RIQUES NON
VISQUEUX DANS DES ENTRE
ES DE STATORE
ACTEURS
RE
SUME
_
_
_
, F~
ru
ru
2
zp
ruv
ruh
t
_
_
_
_
, G~
rv
ruv
rv
2
zp
rvh
t
_
_
_
_
, H~
1
y
rv
ruv
rv
2
rvh
t
_
_
_
_
:
Here, r is the density, u and v are respectively the x and y velocity components, e
t
is the
total energy, p is the static pressure, and h
t
is the total enthalpy. In the present study, for
the air as an ideal gas, the equation of state p 5 rRT is used, wherein R (5 287.0 J/kg.K
for air) is the gas constant. The internal energy, e, is determined by assuming a constant
value for the specific heat at constant volume, e 5c
v
T where c
v
5R/(c 21), with c 51.4 for the
air.
3. TIME DISCRETIZATION
For the Roe scheme used in the present study, the following twostep predictorcorrector
explicit time integration from the LaxWendroff family is used [13]. The predictor step provides
the flow condition in an intermediate step n + 1/2.
Q
nz1=2
1
{Q
n
1
Dt=2
z
LF
1
Lj
_ _
n
z
LG
1
Lg
_ _
n
zaH
n
1
~0 (3)
Equation 3 gives Q
nz1=2
1
, from which all the primitive variables at the time step n + 1/2 can be
determined. The predictor step is followed by the corrector step, which completes the
integration. In the corrector step, a central differencing in time around n + 1/2 is implemented as
follows:
Q
nz1
1
{Q
n
1
Dt
z
LF
1
Lj
_ _
nz1=2
z
LG
1
Lg
_ _
nz1=2
zaH
nz1=2
1
~0: (4)
For the present explicit time integration the CFL stability criteria has been used [10].
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 274
4. SPACE DISCRETIZATION
For the spatial discretization of the Roe scheme the inner (L) and outer (R) (see Fig. 1) flow
conditions are determined using either the first, second, or thirdorder upwind biased
algorithm. The MUSCL strategy, [14], is used to extrapolate the primitive variables pressure (p),
velocity components (u, v) and temperature (T) to the cell faces.
For example, at the east face of the control volume (E) the L and R flow conditions are
determined as follows:
q
L
E
~q
i,j
z
1
4
1{k D
W
qz 1zk D
E
q ,
q
R
E
~q
iz1,j
~
1
4
1{k D
EE
qz 1zk D
E
q :
(5)
where q represents either of the four primitive variables, i.e. q 2 {p, u, v, T}, k 5 21 and
1/3 correspond, respectively, to the second order upwind and the third order upwindbiased
algorithms. For the first order algorithm the L and R side values of the primitive variables
at the Eface (see Fig. 1) are determined from: q
L
E
~q
i,j
and q
R
E
~q
iz1,j
. In Eqn. 5, D
W
q,
D
E
q and D
EE
q are the jumps of the primitive variables at the cell faces, i.e. D
W
q 5 q
i,j
2 q
i21,j
,
D
E
q 5 q
i+1,j
2 q
i,j
and D
EE
q 5 q
i+2,j
2 q
i+1,j
. A similar formula can be written for the inner
(L) and outer (R) q values at the north face of the control volume (i.e. q
L
N
and q
R
N
) shown
in Fig. 1.
To damp the spurious numerical oscillation in high resolution computations (i.e. in the
second and third order extrapolations), the van Albada flux limiter (1982) is applied. This limits
the slope of extrapolation,
q
L
E
~q
i,j
z
w
4
1{k D
W
qz 1zk D
E
q
q
R
E
~q
iz1,j
{
w
4
1{k D
EE
qz 1zk D
E
q :
(6)
Fig. 1. Configuration of grids with the inner (L) and outer (R) values for the cell (i,j). Grid lines are
shown by solid lines and control volume boundaries with dashed lines [12].
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 275
where w is the limiter function defined by
w
i,j
:
2 D
W
q D
E
q ze
0
D
W
q
2
z D
E
q
2
ze
0
(7)
and e
0
is a small number which prevents indeterminacy in regions of uniform flow, i.e. in and
around D
W
q 5 D
E
q 5 0.
To avoid expansion shocks in the regions where the eigenvalues vanish, an entropy correction
formula [15] is used throughout this paper,
^
ll
new
/
^
ll
2
ze
2
_ __
2e l j jve
e~4:0 max 0,
^
ll{l
L
_ _
, l
R
{
^
ll
_ _ _ _
,
_
_
_
(8)
where
^
ll is the eigenvalue of the Jacobian flux matrix determined at Roes averaged condition,
and l
L
and l
R
are the eigenvalues determined at the inner and outer flow conditions,
respectively.
4.1. Roes Numerical Flux Scheme
The numerical flux Roe is obtained based on the formulae [12,16]:
East Face : F
E
~
1
2
F
L
E
zF
R
E
_ _
{
1
2
4
k~1
^
ll
k
E
dw
k
E
^
TT
k
E
(9)
North Face : G
N
~
1
2
G
L
N
zG
R
N
_ _
{
1
2
4
k~1
^
ll
k
N
dw
k
N
^
TT
k
N
(10)
where l is the eigenvalue of the Jacobian flux matrix, T is the corresponding eigenvector and d
w
is the wave amplitude vector.
