in the tribal, they become an easy tag for militant organizations of various shades and grades, of which some are even playing in the hands of foreign powers including India and the US.

Administration System: Administration system in FATA is quite outdated and is seriously hampering political as well as societal division of the area. PA acts like a king in his agency. He practically remains to be unchallengeable in his decisions and dealings, and does not have a concrete system of check and accountability monitoring his deeds. This spreads discord and discontent in tribal region and leads to tangible political repercussions. Judicial System: Judicial system of FATA is leaving a number of question makes for spectators both at home and abroad. The questions including: Decisions by Political Admin based on FCR are unchallengeable. Even the FCR itself is widely known as a discriminatory law. Validity of the decision made by Jirga. Qualification and knowledge of decision ma kers. The art of appeal to the offender, which is mostly denied.

The real question is that when a sound system of judiciary is functioning in the country, why should the people of tribal areas be left to the mercy of their Maliks, who may favor or disfavor them through a decision of their own choice without leaving a choice of appeal to the accused. This facet leads to a number of consequences, hampers deletion of true justice
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and leave suspicion for the population as regards their status in comparison with other citizens of Pakistan. Practically speaking, the official system of justice has miserably failed in FATA. Because of this, the affairs are moving into the hands of local militant organizations. On 17 March 2006, Maulana Meraj Din, MNA from South Waziristan Agency during a live interview to Geo TV, said that due to operations by security agencies in the area and absence of any such official setup like police etc, the old age tribal system had been disturbed. Hence, the people of the area obviously looked towards some entity to take care of societal affairs. The militants groups emerged out to be a readymade choice. This leaves a lot of questions for the people at the helm of affairs. This calls for the need to abolish the contentious Frontier Crime Rules (FCR), systematic integration of the area into settled areas of the country and enforcement of normal laws of the land there. This also calls for doing something more than mere military operations.

The System of Law Enforcement: Hypothetically, a number of agencies are functioning in the region but practically there is none to ensure law and order in line with settled areas of Pakistan. For instance, Khassadar Force, the mainstay of law enforcement with the PA has a number of weaknesses: Khassadars are enrolled as a political bribe from PA to any tribe. There is no age limit or any merit for enrolled of Khassadars. Khassadars are enrolled and empowered on their duties without any formal or informal training. Also, they do not have any appropriate weapons or equipment to ensure law and order in the area. The local populace is rather better armed and equipped. For hailing from the same area, they remain under the influence of local tribal and religious leaders rather than officials Law and order has, factually, gone to the hands of local militant organizations, which may read it as lawlessness and disorder instead. The Role of Media: Generally speaking, media is playing a good role to positive affect the minds of the tribal to bring certain level of political awareness and change the existing political culture. But the problem is that it can be truly effective only if there are perceptible changes on ground.
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Affecting a Change: It is deemed that changing the political and other systems in FATA would take time and if carried out abruptly, it may lead to failure. Step-by-step approach in this regard may be quite beneficial. First and foremost step may be change in constitutional status of FATA. This may also be resisted but if it is comb with a measure of carrot e.g. equitable political representation by the people of FATA in all constitutional bodies including the Provincial Assembly of NWFP, activation of Agency Councils and allotment of dev funds through pub representatives and extensive dev projects in the area, it is expected to be rather hailed. Another way could be amalgamation of FATA into settled areas of NWFP gradually, starting from the FRS first. However, after the status of FATA or one of its parts is changed, strict enforcement of govt in all spheres must be ensured on one hand, and on the other, people must be made felt that the change paid them politically and socially.

Recommendations
To change constitutional status of FATA, transform its political administration system and bring it into national mainstream. Transformation Parameters: Change in constitutional status and politico-constitutional merger of FATA with NWFP. Proportional representation of all regions at provincial level. Introduction of conventional system of District, Tehsil and Union Council.

Measures recommended to fulfill the vision in line with the fore mentioned transformation parameters are:-

Changing the Constitutional Status of FATA: The first and foremost step that must be taken by the Government of Pakistan is to c hange the status of FATA through proper legislation. It is recommended that a timeline should be pronounced for amalgamation of various parts of FATA with the settled areas of NWFP, so as to allow adequate time for setting up of various facilities and establishing necessary departments in order to genuinely integrate the region into national mainstream.
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Transformation of Politico-Administrative System: A simple act of legislation cannot really change the status of FATA unless its political administrative system is changed to come at par with the settled districts of NWFP. It is, therefore, recommended that the existing system of FATA should be replaced with the structure identical to the one in vogue in settled areas of Pakistan. Following are recommended: System of administration in vogue in settled areas should be introduced in the region. Agencies of FATA should be designated as district. FRs should be amalgamated with respective districts. Proportional representation of all parts of FATA in Provincial Assembly of NWFP should be ensured as for National Assembly and Senate. The system of District, Tehsil and Union Councils should be introduced. Representatives of local bodies should be given due political powers and dev projects must be planned through them. Introduction of Conventional System of Law Enforcement: Change of status must follow institution of normal police system as is in vogue in settled areas of NWFP. Concerted efforts must be made to abolish weapon culture from the area. It may seem to be difficult today but when the campaign encompassing stick and carrot commences, it is expected to yield positive results. Media Campaign for Political Awareness in Tribal Masses: Together with aforementioned steps, it is recommended that a media campaign may be launched to educated general public of the area and in still requisite level of political awareness.

Conclusion
Unity of the nation and integrity of our country depends upon understanding each other, respecting values and extending a hand of help where required. Today Pakistan is moving through turbulent waves. Today our emphases should be focusing underdeveloped areas like
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FATA to overcome their socio-economic/political problems and reduce the polarization effects created over long decades of mistrust and deceit. It is evident that a concerted and dedicated effort is likely to meet astounding success. I finish on a note of optimism that we hand over a more harmonious, happier and safer Pakistan to the future generation of this country.

Bibliography
Khan, RA 2003, Political developments in FATA: a critical view, in PI Cheema & MH Nuri (eds.), Tribal areas of Pakistan: challenges and responses, Islamabad Policy Research Institute: Hanns Seidel Foundation, Pakistan.

Bangash, MA 2003, FATA: towards a new beginning, in PI Cheema & MH Nuri (eds.), Tribal areas of Pakistan: challenges and responses, Islamabad Policy Research Institute: Hanns Seidel Foundation, Pakistan. Khan, H 2003, The Role of Federal Government and Political Agent, in PI Cheema & MH Nuri (eds.), Tribal areas of Pakistan: challenges and responses, Islamabad Policy Research Institute: Hanns Seidel Foundation, Pakistan.

Alam, M 2003, Political Empowerment and Devolution Plan, in PI Cheema & MH Nuri (eds.), Tribal areas of Pakistan: challenges and responses, Islamabad Policy Research Institute: Hanns Seidel Foundation, Pakistan.

Encyclopedia: Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan (online) Available http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Federally-Administered-TribalAreas%2C-Pakista n

Tribal Areas, Chapter-3 (online) Available http://www.pap.gov.pk/constitu/P12c3.htm Government of Pakistan Revised Agreements with the Tribal People, Peshawar, 1947. Local Government, Rural Development & Environment (online) Available http://www.infopak.gov.pk/Factsheets/three_years_of_reforms1.htm

Abbasi, A 2002, Tribal Areas to get Devolution Plan, The News, 24 Januar y.

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The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Part XII, Chapter 3. Tribal Areas (online) Available

http://www.nrb.gov.pk/constitutional_and_legal/constitution/part12.ch3.html

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Ethnic Polarization In Pakistan

Ethnic Polarization in Pakistan

Notwithstanding the fact that Pakistan was achieved in the name of Islam that envisages tolerance and respect, we have, unfortunately, drifted towards its opposite, giving rise to serious ethnic conflicts in the country.

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Group Leader: Sanya Raza Tiwana

Group Members: Fahd Hussain Khan Fatima Ikram Sana Abid Ansari Zeeshan Ayub

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Introduction A precise definition of ethnicity is not easy. People define it according to their own perceptions. Theoretically, it emerges that it is much more than racial, cultural, religious or even political phenomenon. At its core it is probably psychological, i.e., the perception what separates us from them. It is a shared sense of fear, vulnerability and shared aspirations by a persecuted people resulting in hatred and a craving for separation. The increasing incidence of ethnic conflicts and the much publicized consequences of these conflicts have made many researchers to revisit social sciences. It is a point of inference that ethnically diverse societies have a higher probability of political conflicts. According to Montalvo, the political instability caused by potential ethnic conflicts has a negative impact on investment and, indirectly, on growth. It is also a point of argument, according to some researchers that, where there is ethnic diversity it would generate a high level of corruption, which in turn, could deter investment in that country/or region. Additionally, in heterogeneous societies or strong tribal structure (with strong cultural and communal affinity) such as Balochistan and FATA, there is low level of propagation of technology and creativity due to inbuilt potential for partiality, favoritism and nepotism, which through social and political channel, affects the economy.

Background
When we look at the worlds lesser known conflicts, Pakistan cannot be neglected. There are many religious sects, tribes and cultural groups in Pakistan; some of which we hardly know, while others are on our fingertips because they make efforts to do so. Not denying the fact that lack of education, poverty, bigotry, feudalism, tribalism, ethnic polarization, discriminatory law and justice compounded with foreign interference, are elements which are tearing apart the Pakistani society. Since independence, these have steadily become violent because certain groups want to attain acceptance for their lawful or unlawful demands and failure of the successive Governments to enforce writ of the state or reconciliation. Conversely, high level of diversity can also be a potential for growth when handled by erudite and dedicated leadership.

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Following table and map define the statistics & ethnic groups location in Pakistan:
Major Ethnic Groups in Pakistan, 1973 (Wikipedia Map)

Population Percentage Punjabi Pashtun Sindhi Seraiki Muhajir Baloch Others 42.15% 17.42%, 14.1% 10.53%, 7.57%, 3.57% 4.66%

Current Ground Realities

Pakistan is a multi lingual, multi ethnic and multi cultural country with more than 60 languages spoke in it. Strangely enough, the struggle for Pakistan during British Rule transcended ethnic, lingual, cultural and regional differences. It was an expression of a deep Muslim consciousness which was both inspiring and invigorating. Unfortunately, post independence that expression could not be sustained. The independence movement in British India is an inspiration to the argument that there never was true unity among major ethnic groups; it was only a forced lumping together by the British rulers. So was division of East & West Pakistan. Post 1971 Pakistan has also witnessed Baloch insurgencies, Pashtun separatism, Sindhi regionalism etc. Today Pakistani society is extremely polarized along ethnic, geographic, economic, gender as well as religious lines which are preventing the social cohesion necessary for broad-based, inclusive growth. These secular movements pose serious risks to the Federation. These challenges are indeed mounting, at the same time; these very events offer an opportunity for seeking solutions remaining still in a multi-ethnic framework.

Ethnic Polarization In Pakistan


Symptoms [2] On June 5, 2008, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace hosted a discussion on Pakistans economic and social challenges and prospects. Jan Vandermoortele along with few others was the featured speakers. The discussion was opened with an overview of Pakistans lackluster performance in achieving human development goals. The country has made some limited progress on poverty and health indicators, its education sector remains well below those of countries at similar levels of existence. The reason ascribed was that the country spends only about 2.5% of GDP on health and education, whereas most countries that have prospered have spent on a sustained basis, at least 7% of their GDP. Extreme examples of ethnic violence are of Balochistan and KPK. Several events like the PIA Flight PK-544 hijack by the Baloch Students Organization (BSO), the a bduction of John Solecki; head of UN High Commissioner for Refugees in Balochistan (UNHCR) in 2009, of Chinese engineers from the Gwadar port, of socio-political leaders and rich businessmen for ransom or for release of captured compatriots. Our focus in this study is on the ethnic polarization in Pakistan.

Causes
a. Unpatriotic Leadership. The leaders for the independence movement had achieved their aim in the later part of their lives and were not available to guide it through its formative years. Their inheritors were the big landlords and tribal bourgeois who were no visionaries like Muha mmad Ali Jinnah, Liaqat Ali Khan etc. Due to their personal differences, greed and protectionist instincts did not permit stabilizing of state institution like legislative assembly, independent judiciary, executive and the taxation administrations. It took them six years to agree on their first Constitution and since then it has been abrogated, set aside or changed as many times. These interest groups and cartels control the state institutions as well as all the sources of wealth. The common people are beholden to them for their survival. b. Weak Education Base The successive conflict ridden leadership failed to conceive and implement a national education policy fulfilling the aspirations envisaged for secession from India, which is, to surmount economic persecution under the dominant Hindu population. Thus, an educated leadership and workforce have not emerged who could resolve the issues, appropriately utilize the wealth of resources.

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c. Regional and International Interests and Intervention.Pakistan is located at the international cross-roads which makes it prone to regional & international rivalries. The fledgling state was constrained to join CENTO in sixties, a western alliance against its neighboring super power the USSR and paid a heavy price for it. In the eighties, again forced into active war for over a decade for stopping and breaking up of USSR, as a consequence it received millions of Afghan refugees, freedom fighters called Jihadist from all over the world, Kalashnikov bearing trained fighters who had married or settled their families here. After the war these Jihadist termed Taliban, had no jobs or sustenance, most had worked for international intelligence spy networks, and were available for any takers. They were clandestinely used against Pakistans interests to create disillusionment and further rift between ethnic groups. All these factors disrupted the national cohesion and weakened economy. The leadership which led to the breaking up of USSR, could have defended against such schemes, was conspired against and violently removed. Even then, the country was not left alone; political and military governments were installed and removed in quick succession to keep the country begging from IMF, World Bank and the so called Big Eight Countries to contin ue doing their bidding. These Powers have eyes on the natural and human resources in and around Pakistan thus they are a source of conflict.

d. Religious Factions. Pakistan was created on social and religious differences with Hindus of Hindustan (India to the western countries) but, since inception it also failed to conceive and implement Islamic laws / constitution. Successive civil and military leadership did not emerge from the grass roots. They were sons and daughters of wealthy elite who were educated in the west, dreaded Islamic laws because they were imbued by western culture, which itself had degenerated into free for all society, do anything but dont be caught. Pakistan was forced into Wests war, who called it a holy war. Taking advantage of existing religious sects, funded these groups and devious individuals who recruited simple Muslims from all over the Islamic world in the name of Jihad. These little known so called Islamic groups fattened by foreign currencies and weapons have started wielding power and become a source of conflict too. e. Weak Economy. Despite having vast natural resources in the form of rich mineral deposits, rivers and network of irrigation canal system, vast expanses of arable land a conducive climate able to produce three crops per year, its economy has failed to
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develop given the above potentials. The reason for this failure squarely rests with leadership which successively emerged from particular factions or areas who failed a judicious distribution of national resources and wealth, thus the polarization.

