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2695BE Computer Basics

MICROSOFT LICENSE TERMS MICROSOFT DIGITAL LITERACY CURRICULUM COURSES


These license terms are an agreement between Microsoft Corporation and you. Please read them. They apply to the Licensed Content named above, which includes the media on which you received it, if any. The terms also apply to any Microsoft updates, supplements, Internet-based services, and support services

for this Licensed Content, unless other terms accompany those items. If so, those terms apply. BY USING THE LICENSED CONTENT, YOU ACCEPT THESE TERMS. IF YOU DO NOT ACCEPT THEM, DO NOT USE THE LICENSED CONTENT. If you comply with these license terms, you have the rights below.
1. DEFINITIONS.

a. b.

Administrator(s) means an administrator of an Authorized Learning Center. Authorized Learning Center(s) means non-profit (or similarly situated) community technology learning centers (CTLC(s)), community centers, or such other entities or venues as Microsoft may designate as authorized for Use of the Microsoft Digital Literacy Curriculum. Authorized Training Session(s) means those non-commercial training sessions using the Course materials conducted at or by Authorized Learning Centers for training persons in (a) basic computer and information technology skills and/or (b) the use of Microsoft technology, products, or services. Each Authorized Training Session shall provide training on the subject matter of one (1) or more Course(s) or portions thereof. Course means one of the courses offered under the Microsoft Digital Literacy Curriculum, each of which provides training on a particular technology subject matter and consists of a learning component and an assessment. Curriculum means any materials included in the Digital Literacy Curriculum. The Curriculum consists of five Courses, each of which provides training on a particular technology subject matter. Device(s) means a single computer, device, workstation, terminal, or other digital electronic or analog device at an Authorized Learning Center. Document(s) means the printed or electronic documentation such as assessments, manuals, workbooks, datasheets, and FAQs that may be included in the Licensed Content.

c.

d. e. f. g.

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h. i. j.

Instructor(s) means any person who is duly engaged by an Authorized Learning Center to teach or instruct Students in an Authorized Training Session. Instructor Content means the Licensed Content accompanying these license terms and/or on the Web site that are for use by Instructors and Students, as applicable, solely during an Authorized Training Session. Licensed Content means the learning materials for a particular Course that accompany these license terms. The Licensed Content may include, but is not limited to, the following elements: (i) Instructor Content, (ii) Student Course materials, (iii) media elements, (iv) documents, and (v) software. There are different and separate components of the Licensed Content for each Course. Self-Paced Training means a Student program of self-training, at a Students own pace, without an Instructor, (a) on the subject matter of the Course(s) for the Authorized Training Session for which they are enrolled, using Devices at Authorized Learning Centers, or (b) for the online training sessions using a Course via the Web site and/or a Course that he/she has downloaded from the Web site and/or installed from a CD Using their own personal devices. Student(s) means a student duly enrolled for an Authorized Training Session at the location of your Authorized Learning Center or a student accessing the Licensed Content from the Web site for purposes of Self-Paced Training. Student Content means the learning materials accompanying these license terms that are for use by Students and Instructors during an Authorized Training Session. Student Content may include courseware files for a Course. Use means the non-commercial use of the Licensed Content by a) Students solely to conduct Self-Paced Training and b) Instructors solely to conduct educational classes, labs, or related programs designed to train other Instructors and/or Students in the use of the technology, products, or services related to the subject matter of the Licensed Content and/or concepts related to such technology, products, or services. Use under these License Terms shall not include the use of the Licensed Content for general business or commercial purposes. You means Authorized Learning Center(s), Administrator(s), Instructor(s), and/or Student(s), as applicable.

k.

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p. Web site means the Microsoft Web site which hosts the Licensed Content.
2. OVERVIEW.

a. b.

Licensed Content. The Licensed Content includes software, Instructor Content, Student Content, and associated media. License Model. The Licensed Content is licensed on a per copy per Authorized Learning Center location basis, per copy per Instructor basis, and/or on a per Student basis (if a Student accesses and Uses or downloads the Licensed Content from the Web site).

3.