4.2. Roes Averaging
The numerical flux for the Roe scheme is calculated at the socalled Roeaveraged values [9],
which are obtained from the inner L and outer R state values at the sides of, say, E cell face:
^ rr
E
~
r
L
E
r
R
E
_
(11)
^uu
E
~
r
L
E
_
u
L
E
z
r
R
E
_
u
R
E
r
L
E
_
z
r
R
E
_ , ^vv
E
~
r
L
E
_
v
L
E
z
r
R
E
_
v
R
E
r
L
E
_
z
r
R
E
_ (12)
^
hh
t
E
~
r
L
E
_
h
t
L
E
z
r
R
E
_
h
t
R
E
r
L
E
_
z
r
R
E
_ : (13)
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 276
Similar formulas can be written for the quantities on the north side of a cell face (^ rr
N
, ^uu
N
,
etc.).
5. MacCormack SCHEME
In the present study, for some cases the governing equations are also solved using the
predictorcorrector scheme of MacCormack, detailed for example in [10]. This predictor
corrector scheme is of secondorder accuracy both in space and time:
Predictor Step : Q
nz1
1
i,j
~Q
n
1
i,j
{Dt
F
n
1
iz1,j
{F
n
1
i,j
_ _
Dj
z
G
n
1
i,jz1
{G
n
1
i,j
_ _
Dg
zH
n
1
i,j
_
_
_
_
(14)
Corrector Step : Q
nz1
1
i,j
~
1
2
Q
n
1
i,j
zQ
nz1
1
i,j
_ _
{
Dt
2

F
nz1
1
i,j
{F
nz1
1
i{1,j
_ _
Dj
z
G
nz1
1
i,j
{G
nz1
1
i,j{1
_ _
Dg
zH
nz1
1
i,j
_
_
_
_
(15)
Here, forward differences are used for all spatial derivatives in the predictor step, followed by
backward differences in the corrector step. These give the net scheme to be spatially second
order. As the forward and backward differences are alternated between the predictor and
corrector steps, this eliminates any bias due to the onesided differentiation [6]. However, the
alternation in the order of spatial differentiation introduces a pseudounsteadiness to the
solution when marched in time. Therefore, the MacCormack scheme cannot reach to machine
accuracy [17].
For the MacCormack scheme in regions with large discontinuities such as shocks, an artificial
viscosity term (AV) is added to stabilize the solution. To do so, in the present study, a fourth
order dissipation term, with two adjustable constants C
x
and C
y
, are employed. These terms are
added to the righthand side of predictor and corrector steps. The artificial viscosity term (AV)
at the (i, j) node is given by [10]:
AV
i,j
~C
x
p
iz1,j
{2p
i,j
zp
i{1,j
p
iz1,j
z2p
i,j
zp
i{1,j
Q
1
iz1,j
{2Q
1i,j
zQ
1i{1,j
_ _
zC
y
p
i,jz1
{2p
i,j
zp
i,j{1
p
i,jz1
z2p
i,j
zp
i,j{1
Q
i
i,jz1
{2Q
1i,j
zQ
1i,j{1
_ _
(16)
where C
x
and C
y
in Eqn. 16 are adjustable constants which are in the range of 0 to 0.5 [10]. In
the present study, using a basic trial and error approach we have tunned C
x
and C
y
to 0.1.
6. GEOMETRIES AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
6.1. Inlet 1; Supersonic Flow to the Combustion Chamber
Inlet 1 chosen from the literature [8], is a supersonic inlet, and is suitable for supersonic
combustion ramjets (scramjets). It is considered for validating the results of the present
computations. The inlet is a multiobliqueshock supersonic inlet that delivers the air flow at
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 277
supersonic speeds to the combustion chamber. The geometrical dimensions of the inlet, the
computational domain, and the boundary conditions are depicted in Fig. 2. The compression
corner shown in the figure is 10degrees. For the boundary conditions, supersonic flow at flight
Mach 5 2, and altitude < 10 km (p
/2 in Fig. 3
(Right). Here, the bounding streamline is a streamline (or streamtube in axisymmetric cases)
originating from the engine cowl and extended to freestream, as shown in Fig. 3(Right). Hence,
the location of cowl lip is determined from the intersection of the first shock with the bounding
streamline, see Fig. 3(Right). This fixes the spike apex angle d
1
(see Fig. 3(Right) or Table 1).
Fig. 3. Procedures for inlet design: (Left) Shock angles b and flow turning angles d for a typical
supersonic inlet, and (Right) the configuration of the cowl lip position and the bounding streamline.
