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To be a globally competitive E & P company with strategic transport leadership and integration in the oil and gas value chain nationally, maximizing shareholder value and responsive to customer and environment

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The special thank goes to our helpful Mr. S.P.S Chauhan. The supervision and support that he gave truly help the progression and smoothness of the internship program. The co-operation is much indeed appreciated. Our grateful thanks also go to both Mr. Koushelndra Singh and Mr. Vedant Sharma. A big contribution and hard worked from both of you during the fifteen days are very great indeed. All projects during the program would be nothing without the enthusiasm and imagination from both of you. Besides, this internship program makes us realized the value of working together as a team and as a new experience in working environment, which challenges us every minute. Not forget, great appreciation go to the rest of GSPCs staff that help us from time to time during the project. The whole program really brought us together to appreciate the true value of friendship and respect of each other. Great deals appreciated go to the contribution of all staff members of GSPC. Not forget to Mr. Priyaranjan, Mr.Shashank and Mr.Vivek for the smoothes and co-operation during the visited. Special thanks also to Mr. Vinay Kumar, General Manager(HR & Admin) that have encourage, support and approved us in completing this program successfully.
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To be filled by the instructor

Department Name:

Submission Date:

Completion Status:

Instructors: Mr. S. P. S. Chauhan Mr. Koushlendra Singh


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Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Topics GSPC at Glance E & P Initiatives Training Schedule Sucker Rod Pump Casing X-mas Tree Workover Overview Echometer: Digital Well Analyzer Separator Conclusion References

Page No. 5 7 8 9 13 15 19 22 25 27 28

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GSPC is one of the leading oil and gas exploration, development and production companies in India. GSPC is also one of the largest gas trading companies in India. In addition, GSPC has a significant presence in the gas transmission and gas distribution businesses. GSPCs exploration, development and production activities are conducted both onshore and offshore in India and overseas. Government of Gujarat along with its public sector undertakings is holding more than 97% of equity of the company as on 31-Mar10. GSPCs primary asset is the Deen Dayal field in the Krishna-Godavari basin (the KG basin) located off the east coast of the State of Andhra Pradesh, India, which has significant gas reserves, part of which, Deen Dayal West (DDW), GSPC is currently developing for commercial production. GSPC is the operator of the offshore KG-OSN-2001/3 block (the KG block), which includes the Deen Dayal field, and hold an 80.0% Working Interest in the block. GSPC also holds Working Interests in 15 producing fields in the Cambay basin. As of now GSPC holds working Interests in 64 onshore and offshore exploration and production blocks. 53 of these blocks are located in India and 11 are located in Australia, Egypt, Indonesia and Yemen. GSPC conducts all its exploration, development and production activities
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through unincorporated joint ventures with other domestic oil and gas companies and foreign partners and pursuant to PSCs and PSAs. GSPC, through its Subsidiaries and Associates, operate the largest gas transmission and distribution network in the State of Gujarat. Its subsidiary, Gujarat State Petronet Limited (GSPL), is a gas transmission company on common carrier basis. GSPC Gas and Sabarmati Gas, are engaged in the business of City Gas Distribution and related pipeline infrastructure in Gujarat. Between them, these companies have developed pipeline infrastructure and supply piped gas to domestic customers, industrial customers and commercial customers and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) stations in Gujarat. GSPC trades in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), catering to industries engaged in power generation, steel and city gas distribution, among others. GSPC engages in other activities in the energy sector as well. Its wholly owned subsidiary, GSPC LNG Limited GSPC LNG), is developing an LNG terminal at Mundra in Gujarat. Their associate company Gujarat State Energy Generation Limited (GSEG), owns and operates a gas based power plant at Hazira in Gujarat. Another wholly owned subsidiary, GSPC Pipavav Power Company Limited (GPPC), is setting up a gas-fired combined cycle power plant at Pipavav in Gujarat. GSPC has also set up a wind farm at Jakhau in Gujarat.
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E & P Initiatives
The company acquired several discovered oil and gas fields in the first and second rounds of bidding initiated by the Government of India during 1994-95. This process achieved a further impetus with the announcement of the New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) by the Government of India in 1999. GSPC was among Indias first companies to participate in the NELP bidding process and acquire exploration blocks across the country. Today, the company has an international portfolio with exploration acreage in Australia, Egypt, Yemen and Indonesia.