INSTALLATION AND USE RIGHTS. a. Authorized Learning Centers, Administrators, and Instructors. For each Authorized Training Session, you may:

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either install individual copies of the relevant Licensed Content on classroom Devices only for use by Students enrolled in and the Instructor delivering the Authorized Training Session, provided that the number of copies in use does not exceed the number of Students enrolled in and the Instructor delivering the Authorized Training Session, OR

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ii. install one copy of the relevant Licensed Content on a network server only for access by classroom Devices
and only for use by Students enrolled in and the Instructor delivering the Authorized Training Session, provided that the number of Devices accessing the Licensed Content on such server does not exceed the number of Students enrolled in and the Instructor delivering the Authorized Training Session.

iii. and allow the Students enrolled in and the Instructor delivering the Authorized Training Session to use the
Licensed Content that you install in accordance with (ii) or (ii) above during such Authorized Training Session in accordance with these license terms. For Students Self-Paced Training, you may either

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install individual copies of the Licensed Content of each Course on classroom Devices to be Used by the Students for Self-Paced Training, provided that the number of copies in Use does not exceed the number of duly enrolled Students for the subject matter of the Course; OR Devices accessing such Licensed Content on such server does not exceed the number of Students enrolled for the subject matter of the Course, and provided further that such Authorized Learning Center provides a monitor in the classrooms in which the Licensed Content is installed during such times as the Authorized Learning Center allows Students to participate in Self-Paced Training.

ii. install one copy of the Licensed Content of each Course on a network server, provided that the number of

b.

Instructors: Instructors may:

i.

Use the Licensed Content that you install or that is installed by an Authorized Learning Center or Administrator on a classroom Device to deliver an Authorized Training Session;

ii. and also Use a copy of the Licensed Content as follows: A. Licensed Device. The licensed device is the device on which you Use the Licensed Content. You may
install and Use one copy of the Licensed Content on the licensed device solely for your own personal training Use and for preparation of an Authorized Training Session.

B. Portable Device. You may install another copy on a portable device solely for your own personal
training Use and for preparation of an Authorized Training Session.

c.

Students: Students may:

i. Web Site Use. You may access and use one copy of the Licensed Content via the Web site only for your
personal training and reference use.

ii. and also Use a copy of the Licensed Content as follows: A. Licensed Device. The licensed device is the device on which you Use the Licensed Content. You may
download, install and Use, only for your personal training and reference use, one copy of the Licensed Content on the licensed device.

B. Portable Device. You may install another copy on a portable device for Use by the single primary user
of the licensed device, only for such primary users personal training and reference use. Separation of Components. The components of the Licensed Content are licensed as a single unit. You may not separate the components and install them on different devices. Third Party Programs. The Licensed Content may contain third party programs. These license terms will apply to the use of those third party programs, unless other terms accompany those programs.

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4.

ADDITIONAL LICENSING REQUIREMENTS AND/OR USE RIGHTS.

a. b.

Media Elements and Templates. Instructors and Students may Use images, clip art, animations, sounds, music, shapes, video clips and templates provided with the Licensed Content solely in an Authorized Training Session. Use and Reproduction of Documents.

i.

Authorized Learning Centers, Administrators, and Instructors. Provided you comply with the terms of this agreement, you may print and/or reproduce a print version of (i) any Documents, or portions thereof, and/or (ii) the Course materials, or portions thereof, including reproduce a print version of the Course materials in their entirety. If you choose to reproduce the Document and/or Course materials, you agree that: A. B. C. Such Documents or Course materials will be solely for Use in Authorized Training Sessions. The Documents and/or Course materials will not be republished or posted on any network computer (except as expressly allowed in Section 3.3(a) above) or broadcast in any media. Copies of the Documents, or portions thereof, will only be distributed to Students and Instructors for the subject matter of the Course for which Student is enrolled or for which Instructor is providing training, respectively. Print versions of Course materials in their entirety, or portions thereof, will only be distributed to Instructors for the subject matter of the Course for which Instructor is providing training and/or to Students for the subject matter of the Course for which the Student is enrolled. Any reproduction will include either the Course materials and/or Documents original copyright notice or if no such copyright notice appears on the Document, a copyright notice to Microsofts benefit substantially in the format provided below.

D.

E.

ii.