Table 1 Flow turning angles, the corresponding shock wave angles, and the Mach number sequences
for Inlet 2
d
1
5 9.5u b
1
5 31.38u M
2
5 2.11 M
1
sin b
1
5 1.30
d
2
5 10.5u b
2
5 37.84u M
3
5 1.72 M
2
sin b
2
5 1.29
d
3
5 11.5u b
3
5 48.63u M
4
5 1.30 M
3
sin b
3
5 1.29
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 279
With M
1
52.5, and d
1
and b
1
values given in Table 1, the postshock Mach number is obtained
as M
2
5 2.11. Also with known turning angle d
2
5 10.5u, the ramp location of the second
oblique shock that will merge with the first shock at the cowl lip can be determined. The same
procedure can be repeated until the last shock. Complete information including the flow turning
angles for Inlet 2 is given in Table 1.
The geometry and boundary conditions for Inlet 2 are shown in Fig. 4(Left). For the
supersonic inflow and outflow, the boundary conditions are exactly the same as those of the
Inlet 1. For the subsonic outflow (where the flow is delivered to the engine combustion
chamber) the back pressure is specified, and other three parameters T, u, and v are extrapolated
from the interior nodes.
6.4. Inlet 3; Combined Internal and External Compression
In the case of Inlet 2, in which the compression process is solely performed in the external
portion of the inlet, the outward turning of flow (i.e. diversion of flow away from the engine
centerline) due to the train of oblique shocks requires the inlet cowl to highly bend inward (i.e.
turn toward the centerline). This bend of the cowl lip significantly raises the engine pressure
drag, and is called the cowl drag. Alternatively, combined compression, i.e. supersonic
compressions in both external and internal portions of the inlet, is used to reduce the cowl drag.
The schematic of Inlet 3 that possesses combined internal and external compression is
illustrated in Fig. 4(Right). Here, the first two compression processes are performed in the
external portion of the inlet, and give 20u total turn. That is, 9.5u flow turning by Ramp 1,
followed by 10.5u flow turning by Ramp 2 (see Fig. 4(Right)). These shocks are focused at the
cowl lip, where an inward bend (turning toward the centerline) angle of 11.5u is made at the
cowl lip. On the surface of the spike, Ramp 2 is continued just before it meets the reflected
shock from the cowl lip. An inward diversion of the spike surface (turning toward the
centerline) at the intersection point eliminates the shock reflection and allows the normal shock
to be formed due to the elevated back pressure. The boundary conditions specified for Inlet 3
are identical to those of Inlet 2.
Fig. 4. Schematic of geometry and boundary conditions for: (Left) Inlet 2 giving external
compression solely (all dimensions in meter), and (Right) Inlet 3 with combined external and
internal compressions (all dimensions in meter).
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 280
6.5. The Entire Ramjet
The last case studied in this paper is the entire ramjet engine with axisymmetric flow and
geometry. The engine consists of inletdiffuser, a subsonic combustion chamber followed by an
exhaust nozzle. The flight conditions are Mach 5 3 at altitude of about 10 km (p
5 26.5kPa
and T
5 226K). The inlet of the engine is designed based on the Oswatitsch principle described
in Sec. 6.2. The designed inlet gives two oblique shocks merging at the engine cowl lip. These
shocks are followed by a terminating normal shock located immediately downstream of the
inlet throat. Then, the subsonic flow is delivered to the combustion chamber, where the effect of
combustion is simplified by a volumetric heat source (VHS) function that is devised to give a
fairly linear distribution of the total temperature along the combustion chamber. The VHS is
defined as,
V H S~ru
c
p
DT
t
=L units : Watt
_
m
3
_
(18)
where u* is defined as u* 5max(u, 0), in which u is the axial velocity component, DT
t
is the total
temperature rise throughout the combustion chamber (~T
t
o
{T
t
i
), T
t
i
and T
t
o
are respectively
the total temperature at the entrance and exit of the combustion chamber, L is the combustion
chamber axial length and c
p
is the specific heat at constant pressure (5 cR/(c 2 1)). In the
following, we explain why such a simplified volumetric heat source (VHS), given by Eqn. 18,
can properly predict the rate of heat generation through a combustion chamber [18]. It is noted
that the present computation is aimed only for inviscid cases, but it is shown below that the
VHS function in Eqn. 18 is suitable for both viscous and inviscid cases.
The VHS function in Eqn. 18 has the units of W/m
3
, and the rate of total heat generation
within the combustion chamber (cc) can be determined from:
Q
cc
:
_
cc
V H S
:
dv~
_
cc
ru
c
p
DT
t
L
_ _
:
dv, (19)
where dv is the volume element within the combustion chamber. In a real combustion pro
cess, the small values of fluid velocities close to the walls degrade the mixing process between
the air and fuel, then a smaller amount of heat release is expected in wall regions. This
matter is incorporated in the formula given by Eqn. 18, where the VHS function decreases
in the vicinity of walls since u reduces close to the walls in viscous flows due to noslip
conditions at walls. On the other hand, the viscous dissipation term, mW, appearing in the
energy equation:
mW:m
Lu
Ly
z
Lv
Lx
_ _
2
z2
Lu
Lx
_ _
2
z
Lv
Ly
_ _
2
_ _
zl
Lu
Lx
z
Lv
Ly
_ _
2
_ _
units : Watt
_
m
3
_
(20)
increases close to the walls due to large gradients of velocity in the wall regions, where m is the
viscosity, and l 5 2(2/3)m. The mW term in Eqn. 20 is in fact the rate at which the mechanical
work is irreversibly converted to thermal energy due to viscous effects. Hence, in fundamental
nature, mW behaves like a volumetric heat source. The increase in mW close to the walls
compensates the reduction of VHS in these regions. Therefore, in the net, a fairly uniform
profile for the rate of heat generation per unit volume (i.e. VHS + mW < Const.) is achieved in
transverse directions for viscous flows. This is in fair agreement with real combustion processes.