Analysis
Whate ver the causes of ethnic polarization the fact remains that it has become a serious threat to the integrity of the Pakistani nation. Ethnic prejudices are entrenched in our minds from the moment we are able to distinguish between right and wrong. No matter how much we may deny it, but when we look at a person we instantly notice his race and try to distinguish his origins. When we meet people one of the first thought that come to our minds is, Now where does this person come from?, or Oh! He / she must be Pathan, Punjabi, Muhajir or Taliban. We notice the color of that persons skin, decide on his ethnicity and instantly form judgments about him. These judgments barricade us from recognizing intellectual and professional capabilities, moral character and exploit such potential. This tendency of stereotyping and making generalizations is extremely prevalent in our society. This only leads to provincialism and ethnic disputes. In Karachi there has been widespread unrest and violence between the Pathans, Muhajirs and Sindhis. In Balochistan there is hatred against Punjabi civil military bureaucracy and agro-industrial settlers. The Baloch people feel that they have not been given fair share in their economic development and appropriate representation in the government. These divisions have caused much impediment politically and economically, and might even lead to further division of the country. The violent unrest that has taken place in Karachi over the years is solely on the basis of economic disputes transiting into ethnic prejudices. At the time of the creation of Pakistan in 1947, a large number of migrants settled in the urban areas of Punjab and Sind, namely Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. These migrants were called Muhajir or refugees. From the very start the Sindhi population did not accept the influx of the Muhajirs into their lands. The immigrants or Muhajirs belonged to urban, middle class families, were well educated and experienced in various occupations and they gave initial impetus to state organizations. On the other hand the Sindhi population was relatively uneducated and rural, struggling to survive under their own feudal system. They and their feudal lords resented the presence of a more educated community taking over their economic prospects. In the 1970s there was violent confrontation between the two communities, as unlike the rest of the country, the
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Sindhis were also unwilling to accept Urdu as the national / official language in their province. There was much bloodshed o both sides and no favorable conclusion could be n reached. Karachi being a port city grew is an economic hub, thus a number of Pashtun and Punjabi people also came and settled there, taking over many jobs that would be available to Sindhis or Muhajirs. To protect themselves the Muhajir Qaumi Movement or MQM was created in 1986 by Altaf Hussain. They have since been involved in culpable activities. Whether the MQM has been of benefit to the people of Karachi is a matter of personal opinion. (Ahmer) However, the biggest example of ethnic prejudice in Pakistans history lies in the formation of Bangladesh, previously known as East Pakistan. East Pakistan too had a higher literacy rate and more population than West Pakistan. Their demand to make Bengali also a national language along with Urdu was ignored. Apart from this they were not given fair representation in the National Assembly and the government. There were financial and monetary disputes as well. Bengalis complained that most of the foreign exchange e arned from their produce was not spent on them and was squandered in West Pakistan by the West Pakistan heavy leadership and bureaucracy. Taking advantage of that situation India mobilized the East Pakistani people financially and militarily and Bangladesh was created. (Ahmed) What we need to learn from all this is that we should look beyond racial and provincial boundaries and see what really binds us together as a nation. Ethnic prejudice has only lead to increased tensions and bloodshed of our own people. It is high time to look back on the Two Nation Theory and educate the people of Pakistan about the true essence of their identity. What matters is that we are all Pakistani and not Baloch, Sindhi, Urdu speaking, Punjabi or Pathan. It is our country that gives us our identity. Nobody outside Pakistan is going to ask us which province or state we belong to. The current situation in Pakistan cant take any more divisions or faults within itself. We shouldnt let anything; especially disputes within ourselves get in the way of our progress.

Recommendations

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Implementing Democratic Practices. The simple people ofPakistan have paid a heavy price for delegating their rights to greedy individuals who had fed them with false hopes and promises. With the new found freedom of Press & IT they have been well exposed. It is time that the people choose well their leaders, make them accountable and demand their rights. Strengthening Institutions. Institutions are assessed on the basis of their response to the crises and providing relief to the population, more or less institutions in Pakistan (Executive, Judiciary, Education, Health, Power, Land Administration, Taxation, & Police) have not delivered. The ethnic polarization in Pakistan can bedetermined from the uneven distribution of developmental projects, infrastructure, institutions and poverty alleviation throughout the country, except Punjab which had a better deal by a fostering leadership which is the bone of resentment for other provinces specially Balochistan. These anomalies need to be addressed immediately. In the rural areas of the provinces, majority of the population live at below poverty level where are no decent hospitals that can provide them with reasonable health services. Diseases like Malaria and Tuberculosis are common, especially those living in thickly-populated slums. This is greatly due to their low standards of living and literacy. Every year Tuberculosis causes approximately 70,000 death out of 270,000 afflicted by the disease. According to World Health Organization, the country is 27th in the list of most affected states. (MacKenzie, 2011) EstablishRule of Law and Accountability. Economic experts point out that institutional proficiency depends to a large extent on the combination of the rule of law, accountability and democratic practices. Decades have passed, unfortunately for Pakistan, to be ruled by the gang of landowner wadaras (feudal), big industrialists and civil-military bureaucracy, taking turns, who have been making a show of holding accountable the outgoing regime but pardoning them later. This must end now. Judicious Distribution and Utilization of National Resources. Another big issue is the unfair representation of isolated ethnic groups on the national level. Some provinces end up getting a larger share of everything, be it water, power, employment and budget and get to enjoy the superior facilities that may not be found in other provinces. This has caused resentment and been taken advantage by the opportunists and external actors (to further their
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own vested interests) Justly elected representatives must ensure equal distribution of national resources its best utilization. An Empowered Regulatory Authority. According to a market analyst Yunus Kamran, the inability of the state to deliver basic public goods and appropriate regulatory framework and the accumulation of tax, trade, wage and bank arrears indicates weakening of institutions. The most important reason of this is the presence of corruption at the top level. According to the Annual Corruption Perception Index (CPI) 2001-2010, Pakistan is ranked at 143rd out of the 178 countries surveyed (Livingston, 2011). Finally there is a strong perception that there has been a systemic decline in the quality of tax administration and in the face of growing evasion and corruption; it is argued that the incidence of taxes has effectively declinedChaudhary, 2010. An Indigenous Education and Religious Policy. These two need immediate reforms. Apart from few decent schools and colleges for the financially rich people in Pakistan, the general population has no option but to go to Urdu medium schools where, given the pitiable allocation of resources, the standards and amenities are contemptible. A big number of very poor family children are taken up by Religious Mudrissahs which are run by benevolent funding and which are preaching religion, morality or behavior in an irritatingly tedious or overbearing way repugnant to the mainstream Islam. In the absence of a national educational policy each educational or religious institute is having their own syllabi. Making things even worse are the strong political parties who for the lust of money keep opting for aid in the name of education but would make no such efforts to develop good educational institutions. In an article by Stuteville, 2010; as many as 30,000 ghost schools nonfunctioning schools, that exist only on paper. This has to stop. There is a dire need of formulating and implementing an indigenous national education and religious policy to bring out the best national talent. The education system should b such that e it surpasses the international standards yet at the same time promotes knowledge regarding the true Islamic / world history culture, literature and art of Pakistan. What lies at the essence of such an educational system is that students would not only be focusing on reaching International standards but also having a firm grip on what they are and where they belong. Adding books written by authors of Pakistani origin as part of schools syllabus along with comprehending the geographic and cultural beauty of Pakistan. The aim should be to make the youth feel proud that they are a part of a nation whose ancestors inclu de people like
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Sultan Fateh Ali Tipu, Mirza Ghalib, Sayyed Ahmad Khan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Ali Jinnah etc rather than creating a sort of inferiority complex through dramatizing western heroes. The government of Pakistan should create as many educational platforms that would educated people regarding how they can practice their rights make them understand what is considered as their right and make them believe that the government will be there for their support. Once the students have a firm belief that they are no lesser a nation than any other on the face of this planet, they would do wonders for this country. A Proactive Agriculture Policy and Land Reforms . Adop[tion of wrong policies have lead the country to rely more on loans from IMF and World Bank for its very survival. What makes things even worse for Pakistan is the segment of the population who are feudal and landlords who just do not want their children as well as others to get educated.The feudal archetype in Pakistan consists of landlords with large joint families possessing hundreds or even thousands of acres of land (interior Punjab, KP and Sindh). They seldom make any direct contribution to agricultural production. Instead, all work is done by peasants or tenants who live at subsis tence level. Pakistan suffers not only from decadent feudalism but also from the primitive tribal system. In order to improve institutions, new and fresh policies should be implemented throughout Pakistan. Thoroughly revising and making structural changes ensuring equal representation to each and every province. An indigenous Foreign Policy. Pakistan is in dire need of a foreign policy that would benefit the National Interest of the country itself rather than one that is customized and manufactured by super powers. Type-casting some minorities with menial sanitary work are belittling and extremely discriminatory. Therefore care must be taken that minorities dont get stereotyped and consequently oppressed by those in the majority.

Conclusion
Pakistan is a state of over 180 million people with sixty percent in the age group of 35 years and below, who are imbued with nationalistic fervor, are hard working and God fearing. They are well aware of the prevailing regional and international geopolitics. If equal opportunities for all, best man for the job is adopted as the state policy it will mitigate the grouse among the people and the provinces. In the end a beautiful quote by Mr Mowahid Hussain;

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Ethnic Polarization In Pakistan Pakistan was never envisioned to be the play ground of plunde rers, perverts and parasites, given the horrid results so far, is there any harm, for a change of flavor, to giverecognition to honesty, hard work and merit? Surely, results cant be any worse References
Montalvo, J.G , 2005. Ethnic Polarization. Ethnic Polarization, Potential Conflict, and Civilwars, [Online]. Vol. 95, No. 3, pp. 804-805. Available at: http://www.econ.upf.edu/~reynal/aer_final_conflict.pdf [Accessed 30 Nove mber 2011] Jan Vandemoortele. 2008. Confronting Pakistan's Economic and Social Challenges. [ONLINE] Available at:http://carnegieendowment.org/2008/06/05/confronting-pakistan-seconomic -and-social-challenges/90g. [Accessed 22 October 11] Wikimedia commons, (1973), Pakistan ethnic groups [ONLINE]. Available at:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pakistan_ethnic_1973.jpg [Accessed 16 October 11]. Foreign Policy Centre. 2006. Balochis of Pakistan. at: http://fpc.org.uk/fsblob/817.pdf. [Accessed 17 October 11] [ONLINE] Available

Eriposte. 2010. Ethnic/Linguistic Demographics of Pakistan. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.theleftcoaster.com/archives/015268.php. [Accessed 28 October 11] The Breakup. In R. Z. Ahmed, Pakistan The Real Picture (pp. 270-292). Ferozsons (Pvt.) Ltd. Ahmer, M. (n.d.). Pakistan: The Sindhi-Mohajir Conflict. Retrieved December 1, 2011, from http://www.conflictprevention.net/page.php?id=40&formid=73&action=show&surveyid=15. Ian. S Livingston and Michael OHanlon . 2011. Pakistan Index: Tracking Variables of Reconstruction & Security. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/Programs/FP/pakistan%20index/index.pdf . [Accessed 07 November 11] Chaudhry, I.S, 2010. Determinants of Low Tax Revenue in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 30, pp. 439-452 Mackenzie, J.S, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Responding to Emerging Infectious Diseases: reducing the risks through understanding the mechanisms of emergence, [Online]. Vol. 2, pp. 2-5. Available at: http://www.wpro.who.int/wpsar/archives/Archive-Vol2(1) 2011_Editorial_McKenzie.htm[Accessed 29 November 2011] Stuteville, S. ( May 2010). Global Post. [Accessed 29 November 2011]
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Palestinian Conflict

PALESTINIAN CONFLICT

Palestinian conflict surfaced when Jews were given a homeland, displacing the Muslim population of Palestine. Instead of getting resolved, this conflict continued to get complicated with time.

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Group Leader:Yamna Khan

Group Members: Ayesha Tahir Hajirah Khajavee Mahwish Amanat Neeli Rasool

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REPONSIBILITIES
Name Yamna Khan Ayeesha Tahir Hajirah Khajavee Mahwish Amanat Neeli Rasool Responsibility Analysis, Options Options, Recommendations Current Realities Introduction, Background Symptoms, Causes

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Palestinian Conflict Table of Contents Topic No.


1 2 3

Title
Background Current Realities US Involvement Symptoms and Causes UN Partition Plan Gaza Strip Blockade Refugees Water Issues Dispute over Jerusalem Possible Options Recommendations Appendix: Exhibit A References

Page No.
3 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 11 12 13

4 5 6 7

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The struggle for Israel between the Jews and the Arabs is one of the major conflicts of the world. Numbers of attacks have been made by both sides, numerous negotiations have been tried for but the conflict still persists. The Jews believe they have an ancestral right to the land and it is sacred to them since it is the Promised Land by God to the linage of Isaac and it belonged to them 3000 years ago. Palestinians, mainly the Muslims had been living in this land for around 2000 years; they believe the Jews snatched it out of their hands in 1948 and they too have religious ties to the land (Avakin, 2006) .
th Throughout history this land has been conquered and re-conquered but from 7 century to the

fall of the Ottoman Empire in 20th century it remained under Muslim rule (Isseroff, 20032007). After World War I the Ottoman Empire was driven out of Palestine by the Arabs combined by the British and Palestine became a colony of Britain, Arabs believed that if they help the British they will be given the land (Trueman, 2000) . After WWI Jewish immigrants started to enter the land especially since they faced the holocaust in Europe, mainly Zionists whose ideology was that The Jews should 'return' to their 'homeland' which is Jerusalem, promised to them in their Torah by God. These Jews wanted their Holy land back. The main conflict at the time was due to religious reasons over the city of Jerusalem, soon the Jews started to ascend in number and so did the conflict. When the British left Palestine they handed the dispute over to the UN to solve which decided on a 50/50 partition. Right after the Palestinians refused to accept this plan war broke out and Palestinian land was taken over by the Jews in the 1948 war. Israelis won the war and two thirds of Palestinians were exiled and 77% of the land was seized by Israel. Property and funds of these 750,000 refugees was confiscated to prevent their return. (Avakin, 2006). Since then major chunks of Palestinian land have been grasped by the Israelis [See Exhibit A for map, pg.12]. Currently the Palestinian conflict resides over religious issues, the Gaza strip, Jerusalem and water issues. Both parties want the other out and facts have shown their reluctance to live in peace with each other.