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TRAINING SCHEDULE Winter Vacation Training December 2011 Date Subject Lecturer
15th December 2011 16th December 2011 17th December 2011 19th December 2011 20th December 2011 21st December 2011 22nd December 2011 23rd December 2011 26th December 2011 27th December 2011 28th December 2011 29th December 2011 30th December 2011 Overview of Mr. Arjun Sir Petroleum Industry Introduction to GSPC Revise Carl Getllin Book Casing study in detail Dholka visit PK Dev # 1 Workover Overview Dholka visit- EPS & Echometer SRP in detail X-mas tree Mathematical task Mr. S. M. Singh Mr. Abhisek Kumar Mr. Vivek Kumar Mr. Vedant Sharma Mr. Sudhir Kumar Mr. Sudhir Kumar

Mr. Koushlendra Singh Fluid Mechanics Mr. Koushlendra Task Singh Report making Report Submission

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At the bottom of the tubing is the down-hole pump. This pump has two ball check valves: a stationary valve at bottom called the standing valve, and
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a valve on the piston connected to the bottom of the sucker rods that travels up and down as the rods reciprocate, known as the traveling valve. Reservoir fluid enters from the formation into the bottom of the borehole through perforations that have been made through the casing and cement (the casing is a larger metal pipe that runs the length of the well, which has cement placed between it and the earth; the tubing, pump and sucker rods are all inside the casing). When the rods at the pump end are traveling up, the traveling valve is closed and the standing valve is open (due to the drop in pressure in the pump barrel). Consequently, the pump barrel fills with the fluid from the formation as the traveling piston lifts the previous contents of the barrel upwards. When the rods begin pushing down, the traveling valve opens and the standing valve closes (due to an increase in pressure in the pump barrel). The traveling valve drops through the fluid in the barrel (which had been sucked in during the upstroke). The piston then reaches the end of its stroke and begins its path upwards again, repeating the process.

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Schematic and labeled diagram of SRP is given below.

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Often, gas is produced through the same perforations as the oil. This can be problematic if gas enters the pump, because it can result in what is known as gas locking, where insufficient pressure builds up in the pump barrel to open the valves (due to compression of the gas) and little or nothing is pumped. To preclude this, the inlet for the pump can be placed below the perforations. As the gas-laden fluid enters the well bore through the perforations, the gas bubbles up the annulus (the space between the casing and the tubing) while the liquid moves down to the standing valve inlet. Once at the surface, the gas is collected through piping connected to the annulus.

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Casing that is cemented in place aids the drilling process in several ways:

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1. Prevent contamination of fresh water well zones. 2. Prevent unstable upper formations from caving-in and sticking the drill string or forming large caverns. 3. Provides a strong upper foundation to use highdensity drilling fluid to continue drilling deeper. 4. Isolates different zones, that may have different pressures or fluids - known as zonal isolation, in the drilled formations from one another. 5. Seals off high pressure zones from the surface, avoiding potential for a blowout 6. Prevents fluid loss into or contamination of production zones. 7. Provides a smooth internal bore for installing production equipment.

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In petroleum and natural gas extraction, a Christmas tree, or "tree" (not "wellhead" as sometimes incorrectly referred to), is an assembly of valves, spools, and fittings used for an oil well, gas well, water injection well, water disposal well, gas injection well, condensate well and other types of wells. It was named for its crude resemblance to a decorated tree.
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Christmas trees are used on both surface and subsea wells. It is common to identify the type of tree as either "subsea tree" or "surface tree". Each of these classifications has a number of variations. Examples of subsea include conventional, dual bore, mono bore, TFL (through flow line), horizontal, mudline, mudline horizontal, side valve, and TBT (through-bore tree) trees. The deepest installed subsea tree is in the Gulf of Mexico at approximately 9,000 feet (2,700 m). (Current technical limits are up to around 3000 metres and working temperatures of -50F to 350F with a pressure of up to 15,000 psi.) The primary function of a tree is to control the flow, usually oil or gas, out of the well. (A tree may also be used to control the injection of gas or water into a non-producing well in order to enhance production rates of oil from other wells.) When the well and facilities are ready to produce and receive oil or gas, tree valves are opened and the formation fluids are allowed to go through a flow line. This leads to a processing facility, storage depot and/or other pipeline eventually leading to a refinery or distribution center (for gas). Flow lines on subsea wells usually lead to a fixed or floating production platform or to a storage ship or barge, known as a floating storage offloading vessel (FSO), or floating processing unit (FPU), or floating production and offloading vessel or FPSO.

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A tree often provides numerous additional functions including chemical injection points, well intervention means, pressure relief means, monitoring points (such as pressure, temperature, corrosion, erosion, sand detection, flow rate, flow composition, valve and choke position feedback), and connection points for devices such as down hole pressure and temperature transducers (DHPT). On producing wells, chemicals or alcohols or oil distillates may be injected to preclude production problems (such as blockages).

Functionality may be extended further by using the control system on a subsea tree to monitor, measure, and react to sensor outputs on the tree or even down the well bore. The control system attached to the tree controls the downhole safety valve (SCSSV, DHSV, SSSV) while the tree acts as an attachment and conduit means of the control system to the downhole safety valve.