For the computations of inviscid flows (as is the case in the present study), mW 5 0, and in the
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 281
absence of viscous effects there is no means to reduce u close to the walls. Therefore, the VHS
function gives a fairly uniform profile similar to a real combustion process.
Following the heat injection through the combustion chamber, the pressurized hot gases
enter the exhaust nozzle and produce the propulsive thrust.
The geometry and boundary conditions for the ramjet engine are shown in Fig. 5.
6.6. The Performance Analysis
To make performance analysis of the inlets and the entire ramjet, we consider an entire
engine. Consider a jet engine surrounded by a control volume around the engine as shown in
Fig. 6. Applying the linear momentum equation [19] for the engine:
SF
!
~
L
Lt
_
C:V:
V
!
rdv z
_
C:S:
V
!
rV
!
:
d A
!
_ _
: (21)
Simplifying this equation along the xaxis for steady state condition, we obtain:
FzF
cowl
zF
f
{ P
e
{P
?
A
e
~_ mm V
e
{V
?
, (22)
where F is the engine thrust, F
cowl
is the cowl drag defined by [2]
F
cowl
:
_
A
p
p{p
?
dA (23)
Fig. 5. Geometry and boundary conditions for the entire ramjet.
Fig. 6. Configuration of a control volume surrounding the ramjet engine.
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 282
where A
p
is the circumferential projected area of the inlet or engine (i.e. the crosssectional area
of the cowl surface perpendicular to the inflow direction). F
f
in Eqn. 22 is the skin friction drag
(which is zero in the case of inviscid flow computations). Solving Eqn. 22 for the thrust force,
we obtain:
F~ _ mm V
e
{V
?
..
momentum thrust
z P
e
{P
?
A
e
..
pressure thrust
{F
cowl
{F
f
, (24)
where _ mm is the total mass flow captured by the engine (5 r
), V
e
and V
are respectively
the velocity leaving and entering the control volume, and A
e
is the nozzle exit area. In Eqn. 24,
_ mm V
e
{V
?
is the momentum thrust, (P
e
2 P
)A
e
is the pressure thrust. In the case of
incomplete expansion to ambient pressure, pressure thrust will exist for the price of some loss in
momentum thrust. The most suitable position for the normal shock is right at the inlet throat,
as it gives the weakest normal shock. The rise of inlet back pressure (i.e. the pressure at the
entrance face of the combustion chamber) pushes the terminating normal shock toward the inlet
throat. However, the inlet throat is an unstable position for the normal shock, as slightly
excessive inlet back pressure will make the inlet disgorge the normal shock and give a huge
amount of pressure drag (cowl drag). So the inlet back pressure should be properly tuned for
the sake of better performance of the inlet. There are two important downstream issues that
affect the inlet back pressure, namely the rate of heat release within the combustion chamber
(Q
cc
as given by Eqn. 19) and the exhaust nozzle throat area. The increase of Q
cc
and decrease
of the exhaust nozzle throat area both raise the inlet back pressure and push the normal shock
upstream.
The inlet or the engine cowl drag (as illustrated by F
cowl
in Fig. 6) is a type of pressure drag
and is used to determine the cowl drag coefficient,
C
D
cowl
~
F
cowl
1
2
r
?
cRT
?
M
2
?
A
p
, (25)
The total pressure recovery of the inlet, g, is defined as the ratio of total pressure at
combustion chamber entrance face, P
t,f
, to that of the free stream, P
t,
:
g~
P
t,f
P
t,?
(26)
For the entire engine, the thrust and the energy consumption or conversion values are
usually used to represent the engine performance. Specifically, the propulsion efficiency (g
p
),
the kinetic energy conversion efficiency (g
e
), the overall efficiency (g
o
) and the thrust speci
fic fuel consumption (TSFC) are used for these reasons. These parameters are given as
follows:
g
p
~
2
1zV
j
_
V
?
; g
e
~
_ mm V
2
j
{V
2
?
_ __
2
_ mm
f
Q
net,p
; g
o
~
F V
?