Students. Provided you comply with the terms of this agreement, you may print and copy any Documents, or portions thereof, or the Course materials, or portions thereof. If you choose to reproduce the Document and/or Course materials, you agree that: A. B. C. You will use such printed Documents and/or portions of Course materials only in conjunction with your personal training use. You will not republish, post, broadcast, or transmit the Documents or Course materials to others or on a network. You will include on each copy the Course materials and/or Documents original copyright and trademark notices or a notice reading substantially as follows:

Form of Notice: 2007. Reprinted with permission by Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce materials contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced solely for use in conjunction with the Microsoft Digital Literacy Curriculum; and be provided to students and instructors as set forth in the Microsoft Corporation License Terms accompanying this Course. Microsoft and Windows are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the US and/or other countries. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.

c.

Use of Instructor Content and Modifications to Licensed Content. For each Authorized Training Session, Authorized Learning Centers may allow Instructors to customize the Instructor Content, and Instructors and/or Administrators to customize the Student Content. Only Instructors may customize and reproduce, in accordance with this agreement, those portions of the Licensed Content that are logically associated with instruction of such Authorized Training Session. If you elect to exercise the foregoing rights, you will ensure that each Instructor or Administrator making such modifications agrees: (a) that any of these customizations or modifications will only be used for providing the relevant Authorized Training Session and (b) to comply with all other terms and conditions of this agreement.

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For the Courses that are used in an Authorized Training Session, i. Instructors may do the following:

customize or modify the Instructor Content (modified version) included with the Courses and use it to teach the Training Sessions that relate to that content and the subject matter of the Course. ii. Instructors and Administrators may do the following: 1. make modified versions of those portions of the Student Content provided in Microsoft Word format provided that the modified versions: 1. will be used only for Instructors personal training or for providing an Authorized Training Session, are clearly identified as being modified and not state or imply that Microsoft authored or endorsed them, are not obscene, scandalous, or otherwise offensive, will be technically and grammatically accurate, the rights to modified versions are not transferred or assigned to any third party (other than as expressly allowed for Instructors in item 4.c.ii.B(3) below) without the express written permission of Microsoft, may only be distributed to Students enrolled in an Authorized Training Session, or to other Instructors who a. provide training on the subject matter of the Course that is the subject matter of the modified version and are duly engaged as Instructors at the Authorized Learning Center.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

b.
2.

reproduce, use, and distribute print versions of the modified versions, or portions thereof; however such print versions may only be: 1. 2. 3. used in an Authorized Training Session, given to Students enrolled in and participating in the Authorized Training Session that is the subject matter of the Course, given to other Instructors who teach the same Course at the Authorized Learning Center.

INTERNET-BASED SERVICES. Microsoft may provide Internet-based services with the Licensed Content. It may change or cancel them at any time. You may not use these services in any way that could harm them or impair anyone elses use of them. You may not use the services to try to gain unauthorized access to any service, data, account or network by any means.

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SCOPE OF LICENSE. The Licensed Content is licensed, not sold. This agreement only gives you some rights to use the Licensed Content. Microsoft reserves all other rights. Unless applicable law gives you more rights despite this limitation, you may use the Licensed Content only as expressly permitted in this agreement. In doing so, you must comply with any technical limitations in the Licensed Content that only allow you to use it in certain ways. You may not install more copies of the Licensed Content on classroom Devices than the number of Students and the Instructor in the Authorized Training Session; allow more classroom Devices to access the server than the number of Students enrolled in and the Instructor delivering the Authorized Training Session if the Licensed Content is installed on a network server; copy or reproduce the Licensed Content to any server or location for further reproduction or distribution;

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work around any technical limitations in the Licensed Content; reverse engineer, decompile or disassemble the Licensed Content, except and only to the extent that applicable law expressly permits, despite this limitation; make more copies of the Licensed Content than specified in this agreement or allowed by applicable law, despite this limitation; distribute more printed copies of the Licensed Content than specified in this agreement or allowed by applicable law, despite this limitation; make any modifications to the Licensed Content except as provided in this agreement; publish the Licensed Content for others to copy; transfer the Licensed Content, in whole or in part, to a third party; rent, lease or lend the Licensed Content; or use the Licensed Content for commercial hosting services or general business purposes.

