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Theory

for

CTSATCalculator(PSRC)
Thisversionofthisdocument:4June2001. SpreadsheetoriginatedbytheIEEEPSRCcommitteeresponsiblefor C37.110"IEEEGuidefortheApplicationofCurrentTransformersUsedforProtectiveRelayingPurposes" PersonresponsibleforcorrectionsorimprovementsGlennSwiftatgswift@aptpower.com LatestmodificationsrecordedonSheet2ofdocument.

Introduction ThespreadsheetCTSaturationCalculatorisintendedtoprovidequickindicationnotonlyof whetherornotaCTwillsaturateinaparticularapplication,butalsoanaccurateindicationof theactualwaveshapeofthesecondarycurrentsothatthedegreeofsaturationasafunctionof timeisapparent.Furthermore,thedataisavailabletotheusertouseasinputtoadigitalrelay model,ifsuchisavailable.TheusercanconvertthedataintoaCOMTRADEfile,forexample. Therearemanytechnicalpapersonthesubjectofmodelingthebehaviorofironcoredcurrent transformersusedforprotectiverelayingpurposes.Oneofthedifficultiesinusinganelaborate model(inanyfieldofengineering)isingettingtheparametersinaparticularcaseinorderto implementthatmodeleasily,efficientlyandaccurately.Forexample,theexcitationcurrentin theregionbelowthekneepointisacomplexcombinationofmagnetizing,hysteresisandeddy currentcomponents,theparametersofwhichareusuallynotknowninaparticularcase. Itturnsout(canbeshown)that,iftheexcitationcurrentwaveformreachesintothesaturated region,thepartofthewaveforminthebelowkneepointregionhasnegligibleeffectonthe overallsolution.Thissimplifiesthesolutiongreatly,withlittleeffectonaccuracy. Iferrorsunderlowcurrent,lowburdenconditionsareofinterest,amoreelaboratemodelmust beused. TestingoftheModel Theproofofthepuddingisintheeating.Becausethismodelisnewandquitedifferentfromthose intheliterature,testingagainstrealhighcurrentlaboratoryresultswasimportant.Tothisend, twolaboratoryexamplespublishedinreference(1)werecomparedagainstresultsfromthis program.Theagreementwasveryclose.[Notethecommentattheendofreference(1).] Inaddition,theprogramhashadwidespreadcirculation,andtodatetherearetwoutilityuser reportsofagreementwithpreviousresultsandnoreportsofdisagreement.

Circuitmodel ThecircuitmodelisshowninFig.1.
current transformer model Rw 1:N ideal i1 l is ie burden Rb Lb

N_ ve

i2 = is - i e

nonlinear inductance

Fig.1Circuitmodel. ThesymbolsusedinFig.1aswellasthoseusedinwhatfollowsandonthespreadsheetare listedinthenextsection.

Symbols AllunitsareSI:volts,amps,weberturns,ohms,henries,radians,seconds. i1 IP Off 1 i2 is ie Ie Ipk ve Ve instantaneousprimarycurrent rmssymmetricalprimaryfaultcurrent dcoffsetmagnitude(perunit) systemtimeconstant instantaneoussecondarycurrent instantaneousidealsecondarycurrent instantaneousexcitationcurrent rmsexcitationcurrent peakexcitationcurrent instantaneousexcitationvoltage rmsexcitationvoltage Vs rem S A RP T Rw Rb Rt Lb rmssaturationvoltage instantaneousfluxlinkages remanence(perunitofVs) inverseofslopeofVevsIecurve parameterofievs curve factordefinedasIe/Ipk radianfrequency=260 oneperiod:2radians windingresistance burdenresistance Rw+Rb burdeninductance

TheExcitationCurve TheexcitationcharacteristicoftheCTisinvariablyaplotofsecondaryrmsvoltageversus secondaryrmscurrent,onloglogaxes,asshowninFig.2.