_ mm
f
Q
net,p
; TSFC~
_ mm
f
F
: (27)
Here V
and V
j
are the free stream and exhaust nozzle jet velocities, respectively, and is the
captured air mass flow rate. Q
net,p
in Eqn. 27 is the heating value of a typical hydrocarbon fuel
(5 43100 kJ/kg
fuel
[20]) and _ mm
f
Q
net,p
is heat rate (kW) of the fuel. For the present computation
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 283
in which the combustion chamber is modelled by distribution of a volumetric heat source
(VHS), an equivalent fuel consumption can be obtained by using Eqn. 19:
_ mm
f
Q
net,p
~Q
cc
[ _ mm
f
~
Q
cc
Q
net,p
: (28)
Using _ mm
f
Q
net,p
~Q
cc
, Eqn. 27 gives:
g
o
~
FV
?
Q
cc
: (29)
As a consequence of the inviscid flow assumption, the drag is of pressuretype only. This
pressure drag is divided into cowl drag and drag force on the spike. The spike drag in the first
observation of Eqn. 24, seems to have no contribution on the calculation of propulsive thrust as
it is within the control volume of Fig. 6. But in fact the spike effect plays its influence on the
internal drag of the engine, and reduces the net momentum thrust (exhaust jet velocity), see
Eqn. 24.
Also it is worthwhile to mention that the captured mass flow ( _ mm
f
) is independent of inlet back
pressure (i.e. Q
cc
and the exhaust nozzle throat area) as long as the terminating normal shock
remains swallowed by the engine. That is, the flow enters the engine supersonically. Also the
cowl drag remains unchanged. These issues are discussed later in Sec. 7.
7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The present computations are performed on Inlets 1 3, and the entire ramjet geometries
described in Section 6. The results are given in this section.
7.1. Grid Configurations
In this study, the computational domain is divided into two subdomains (except for Inlet 1
which has a single computational domain), and an algebraic method is employed to generate
structured quadrilateral grids, [21,22], in each subdomain. Fig. 7Left shows sample of grid
configurations for Subdomains 1 and 2 for Inlet 3.
To determine adequate grid sizes for each geometry, grid independency checks are conducted
in the present study. A sample of results that shows the variation of pressure coefficient C
p
along the spike surface of Inlet 3 with various grid sizes are shown in Fig. 7Right, where
C
p
~
p{p
?
1=2r
?
V
2
?
: (30)
The grid sizes for grid independent computations and for all the geometries used in the
present study are given in Table 2.
7.2. Inlet 1
Inlet 1 is a scramjet inlet that is considered for validating the results of the present
computations. The flow supersonically enters the computational domain of the inlet and it
compresses over the 10degree corner at point C (see Figs. 2 and 8 (a)). Figure 8 (a) also shows
the geometry of the inlet, over which for clarity purposes the pressure contours and streamlines
are superimposed. The Mach number contours are also shown in Fig. 8 (b). All the shocks and
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 284
expansion fans are clearly illustrated in this figure. Figure 8 (c) shows the distribution of
pressure coefficient C
p
for Inlet 1 along the inner part of the top wall. The figure (Fig. 8 (c))
shows the results of the present computations using the 1
st
, 2
nd
and 3
rd
order scheme of Roe, the
MacCormack scheme, Fluent and the results from the literature [8]. As shown in this figure very
good agreement are achieved in all computations, except for the 1
st
order computations by Roe
scheme. The discrepancy is due to the diffusive behavior of the firstorder upwind scheme.
The oblique shock, originated from the compression corner at C, say at the bottom wall, is
reflected from the opposite wall (the top wall) then impinges on the bottom wall again. On the
other hand, when the flow passes over the convex corner over the bottom wall a series of
isentropic expansion fans form (see Fig. 8 (b)). Due to these expansion fans, nonuniform Mach
profiles are formed upstream of the shock originated from the opposite wall. Therefore, each
streamline passing through the oblique shock will experience a shock with different strength.
This produces a nonisentropic postshock condition as shown in Fig. 8 (d). As the consequence
and according to the Croccos theorem [23,24] a rotational flow in this region is formed (see Fig.
8 (e)).
Fig. 7. Computation for Inlet 3: (Left) Computational grid and the corresponding subdomains for
Inlet 3; Subdomain 1: (229 6 31), Subdomain 2: (173 637), and (Right) Grid independency test;
distribution of pressure coefficient on the spike wall with different grid sizes for Inlet 3. Grid 1:
Subdomain 1 (349 6 71) and Subdomain 2 (275 6 51); Grid 2: Subdomain 1 (401 6 103) and
Subdomain 2 (301 6 103).
Table 2 The grid independent mesh system used in the present computation.
Inlet 1 Inlet 2 Inlet 3 Ramjet Engine
Subdomain 1 151 6 51 349 6 51 351 6 51 991 6 51
Subdomain 2  275 6 51 275 6 51 451 6 41
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 285
Fig. 8. Geometry and boundary conditions for Inlet 1 with supersonic outflow delivered to the
combustion chamber; (a) Isobar lines with the streamline configuration; (b) Mach number
contours; (c) Pressure coefficient along the internal wall; (d) The entropy contour; (e) The vorticity
contours.