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EXPORT RESTRICTIONS. The Licensed Content is subject to United States export laws and regulations. You must comply with all domestic and international export laws and regulations that apply to the Licensed Content. These laws include restrictions on destinations, end users and end use. For additional information, see www.microsoft.com/exporting. NOT FOR RESALE SOFTWARE/LICENSED CONTENT. You may not sell software or Licensed Content marked as NFR or Not for Resale and/or provided at no charge to you. UPGRADE. If the Licensed Content is marked as an upgrade version, you may use it only if you have a license to use the Licensed Content eligible for upgrade. If you upgrade, this Licensed Content takes the place of the earlier version, and this agreement takes the place of the agreement for that earlier version. You may not use the earlier version after you upgrade. Without prejudice to any other rights, Microsoft may terminate this agreement if you fail to comply with the terms and conditions of these license terms. Upon any termination of this agreement, you must destroy all copies of the Licensed Content and all of its component parts. Contact dlhelp@microsoft.com for support services for the Licensed Content.

8. 9.

10. TERMINATION.

11. SUPPORT SERVICES. 12. ENTIRE AGREEMENT.


13. APPLICABLE LAW.

This agreement, and the terms for supplements, updates, Internet-based services and support services that you use, are the entire agreement for the Licensed Content and support services.

a.

United States. If you acquired the Licensed Content in the United States, Washington state law governs the interpretation of this agreement and applies to claims for breach of it, regardless of conflict of laws principles. The laws of the state where you live govern all other claims, including claims under state consumer protection laws, unfair competition laws, and in tort. Outside the United States. If you acquired the Licensed Content in any other country, the laws of that country apply.

b.

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14. LEGAL EFFECT.

This agreement describes certain legal rights. You may have other rights under the laws of your country. You may also have rights with respect to the party from whom you acquired the Licensed Content. This agreement does not change your rights under the laws of your country if the laws of your country do not permit it to do so. The Licensed Content is licensed as-is. You bear the risk of using it. Microsoft gives no express warranties, guarantees or conditions. You may have additional consumer rights under your local laws which this agreement cannot change. To the extent permitted under your local laws, Microsoft excludes the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and noninfringement. YOU CAN RECOVER FROM MICROSOFT AND ITS SUPPLIERS ONLY DIRECT DAMAGES UP TO U.S. $5.00. YOU CANNOT RECOVER ANY OTHER DAMAGES, INCLUDING CONSEQUENTIAL, LOST PROFITS, SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES.

15. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY.

16. LIMITATION ON AND EXCLUSION OF REMEDIES AND DAMAGES.

This limitation applies to anything related to the Licensed Content, software, services, content (including code) on third party Internet sites, or third party programs; and claims for breach of contract, breach of warranty, guarantee or condition, strict liability, negligence, or other tort to the extent permitted by applicable law. It also applies even if Microsoft knew or should have known about the possibility of the damages. The above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you because your country may not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental, consequential or other damages. Please note: As this Licensed Content is distributed in Quebec, Canada, some of the clauses in this agreement are provided below in French. Remarque : Ce le contenu sous licence tant distribu au Qubec, Canada, certaines des clauses dans ce contrat sont fournies ci-dessous en franais. EXONRATION DE GARANTIE. Le contenu sous licence vis par une licence est offert tel quel . Toute utilisation de ce contenu sous licence est votre seule risque et pril. Microsoft naccorde aucune autre garantie expresse. Vous pouvez bnficier de droits additionnels en vertu du droit local sur la protection dues consommateurs, que ce contrat ne peut modifier. La ou elles sont permises par le droit locale, les garanties implicites de qualit marchande, dadquation un usage particulier et dabsence de contrefaon sont exclues. LIMITATION DES DOMMAGES-INTRTS ET EXCLUSION DE RESPONSABILIT POUR LES DOMMAGES. Vous pouvez obtenir de Microsoft et de ses fournisseurs une indemnisation en cas de dommages directs uniquement hauteur de 5,00 $ US. Vous ne pouvez prtendre aucune indemnisation pour les autres dommages, y compris les dommages spciaux, indirects ou accessoires et pertes de bnfices. Cette limitation concerne: tout ce qui est reli au le contenu sous licence, aux services ou au contenu (y compris le code) figurant sur des sites Internet tiers ou dans des programmes tiers ; et les rclamations au titre de violation de contrat ou de garantie, ou au titre de responsabilit stricte, de ngligence ou dune autre faute dans la limite autorise par la loi en vigueur.