2. Current Realities
Though Palestinians and Israelis have their own differences the main issue is over the land and to whom the boundaries belong. Israelis believe the land was promised to them in their Bible and the Muslims snatched it from them while Palestinians believe the vice versa mainly

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that the land belonged to the Palestinians they were in control of it until the Jews coaxed their way in seized the land belonging to them. Now that the Israelis have entered and are ruling Palestine the matter is how the Palestinians are being treated and what rights are being offered. Though the UN resolution was to partition the land in half currently only the West Bank and Gaza Strip is where the Palestinians inhabit and these areas even being controlled by the Israelis. There are two primary issues at the core of this continuing conflict. First, the threatening effect of trying to prosper a state that is ethnically preferential. The original population of what is now Israel was 96 percent Muslim and Christian; yet, these 726,000 refugees are prohibited from returning to their homes in the self-described Jewish state (Lesch, Zionism And Its Impact, 2001). Second, Israel's continued military occupation and confiscation of privately owned land in the West Bank, and control over Gaza, are extremely harsh, with Palestinians having little or no control over their lives. Over 10,000 Palestinian men, women, and children are held in Israeli prisons. Few of them have had a legitimate trial; Physical abuse and torture are frequent. Palestinian borders are controlled by Israeli forces; there is a blockade on Gaza strip limiting resources into the strip. Periodically men, women, and children are strip searched; people are beaten; food and medicine are blocked from entering, producing an escalating humanitarian crisis. Israeli forces are known to assault almost daily, injuring, kidnapping, and sometimes killing inhabitants (Parkin, 2009). According to the Oslo peace accords of 1993, these territories were supposed to finally become a Palestinian state but present shows that this never happened. However, after years of Israel continuing to confiscate land and conditions steadily worsening, the Palestinian population rebelled. This uprising, called the "Intifada" (Arabic for shaking off) began at the end of September 2000. The Intifada was violent and was directed at soldiers as well as civilians. During this period, 16 Israeli civilians and 11 soldiers were killed by Palestinians in the territories; more than 1,400 Israeli civilians and 1,700 Israeli soldiers were injured. Approximately 1,100 Palestinians were killed in clashes with Israeli troops. It can be called as terrorism but mainly Palestinians had had enough and thus the rebellion (Taylor, 1978).

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US Involvement One reason that this conflict is not resolving is because of dominating Israeli military power and ideological beliefs having teamed up with U.S. ideological interests and beliefs. (Jim Miles, 2010) The United States played a significant role in the founding of Israel in 1948. The United States is strongly sympathetic of the continuation and sustained health of Israel, but state of affairs in Palestine continues to add strongly to concerns and adversa rial attitudes between Muslims and the West, with poisonous consequences throughout the Middle East and Europe. (World Bank, 2007) Palestinians mention many reasons for the apparent lack of support of their cause in the United States, regardless of the discernment that it is more broadly supported in Europe. One such reason is postulated to be ethnic prejudice in the U.S.; while stereotyping of many other groups is no longer uncontrolled, many people believe that Muslims and Arabs, in particular, continue to be victimized by unfinished attacks. It has also been argued that the United States (U.S.) continues to support Israel in order to have a strong base grip in the country for their own national interests, politically and economically and best prospects for U.S in Israel are energy, defence, security, health care, industrial chemicals, information and

telecommunications, electronics, building and construction, travel and tourism, and education. When US has a complete hold on Israel it has an easy entry into other Arab countries (David Butterworth, 2006). Largely due to special- interest lobbying, U.S. taxpayers give Israel an average of $7 million per day, and since its creation have given more U.S. funds to Israel than to any other nation. More recently, through Obama, the U.S. has given a green light to all Israeli actions within Palestine ranging from the continuation of the settlements to the destructive attacks against Lebanon and Gaza. The Israeli presence in the U.S. has had powerful effects on the de cisions and representations of the U.S. congress, where most ideas and personnel need to be familiar through Jewish organizations. Finally, inarguable support is given to Israel through the annual $3 billion in aid along with technical and military information. (Jim Miles, 2010)

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UN partition plan During the World War II, known as the Holocaust, 6 million Jews were reportedly killed by the Nazi forces which pressurized the British forces to allow Jewish immigration into Palestine (Gilbert, 1986). When the British left Palestine they were pressurised from both the Jews and the Palestinians for the land thus they left the dispute in the hands of UN to resolve. UN decided on a partition leaving half of the land to Israel and half to Palestine. While the Jews accepted it the Palestinians rejected it mainly because they outnumbered Zionist settlers two to one and owned 92 percent of the land. (Trueman, 2000). This plan caused the war of 1948 and the new beginning of the Palestine -Israel conflict. One opinion focuses on the fact that UN had no other choice then to divide the land in half. The Israelis were already in Palestine, the land was sacred to them, they wanted their home here and the British and US were favouring them, thus to benefit both parties it decided to partition the land into two. The other opinion is that UN had no right to partition Palestine since two thirds of the population were Palestinians and its charter focuses on viewing the rights of all people and Palestinians believe that their rights were not catered to. Jews needed a homeland, for them 1948 was a watershed, they finally had a home after continuous suffering from the holocaust and it was their promised land by God. UN appointed Jews a home in Palestine but analysing it in political terms it may have not been the right decision to put them amidst so many Muslim countries. This partition allowed the Jews to attack on Israel in 1948 and seizing 77% of the land; they had a competitive advantage since Palestinians were not allowed to hold any weapons after their 1revolt in 1929 against the British. If the plan would have been different lets say by appointing a higher share for the Palestinians and a lesser one for Jews there may have been rest. Had Palestine accepted the UN proposal it would have its own state but it was not ready to accept half for a minority and lose its dignity. Rejecting the proposal did not do much for Palestine either, there is still unrest, millions have died, negotiations dont last and it is simply crushed; only Israel exists on the map.

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Gaza Strip Blockade West bank Gaza strip is among those areas that are occupied by the Israel, it borders SouthWest Egypt and Israel on the South, East and North; they control its borders, airspace and the sea (Gaza Strip blockade). It is a home to more then 1.5 million Palestinians. The Egyptians annexed it in 1948 but in the 1968 war Israel got hold of it (Parkin, 2009). In the late 1980s, due to the uprisings o Israel Palestine borders, a peace treaty by the name n of Oslo was signed under which Palestine took over the administrative authority of the Gaza Strip. However, facts claim that Israel never followed the treaty from the first day and it never eased the b lockade limiting supplies into Gaza Strip. Due to dealing with the blockade a short civil war took place in 2007. Palestinians fired rocket attacks on Israel and they justify that this was in response to the blockade by Israelis limiting supplies into the strip as well as Israelis not following the truce. Israelis justify that their attacks were in further response. The conflict lasted 3 weeks and resulted in between 1,417 Palestinian and 13 Israeli deaths (ProCon.org, 2009) . Analysing the dispute the cause can be seen as both parties fighting for their rights and lack of trust between each other. The Palestinians demand the withdrawal of Israel forces from this area because they want their freedom. Palestines demand for Gaza strip is refused by the Israel as they claim it would be used as a base for terror attacks by Palestine and they are right too since they want their security but if the Oslo treaty had been followed inherently there would have been no need for a conflict to result. Refugees After the 1948 war about 726,000 Palestinians were expelled or forced to flee from their homes following the creation of Israel, and after 1967 war additional Palestinians fled. There are now about 4 million Palestinian refugees. Many of them live in crowded refugee camps in poor conditions in the West Bank, Gaza and in Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq. Palestinians demand that these refugees should have the right to return to their homes in Israel under UN General Assembly Resolution 194. Israelis note that an almost equal number of Jews fled Arab lands to Israel in 1948. Israelis oppose return of the refugees because that would create an Arab Palestinian majority and would put an end to Israel as a Jewish state resulting in their wishes opposing the wishes of Palestinians giving fuel to a conflict. (Morris, The Birth Of The Palestinian Refugee Problem, 2001)
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Water Issues Scarcity of water has been one of the main issues of this region. The water comes from the West Bank i.e. the Jordan River flows in the Palestinian state territory. As both Palestine and Israel need water for survival, Israel holds the main reserves of water occupying a large part of water in the West Bank. (Isseroff, 2003-2007) Dispute over Jerusalem Both Israel and Palestine claim on this region as their own, it holds immense historical and religious importance to both these nations. Jerusalem was the capital of Judea which is the site of the holy temple of the Jews; on the other hand, it also has Mosque Al-Aqsa which is regarded as the third holiest site in Islam. Both Jews and Arabs are very closely involved and affected by this issue and refuse to step back (ProCon.org, 2009). When two great religions share the same holy sites then opposition in inevitable; to both the site has historic values the site cannot be changed, it cannot be divided and if its used in combination then conflicting beliefs will give rise to the conflict.

4. Possible Options
The problem with this conflict is that the two sides set forth on a path of whichs destination was unknown. They both want peace, freedom and power but without a plan to achieve it extremists on both sides have sought to halt the process with brutality, and they succeeded in wrecking the convoy to peace. What is needed is a clear destination, and one that satisfies the desire of both sides for justice unlike the UNs partition plan in 1948. Most Israelis and Palestinians are agreeable to the idea of co-existing, but mainly if they feel the ultimate settlement does not betray their mission for a homeland. But how can two peoples justly occupy the same land? The main principle of justice is equality. Each side should recognize that the other has a just and equal claim to live in Israel/Palestine. The just solution to the land question is to endow each resident of the territory an equal claim to the land. 1) One state solution ruled by democratic vote where the leaders act fairly to both: The main principle of justice is equality. Each side should recognize that the other has a just and equal claim to live in Israel/Palestine. The just solution to the land question is to endow each resident of the territory an equal claim to the land. Instead of both the
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Palestinians and the Israelis living in hatred amongst each others and continuously fighting for water or rights or refugees or who gets what pieces of land they live together in harmony where both get to visit their holy places whenever they wish or get water and resources the same way as others are. There will be less reason for terrorism, fear and violence if both parties have their selected people in the government and since the government will be made up of both the Palestinians and the Israelis it will have to be fair to both sides. There will be no need for aggression when both people have their land which is what they wanted, they both will have a place for their future generations, and there will be reason to feel safe. Provinces can even be established. To ensure peace within the democratic government the leaders elected will have to be fair to both parties of they would not be re -elected, also if a politician favours one side he will not be voted for. The main idea is for a just government no matter what the religion is and respect for rights of all parties. Demerits: The plan may be unrealistic because no matter how much tried for there is a possibility that the leader is not fair to both parties and may conjure in corruption. Israel is a democratic state currently and peace is not to be seen anywhere in the near future. It will take a long while for terrorism to stop, fairness to take place and both parties to forgive each other for all the past resentment and wars to be able to live together in peace and sharing the entire land. This proposal is also against the ideology of the Israelis where they believe that Israel is their rightful possession and Palestinians who just want to live in the land the possessed before completely devoid of Jews.

2) Two State Solution with borders of pre 1967 war: This solution suggests that Gaza strip and West bank be made into a Palestinian state while the rest into an Israeli state. After partition all acts of terrorism from both sides be ceased while a cease fire be declared on all suspected terrorists and Israelis immediately withdraw from the Gaza strip. A proper border between the two parties should be drafted. This will lead to respect for borders as proper boundary is the core issue of this region. Thousands die just because of the reason that no proper boundary has been marked. In reality any other solution may not as feasible because with the extreme differences between the two nations and the brutal history shared it may be impossible for thim to live together. Even in religion Jews and Muslims are enemies of each other and this combined with politics increases their resentment for each other.

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Disadvantage will be that both the parties if consulted will never be fully satisfied with the partition plan and it cannot take place if both countries arent kept on the same page. Having two states may also not bring about stability since both states will still remain enemies of each other and still may attack and counter attack. They both will know what the others territory was once theirs and may at any time try to conquer it, thus both may live in fear. If the West Bank holds the main water reserves then water issues may also arise unless promising treaties are signed.

3) Single state and establishment of an Institution: UN is an institution that works to bring about peace within the world. A likely but smaller institution can be established that works to bring about peace within Israel and Palestine. This will be effective if the institution has backup fr om super powers and has enough power to control and police any actions that are not in favour of both the Palestinians and the Israelis. This institution will only work for peace and ensure that both parties can survive without conflicts, refugees get homes, no water problems are created, no resources are stopped from travelling any where and all misunderstandings are cleared. This institution must have representatives from Israelis, Palestinians as well as UN to work.

Problem with this solution also rests with the fact that both the Israelis and Palestinians may not be willing to live in combination with the other and much time may take to forgive and forget the past happenings. Although if both want to stay where their holy sites are or where they have made history and both are willing to make peace then this solution might be a likely one. It may be hard to implement the decisions of this institution just as it is with UN but it can be likely if enough power and police forces are placed within it and proper monitoring takes place.

5. Recommendations
Historical tragedies do not arise from encounters in which right clashes with wrong. Rather, they occur when right clashes with right. This is the heart of the conflict between Israel and the Arab states in Palestine. Both nations are not yet ready to cooperate, they want separate homelands with complete rights and authority and no one country is actually willing to compromise. Thus if the state solution is implied it may bring about temporary peace but negotiating for the states will take forever. While both the Israelis and the Palestinians get
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their own land water problems and refugee issues may still exist and in time the stronger state may try to take over the weaker one. Things can be made to work by balancing of power between the two with US support ing Israel while Arab countries supporting Palestine but if Arab countries are forced to obey US then problems are likely. The best solution currently we recommend would be to establish as institution to monitor the activities, take final decisions and bring about peace. Government is likely to favour one party over another while an institution can even monitor the government. The role of this institution would only be to monitor peace while the government can handle all other situations. Even if two separate states are formed an institution can still be formed anyways to monitor any attacks between the states. This institution working only for the rights of individuals of Palestine and Israel may be the reason for peace only if it has power.