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7.3. Inlets 2 and 3
The flows supersonically enter the computational domains assigned to Inlets 2 and 3 in
parallel directions to their symmetry lines. For Inlet 2, the flow passes over three ramps (see
Figs. 4(Left) and 9), so three oblique shocks are originated from the lips of the ramps and
merge at the engine cowl lip that eliminate any extra reflection from the cowl lip. Then the
supersonic flow converts to subsonic flow in Inlet 2, via a terminating normal shock generated
by the high value of inlet back pressure imposed at the inlets exit plane. On the other hand, in
Inlet 3 the flow enters the internal diffuser after passing through two consecutive external
oblique shocks generated by two ramps (see Figs. 4(Right) and 10). These two external oblique
shocks are followed by an internal oblique shock generated by the cowl internal angle in Inlet 3.
Then similar to Inlet 2, the flow in Inlet 3 converts to subsonic flow via a terminating normal
shock generated by the high value of inlet back pressure.
Figure 9 (a), (b), (c), and (f) show, respectively, the contours of Mach number, total
temperature, the entropy and velocity vectors in and around the exit plane of Inlet 2. The
entropy at any point in Fig. 9(c) is calculated w.r.t the inflow entropy using:
s~c
p
ln
T
T
?
{Rln
p
p
?
, (31)
in which T
and p
are respectively the static temperature and pressure at the inlet boundary.
The line AA9 in Fig. 9 corresponds to the cowl lip section at x 5 0. Also shown in the figure is
the pressure coefficient C
p
along the spike surface obtained at various inlet back pressures (see
Fig. 9 (d)). The subsonic flow leaves Inlet 2 and enters the engines combustion chamber not
computed here at Mach number M
cc
< 0.5, where M
cc
is the Mach number at the combustion
chamber entrance face. M
cc
< 0.5 is usually a suitable speed required by the subsonic
combustion chambers [2]. Figure 9 (e) shows the distribution of Mach number, M
cc
, at the Inlet
2 exit plane (i.e. the combustion chamber entrance face). As shown in this figure, Mach number
is just slightly less than 0.5 at the exit plane of the interior part of the inlet, where the flow is
delivered to the combustion chamber.
Consider Fig. 4(Right) again that shows the geometry of Inlet 3. Figure 10 (a), (b), (c), and
(d) show, respectively, the contours of Mach numbers, total temperature, the entropy, and
distributions of C
p
along the spike surface of Inlet 3 that are obtained at various inlet back
pressures. Similar to the AA9 line in Fig. 9 the line AA9 in Fig. 10 corresponds to the cowl lip
section at x 5 0. As shown in these figures, total temperature remains constant throughout the
computational domain. Also shown in this figure (see Fig. 10 (e)) is the distribution of Mach
number at the interior and exterior portions of Inlet 3 at the exit plane. Like Inlet 2, the Mach
number at the entrance face of the combustion chamber, M
cc
, is computed < 0.5 (Fig. 10 (e)).
The velocity vectors in and around the exit plane of Inlet 3 are also shown in Fig. 10 (f).
Computations of Inlet 3 are also performed at various back pressures of the inlet to monitor the
influences on the positions of normal shock. The results are shown in Fig. 11 (a) to (f). For
comparisons of the results between various numerical solutions for Inlet 3, the flow field
computation is performed using the MacCormack scheme as well, and the Mach number
contours are shown in Fig. 12. Comparison between Fig. 11 (e) and Fig. 12 shows excellent
agreement for the Mach number contours.
Based on the designs made in this paper, the throat for Inlet 2 is located at the cowl face,
whereas in Inlet 3 the supersonic flow continues into the inner part of the diffuser until the flow
meets the throat a bit downstream of the intersection of the third oblique shock and the spike
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 287
Fig. 9. Computations for Inlet 2; (a) Mach number contours; (b) Total temperature contours; (c)
Entropy contours; (d) Pressure coefficient along the spike surface at various inlet back pressures; (e)
Profile of Mach numbers at the exit plane of the inlet for both interior and exterior parts; (f) Velocity
vectors around the exit plane.
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 288
Fig. 10. Computations for Inlet 3; (a) Mach number contours; (b) Total temperature contours; (c)
Entropy contours; (d) Pressure coefficient along the spike surface at various inlet back pressures; (e)
Profile of Mach numbers at the exit plane of the inlet for both interior and exterior parts; (f) Velocity
vectors around the exit plane.
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 289
surface. Inlet 3 has several advantages from different aspects. It delivers the flow to the
combustion chamber at a reasonable level of uniformity. Flow uniformity at the entrance face
of the combustion chamber (say uniform profiles of Mach number, pressure and temperature)
Fig. 11. Mach number contours for Inlet 3 at various back pressure values computed by the 3
rd
order Roe scheme.
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 290
leads to more stable combustion processes in the engine combustion chamber. Inlet 3 also has a
better efficiency than Inlet 2. Performance analysis of Inlets 2 and 3 are discussed as follows.
The increase of inlets back pressure pushes the normal shock toward the inlet throat.