Elle sapplique galement, mme si Microsoft connaissait ou devrait connatre lventualit dun tel dommage. Si votre pays nautorise pas lexclusion ou la limitation de responsabilit pour les dommages indirects, accessoires ou de quelque nature que ce soit, il se peut que la limitation ou lexclusion ci-dessus ne sappliquera pas votre gard. EFFET JURIDIQUE. Le prsent contrat dcrit certains droits juridiques. Vous pourriez avoir dautres droits prvus par les lois de votre pays. Le prsent contrat ne modifie pas les droits que vous confrent les lois de votre pays si celles-ci ne le permettent pas.

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Information in this document, including URL and other Internet Web site references, is subject to change without notice. Unless otherwise noted, the example companies, organizations, products, domain names, e-mail addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein are fictitious, and no association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, e-mail address, logo, person, place or event is intended or should be inferred. Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the user. Without limiting the rights under copyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without the express written permission of Microsoft Corporation.

The names of manufacturers, products, or URLs are provided for informational purposes only and Microsoft makes no representations and warranties, either expressed, implied, or statutory, regarding these manufacturers or the use of the products with any Microsoft technologies. The inclusion of a manufacturer or product does not imply endorsement of Microsoft of the manufacturer or product. Links are provided to third party sites. Such sites are not under the control of Microsoft and Microsoft is not responsible for the contents of any linked site or any link contained in a linked site, or any changes or updates to such sites. Microsoft is not responsible for webcasting or any other form of transmission received from any linked site. Microsoft is providing these links to you only as a convenience, and the inclusion of any link does not imply endorsement of Microsoft of the site or the products contained therein.

Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from Microsoft, the furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property.

2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Access, BitLocker, Encarta, Excel, Expression, Hotmail, Internet Explorer, MSN, PowerPoint, Silverlight, Windows, Windows Live, Windows Media, Windows Vista, Xbox, and Xbox360 are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners.

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Table of Contents

Course Overview Course Information Module 1: Computer Basics Introduction to Computers Common Computer Terminology Computer Performance and Features Computer Operating Systems Career Opportunities Module Summary Glossary

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Course Information
This course explains the role of computers and basic computer terminology. It familiarizes you with the various programs available for performing different tasks. This course also introduces you to the different areas where computers are used and the different career opportunities that computers have made available.
Course Details Description

Audience Description Prerequisites

This course is intended for anyone who wants to acquire digital literacy skills.

Students should have basic reading and comprehension skills at the level required to read a local newspaper. Students should have access to a computer at home, school, or an institution.

Course Objectives

After completing this course, you will be able to define what a computer is and what it does. You will also be able to perform basic computer operations.

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Module 1
Computer Basics

Module Contents Introduction to Computers Common Computer Terminology Computer Performance and Features Computer Operating Systems Career Opportunities Module Summary

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Module Introduction
Computers help organizations and individuals to conduct business transactions efficiently and quickly. In todays world, one of the basic skills necessary to succeed at a workplace is to know how to use the computer. Computers are used in every field. To be able to get better jobs, you need to know how to use a computer. This module explains the role of computers and the basic concepts about the parts of a computer. This module also explains how to use a computer in different aspects of life.

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to: Describe the role of computers, their parts, and how to work with computers. Define common computer terminology. Explain the types of computers, programs, and performance issues. Explain the core concepts related to computer operating systems. Identify the career opportunities in areas where computers can be used.

Computers have transformed the way people conduct business transactions and perform their daily tasks. With computers, you can maintain your monthly budget, create business reports, do your project work, listen to music, watch movies, and even create drawings just as you would do on paper. You do not need to have much technical knowledge to work on a computer. Just about anyone can learn to use one. The only two requirements are to have patience and determination. This module explains the basic concepts related to computers and also familiarizes you with the components that make up the computer. In addition, this module familiarizes you with the various tools that will help you perform your daily tasks.