6. Appendix

Exhibit A

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Avakin, B. (2006, June 25). Palestine: A History of Occupation and Resistance. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from Revolution: http://revcom.us/a/052/palestinefactsheet-en.html Butterworth, D. (2006). Israel- Palestinian conflict, PBS NEWS HOURS, [online] at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/middle_east/conflict/keyplayers/keyplayer2.htm l [Accessed 23rd November 2011]. Gilbert, M. (1986). The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Hadawi, S. (1979). Bitter Harvest. Caravan Books. Isseroff, A. (2003-2007). The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict in a Nutshell. Lesch, A. M. (2001, August 13). Zionism and its Impact. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Palestine-Remembered/Story452.html Lesch, A. M. (2001). Zionism And Its Impact. Miles, J. (2010). The Israel- Palestinian conflict- contested histories, Neil Caplan. Wiley-Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons), Malden, MA. Morris, B. (2008). 1948: A History of the First Arab -Israeli War. Parkin, B. (2009, January 6). Profile: Gaza Strip. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from BBC News: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/5122404.stm ProCon.org. (2009, May 4). ProCon. Retrieved from Israeli-Palestinian Conflict-10-Minute Summary: http://israelipalestinian.procon.org/view.additional-resource.php?resourceID=000633#resurgence Shah, A. (2006). The Middle East conflicta brief background. Taylor, A. R. (1978). The Origins And Evolution Of The Palestine Problem, 1917-1947. UNISPAL . Trueman, C. (2000). Palestine 1918 to 1948. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from History Learning site: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/palestine_1918_to_1948.htm World Bank (2007). Movement and access restrictions in the West Bank: uncertainty and inefficiency in Palestinian economy. Retrieved 17t h November 2010 from World Bank.

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Kashmir Dispute

KASHMIR DISPUTE

While partitioning India, to meet the demand of a separate homeland for the Muslims in the form of Pakistan, the British violated the basic principle and allowed India to occupy the then state of Kashmir. The resultant dispute had led to perpetual hostility between India and Pakistan

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Group Leader: Sidra Babar Malik

Group Members: Tabish Manzoor Bhat Maryam Badar Usama Zafar Faisal Mehmood

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INTRODUCTION The IndiaPakistan dispute over Kashmir is one of the most intractable international conflicts today. There is virtual consensus that peace and political stability cannot be achieved in nuclear South Asia until the Kashmir Issue is resolved (Yusuf & Najam, 2009).For Pakistan, without the resolution of Kashmir conflict, there cannot be peace and stability in Islamabad New Delhi relations. Whereas for India, Kashmir may be a major issue negatively affecting the Indo-Pakistan relations, but it is certainly not the core issue as repeatedly stated by Pakistan. (Ahmer, 2007). The reasons are many consolidating factors that all together

preserve self-curiosity loom. As stated by Paul, it is "persistent, fundamental, and long term incapability of goals between two states" (Paul, 2005). Uncertainties over the border, coupled with repeated instances of exchange of fire suggest that it should be classified as a territorial dispute (Bradnock, 2011). Growingpopular discontent throughout the 1980s has introduced new actors as well as wider range of interests. With increasingly complex and multidimensional nature, the conflict has become ideological on all sides. (Brudevoll,2011). Kashmir lies between three of its neighbours i.e. Pakistan, China and India; two of the three are fighting with each other over this piece of heaven on the earth. No one is willing to give up and the area has become a deadly region where the two neighbors India and Pakistan have been fighting for six decades resulting in voluminous deaths (Raman 2008). The Kashmiris have been living a difficult life with militarys involvement in their territory. Massacres, mutilation of bodies, rampant abuse, abject poverty and a constant state of war and terror exists (Fai, 2002). A peace process was started in 2004 and the Kashmiris, after that lived somewhat peaceful life, but in summer 2009, high instability and volatility resurfaced. Different national and international groups involved in Kashmir, hence the problems within Kashmir are continuing. Kashmir issue is now actually an ethnic and religious issue of Muslims residing within Kashmir who have been deprived of their political as well as social rights. The conflict is not only limited to the problems within Jammu and Kashmir but it has political, historical, economic, cultural, and security aspects as well. (Ahmar, 2007). Today, Kashmir is the most dangerous flashpoints in South Asian region and in fact it remains an unfinished agenda of the 1947 partition. (Hilali, 2007). Interpreting Kashmir as a zero sum game, Kashmir would continue to be exploited by leaders of both the countries for national interests.

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Past of the Kashmir Issue: The origin of Kashmir dispute dates back to partition of the Indo-Pak Subcontinent. Kashmir was one of the 562 princely states in India that were given the option to join India or Pakistan. At the time of partition, Kashmir; a Muslim majority state, was ruled by a Hindu leader Maharaja Hari Singh. Basis of the partition were religious majority and geographical boundaries, y the Indians expected Kashmir to be part of India due to Hindu leadership in et Jammu and Kashmir. The first war between India and Pakistan over Kashmir dates back to 1947 over territorial issues. Brudevoll relates cause of the first war as invasion by Pakistani tribal forces that led the Hindu leader of Kashmir to join India. Anders argues that This was unacceptable for the Pakistani nationalist government of President Mohammed Ali Jinnah who considered absorption of Kashmir as vital (Brudevoll, 2011). D ifference of opinion exists upon the causes of initial disputes. A Z Hilali states that Muslim uprising in western Jammu against the Maharajas oppressive practices gave rise to protests against him. The Pakistani government complained that Muslims were b eing persecuted in Poonch while the Kashmiri government charged that armed Pakistani nationals were infiltrating in Kashmir (Hilali, 2007). Shortly after this outrage, tribal men had managed to occupy a portion of territory which later came to be known as Azad Kashmir. Maharaja asked for Indian help and as a result without the concern of Kashmiri people, India declared Kashmir as part of it. United Nations Plebiscite: The above events gave rise to negotiations between India and Pakistan, in which India proposed that the matter be taken to UN for a decision over the dispute which declared a ceasefire. It was expected that UN decision would be considered acceptable. The UN Commission's plan for a ceasefire and Truce Agreement was formalized in its Resolution of 13 August 1948 (Hilali, 2007). Plebiscite was declared by the UN which allowed the Kashmiri people the right of self-determination but is violated by the Indian government to the present day. Ever since plebiscite was declared, several attempts have been made during the past 60 years to negotiate a solution acceptable to all three actors in the dispute. War of 1965 and 1971: A series of half-baked proposals started in 1962 under the pressure of UK and US to negotiate an acceptable solution for Kashmir. (Yusuf & Najam, 2009) This phase of direct talks, however, resulted in war between India and Pakistan in 1965. The issue remained still owing to Indias unwillingness to agree to proposals that could actually resolve
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the conflict. The war of 1965 ended in a ceasefire. The war of 1971 was not directly related to Kashmir issue but favored in terms of determination of boundaries across the region. The Kargil War: A cold political war persisted between India and Pakistan between 1962 and 1999. In the winter of 1999, some Kashmiri locals occupied the vacant Indian posts over important peaks in the area. Purpose was to take control of the only route through highway to Leh. Strategic significance of the area can be derived from the fact that the Mujahedeen were in control of the highway linking Srinagar to Leh, the only supply route to Indian military forces deployed in Siachin glacier (Amin, 2007). A debate continued between the two countries whether these occupants were Pakistani mujahedeen. Pakistan, however, denied but declared that intentions of these mujahedeen were political. Pakistan Army Chief General Pervaiz Musharraf later admitted in a BBC interview that some of the Pakistani troops may have been involved in 'aggressive patrolling' along the Line of Control (Amin, 2007). Both the countries wished that condition of the war do not escalate out of hands yet were unable to come to suitable terms of negotiation. International relations then played a role and international pressure exercised by the United States, Russia, China and the G7 countries forced both India and Pakistan to agree to restoration of Line of Control and an end to hostilities on 4 July, 1999. The issue of Kashmir is likely to remain alive for many decades due to the totally opposite arguments put forward by both the countries. (Pattanaik, 2010). Several attempts have been made in the past to resolve the issue including the UN plebiscite, the negotiation tables and the Kargil war. Yet it remains within the realm of possibility that some progress in future be achieved (Bose, 1999). Now, let us have a look at the facts we were able to search about the Kashmir Dispute. For getting a hold on these, we did research on the previous writings, researches, documentaries and we took interview from some of the people who had a firm grip of the issue. The Questionnaire we developed and used is at Annexure-A. Uncovering the Stark Realities: An austere difference exists between literature and actual happenings in Kashmir; a state with a population of 12 million, 67% out of which are Muslims. The fight has never always been for the Muslims but it is definitely fought by the Muslims, it was never for the people living but for the land they live on or the resources it has. Both the countries have tried to gain possession of the land and in doing so Kashmir has split into pieces named as disputed territories by each other. Now after 65 years of independence, both the countries have
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realized that boundaries cannot be changed. Incidents during the past few years for which both the countries are equally responsible are appended in ensuing lines. Armed movement started in 1990 when Pakistan began funding it and sent trained fighters from Pakistan. Situation in Kashmir started to change and Kashmiris started thinking about freedom. Arms replaced the pens and Kashmiri youth started moving to Pakistan to receive training for the fight. Kashmiri freedom organizations were blamed for attack on the Indian parliament that further deteriorated the situation. India soon sent a document of the wanted men that ended communication between the two countries. From phones to flights every source was blocked. Relations that took 11 years to develop ended. Both the countries tried to improve the relations and the movement took a turn when countries all over the world started to question credibility of the fighter organizations. In 2004, change in strategies of both the countries induced a new turn in the armed movement and fighters gains were wasted. Hence the struggle for freedom was initially political but changed into an armed one and was officially denounced after attack on Musharraf. In June 2010, there were series of protests in Muslim majority valley of the Indian Administered Kashmir. These occurred in response to civil disobedience movement launched by Hurriyat Conference led by Syed Ali Shah Gillani and Mir Waiz Umar Farooq, who called for complete demilitarization of Jammu and Kashmir. The Police and Indian Para-military Forces fired live ammunition on protesters, resulting in 112 deaths, including many teenagers. Dual policies of Pakistan and resistance shown by the Indians again put the people of Kashmir into a state of confusion. There was lack of clarity in the direction and chaos prevailed amongst the people . Negotiations between India and Pakistan gave some hope to Kashmiri people. However, no reasonable solution was reached and the negotiations proved fruitless. Since 2004, the insurgents in Kashmir are stated as terrorists, to which India agrees. The ground reality is that main insurgent groups in Kashmir are Hizbul Mujahideen and Lashkere-Tayyaba. Both the groups operate from Pakistan. Indian reaction to what happens in Kashmir is violent and creates resistance to peacemaking efforts. India was not much concerned about the situation till 1990, but sent forces to control armed violence. Forces
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became more retaliating and were resented by the people. Hence, while looking at the issue in a realistic perspective, we come to know that actions of Pakistan and the reactions of India, both have contributed to further worsening of the issue. Towards a Workable Solution in Kashmir: As students of Conflict Management, we need to analyze the Kashmir conflict with a realistic approach, viewing uncertainty and ground realities which actually distress the situation. We need to have a look at the interests of Kashmir, Pakistan and India and then devise the possible solutions for the resolution of the conflict. Kashmir Issue: Perceived Relevance to The Parties Involved: 1. India : India now plays a significant role in the world politics and is seeking a permanent seat on the UN Security Council. Indian perspective on Kashmir is clear. They know that instrument of accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh was a legal document and they have all the legal rights to control and rule Kashmir. Disaffection and discontent are not uncommon in India. The Government of India has always been will ing to accommodate legitimate political demands of the people of Kashmir. India thinks that insurgency and terrorism in Kashmir is fuelled by Pakistan to create instability in the region. India also believes that Pakistan always tries to raise anti-India s entiment amongst Kashmiris through false propaganda. India has criticized Pakistani media of exaggerating facts and fabricating news. India always points out Pakistani government support terrorist organizations Jaish-e-Mohammad and Lashkar -e-Tayyaba in violation of the UN resolution. India also ruminates that most parts of Pakistani Kashmir continue to suffer from lack of political and economic development and basic rights. 2. Pakistan: Pakistan takes the insurgency in Kashmir as demonstrated will of the people to join Pakistan or be independent. Pakistan claims Kashmir to be its part in the light of two nation theory. On the contrary, India totally ignores UN resolutions, two nation theory and freedom struggle. Kashmiri people are forced by the circumstances to uphold their right of self-determination through militancy. Massive rallies in state of Jammu and Kashmir demonstrate their urge of getting freedom. Pakistan always criticizes extrajudicial killings by the Indian security forces in the wake of encounters, as they usually go un-investigated and the perpetrators are spared criminal prosecution. Pakistan also points towards UN
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reports which condemn India for its human rights violations against Kashmiri people. Human rights organizations have strongly condemned Indian troops for widespread beating and murder of innocent civilians while accusing these civilians of being militants. 3. Kashmir: Jammu and Kashmir's economy is predominantly dependent on agriculture and allied activities. People of Kashmir want freedom from both the countries and peace in the region to put an end to their sufferings. In the conflict between Pakistan and India, Kashmiris have suffered the most. They were and are being used. Their economy and infrastructure has been badly damaged. Before taking any step, Pakistan and India should think about the people of Kashmir because whatever they do, Kashmiris have to pay the price. Pakistan should stop assistance to the a rmed organizations and Kashmiris should be allowed to take their own decisions. Real issues are never discussed and both the countries waste time in discussing least important issues on Kashmir. Kashmirs Window of Opportunity: The menu of options for resolution of the Kashmir issue is quite broad; however, understanding the problem is first step towards solving it. Below are possible solutions of the conflict which we have devised from our understanding of the issue that can be achieved. 1. Autonomy is not a dirty word: Recovery of Kashmiriyat: The Best way of resolving this severe conflict is that India and Pakistan should try and acquire Compromising strategy by letting Kashmiris have an independent state for themselves. Since All Parties Huriat Conference is the biggest and vibrant political party of Jammu & Kashmir. It is their manifesto that Kashmiris should have their own independent state comprising of Indian Occupied Kashmir as well as Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Hence, inhabitants of Kashmir can work for the betterment of their homeland. Adoption of this option by all the stakeholders would be a great step towards attaining peace in South Asia. It may also help in bringing peace and harmony amongst two fierce rivals Pakistan and India. By opting for any other strategy there could be grudges in the heart of any or both parties as Kashmir is considered as Atoot Ang by India and Shehrag by Pakistan. So both the countries cannot let Kashmir merge in the other country, thus leaving Independent Kashmir as the only option to bring harmony. This option suits both Pakistan and India. India has
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about one million troops deployed in occupied Kashmir and the Indian government is spending huge amount to sustain her forces in Kashmir and at Siachin. Pakistan also has to spend a lot for its troops deployed on Indian border and at Siachin glacier. These expenses put huge burden on both developing countries. If there is an Independent Kashmir then both the countries could spend those hefty amounts on the welfare of people and development of their countries. By having Independent Kashmir, India and Pakistan could have trade treaties by giving passages to Russia and China through Arabian Sea to generate revenues. Treaties may take place where Kashmir is also involved and thus inflation in the two countries could be maintained as both can trade self-sufficient commodities with each other. Since Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent and is landlocked area. Therefore, it will be totally dependent on India and Pakistan and may result in pressure from them. Besides, Pakistan and India may influence Kashmirs domestic and international strategies. In such a scenario, Kashmir would initially face economic and financial instabilities. Kashmiris will ha ve to show utmost resolve and willingness to get out of the situation. Similarly, they can also face political crisis as political party like APHC would like to have full control but may face opposition from some Jihadi wings like Hizb-ulMujahideen. Kashmir would have to first gain recognition of an autonomous state in the international community. This would bring some fortunes as well as some problems such as joining the only super power or remaining neutral. Independent status would also require establishment of embassies in different countries coupled with good foreign and interior ministries. 2. Backdoor diplomacy: Indian and Pakistani governments, various legislative bodies of the people of Jammu and Kashmir on both sides of the LOC and key international entities will be examining various strategies for addressing this conflict. The bill of fare to them is quiet broad, but the New Delhis options are to stick, go slow or go on the offensive approach. However, understanding of the problem is the first step towards solving it. War is not a viable solution because of the nuclear element. The backdoor diplomacy should not be limited to establishment but various legislative bodies of the people of Jammu and Kashmir as well as democratic individuals. The framework must contain a permanent
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committee that should work at their own will without any intermediation or influence. We cannot oversee the interests of any stakeholder, therefore, interest based negotiations can ultimately bring an acceptable solution. Considering the concealed in-depth facts of the Kashmir issue, the solution seems to be backdoor diplomacy. Thus, an integrated approach includes the military support to Mujahideen (freedom fighters) as a backup strategy to make Indian delegation remain on the table. Considering demands of the people, Jammu and Kashmir could be a separate state, but interest based negotiations can resolve the Kashmir conflict. In essence, we can consider the option of backdoor diplomacy because it is outcome oriented, while on the other hand, Pakistan should back Mujahedeen (freedom fighters) to achieve interest based goals. Another distinctive era has begun, the diplomacy arousal opens up new climate as trade between Pakistan and India is purely because of diplomacy, therefore, through trade we are able to talk more explicitly with narrower interests. The commitment of negotiators as well as established influential powers is the only drawback which can be analyzed as withdrawal. But agenda point is the mix of negotiations and military power, which is only to pull the gears of New Delhis options to stick, go slow or go on the offensive approach towards a single acceptable resolution by the elected representatives of the people of Jammu and Kashmir. The second aspect which de-tracks the negotiations is the broader aspect, the interests of global world and other local entities can interfere because of their individual multilateral interests. Because of ultimate interests, the media cannot view the outcomes of the policy in progress which can ultimately progress as to disengage the common people of Jammu and Kashmir. 3. Demarcation of Borders At Line of Control Line of Control originally known as Line of cease fire was declared by UN in 1948 to settle the disputes between militants in Kashmir. LOC was a temporary settlement at that time and the future of people of Kashmir was to be decided by their consent. LOC separates the Gilgit, Baltistan and Azad Kashmir area into the region under control of Pakistan. Kashmir dispute can be resolved if the LOC is marked as international borders between India and Pakistan. The disputed territories have been operating under control of two countries for over 6 decades now. Legal demarcation of borders at LOC would not be in the best interest of people of Kashmir, however, it is a possible solution to end the historical issue of Kashmir.
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The Kashmiri people have been fighting to gain freedom for a long time. Officially Splitting up Kashmir into two parts would deteriorate their morale. It would also aggrieve the people for their efforts and their sacrifices will remain unrewarded. Parting Kashmir is against the spirit of its people. By resolution of dispute; people of Kashmir may gain the basic rights that have been long forgone due to disputed nature of Kashmir. Rivers of Kashmir provide water to Pakistans most important agriculture industry. With half the Kashmir under Indian control, Pakistan would remain under threat because of Indias wish to gain control over the waters. To demarcate border s, Pakistan will have to overthrow United Nations decision of temporary ceasefire. Pakistan will have to give sovereignty to Azad Kashmir and will have no support in future from United Nations over the dispute. On the bright side, the Kashmir issue which has been under consideration for years will be resolved. A large portion of the Indian occupied Kashmir consists of Muslim population. If LOC is declared as border, India would face retaliation from the people of Kashmir who have been fighting for their right of self determination. It would also weaken Indias reputation because of the unjust treatment that the people of Indian occupied Kashmir have been facing for years.