Excessive increase of back pressure to values above the ondesign value will make the inlet
disgorge the normal shock and give huge amount of pressure drag. On the other hand, a back
pressure less than an ondesign value will suck the normal shock to deeper sections of the inlet,
i.e. into larger sections of the diffuser duct. This will generate a stronger terminating normal
shock, increase the inlet losses and degrade the performance of the inlet. Hence, there exists an
optimized inlets back pressure, the socalled ondesign back pressure. Table 3 summarizes
the performances of the inlets for the ondesign back pressures (optimized condition) of Inlets 2
and 3.
Inlet 1 is a supersonic inlet and is suitable for scramjet engines. It has the highest efficiency as
it lacks any normal shock. On the other hand, Inlets 2 and 3 are suitable for ramjet engines. The
cowl drag of Inlet 2 (the inlet with external compression only) is problematic, as compared with
that of Inlet 3 (the inlet with combined internal and external compressions). As noted in
Table 3, Inlet 2 has a cowl drag of about 5.5 times larger than that of Inlet 3. This is due to the
large cowl lip angle of Inlet 2, which is bent inward as shown in Fig. 4(Left). The inward bent is
required to cover the flowturnings (i.e. the flow diversions from the centerline directions)
Fig. 12. Mach number contours for Inlet 3 at ondesign back pressure computed by MacCormack
scheme.
Table 3 Summary of the computation for Inlets 13 for ondesign (optimized) condition. Here: (1)
F
cowl
is the cowl drag (see Fig. 6 and Eqn. 24), (2) C
D
cowl
is the drag coefficient of the cowl (see Eqn.
25), (3) _ mm the mass flow rate (per unit depth) captured by the inlet.
F
cowl
(1)
(kN) C
D
Cowl
(2) g (%)
_ mm (3)
(kg/s/m) Comments
Inlet 1   94.99 246.12 Supersonic outflow, suitable for scramjet
Inlet 2 17.10 0.54 85.64 158.86 Subsonic outflow, suitable for ramjet
Inlet 3 3.11 0.16 89.36 167.48 Subsonic outflow, suitable for ramjet
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 291
through three external oblique shocks generated at the ramp lips. It is noted that the cowl drag
coefficient (C
D
cowl
) of Inlet 2 is only 3.3 times larger than that of Inlet 3. The difference is due the
differences in their corresponding A
p
. As noted in Table 3, Inlet 3 has a slightly better pressure
recovery efficiency (g) as compared to Inlet 2.
7.4. The Entire Ramjet
The last case analyzed is the entire axisymmetric ramjet engine. For the geometry and
specifics of the engine refer to Fig. 5. With a designated inletdiffuser for the ramjet, a series of
parametric studies are performed by varying two parameters and the influences on the
performance of the engine are studied. The parameters varied are the rate of heat release
through the combustion chamber (Q
cc
), and the exhaust nozzle throat diameter (D
Nozzle
).
Figure 13(Left) shows a sample of computations for the entire ramjet at Q
cc
5 16.0 MW
(DT
t
5 1105 K) and D
Nozzle
5 0.22 m. The flight conditions are M
5 3, P
5 226 K. The geometry of the entire ramjet and the contours of Mach number and total
temperature in and around the entire engine are shown in Fig. 13(Left). As noted in Fig. 13
(Left) (c) total temperature rises just within the combustion chamber, and it remains constant
downstream and upstream of the combustion chamber as well as outside the engine.
Computations of the entire ramjet at three different levels of Q
cc
are shown in Fig. 13(Right).
The figure shows the Mach number contours. As Q
cc
increases the normal shock is pushed
Fig. 13. Computation for the entire ramjet: (Left) Computation at the combustor heat release value
of Q
cc
5 16 MW and the nozzle throat size of D
Nozzle
5 0.22 m, Fig(a) the ramjet geometry, (b) the
Mach number contours and (c) the total temperature contours, and (Right) Mach number contours
and normal shock movement toward the inlet throat versus different heat source values (a)
_
QQ
cc
~7:5 MW (DT
t
5 485K) (b)
_
QQ
cc
~10 MW (DT
t
5 690K) (c)
_
QQ
cc
~16 MW (DT
t
5 1105K).
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 292
upstream. The position of normal shock for each Q
cc
is also illustrated in Fig. 13(Right).
Table 4 summarizes the parametric study on the effect of Q
cc
and D
Nozzle
on the position of
inletdiffuser normal shock. As noted from this table, any decrease in D
Nozzle
or any increase in
Q
cc
pushes the normal shock in upstream direction. These data are graphically pictured as noted
in Fig. 14(Left), for a given D
Nozzle
. Figure 14(Right) shows the increase of total temperature
along the combustion chamber centerline. As expected, a linear profile for the total temperature
distribution along the combustion chamber is obtained.