Forthismodel,onlytwoparametersneedtobeextractedfromthecurve:SandVs.SeeFig.3.

Measured points: Ve volts rms

Ie

amps rms

Fig.2Factorysuppliedinformation:theexcitationcurve.

Vs Ve volts rms
actual data model used here

slope = 1/S
log-log plot, equal decade spacing

10 Ie amps rms
Fig.3MethodofdeterminingtheparametersVsandS forthesaturationcurveusedinthemodel.

Thereasonforchoosingthesaturationvoltage,Vs,atthepointwheretheexcitationcurrentis tenamps,isthatthisisthedefinitionusedinthestandard.Forexample,aC400CTisonein whichtheexcitationvoltageis400voltsrms(ormore)foranerrorcurrentof10amps.Caution: insettingupaparticularcase,usetheactualvalueforVsratherthantheratingvaluebecausea CTratedC400mayactuallysupply,forexample,423voltsat10amps. Inordertocheckthevalidityofignoringthehighslopelowendofthesaturationcurve,two modelswerecompared:onethemodelofFig.3,andanotherthemodelofFig.4.Aslongasthe conditionwasatornearsaturation,therewasnovisibledifferenceinthesaturationcurves, becausethebelowthekneepointcurrentsareverysmallbycomparisonwithevenmild

saturationcurrents.Thedecidedadvantageofeliminatingthisregionfromthemodelisthat thehysteresisandeddycurrentparametersareverydifficulttodetermine.Theyarenot includedinstandarddataforCTs.

Vs Ve volts rms
test model

10 Ie amps rms
Fig.4Temporarytestmodel.

ConversiontoInstantaneousQuantities Thestraightlinecurvewithslope1/SshowninFig.3isnotlinear.Itisacurvedefined mathematicallyas log Ve = 1 log I e + log Vi S (1)

wherelogViisthevoltageaxisintercept.Removingthelogs:

Ve = Vi I e S .

(2)

Rememberthattheseareallrmsquantities,presumablymeasuredwithtruermsvoltmeters andammeters.[Astudyhasshownthatifrmscalibratedmeterswereused,witheitherpeak sensitiveorrectifiedaveragesensitiveelements,theeffectonaccuracyisnotsubstantial.] InordertosolvethedifferentialequationsimpliedbythecircuitofFig.1,oneneedsthe instantaneousversusiecurve.Itispostulatedherethatacurvedefinedas

ie = A S

(3)

issuitableaslongastheexponentSisanoddinteger.InordertoallowStobeanypositive number,andkeepthefunctionodd,wecanusethefollowingmoregeneralexpression:

ie = A sgn( ) | | S
wheresgn()isthesignof.SeeFig.5showingasampleplotofthisfunction.

(4)


wb-turns

ie

amps

Fig.5.Postulatedinstantaneousvaluessaturationcurve. ThenextstepistodeterminetheconstantAintermsofknownparameters. First,thefluxlinkagesarerelatedtotheinstantaneousexcitationvoltagevebyFaradays law(TheerrorduetoignoringRwhereisverysmalllessthanthemeasurementerrors involvedindeterminingtheVevsIecurve): ve = d dt (5)

Theexcitationcurveisfoundusingsinusoidalvoltage,whichimpliesthatthefluxlinkagesare alsosinusoidal:
ve = 2Ve cos( ) ,and t

(6) 1 sin( t ) . (7)

= v e dt = 2Ve cos( t ) dt = 2Ve

Theexcitationcurrentisnonsinusoidal,sinceitisanSthorderfunctionof:
2Ve 2Ve S ie = A = A cos( t ) = A cos (t )
S S S

(8)

Thermsvalueofthiscurrentis,bydefinition:
1 2
2

Ie =

i
0

2 e

dt =

1 2

2Ve A 0
2

2S

cos 2 S (t ) dt

2Ve = A

1 2

cos
0

2S

(t ) dt

(9)