Peace for Kashmir: What are the Possibilities? Some of the steps that can lead to resolution of the conflict should be taken by both the countries. India should be more flexible on its policies over Kashmir. They should call their army back from the valley and try to negotiate with Pakistan. It will eventually bring peace in the valley. On the other hand Pakistan should make its policy clear. Pakistan should think about people of Kashmir before taking any step; because whatever Pakistan does people of Kashmir pay the price. Pakistan should stop assistance to the armed organizations. India should be ready to talk on the issues with Pakistan in the presence of representatives from Kashmir. People of Kashmir should be allowed to decide what they want. India should refrain from hurting Pakistan in any way to make it weak. The real and core issue s should be discussed so that both the countries do not waste time in discussing issues which have no relevance to people of Kashmir. At last, even if both the countries dont come up with a solution they should try to maintain peace in the valley so that Kashmiri people do not suffer even if they are not asking for anything.
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Conclusion: At the end, we think that there is room for voluntary processes to be adopted by both the countries to gain fruitful results, such as mediation, conciliation and voluntary arbitration can be done by the members of the two Governments. And last but not the least, even if both the countries dont come up with a solution they should try to maintain peace in the valley so that people of Kashmir can live peacefully.

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Bibliography: Yusuf, M & Najam, A 2009, Kashmir: ripe for resolution? Third World Quarterly , Volume 30:8, Dec 18, pp.1503-1528. Ahmar, M 2007 Kashmir and The Process Of Conflict Resolution, Pakistan Security Research Unit (PSRU), Brief Number 16, Pakistan. Paul, T.V. (ed.) 2005 The India-Pakistan Conflict? An Enduring Rivalry, Cambridge University Press, New York. Bradnock, RW 2007, Regional geopolitics in a globalising world: Kashmir in geopolitical perspective, Geopolitics, Volume 3:2, Oct 19, pp.1-29. Fai, G. N 2002 Greater Kashmir, Kashmir peace initiative. Washington, DC: KashmiriAmerican Council. Hilali, A.Z. 2007, Kashmir dispute and UN mediation efforts: An historical perspective, Small Wars & Insurgencies, Volume 8:2, Nov 26, pp.61-86. Brudevoll, AK 2011, Enduring Rivalry? A Case Study of the Conflict in Kashmir, Written for: Oliver Lewis, Jan, London Metropolitan University. Amin, T 2007, Kargil crisis in Kashmir, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Volume 13:2, Sep 13, pp.320-327. Pattanaik, SS. 2010, Jammu and Kashmir, the Cold War and the West by D.N. Panigrahi the Kashmir Dispute: Making Border Irrelevant by P.R. Chari, Hasan Askari Rizvi, Rashid Ahmed Khan and Suba Chandran, Strategic Analysis, Volume 34:5, Aug 23, pp.773-776. Bose, S 1999, Kashmir: Sources of Conflict, dimensions of Peace, Survival, Volume 41:3, Autumn, pp.149-71.

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ANNEXURE - A
Questionnaire: 1. What do you think is the role of India Pakistan in Kashmir conflict? Can India Pakistan solve this conflict without involving another party? 2. UN passed a resolution on Kashmir issue in 1948 than what do you think are the reasons that this conflict is still unresolved? 3. Is it now possible to resolve this issue by involving some powerful countries as mediators who can influence both countries? 4. What role can All Parties Hurriat Conference play in resolving Kashmir conflict? Is APHC the real representative of people of Jammu Kashmir? 5. What are your views on armed movement by Kashmiri youth in 1990s? Does it help their issue or worsen it? 6. Do you think that dual policies of Pakistani military and political leadership played vital role in changing direction of Kashmiris freedom movement? 7. What do you think about Kashmir dispute, is it just fight for piece of land or for the Muslims of state? 8. Was the civil disobedience movement by APHC in June 2010 a success or failure? How? 9. There is a common notion in India that Hizbulmujahideen & Laskar e Tayyaba are terrorist organizations so what are your views that should Pakistan stop their operations in Pakistani territory? Will it help in resolving conflict or not? 10. Do common person of Jammu Kashmir still believe in militancy or now they are trying to get independence through dialogue? 11. Has media worsen the issue in the past e.g. Kargil war e and manipulated the tc emotions of general public and build hatred? 12. Now a days as media is very strong across both sides of border so how can media play a role in resolving this conflict? 13. What is the current situation of Kashmir conflict is it just a conf lict on a piece of land or water resources? 14. Has Kashmir conflict affected the current economic state of both countries? As both countries are spending hefty amounts on name of defense budget. 15. Finally, honestly tell your view that whats the realistic solution of this conflict Armed Movement (war) or Political relations (dialogue)?

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Curse Of Terrorism In Pakistan

CURSE OF TERRORISM IN PAKISTAN

One of the gifts of the proxy war in Afghanistan of 1970s and 1980s is the curse of terrorist acts in Pakistan. No place is safe: may those be places of worship, funeral processions or peaceful family/social gatherings. There is an urgent need to settle this conflict and bring peace to the country

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Group Leader: Samana Yunus

Group Members: Minahal Shafiq Bushra Baneen Khurram Hanif Saad Bin Kamal

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Curse Of Terrorism In Pakistan INTRODUCTION


To be an enemy of America can be dangerous, but to be a friend is fatal (General Ayub Khan). This is what exactly turned out a curse for Pakistan as it opted for the friendship with America during the Afghan proxy war. The decision to support US though the best strategy considered at that time turned out to be a weak point in the later history of Pakistan that largely impacted on the countrys global image and state security. The US actions post Afghan proxy war spread like termite in the country resulting into massive terrorism activities and the national instability that became a direct threat to the states existence and sovereignty. But the afghan proxy war was not the only factor leading to the current situation rather it was an addition to the combination of already prevailing multiple factors. Pakistan has been adversely affected by terrorism than any other country of the world. Although, Pakistan is a victim of terrorism but it has been labelled as a state sponsoring terrorism. Lot of time and energy of Pakistan is being consumed to make world understand its position and clear its image, and while doing so it is being forced to make compromises on vital interests. Even the friendly countries like China, Iran, and Indonesia started looking towards Pakistan with suspicion.

Looking into the roots


The roots of terrorism in Pakistan emerged from the proxy war in Afghanistan which was a nine-year conflict involving the Soviet Union and the mujahideen of Afghanistan who used to receive unofficial military and financial support from a variety of countries including the United States. The soviet-afghan war created a greater influx of ideologically driven Afghan Arabs to the tribal areas and increased availability of guns and drugs. A very large number of afghan refugees crossed the Pakistani border and Pakistani government welcomed them in their country and these refugees spread all over the country. The government, ISI and CIA encouraged mujahideen to fight a proxy war against the Soviet Union. During this war America made many promises with afghan people that the y will develop Afghanistan in every sector but as the goal of America was achieved they quickly backed out from Afghanistan.

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Curse Of Terrorism In Pakistan From Jihad to Terrorism


Most of these mujahideen were never un-armed after the war due to which weapons were left in their hands. USA used carpet bombing, drone attacks, and cruise missiles to get rid of them. The so called Jihad during the afghan proxy war was afterwards termed as terrorism. The different groups of mujahideen started fighting with each other for power and a general emergence of fanaticism and unrest was seen in the society. A huge amount of weapons were left in the hands of mujahideen and these fanatics were the US customers for selling the arms.

Improper Channelization of Responsibility


Pakistan had not fulfille d the responsibility required from a nation-state during the crisis. It dumped the mujahideen in western tribal areas. Those who were trained to kill were left idle after the war was over. They were not cared for and given proper facilities in Pakistan and this miss-management by the Pakistans Government created an evil society including mixed group that was low educated, brain washed, and had low understanding of deen. These groups were later been misguided and thus activated in different forms leading the holistic situation of terror across Pakistan. So, the soviet Afghanistan War was the most critical event responsible for spreading terrorism, militancy and intolerance in Pakistan. The aftermath of the Soviet withdrawal exposed the damage, transformation of violence and weaponization into Pakistan society.

9/11 and the War against terror


The 9 Sep 2001 happened which shocked everyone in the world and changed international politics. Then USA rethought their policy and planned to take revenge from the suspected Taliban. For this purpose USA again needed help from Pakistan. Now USA was repeating the same mistake as USSR did in 1979 and collaborated with Pakistan to fight against terrorism. At that time Pakistani polices were very complex and USA gave them option that either you are with us or against us. USA attacked Afghanistan with the help of Pakistan but in the meanwhile many Pakistanis and people from other Muslim countries went to Afghanistan for HOLY WAR. Again in 2001 a large amount of refuges came to Pakistan and spread all over the country. At that time Pakistan was affected by the war very badly. The Afghans entered Pakistan, started living in Pakistani tribal areas and making plans to attack Americans and NATO forces in Afghanistan. Then whole global community pressurized
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Pakistan to take serious actions against terrorists in Pakistan and Pakistani army was engaged in different parts of its own country. In the mean while USA and other agencies like RAW also funded a group of people in Pakistan and named them as Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan and their motive was only to destabilize Pakistan and give an impression to world that Pakistan is also under terrorist attacks and it is not a safe place to live. These Taliban did many suicide attacks in different parts of country and a war was imposed on Pakistan which was not even Pakistans war. The drone attacks were another implication of war that resulted in killing of innocent people in tribal areas.