Table 5 summarizes a parametric study on the entire ramjet at various Q
cc
. As noted from
this table, F
cowl
, C
D
cowl
and _ mm do not change with Q
cc
, since the normal shock for all of the cases
remains swallowed inside the inletdiffuser of the engine although it is pushed ahead when Q
cc
increases (see Fig. 13(Right)). Therefore, Q
cc
cannot affect the flow configurations outside of
the engine. Hence, as long as the normal shock remains inside the inlet, the parameters F
cowl
,
C
D
cowl
and _ mm will not change with Q
cc
. Similar effects are obtained when D
Nozzle
changes (these
results are not shown here), i.e. as long as the normal shock remains inside the inlet, the
parameters F
cowl
, C
D
cowl
and _ mm will not be affected with D
Nozzle
. The propulsion efficiency g
p
reduces with Q
cc
as shown in Table 5, since the jet velocity enhances at higher heat rates of the
combustion chamber. On the other hand g
e
of the engine increases with Q
cc
, since the change in
Fig. 14. Computation for the entire ramjet: (Left) Graphical representation of the data in Table 4;
parametric study on the effect of nozzle diameter and heat source level on the position of normal
shock, and (Right) The effect of increase of total temperature along the centerline of the ramjets
combustion chamber (D
Nozzle
5 0.22 m).
Table 4 Parametric study on the ramjet performance; the effect of Q
cc
and D
Nozzle
values on the
normal shock location.
D
Nozzle
5 0.20 m D
Nozzle
5 0.22 m D
Nozzle
5 0.24 m
Q
cc
5 7.5 MW (DT
t
5 485K) X
s
5 0.61 m X
s
5 0.72 m X
s
5 0.85 m
Q
cc
5 10 MW (DT
t
5 690K) X
s
5 0.47 m X
s
5 0.67 m X
s
5 0.79 m
Q
cc
5 16 MW (DT
t
5 1105K) X
s
5 0.37 m X
s
5 0.52 m X
s
5 0.72 m
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 293
kinetic energy increases with the combustion chamber heat rate. As noted from Table 5, the
overall efficiency g
o
of the engine gradually increases with Q
cc
. This is due to the dominant
effect of the engine thrust F in Eqn. 29. The TSFC reduces with Q
cc
since the increase in F is
again dominant as compared to the increase in _ mm
fuel
(see Eqn. 27).
8. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PLANS
In this paper three different inlets (Inlets 1 3) and an entire axisymmetric ramjet were
numerically studied. The highlights of the present study are given here.
1. Inlet 1, which is suitable for supersonic combustion ramjets, was chosen from the literature
and is used to validate the results of the present computations. Very good agreements were
achieved in all comparisons.
2. Inlets 2 and 3 were designed in this paper in a way to produce multiple oblique shocks
merging at the inlet cowl lip. Inlet 2 gives a solely external compressions via three shocks,
while Inlet 3 produces combined external and internal compressions through two and one
oblique shocks, respectively. Very large amount of cowl drag is developed in Inlet 2 (about
5.5 times more than that in Inlet 3), which is attributed to large turnings of cowl angle of
Inlet 2.
3. The present study has concentrated on the design of supersonic portions of the inlets. To do
so we used the Oswatitsch principle. No attempts were made on the design of subsonic
portions of the inlet. This task will be done in a separate study.
4. The position of normal shock on the performance of inlet is very important. Generally it is
controlled by the inlet back pressure. In the case of the entire ramjet, the combustion
chamber heat rate (Q
cc
) and the exhaust nozzle throat opening (D
Nozzle
) fix the position of
normal shock in the ramjets inletdiffuser.
5. A simplified but realistic volumetric heat source (VHS) is provided in the present study to
simulate the rate of heat release (Q
cc
) through the engine combustion chamber.
6. The computations performed here are inviscid and were carried out using (i) the flux
difference splitting scheme of Roe (1981) with various orders of accuracy (including the
thirdorder upwind biased algorithm), and (ii) the secondorder predictorcorrector scheme
of MacCormack (1969). The commercial software package Fluent has also been used in
Table 5 Specifications of the ramjet engine at various Q
cc
. Here: (1) F
cowl
is the cowl drag (see Fig. 6
and Eqn. 24), (2) C
D
cowl
is the drag coefficient of the cowl (see Eqn. 25), (3) F
spike
is the pressure
drag over the spike, (4) F is the thrust (see Fig. 6 and Eqn. 24), (5) _ mm is the air mass flow rate
captured by the engine, (6) g
p
is the propulsion efficiency (see Eqn. 27), (7) g
e
is the kinetic
energy conversion efficiency (see Eqn. 27), (8) g
o
overall efficiency (see Eqn. 27), and (9) TSFC
is the thrust specific fuel consumption (see Eqn. 27).
Q
cc
F
cowl
(1) C
D
cowl
(2) F
spike
(3) F (4) _ mm (5) g
p
(6) g
e
(7) g
o
(8) TSFC (9)
(MW) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kg/s) (%) (%) (%)
kg
fuel
kN
:
s
0 2.65 0.38 3.48 20.90 15.16 99.19   
7.5 2.65 0.38 29.1 2.50 15.16 92.56 29.51 29.79 70.37
10 2.65 0.38 211.69 4.13 15.16 88.38 35.62 34.78 60.28
16 2.65 0.38 215.97 7.06 15.16 81.88 40.60 37.64 55.70
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2009 294
some cases to check the accuracy of computations. Very good agreements were achieved in
all comparisons. Viscous turbulent modelling of the problem studied in the present paper is
underway.
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