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Lesson 1
Introduction to Computers

Lesson Contents

The Role of Computers

Parts of a Computer

Using a Computer

Overview of a Keyboard

Using a Mouse

Input, Output, and Storage Devices

Self Test

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Lesson Introduction
A computer is an electronic device that you can use to store and process information. Computers help you perform a variety of tasks such as receiving and sending messages to family and friends, making presentations, and maintaining records. Computers are also used in education, research, broadcasting news, making weather forecasts, and for various other business and recreational activities. You can save time, effort, and money by using computers.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the importance of computers in todays world. Identify the main parts of a computer. Identify the steps for starting and shutting down a computer. Identify the different groups of keys on a keyboard. Perform different tasks by using a mouse.

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Topic:

The Role of Computers

Computers play a major role in our daily lives. They are used in various places, such as industries, schools, government offices, and shops. The following table describes the use of computers in various fields.
Field Description

Education

In the field of education, trainers can use computers to perform various tasks such as deliver training through audio-visual learning aids, maintain student records to track performance, search for information on different topics, and create assignments.

Business and personal finance

In the field of business, you can use computers to maintain accounts, create personnel records, track inventory, prepare presentations and reports, manage projects, and communicate by e-mail. You can use computer technology to view the details of your bank account, get instant information on stock markets, trade stocks, and manage investments.

Healthcare

In the field of healthcare, computers can be used to perform various tasks such as reviewing medical records of patients. Using computers, doctors can easily search information about latest drugs that are available to treat a disease. In addition, doctors use computer technology to discuss and share information about various diseases.

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Scientific research

Scientists use computers for research. For example, scientists use computers to view images from space and to publish information on their recent research.

Government affairs

In government organizations, you can use computers to organize information by storing and maintaining records. Computers are also used for providing services to citizens. For example, you can view information on current policies and government issues on a computer.

Arts and entertainment

You can use computers to create drawings and paintings. Photographers use computers to edit and enhance pictures. Writers use computers to write content for their books and to create illustrations. Using computers, writers can make changes in the content easily and save time. You can also use computers for entertainment. You can listen to music, watch movies, store and print photographs, send greetings, and play games by using a computer.

Publishing

You can use computers to design any type of publication ranging from simple newsletters to fashion magazines, marketing materials, books, or newspapers.

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Topic:

Parts of a Computer

A computer has various parts, and each part performs a specific function. The following table describes the parts of a computer.
Part Description

Input devices

You use input devices to provide information to a computer, such as typing a letter or giving instructions to a computer, to perform a task. Some examples of input devices are described in the following list. Mouse: A device that you use to interact with items displayed on the computer screen. A standard mouse has a left and a right button. You use the left button to select items and provide instructions by clicking an active area on the screen. You use the right button to display commonly used menu items on the screen. Keyboard: A set of keys that resembles a keyboard on a typewriter. You use the keyboard to type text such as letters or numbers into the computer. Microphone: A device that you can use to talk to people in different parts of the world. You can record sound into a computer by using a microphone. You can also record your speech and let the computer convert it into text. Scanner: A device that is similar to a photocopy machine. You can use this device to transfer an exact copy of a photograph or document into a computer. A scanner reads a page and translates it into a digital format that a computer can read. For example, you can scan photographs of your family using a scanner. Webcam: A device that is similar to a video camera. It allows you to capture and send live pictures to other users. For example, a webcam allows your friends and family to see you when you are communicating with them. Stylus: A pointing device, similar to a pen, used to make selections and enter information by tapping on a touch sensitive surface. For example, to enter information on a personal digital assistant (PDA), you use a stylus. A PDA is a lightweight, palmtop computer. Trackball: A pointing device that is an alternative to a mouse. A trackball consists of a ball that is
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rotated to move the pointer on a computer screen. You can use a trackball when you have limited desk space.

Output devices

You use output devices to get feedback from a computer after it performs a task. Some examples of output devices are described in the following list. Monitor: A device that is similar to a television. It is used to display information in visual form, using text and graphics. Printer: A device that you use to transfer text and images from a computer to a paper or to another medium, such as a transparency film. You can use a printer to create a paper copy of whatever you see on your monitor. Speaker/Headphone: A device that allows you to hear sounds. Speakers may either be external or built into the computer.