Next,wedefinetheratioofrmsvaluetopeakvalueoftheexcitationcurrentasRP:
RP = rms . peak

ForasinusoidRF=0.7071,andforieRPisgivenby
1 2
2 0

RP =

I pk cos
2

2S

( t )dt =

I pk

1 2

2 0

cos

2S

( t )dt

(10)

Theabovedefiniteintegral,(andhenceRP)canbestbeevaluatedusingnumericalintegration, andinfactthisisdonedirectlyonthespreadsheetusingtrapezoidalintegrationforthe particularSenteredbytheuser. Fig.6illustratesthedifferencebetweenrms/peakforasinusoidandrms/peakfortheassumed excitationcurrentwaveform:theformfactorgetssmallerasthevalueofSincreases.

v e or

peak rms

ie

peak rms

Fig.6Comparisonoftherms/peakrelationshipfortwowaveshapes. Left:excitationvoltageorfluxlinkages.Right:excitationcurrent.

Substitutingthisresultintoequation(8),yields
2Ve = A RP
S

Ie

(11)

ButweknowthatwhenIe=10,Ve=Vs.Substituting,

2Vs 10 = A RP .

SolvingforA:
A=

10 S 2Vs

)S

RP .

(12)

Equation(4)becomes,therefore,thefundamentalievsrelationship:
i e = sgn( )

10 S 2Vs

RP | |S asillustratedinFig.5.

(13)

SolutionofCircuitModel ThecircuitofFig.1issolvedsimplybywritingKirchhoffsVoltageLawaroundtherighthand loop: ve (i s ie ) Rt Lb d [ i s ie ] = 0 dt (14)

Theforcingfunctionanditsderivativeare:
is = i1 = N 2 Ip N

[Off

e t / Tau 1 cos( t cos 1 Off )

]
)

(15)

di s = dt

2 I p Off t / Tau 1 + sin( t cos 1 Off Tau 1 e N

(16)

Notethat

die die d = dt d dt
and

(17)

die = A S | |S . d
Finally,withsubstitutionsandmanipulation,equation(14)isrewrittenas:

(18)

di d 1 + Lb A S | | S 1 = Rt ie + Rt is + Lb s dt dt
dependentvariable forcingfunction

(18)

Thisfirstordernonlineardifferentialequationissolvedfor(t) usingstandardnumerical analysistechniques,suchastrapezoidalintegration,RungeKuttaintegration,orsimplestep increments.Thelatterisusedinthespreadsheetprogram,forsimplicity,sincetheaccuracyis sufficientforthisapplication. Thentheexcitation(error)currentieisgivenbyequation(3),andtheactualsecondarycurrent thegoalofthisexerciseby


i 2 = i s ie

(19)

Remanence Withthesinglevaluedsaturationcurveassumedhere,conventionalremanenceisnotpossible becausenonzerocannotoccurforzeroie.However,remanencecanbeapproximatedvery closelybysimplyassumingthattheinitialexcitationcurrentisnonzero.Aquitesmallinitial excitationcurrentwillaccomplishthis,evenforalargeremanence.Forconvenience,remis expressedinperunitofVssincethekneepointitselfisnotdefinedinthismodel.SeeFig.7. Inordertospecifyremaccurately,xmustbespecifiednogreaterthanVkneeinFig.7.Inother words,ifVkneeis80%ofVSthenthevalueofremcannotexceed0.8perunit.

Vs Vknee Ve volts rms y

remanence rem = x/y

10 Ie amps rms
Fig.7Definitionofperunitremanenceusedinthismodel. References (1)Tziouvaras,D.A.,etal,MathematicalModelsforCurrent,Voltage,andCouplingCapacitor VoltageTransformers,WorkingGroupC5ofPSRC,IEEETrans.onPowerDelivery,Jan

2000,pp.6272.(Notethatthereisanerrorinfigures4aand5aofthispaper:therewas actuallynonzeroremanenceforthiscase,asconfirmedwiththeauthors.)

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