The Blame Game


A blame game of USA targeted Pakistan Army of supporting terrorists and Taliban in Afghanistan which destroyed the country impression in world. Repetition of terrorist attacks on various important organization and cities has made every Pakistani very conscious about these terrorists. Suicide bombing in shopping malls, common business centers, forces personnel, mosques, gatherings, roads and even educational institution is not only affecting economy but also effecting social and psychological status of every Pakistani in a very negative manner. Most of the suicide bombers are not even Muslims rather they are the planted agents of US or India aimed to declare Pakistan as a state not being able to maintain its security.

Past efforts for resolution and governmental actions


As a result of the outburst of this mass destructive terrorism the security measures had been increased by making check -posts at various places. Sensitive areas, foreign embassies and governmental institutes were given special security. Security measures were made strict at public places and gatherings. A media campaign was started that aimed at spreading awareness through Ullama about the religious teachings and true meaning of Jihad. The Government of Pakistan launched a de-weaponization campaign in 2000 to cater to the massive use of weapons especially on the western front of the country which continued for a couple of years. This campaign was a three stage process. Firstly, the people were encouraged to register their arms, and then were asked to surrender illegal weapons, and finally, a crackdown was launched for the recovery of illegal weapons. The campaign failed because of lack of follow up procedures. The military actions in tribal areas and Waziristan had no platform. In the attempt to finish the militants innocent lives were also made to suffer and was negatively contributing in increasing rather decreasing the menace as the person who
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is left alone with whole family dead will automatically generate anger and hatred and will join terrorist group for suicide bombing as a conse quence of the fire of revenge. Despite all these ineffective actions which unfortunately made only a small percent, no other substantial effort was made to cater the terrorism issue. The reason of these actions being faulty was largely blamed to the lack of vision and massive corruption going on in the country. The poor security measure follow -ups and lack of justice and facilities was a pushing factor for the terrorist activities and weaponization in Pakistan.

Curing the menace


There is a dire need to take concrete and active actions to cure this dreadful virus of terrorism. Initiating the change The problem lies in the fact that all of us are ready to change the world but no one seriously tries to start the personal change on the individual level which can then be turned to the collective efforts contributing significantly in the terrorism war. Individual self correction should be made the long-term goal. The only way to kill evil is to start from correcting the evil within our self. We need to overcome our short sightedness and realize our responsibility and identity as a nation-state. Focusing on the religion People should be brought close to the true religious teachings as the world view is incomplete without religion. Religion and dimensions of spirit uality should be practiced. People should be called towards religion as the true understanding of religion can broaden the mental horizons and will lead to the identification of right and wrong actions. The sole reason for this is that no religion supports or allows blood-shed in the cause of achieving your demands. The fake tribal Ullama that manipulate the innocent minds through wrong religious teachings and instigates them to be a part of this brutal act of terrorism should be given a hard time by supplying each individual with ample knowledge as to what is right or wrong under the light of deen. But this is obviously a difficult task as these evil criminal are so deep routed and hidden in the tribal areas where they have a great following.

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Education an d Facilities Efforts are required to educated the public at large and provide them with basic facilities. The deeni madresahs should be brought to main stream system under proper supervision. Underdeveloped remote areas should be focused for development activities and to provide a better standard of living. The government should ensure equal and full availability of resources in each province. Military Action The military has started to negotiate with the militants for a collaborative situation that they wont attack them and in return the terrorist will stop the terrorist activities of suicide bombing and target killing. Military and defence policies should be practiced to provide quality secure environment throughout the country. Role of leadership The faulty leadership should be removed otherwise the situation will keep on deteriorating. It was under the poor governance of General Pervez Musharaf as he was supporting US in the war against terror that the country experienced massive terrorism especially from the period of 2006-2008. A large number of innocent lives lost in the attacks on major areas were attributed to the poor governance and mismanagement. Even the current government did not showed any interest in working for the issue. Periodically large sum of money is funded to them from US for fighting the war against terrorism and what they dont realize is that an external oppressor is making them fight on its internal front against its own people. In order to ensure a positive change a strong government is required which can take strong political actions without fearing the international consequences in practicing the right strategy. Collaboration with Muslim countries The Government of Pakistan should indulge into serious dialogues with the other Muslim countries to convince them to bring them on board in the war against terrorism. They should be made to realize that Pakistan rather being the supporter is a victim of terrorism and this evil can only be catered through collective actions. It should be clear to all that who the real terrorist is. China and Iran as allies are a big support to Pakistan during this scenario.

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Handling the US involvement The basic issue is of the trade that Pakistan is doing with Iran and China. US want to keep hold on Pakista n as it is the only route for the delivery of the weapons to Afghanistan for the arms based US economy. The USA should be given a clear cut warning to stop bugging into Pakistans national affairs and policies. This task is thought difficult as Pakistan is believed to be dependent on US aid to handle its larger debts but is not impossible. Maybe the country has to face problems in the initial phase but if the Government makes proper and serious effort and exploit the resources then the problems can be minim ized to the greater extent and events can turn out to be favourable in the long run. Pakistan being situated at a strong geographical location can get advantage from its ample resources among which the major being the coal reserves in Baluchistan and the favourable ports. This effort to remove US involvement from Pakistan will help better negotiate and clear the national position among the angry Taliban of the western front which are basically targeting Pakistan because of anti-US strategy and outburst of anger on the Government for supporting USA in the war against terrorism.

Proposed Solution
The most appropriate solution to this problem is focusing on the religion. As the religion will be the ultimate solution to many other underlying causes. Religious awareness will develop strong sense of right and wrong among the people. It will help in true depiction of Muslim image. All Muslim countries will collaborate with each other as religion develops a sense of unity. When people will have strong believes they will put in self-efforts and will stop depending on US aid. People will not be manipulated by fake religious Ullamas. Sincere efforts of truly referencing to Islam will correct the activities of deeni madrassas. The demerit may be that the fake Ullamas will take anti-actions but this will be catered when people will have proper knowledge. Another demerit maybe the increase in pressure from some nonMuslim countries but there will be continuous support from Muslim countries. Ultimately when we follow the path of religion then God also provides greater support and national prosperity and personal satisfaction is the end result. O you who believe! Take not the jews and Christians as awliya (friends, protectors). They are but awliya of one another. And if any a mongst you takes them as awliya (friends), then

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surely he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not the people who are Zaalimum (unjust, evil) [al-Maida 5:51]

Conclusion
The ongoing terrorism in Pakistan though attributed as a gift of Afghan proxy war is far more than what the surface shows. It is a US strategy of keeping a hold on Pakistan and the terrorist activities basically plotted are aimed at declaring Pakistan as a failed state which will manage the threat to US economy that can be imposed from Pakistan. The lack of vision and corruption in the decaying foundations of Pakistan are the contributory factors. A need to stand and root out the evil is the basic requirement of the time. If the proposed steps and recommended solutions are implemented in the true spirit of making a change and serving the cause then the terrorist activities can be controlled to a greater extent but are these enough to take down a strong hold on terrorism giant? The essence of the effort lies in the strength with which it is practiced and even if the strategies are started to properly work and brought into practice from lower level, they will progressively change into a bigger axe breaking the concrete wall of terrorism.

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Curse Of Terrorism In Pakistan References


Ahmed, S 2003, Scourge of Terrorism, Dawn, 21 August. [Assessed 27 October 2011] Hussain, M 2001, 'Anti-Americanism' Has Roots in U.S. Foreign Policy [online], 19 October. Available at:< http://www.commondreams.org/views01/1019-05.htm>. [Assessed 22 November 2011] International Terrorism and Security Research [online]. Available at: <http://www.terrorism-research.com/>. [Assessed 3 November 2011] Madu, 2010, US exit strategy from Afghanistan and its after effects on Pakistan [online], 2 October. Available at: <http://www.cssforum.com.pk/general/discussion/39142-us-exit-strategy-afghanistanits-after-effects-pakistan.html>. [Assessed 23 November 2011] Safi, U 2009,Destructive- Effects of Terrorism and Pakistan [online], 20 October. Available at: <http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/4437114-destructiveeffects-of-terrorism-and-pakistan>. [Assessed 3 November 2011] S. Lind, W 2008, Side effects of our war in Afghanistan [online], 16 January. Available at:<http://antiwar.com/lind/?articleid=12218>. [Assessed 22 November 2011] Wg Cdr Latif Bajwa, S 2005, Internal Security Challenges to Pakistan in 21st Century, Internal Security Challenges to Paksitan, AWC Journal, PAF Air War College, Karachi. [Assessed 14 October 2011] Xeric, 2010, Terrorism in Pakistan; Causes, Effects, Solutions [online], 14 April. Available at: <http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-compulsorysubjects/essay/essays/32893-terrorism-pakistan-causes -effects-solutions.html>. [Assessed 3 November 2011]

Interviews Conducted Sir Zia-ul-Haq (visiting lecturer and analyst), Bahria University, Islamabad. Madam Nargis Zahra (Lecturer), Department of contemporary sciences, National Defence University Pakistan. Sir Col. (Retd.) Manzoor Iqbal Awan (visiting lecturer), Bahria University, Islamabad. Sir Mehmod-ul-Hassan Khalil (visiting lecturer), Bahria University.

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SAINDAK COPPER-GOLD PROJECT

SAINDAK COPPER-GOLD PROJECT

Saindak, a townin Chagai District of Balochistan, has largedeposits of Copper and Gold. The resultantSaindak Copper Gold Project, which has greatpotential to create economic prosperity not only inthe area but in the entire country, has since run into serious snags.

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SAINDAK COPPER-GOLD PROJECT

GROUP LEADER:Anum Aslam

GROUP MEMBERS: Ayza Javaid Erceylan Shahid Mahira Tariq Shahid Nawaz

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE#
01. 02. 04. 06. 07. 12. 13.

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION CONFLICT # 1. FIGHTING FOR GOLD OR CONTROL? CONFLICT # 2. CHINA DIGS PAKISTAN INTO A HOLE CONFLICT # 3. ENVIRONMENTAL COST FOR PAKISTAN SOLUTIONS AND ANALYSIS RECOMMENDATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Saindak Copper-Gold Project INTRODUCTION


With the growing political and economic instability, employment uncertainty, corruption, injustice and climatic changes Pakistan is facing huge loss of natural resources which should be the backbone of the countrys economy. Unfortunately there have been a lot of conflicts regarding the exploration of these resources and their fair usage. This case study is about the conflicts that occurred at the site of gold and copper mines in Pakistan.

Background: Saindak Copper-Gold Mines located in Saindak town, district Baluchistan Pakistan, Chaghi were

discovered 1970s in collaboration with a Chinese Engineering Firm. A memorandum of understanding was signed with the aim of exploiting the treasures of the precious metals laid deep down the barren mountains of Baluchistan.According to geologists the actual worth of the reserves can be upwards of $500 billion. Economists say that the reserves are not only a solution to the nations economic woes, but can also help wipe out Pakistans debt. La te Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, former Prime Minister of Pakistan, set up Resource Development Corporation in 1974 to undertake detailed investigations, evaluation and development of Saindak copper deposits. Later Pakistan and China signed a formal contract worth $350 million for development of Saindak Copper-Gold Project. The project was leased for 10 year to a Chinese company called Metallurgical Construction Corp (MCC), which is due to expire in September 2012. Under the lease agreement, MCC was to run the project on an annual rent of $500,000 plus a 50 per cent share of copper sales to the Pakistani government. The project was based on estimated ore reserves of 412 million tonnes containing on average 0.5 gram of gold per ton and 1.5 grams of silver per ton. According to official estimates, the project has the capacity to produce 15,800 ton of blister copper annually, containing 1.5 ton of gold and 2.8 ton of silver.

This project proves that government indecision, political expediency and bureaucratic wrangling have harmed the development of the country particularly the provincial government. This Rs. 17 billion project is currently standing idle for want of funds to meet its initial cost of operations. The project started its trial operations in 1995 and its monthly production was 1,700 tonnes of copper, 6,000 oz of gold, 12,000 oz of silver for the four months that it was in operation. But after successful trial production the plant had to halt production because of the government's failure to meet the project's initial costs despite the fact that a commitment to this end had been made. The stakeholders involved in this project are the Federal government, Provincial government of Baluchistan, Foreign investors i.e. Metallurgical Construction Corp (MCC) and the Private sector investors. The implementation of this project and the stakeholders has been influenced because of the unavailability of the required financial infrastructure this includes roads from main motorway to the project site, unavailability of water, unavailability of machinery, unavailability of required expert man power and the supporting labor. Financial resources required to implement the project are huge and the federal and the provincial governments do not have such resources to take the exploration work, rest this project if affected by the ongoing conflicts that will be discussed in detail.

CONFLICTS: 1. Fighting for gold or control?


First conflict that caused hurdles in the implementation of this project is the dispute between the Federal and Provincial governments on the ownership of Saindak copper gold mines. According to the national mineral policy the focus of all the activities and decision making was to be made at the provincial level and the Federation was expected to provide requisite support and advice to take up the challenge of achieving the sustainable benefits. Establishment of two high powered bodies, one at provincial level and the other at the Federal, were approved with composition and scope of functioning. But according to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Federal Government is responsible for policy formulation, generation of basic geological data and identification of exploration targets, whereas, provincial Mine & Mineral development departments translate them into

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economic resources, promote to attract international investment, besides, enforcing Regulatory Regime on licensing and safety during mining. Baluchistans provincial government follows the national mineral policy that caused a conflict as per the constitution claimed the ownership of the mines as they are located in Baluchistan and claim all the profit and revenues generated from it but the provincial government ask for ownership as well.

AFFECTS ON THE STAKE HOLDERS


This tussle has caused great hurdle in the progress of this project and the development of these mines and affected both these stakeholders and their relationship as it i not the only s project in process. Foreign investors may resist investing further in this project due to ongoing conflict and the poor infrastructure of this project because the returns on investment are affected as well. Infrastructure is not the only cha llenge that Chinese investors in Baluchistan face. The province is a key battleground in the wars currently threatening Pakistan. Quetta is rumored to be hiding wanted leaders from the Afghan Taliban. Small towns in the Baloch heartland, meanwhile, are a l unch pad for a decades-old separatist a movement that capitalizes on populist resentment of federal agencies and foreign investment. But most of all Private sector investors i.e. M/s. Saindak Metals Limited, who are running Saindak copper-gold project in Chagai district, M/s. Broken Hill Proprietary Company Ltd (BHP), who are exploring for copper and gold in Chagai district, owners of the mineral-based industries, who would utilize the mining products, mine workers, who work in underground mines and are generally unaware of the usefulness of this background paper, the common man, who is to pay high cost of living in every field and is made to pay inflated utility bills due to under developed state of industries in the country are affected by this conflict as everyone is going in lose due to the tussle between two the two governments. The natural resources will not result in prosperity of the nation until and unless this conflict is resolved.