Central processing unit and memory

The central processing unit (CPU) is a device that interprets and runs the commands that you give to a computer. It is the control unit of a computer. The CPU is also referred to as the processor. Memory is where information is stored and retrieved by the CPU. There are three main types of memory. Random access memory (RAM): It is the main memory and allows you to temporarily store commands and data. The CPU reads data and commands from RAM to perform specific tasks. RAM is volatile, which means it is available only while the computer is turned on. The contents of RAM must be copied to a storage device if you want to save the data in the RAM. Read only memory (ROM): It is the memory that retains its contents even after the computer is turned off. ROM is nonvolatile, or permanent, memory that is commonly used to store commands, such as the commands that check whether everything is working properly. Flash memory: It is a nonvolatile memory that retains data even after a computer is turned off. Unlike in ROM, you can erase or modify stored information.
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Motherboard

The motherboard is the main circuit board inside a computer. It has tiny electronic circuits and other components on it. The motherboard connects input, output, and processing devices together and tells the CPU how to run. Other components on the motherboard are the video card, the sound card, and the circuits that allow a computer to communicate with devices like a printer. The motherboard is sometimes called a system board.

Expansion cards

An expansion card is a circuit board that can be attached to a motherboard to add features such as video display and audio capability to your computer. An expansion card improves the performance of your computer and enhances its features. Expansion cards are also called expansion boards. Some types of expansion cards are described in the following list. Video card: It is connected to a computer monitor and is used to display information on the monitor. Network interface card (NIC): It allows a computer to be connected to other computers so that information can be exchanged between them. Sound card: It converts audio signals from a microphone, audio tape, or some other source to digital signals, which can be stored as a computer audio file. Sound cards also convert computer audio files to electrical signals, which you can play through a speaker or a headphone. You connect microphone and speakers to a sound card.

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Storage devices

You use storage devices to store computer information. Storage devices come in many forms. Some examples are hard drive or disk, CD-ROM, floppy disk, and DVDROM. Storage devices can be divided into two types, internal storage devices and external storage devices. Some common storage devices are described in the following list. Hard disk: A magnetic disk that is usually the main storage device on most computers. It can be an external or an internal device. Floppy disk: A portable storage device that allows you to store a small amount of data. A disadvantage of this disk is that it can be easily damaged by heat, dust, or magnetic fields. CD-ROM: A portable storage medium that allows you to store 400 times more data than on a floppy disk. It is less prone to damage than a floppy disk. DVD-ROM: A portable storage medium that is similar to a CD-ROM; however, it can store larger amounts of data than a floppy disk or a CDROM. A DVD-ROM is commonly used to store movies and videos.

Ports and connections

A port is a channel through which data is transferred between input/output devices and the processor. There are several types of ports that you can use to connect a computer to external devices and networks. Some types of ports are described in the following list. Universal serial bus (USB) port: You use this to connect peripheral devices such as a mouse, a modem, a keyboard, or a printer to a computer. FireWire: You use this to connect devices such as a digital camera. It is faster than a USB. Network port: You use this to connect a computer to other computers to exchange information between the computers. Parallel port and serial port: You use these ports to connect printers and other devices to a personal computer. However, the USB port is now preferred to connect peripheral devices because it is faster and easier to use. Display adapter: You connect a monitor to a display adapter on your computer. The display adapter generates the video signal received from a computer, and sends it to a monitor through a
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cable. The display adapter may be on the motherboard, or on an expansion card. Power: A motherboard and other components inside a computer use direct current (DC). A power supply takes alternating current (AC) from a wall outlet and converts it into DC power.

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Topic:

Using a Computer

The following table contains the transcript of an online animation.