Tree complexity has increased over the last few decades. They are frequently manufactured from blocks of steel containing multiple valves rather than being assembled from individual flanged components. This is especially true in subsea applications where the resemblance to Christmas trees no longer exists given
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the frame and support systems into which the main valve block is integrated. Note that a tree and wellhead are separate pieces of equipment not to be mistaken as the same piece. The Christmas tree is installed on top of the wellhead. A wellhead is used without a Christmas tree during drilling operations, and also for riser tie-back situations that later would have a tree installed at riser top. Wells being produced with rod pumps (pump jacks, nodding donkeys, and so on) frequently do not utilize any tree owing to no pressure-containment requirement.

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The term workover is used to refer to any kind of oil wellintervention involving invasive techniques, such as wireline, coiled tubing or snubbing. More specifically though, it will refer to the expensive process of pulling and replacing a completion.

Reason to perform a workover

Workovers rank among the most complex, difficult and expensive types of wellwork there is. They are only performed if the completion of a well is terminally unsuitable for the job at hand. The production tubing may have become damaged due to operational factors like corrosion to the point where well integrity is threatened. Downhole components such as tubing retrievable downhole safety valves or electrical submersible pumps may have malfunctioned, needing replacement. In other circumstances, the reason for a workover may not be that the completion itself is in a bad condition, but that changing reservoir conditions make it unsuitable. For example, a high productivity well may have been completed with 5" tubing to allow high flow rates (a narrower tubing would have
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unnecessarily choked the flow). Some years on, declining productivity means the reservoir can no longer support stable flow through this wide bore. This may lead to a workover to replace the 5" tubing with 4" tubing. The narrower bore makes for a more stable flow.

Objectives of Workover Job

To increase productivity Control water/gas production Repair mechanical failure Formation damage Low permeability or reservoir pressure Sand productivity or asphaltene deposition High viscosity Perforation and completion in another zone Economic consideration

Types of Workover Jobs

Acidization and hydrofracturing Control repair and secondary cementing Sand control Tubing and packer replacement Casing repair Scrapping or chemical treatment
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Consideration & Risk

Exact problem Well control Consideration as per the type of workover being carried out Economy

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Echometer Digital Well Analyzer

Acoustic Liquid Level Instrument Pressure Transient Tester Dynamometer Motor Power/Current Analysis

The Well Analyzer is a portable computerized instrument for obtaining a complete well analysis. The Well Analyzer is an integrated artificial lift data acquisition and diagnostic system that allows an operator to maximize oil and gas production and minimize operating expense. Well productivity, reservoir pressure, overall efficiency, equipment
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loading and well performance are derived from the combination of measurements of surface pressure, acoustic liquid level, dynamometer, power and pressure transient response. This portable system is based on a precision analog to digital converter controlled by a notebook computer with Windows-based application. The Well Analyzer acquires, stores, processes, displays and manages the data at the well site to give an immediate analysis of the well's operating condition.

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Gas Gun / Microphone Assemblies

The Echometer Well Analyzer can be used with a variety of gas guns/microphone assemblies. The gas gun generates an acoustic pulse which travels down the casing annulus gas and is reflected by collars and the liquid level. The reflected acoustic pulse is converted into an electrical signal by the gas gun microphone. A remote fire gas gun is normally supplied with the Well Analyzer and is necessary for unattended pressure transient data acquisition. A manual fire 1,500 PSI compact gas gun can be operated in the explosion or implosion mode. High pressure gas from the well can be released into the compact gas gun to create the initial pulse so that an external gas supply is not required. 5,000 and 15,000 PSI gas guns are available for highpressure applications. Precision pressure transducers with a wide range of pressure ratings are available for use with the various gas guns

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Used primarily to separate a combined liquidgas well stream into components that are relatively free of each other. The name Separator usually is applied to the vessel used in the field to separate oil & gas coming directly from an oil, or group of wells.

(Two phase Vertical Separator)

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It may be either two or three phase separator. Two phase separators remove the total liquid from gas. Three phase separators also remove free water from hydrocarbon liquid. CLASSIFICATION OF SEPARATORS Vertical Separator Horizontal Separator Single Tube (ST) Double Tube (DT) Spherical Separator

Horizontal Separator
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In conclusion, there were many things that we have experience and learned during the fifteen days of our Industrial Training at GSPC. The whole training period was very interesting, instructive and challenging. Through this training we were able to gain new insights and more comprehensive understanding about the real industry working condition and practice. The fifteen days training also has provided me the opportunities to develop and improve our soft and functional skills. All of this valuable experience and knowledge that we have gained were not only acquired through the direct involvement in task given but also through other aspect of the training such as work observation, interaction with colleagues, superior, and others third party related to the company. From what we have undergone, we are hundred percent agree that the industrial training program have achieve its entire primary objective. Its also the best ways to prepare student in facing the real working life. As a result of the program now we are more confident to enter the employment world and build our future career.

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http://www.echometer.com/products/analyzer/brochure.htm http://www.gspcgroup.com/company_detail.php?CID=1 John lee well testing analysis Petroleum Engineering: Drilling & Well Completions by Carl Gatlin.

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