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Causes of the conflict:


Lack of coordination:

The provincial governments claims that exploration of minerals fall under its jurisdiction, while the Federal governments is by constitution its owner. So the efforts have failed because of the non cooperation of provincial government. Law and order situation in the area:

There is no practice of law in the province of Baluchistan and no check and balance on their people. They make their own rules and follow the feudal system not the Government of Pakistan and its law. Corruption: As both the governments do not have sufficient skills or resources to take full charge of this project they want to get hold of this project for their own personal interests i.e. for money making. Recently the exploration work has been awarded to a consortium of firms but later the memorandum of understandings have been criticized by the politicians and the general public as the case of corruption making money out of the project. The future of this project is still uncertain. (khan)

2. China Digs Pakistan Into A Hole


The Saindak copper-gold project in the Baluchistan is being run by Chinese company MCC on a 10 year lease without any individual monitoring since 2002. The Saindak project was based on estimated ore reserves of 412 million tonnes containing on average 0.5 gram of gold per tonne and 1.5 grams of silver per tonne. The mine is reported to have produced about 50,000 tonnes since October 2003. According to official estimates, the project has the capacity to produce 15,800 tonnes of blister copper annually, conta ining 1.5 tonnes of gold and 2.8 tonnes of silver. The reported production results, however, have generally remained on average more than 2,000 tonnes per month, which means that more than production of 24,000 tonnes per year has been taking place. (Fazl-e-Haider, 2006)
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CAUSES OF THIS CONFLICT: Contract renewal

The formal contract signed between Pakistan and China in 2002 was worth $350 million with an annual rent of $500,000 plus 50% share of copper sales to Pakistani government. Another source states that, after signing of the revised agreement (i.e. renewal of the lease contract in 2012), Balochistans stake will increase to 55 per cent while MCC will own 45 per cent shares (Bhutta, 2011) . China to take more than expected

The production of blister copper at the site in Chaghi district is more than expected which may reduce the approximate life of the mine, which was calculated to be 19 years. And if this rate of mining persists, the Chinese contractors will take advantage of our resource over time. Moreove r, it has been reported that the contract which was to expire in October 2012 has been extended for another five years which might be detrimental to our valuable resource. Lapse in drafting the leasing contract

Moreover, the fault is primarily at our end in drafting the lease contract with MCC, which ignored to pinpoint and discuss the issues pertaining to excessive mining or monitoring mechanism to check and evaluate the production from Saindak. A technical body should have been constituted before the min e was handed over to Chinese. Bids invited from financial institutions for monitoring and controlling contract

An effort was made by the government to appoint one in 2004 but unfortunately the only unresponsive bid which was received got the bidding results cancelled. And officials state that this lack of responsiveness, for monitoring contract, was mainly due to the lack of basemetal analyzing technology in Pakistan and because bids were only invited from financial institutions who obviously had no know how on how to monitor a highly technical project for a period of 10years.

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Inviting international firms

However another option of appointing any international firm for the project was not considered because of high costs. So at present two non executive directors are appointed for this job, who are based in Islamabad and so it is not practical for them to monitor the project. So taking a look at the present situation there is a silent conflict existing between Pakistan and China, but since China is both the buyer and producer of Saindak copper and the ones to transfer technology in metal mining to Pakistan and also they are committed to train Pakistanis by giving them on-the-job training facilities, so it gives them an edge over Pakistan since they have been generous enough to extend their technology. But on the other hand, Chinas appetite for our resource has grown in the past few years and its China who is mainly getting benefit out of it and developing economically and also building up their infrastructure.

3. Environmental cost for Pakistan


Pakistan is also bearing the environmental costs of the projects, as the production of copper is a long and dangerous process. The smelting of the copper ore emits arsenic and carbon monoxide, which pollutes the air and water near the mines. The copper is heated at high temperatures several times before the metal is ready for export. The impact of copper production on the country's environment is bound to grow at an alarming rate in the next seven years of the lease contract. Most threatened is the atmosphere in the immediate vicinity of the copper mine (Fazl-e-Haider, 2006). The agreements with foreign firms working in Balochistan need to be reviewed (and assessment made) whether the project is bringing about a change in the livelihood of the local people or it is creating a mess of environmental degradation? Moreover the district Chaghi is also the site to Pakistans 1998 nuclear test that ended all livelihoods for the inhabitants and their livestock. Local tribesmen and their families were hauled in military trucks on short notice and displaced into the remote desert without any compensation. Pollution and illnesses from the radiation have never been investigated because it has been declared as a sensitive military zone.

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CONCLUSION
China is taking matters into its own hands, starting to build a highway from Gwadar to the capital of Baluchistan, Quetta, on the Afghan border, where it will connect to Pakistan's national highway network, and from there to the Karakoram Highway that leads into China. They have faith in the Pakistani military's ability to look out for their interests, a level of faith that Chinese workers will get privileged levels of protection even amidst destabilizing [political] circumstances. F or China, however, American intervention was an alarm bell, confirming longstanding suspicions in Beijing that Pakistan's alliance with the U.S. in Afghanistan would come at the expense of China's relationship with the Pakistani military establishment and its exclusive access to Pakistan's wealth and strategic location. Moreover, China recruits local figures as man agers. Muhammad Sanjrani, the managing director of China's Saindak copper mine in Chagai, Baluchistan, is also the head of the local tribe, with historic control of the Chagai region, and has worked to sell the project to the populace. Though the provincial and federal governments have yet to agree, MCC made a compelling case. In private meetings with Baloch leaders the Chinese representatives agreed to build a railroad and a power plant in Baluchistan as well as to waive any requirements for sovereign guarantees.

SOLUTIONS AND ANALYSIS


Following are the possible solutions for the above mentioned conflicts.

v Fighting for gold or control?


1. Federal and Provincial government join hands for the economic prosperity of the nation through the help of the Pakistan Ministry of Resource Development Corporation. 2. Develop law and order in the area and convince the Provincial government to act according to the constitution. 3. File the case in the courts of justice and let them decide who gets the ownership.

ANALYSIS:
Following are the merits and demerits of the possible solutions of this conflict. 1.Federal and Provincial government join hands for the economic prosperity of the nation.

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Merits: IF federal and provincial governments work together they will actually get equal shares in power and profit and the efforts will be utilized properly without any hurdles. Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation will play its role through: Expansion of employment opportunities and enhancement of mining skill; sustainable development of the non-renewable mineral resources and the mineral bearing areas; Expanded business opportunities for the local industries and regional infrastructure development; Increased revenue flow to the provincial and federal governments; and Technology transfer and improved data base of Pakistan's mineral resources.

Demerits: But as both the governments do not have skilled labor or expert manpower they will need proper training and development of the local labor. Also this will require a huge amount of investment and both the governments do not have such amount of funds available.

2. Develop law and order in the area and convince the Provincial government to act according to the constitution. Merits and Demerits: If proper law and order system is developed all the root causes of this and many other conflicts will be solved. But maintaining it and monitoring it is very difficult and costly. Plus the feudal lords will never let i happen as they afraid to lose their authority and t power.

3. File the case in the courts of justice and let them decide who gets the ownership. Merits and demerits: Filling a case might solve the issue and the government who wins the case can clearly claim its ownership to the other government. But then again if there is no law and order and no financial funds this project will still be impossible to complete.

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Is the project really yielding a prudent return to Pakistan in the absence of any monitoring mechanism? Technical calculations and financial data need to be maintained about the project's return in terms of production and metal sales. Only on the basis of these data can one decide, who is the real beneficiary of t e Saindak project, China or Pakistan? Yet the h Pakistani government has failed to find an independent monitor. So the possible solutions to this problem could be as follows: 1. Extend the monitoring contract to International firms. We should take the investment from our financial institutions, which were previously engaged in the monitoring contract, and then further establish contracts with the international firms who can keep a check and balance of the ore being extracted from the mine. Merits and demerits: Fair and maintained share of the ore will be taken by Chinese Safeguard the expected life of the mine Learn from the international firms Teach our own people to be skilled in monitoring and controlling of mines High cost...which will be balanced by fair return of profits

2. End the contract with the Chinese firm (i.e. MCC) For what its worth, in order to save our resource for ourselves we ought to end the contract with Chinese and should try to work for it on our own. Since we do not have enough technology and skilled labour to work in the mine, so we should hold our horses for a little while, till we have enough working capital to back the Saindak project. We can again try to contact The Bank of America and ABN Amro who in the start of this project agreed to lend Rs.15 billion as working capital against the guarantees of Islamabad (Fazl-e-Haider, 2006). In the mean time we should try and invest in our people and send them abroad to learn the technicalities of the mining process and also the check and control of the mining process. Merits and demerits:
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Be self-sufficient Polish our valuable human resource by learning technicalities


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Create employment opportunities Help in infrastructural and economic development of our country Loans will be paid off ove r time High interest rate on loans can be a problem Might lose the status of EPZA with the termination of contract

3. Close the project The Saindak copper gold project should be shut down for good since it is not contributing much to our economy. Merits and demerits: Reduction in environmental hazards Conserve the expected life of the mine No burden of loans and interest on the country This will cut down the revenue which was previously being obtained from the project

Environmental cost for Pakistan


The gases emitted during the smelting of ore cannot be controlled but: 1. The people in the close vicinity of the mine should be provided with other places to live Merits and demerits: Save the people from being harmed Provide them with suitable environment to live in Can be a costly to build up new homes

2. The disposal of waste should be controlled and monitored Merits and demerits: It does not pollute the nearby water Prevent the animals as well as humans since these wastes are toxic Process can be a little cos tly but not more important than human lives

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RECOMMENDATION
According to the analysis we have come to a conclusion that nor the Federal government neither Provincial government has the potential or funds to finance and carry out this project successfully and if they want to get benefit out of such a valuable resour ce they should stop fighting for the sake of the national development and collaborate with each other and try to invest as much funds and efforts as they can, rest Pakistan can always ask for funds from its allies. According to the analysis of the second conflict between Chinese contractors and Pakistan, we have settled on ending the contract with China so that we are able to gain our fair share of profit from the ore as well as we will be able to train our labors which will prove useful to us in future and other mining processes which are being carried out in Chaghi (i.e. Reko Diq) and other places in Pakistan. Planning plays a pivotal role in the development, and hence the provincial Planning department may be strengthened with technical manpower with mining, media, business administration and environment specialist. There is a dire need to strengthen and properly train the planning and exploration wing of Provincial Mines and Mineral Department officers and staff. Similarly the Mineral allotment committee may be expanded and have at least 6 members from the Baluchistan Mine Owners association, selected on rotational basis, so that a continuity of policies and private partnership in Government policies is assured. Consortium of private, public sector or association culture in mining should be encouraged for large scale mining due to very high cost of mining machinery and equipments. And the environmental cost for the people of Baluchistan can be controlled by monitoring the disposal process.

Bibliography
Bhutta, Z. (2011, May 17). Saindak project: Govt to extend Chinese firms gold, copper mining contract. Tribune . Fazl-e-Haider, S. (2006, October 5). China digs Pakistan into a hole. Asia Times .

Khan, D. A. saindak conflict.

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Mopnr. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://202.83.164.27/wps/portal/Mopnr/!ut/p/c0/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os_hQ N68AZ3dnIwMD3wAXAyNTPxc_E1NjINdYvyDbUREALPdBpw!!/?PC_7_OFLO9FH20G DHE02DCQKDP72HM7_WCM_CONTEXT=%2Fwps%2Fwcm%2Fconnect%2FMopnrCL %2Fministry%2Fsageneral%2Foverview+of+mineral+sect Pakistaneconomist. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pakistaneconomist.com/issue2002/issue11/i&e2.htm

wikipedia.org. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saindak_Copper


Bhutta, Z. (2011, May 17). Saindak project: Govt to extend Chinese firms gold, copper mining contract. Tribune . Fazl-e-Haider, S. (2006, October 5). China digs Pakistan into a hole. Asia Times . http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PAKISTANEXTN/Resources/pdf-Files-in-Events/MineralSector/RoleOfGov.pdf http://www.pmdc.gov.pk/index.htm Konain Haider "Saindak Copper, Gold Project poised for trial production". Economic Review. FindArticles.com. 05 Dec, 2011 http://www.newslinemagazine.com/2010/12/unfair-deal/

PARTICIPATION IN PROJECT

st v Anum Aslam: Collected primary information from Dr. Khan about 1 conflict and secondary data as well and developed and compiled the case study.

v Ayza Javaid: Collected secondary data about Saindak and wrote the introduction. v Erceylan Shahid: Collected primary and secondary data and helped in 3rd conflict and recommendations.
nd v Mahira Tariq: Collected secondary data and developed the case of 2 conflict.

v Shahid Nawaz Bangash: Collected primary data from the locals of Baluchistan on this issue and helped in analysis of 2nd conflict.

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Water Management In Pakistan

WATER MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN

The nature has blessedPakistan in numerous ways; one such way beingthe alluvial plains and a network of rivers. Like allother resources, this water is to be dividedequitably between the provinces, for which acomprehensive framework was established. Stillthe provinces remain at loggerheads, with dailyblame game

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Group Leader:M. Ammar Ansari

Group Members: Altaf Khan Raja Bilawal Muhammad Rameez Saadullah Saad Maqsood

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INTRODUCTION Pakistan is an agricultural country and our economy is heavily dependent on agriculture. Approximately 50% of our labor force is employed in the agricultural sector and it contributes about 24% of the countrys GDP. About 65% of our population lives in rural areas. In this way, 65% of our population is dependent on ag riculture directly or indirectly. For agriculture, water is the main input and Indus River is the main source of water in Pakistan because the average rainfall is just about 240mm per year in Pakistan. Our economy is heavily dependent on Indus river system. Indus river system includes Indus, Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas rivers. The major component of the annual flow of these rivers is derived from snowmelt, originating in the Hindukush -Himalayan region. In Pakistan, almost 77 million acres of land is suitable for agriculture. Almost 54 million acres of land is already cultivated and the remaining 23 million acres of land can become productive if water is made available for irrigation. Irrigation in Pakistan is heavily dependent on Indus River which has an annual flow of about 138 to 145 MAF (Million Acre Feet). But according to some experts, this quantity is low (approximately 123 MAF). Since 1977, the average water flow downstream Kotri has been 35 MAF. But according to Sindhs estimates, it is just round 10 MAF. According to some experts in Pakistan, 20 MAF of water can be stored after deducting 10 MAF water required to flow downstream Kotri and 5 MAF for headwater uses. According to experts, this 20 MAF can be helpful during the lean period. They argue that the construction of water reserves is very important for Pakistan. But Sindh states that there is not much water in the Indus River in order to construct additional water reserves. In Pakistan, the per capita water availability is falling quickly due to the rise in population. In 1947, the average water availability was 5000 cubic meters per person but now it is just around 1000 cubic meters. Many other countries have multiple river system but Pakistan has only the Indus river system and there is no alternative. Many experts suggest that the construction of water reserves on Indus River, such as Kalabagh Dam, is an important need. But the problem is that only one province, Punjab, is in the favor of constructing Kalabagh Dam and the other three pr ovinces Sindh, KPK and Balochistan are in the opposition of constructing Kalabagh Dam. The provincial assemblies of Sindh, KPK and Balochistan have unanimously passed resolutions against the Kalabagh Dam.

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The distribution of available water among the provinces is always a big issue in Pakistan. Inter provincial disputes, especially between Punjab and Sindh exists before the creation of Pakistan. Until 1991, the distribution of water between the provinces was on ad hoc basis. In 1991, all the four provinces agreed on the Indus Water Accord. According to this accord, the flow of water into the sea will be least possible and the remaining water will be shared among the four provinces. In the Indus Water Accord 1991, all the provinces recognized the need for new water storages wherever feasible for planned future agricultural development. There was an agreement that the issue relating to Apportionment of the waters of the Indus River System should be settled as quickly as possible. According to this Accord, all the provinces will gain from surpluses or loss from shortages in water supply. In the Indus Water Accord 1991, the following distribution of water was agreed: PROVINCE PUNJAB SINDH KPK BALOCHISTAN MILLION ACRE FEET 55.94 48.76 8.78 3.87

In order to implement the Indus Water Accord 1991, the establishment of a supervisory authority was required. In the Indus Water Accord 1991, the need to establish an Indus River System Authority was recognized and accepted. It would have headquarters at Lahore and would have representation from all the four provinces. Hence in 1992, Indus River System Authority (IRSA) was established in order to implement the Indus Water Accord 1991. IRSA consists of five members. One member represents each province and Federal government appoints the chairman. Since its establishment, IRSA has worked effectively in order to allocate available water supplies among provinces. IRSA holds a very prominent position due to the water scarcity and other water related disputes between the provinces. The agreement between the provinces on Indus Water Accord 1991 and the establishment of IRSA were the two historic achievements. Despite the 1991 Indus Water Accord, there are still significant disputes between the provinces, especially between Punjab and Sindh, over the distribution of water in Pakistan. Serious differences still persist especially between Punjab and Sindh on the interpretation of some of the clauses of Indus Water Accord 1991. The lack of trust between the two provinces is the main reason of water related disputes in
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Pakistan. Sindh feels that the construction of additional reservoirs on Indus River will cut down its share of water and so Sindh strongly opposes the construction of any water reservoir on Indus River. On the other hand, Punjab feels that there is lot of surplus water in Indus River which passes downstream Kotri. From Punjabs point of view, this water should be stored instead of wasting it and water reservoirs should be constructed on Indus River. Accordin g to Indus Water Accord 1991, The need for storages, wherever feasible on the Indus and other rivers was admitted and recognized by the participants for planned future agricultural development Punjab feels that this section is an agreement for constructing Kalabagh Dam and other dams on Indus River. Therefore, Punjab strongly believes that the construction of Kalabagh dam should go ahead. According to Punjab, the implementation of 1991 accord is possible only if Kalabagh Dam is constructed. Since the Kalabagh Dam has not been constructed, the sharing of water according to the Indus Water Accord 1991 is not possible. Sindh feels that the construction of Kalabagh dam is an effort by Punjab to cut down the Sindhs share and increase the share of Punjab. On t he other hand KPK feels that Kalabagh Dam will be a threat for some of its cities and agricultural land and so KPK is also against the construction of Kalabagh Dam. According to Indus Water accord 1991, The record of actual average system uses for the period 1977- 82 would form the guide line for developing a future regulation pattern After 1991, Pakistan has experienced serious shortages of water in Indus River many times. During these periods of shortages Punjab and Sindh differed seriously on their share of water. In the Indus Water Accord 1991, Punjabs share was 2.7% less than its historical share and Sindhs share was 1.2% higher than its historical share and Punjab had agreed on it. Punjab argued that although it had agreed to a reduced share of water for itself but it was also agreed that additional water storages would also be constructed. Since the Indus Water Accord 1991 was not fully implemented and additional water storages were not constructed, Punjab asked for the share of water on pre-1991 historical basis. On the other hand, Sindh asked for share of water according to the Indus Water Accord 1991 during the periods of shortages. But in 1994, an Inter-provincial ministerial agreement was made and water continued to be shared on pre-1991 histor ical basis. Many people in Sindh had considered it very unjust and called it the theft of their water.

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On the other hand, there are some issues between Sindh and Balochistan also. Balochistan draws water from two barrages of Sindh (Gudu and Sukkur barrages). According to Indus Water Accord 1991, allocation of water for Balochistan on Gudu barrage is 2.24 MAF in Kharif and 0.77 MAF in Rabi. The same on Sukkur barrage is 0.61 MAF in Kharif and 0.25 MAF in Rabi. There is relatively a minor problem of supplies from Gudu barrage to Balochistan. However, there is a major problem of distribution on Sukkur barrage in end June and early July when rise transplantation is in full swing. Because of full allocation by IRSA without shortage to Balochistan they are entitle d to 2200 cusecs from second ten daily of June to end September. However, according to Sindh they cannot supply 2200 cusecs in end June and early July because of pond level problem. Sindh also maintains that North West Canal cannot draw required discharge in above period unless river discharge is 135000 cusecs. Balochistan states that it gets supply even below 1400 cusecs during Kharif season compared to its entitlement of 2200 cusecs. Balochistan wants Sindh to check and determine the causes of inefficiency of North Western Canal. Between Sindh and Balochistan, it is a technical problem rather than a dispute. In Pakistan, inter-provincial disputes, especially between Punjab and Sindh, are taking place due to shortages of water. Each province is trying to protect its own interests and no province is ready to do compromise. Every province wants its maximum share of water. Although the Indus Water Accord 1991 was agreed by all the provinces but the fact is that no one is following the 1991 Accord properly. Eve ry province has the different interpretation of Indus Water Accord 1991 because of its own interests. Each province tries to explain the Indus Water Accord 1991 in its own favor. Each province blames one another for not following the 1991 Accord. But a notable point is that on various issues Punjab is on the one side and the other three provinces are on the other side. The smaller provinces always blame Punjab for using its upstream position and control of water infrastructure. The water related disputes and conflicts between Punjab and Sindh has become a routine matter in Pakistan. Both the provinces have no trust on each other. Both the provinces blame one another hardly on their share of water. Due to these continuous conflicts and disputes, water manage ment in Pakistan has become a very difficult function. According to Punjab, Sindh is responsible for poor water management in Pakistan while according to Sindh, Punjab is responsible is responsible for poor water management in Pakistan. But the fact is that both the provinces are equally responsible for the lack of water management in Pakistan.
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Today, Pakistan confront with many issues which are related to water resources. Pakistan always had the shortage of water and this shortage of water would continue in future also. In Pakistan, the three main reservoirs have already lost almost 25% of their capacity and this percentage will increase with time to time. Since there are no additional water reservoirs and existing reservoirs are losing their storage capac ity, Pakistan is heading towards huge water shortages in future. In order to manage these water shortages, Pakistan should be able to effectively utilize the surplus water of floods. This is possible only when new water reservoirs are available for storage of water. Since we do not have the additional reservoirs for storage, we will not be able to effectively utilize the surplus water of floods. Water resources are very important for the economy of Pakistan. The construction of water reservoirs in Pakistan is an essential need and several efforts are required in order to build consensus between provinces on the construction of water reservoirs. The political leadership in Pakistan can play an active role in building the consensus between provinces. If political leadership of Pakistan can built consensus on extremely complex issues such as 1973 Constitution, 18th Amendment and 1991 Indus Water Accord, then it can also build consensus between the provinces on other water related issues. It is very important that the Parliamentarians and other stake holders should understand the water related issues in Pakistan. After understanding these issues they should take effective steps in order to resolve these issues in the best interest of the country and for future generations. After the independence there are number of occasions on which the provinces had showed the mutual goodwill in resolving long standing conflicts and disputes. The construction of Kotri and Taunsa barrages on the Indus River was the result of such goodwill and the historic Indus Water Accord 1991 is also a significant example. If provinces still show goodwill and see national interest as a priority by keeping their self interests behind, the proper water management in Pakistan can become possible and several water related disputes and conflicts can be resolved. If provinces, especially Punjab and Sindh, show some tolerance then fair share of water can be allocated to all the provinces. If all the four provinces can agree on the Indus Water Accord 1991, then they can also resolve other disputes and conflicts which are related to water. If there is will to resolve water dispute, it can be achieved.

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RECOMMENDATIONS: (POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS) In order to resolve this long standing water dispute in Pakistan, each province will have to show some flexibility and will have to do compromise on certain things. Punjab should withdraw from its demand of constructing kalabagh Dam on Indus River because it has become a very controversial project and due to this the differences between provinces are increasing. On the other hand, Sindh should also show some flexibility. Sindh should not create hurdles in the construction of small-size and medium-size water reservoirs on Indus River and should give its support and cooperation. Both the Punjabs demand of constructing Kalabagh Dam on Indus River and Sindhs demand of constructing no additional water reservoirs on Indus River, are not seem to be applicable and acceptable. The construction of Kalabagh Dam is almost impossible because it will cause disputes and conflicts between provinces, especially between Punjab and Sindh, which would last for a long period of time and may become unsolvable. On the other hand, if additional reservoirs are not constructed then shortage of water will increase to a large extent and in the near future our agricultural sector will badly be affected which will badly affect our economy. So the construction of small-size and medium-size water reservoirs on Indus River is a very important need and both provinces, Punjab and Sindh should agree on it in the larger interest of the country. This would happen only if all the provinces, especially Punjab and Sindh, build consensus among each other. In order to build consensus, Parliament is an institution which can play a vital role. The political leadership of Pakistan should show its goodwill to resolve water disputes. The representatives from all the provinces in Parliament should cooperate with each other to resolve water disputes in Pakistan because the lack of cooperation is one of the main reasons that causing conflict and disputes between provinces. In order to build consensus in Parliament, the role of Federal Government is the most important. In this regard, the Government should call water experts from foreign countries so that they can explain the importance of constructing water reservoirs in front of representatives of all the provinces in Parliament. The reason for calling foreign water experts is that they will be neutral and no province will raise questions about them. But before they give their opinion, the Government must tell them the historical background so that they can give an opinion which is acceptable for all. The Government should make a parliamentary committee containing well reputed representatives from all the provinces in order to build consensus among provinces on
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construction of small-size and medium-size water reservoirs on Indus River. Parliament should pass a bill with the consensus of all provinces to build small-size and medium-size water reservoirs on Indus River. In this way, all the provinces will get their fair share of water. Ultimately, no province will consider itself winner or loser and the long standing water disputes between provinces can be resolved. In case, if provinces do not want to compromise and they continue to blame each other then Federal Government should come forward and take the initiative. Till the provinces are not ready to compromise, the Federal Government should take some independent and hard decisions in the largest interest of the country. The Federal Government should make a team consisting of foreign and local water experts. The Government should assign certain tasks to this tea m and this team should prepare a comprehensive report in a limited time period. The first task of this team should be to determine the exact annual wastage of water of Indus River. Secondly the team should determine the fair quantity of water that can be stored and how many additional water reservoirs are required for storage. Thirdly, this team should point out the most suitable places for constructing small-size and medium-size water reservoirs on Indus River. In last, the team should determine how the existing water reservoirs can be used in the more effective manner and how the capacity of these reservoirs can be increased. After the completion of report by the team, the Government should start the construction of those water reservoirs on Indus River that are less costly and less time consuming, as early as possible. Provinces may not be happy with the construction of these projects and they may criticize such projects but the government should continue by giving priority to the national interest. Although this strategy of resolving water disputes between provinces by enforcement is less effective but it can be used as a last step in the greater interest of the country when provinces are no ready to compromise and cooperate. This strategy can be effective in a way that no province will get what it demanded and there is no biasness. If the demand of one province is not being fulfilling the demand of other provinces is also not being fulfilling.

135 | P a g e M.Ammar Ansari, Group 8

Conflict Management Water Management In Pakistan


QUESTIONS: It is a fact that the provinces are protecting their own interests by keeping the national interest behind. What steps should be taken in order to convince provinces to protect the national interest first? The 1991 Water Accord has not been purely accepted by provinces till now, is there a need to reform the strategies and redesigning the whole plan with a centralized approach? Pakistan suffered immensely in the agriculture and energy sectors, directly and in industrial and manpower sectors indirectly, keeping all this in mind should national interests be over ruled over political gains and important issues remain delayed? There is a need of research & development department in the irrigational sector of Pakistan. What steps can be taken by government to cope up with the challenge of slitting? Commitment to solve an issue takes nearer to the solution of conflict. Can a committed inter provisional committee be helpful in solving the issues while placing the states welfare above any other? Imposing penalties could be an effective way to stop water theft. What type of penalties should be imposed in case of water theft?

REFERENCES: A. Kamal, H. Rehman, Indus Basin River System Flooding and Flood Mitigation. Apportionment of Water on Indus River System between the provinces of Pakistan. Dr. Noor-ul-Haq, Oct 2010, Pakistans water concerns Humaira Sharif, Inter Province water distribution conflict in Pakistan Mr. Muhammad Idris Rajput, January 2011, Inter-provicial water issues in Pakistan The Ministry of Water and Power, Government of Pakistan.

136 | P a g e M.Ammar Ansari, Group 8

Conflict Management Water Management In Pakistan

137 | P a g e M.Ammar Ansari, Group 8

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