To turn on a computer, press the power button on the system unit. When you turn on the computer, lights on the keyboard may blink briefly and you may also hear a beep. This is an indication that the power-on self test (POST) has started. The computer performs a sequence of quick tests to check whether the motherboard, memory, hard drive, and other components are working. If you hear a series of beeps, the monitor may display a message indicating that a component is not functioning. For example, if the keyboard cable is not attached, an error message may report that there is no keyboard detected. After POST, the computer starts the operating system. The operating system controls the computers hardware and manages the different operations of the computer, such as logging on, logging off, and shutting down. When the computer starts the Windows Vista operating system, the Welcome screen appears. This screen displays the links to existing user accounts. To log on to Windows Vista, you need to click the link to your user account, type your password in the box, and then click the button next to the box. After you log on to your computer, Windows Vista prepares the desktop in a few seconds. The desktop appears and the Welcome Center opens. The Microsoft Windows Sidebar appears on the right side of the screen. The Welcome Center contains information about your computer and about using Windows Vista. After you log on, you can perform various tasks, such as creating a new file or modifying an existing file. Before you close the file, you need to save the changes you made to the file. You can then log off from Windows Vista. Logging off is useful if you share your computer with other people. You can end your Windows Vista session without affecting the sessions of other users if they did not log off from their sessions. You can also end your computer session by using the Shut Down command. If you shut down a computer when other users are logged on, they can lose unsaved data. If you encounter problems while using the computer, you can use the Restart option to restart the
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computer. On most computers, you should never use the actual power button on the front of the system unit to turn off the computer unless it stops responding.

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Topic:

Overview of a Keyboard

The keyboard is an input device that you can use to type commands or text into a computer. Different keyboards have different key layouts. In addition, the functions of some keys such as DELETE, BACKSPACE, PAGE UP, and PAGE DOWN may vary from program to program. This illustration describes the different groups of keys on a standard keyboard.

1.

Keys labeled from F1 to F12 are function keys. You use them to perform specific functions. Their functions differ from program to program. The function of the F1 key in most programs is to access the help file associated with a program. Some keyboards may have fewer function keys. Keys, such as Control (CTRL), SHIFT, SPACEBAR, ALT, CAPS LOCK, and TAB, are special keys. The special keys perform special functions depending on when and where they are used. Most keyboards include a special key called Windows logo key. This key is located between the CTRL key and the ALT key. This key is used to open the Start menu, or is used in combination with a second key to perform common Windows tasks. These keys are used for entering letters and numbers. Punctuation keys include keys for punctuation marks, such as colon (:), semicolon (;), question mark (?), single quotation marks ( ), and double quotation marks ( ). The label on this key can be either ENTER or RETURN, depending on the brand of computer that you are using. You use the ENTER or the RETURN key to move the cursor to the beginning of a new
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2.

3. 4. 5.

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line. In some programs, it is used to send commands and to confirm a task on a computer. Keys such as INSERT (INS), DELETE (DEL), and BACKSPACE are command keys. When the INSERT key is turned ON, it helps you overwrite characters to the right of the cursor. When the INSERT key is OFF, it helps you enter text or characters to the right of cursor, without overwriting this text or characters. The DELETE key and the BACKSPACE key are used to remove typed text, characters, and other objects on the right and left side of the cursor respectively. Keys such as the arrow keys, HOME, END, PAGE UP, and PAGE DOWN are navigation keys. You use the arrow keys to move the cursor up, down, right, and left. The HOME key moves the cursor to the left end of a line of text. The END key moves the cursor to the end of a line. The PAGE UP key is used to move one page up and the PAGE DOWN key is used to move one page down while viewing a document. Not all keyboards have a numeric keyboard. If available, this is a separate set of keys with numbers from 0 to 9, the decimal point, special characters, and navigation symbols. The NUM LOCK key on this keypad allows you to switch between the numeric and the navigation keys.

6.

7.

8.

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Topic:

Using a Mouse

The following table contains the transcript of an online animation.

A mouse is a small device that you can use to move, select, and open items on your computer screen. The mouse is usually kept on the desk next to the keyboard. Most mouse devices have at least two buttons, left and right. Most of the actions are performed by clicking the left button. The right button is used for specific functions. Some advanced types of mouse devices provide additional buttons to speed up common tasks, such as scrolling text. As you move the mouse on your desk, a pointer moves correspondingly on your screen. The mouse allows you to select an item on the screen. As you move the pointer over different areas of the screen, the items or the pointer change. These changes indicate that you can click an item to open it, or see more of its options. You can open an item by moving the pointer to it, and clicking the left mouse button twice. In a document, you can use the mouse to select a position to start typing. You need to position the pointer in the document, click where you want to insert text, and then use your keyboard to begin typing. To move an item, you need to click it, and then holding the mouse button down, move the item to a different location. After you move the item to the new location, you release the mouse button. The right button on the mouse is used to display a menu. The options on this menu include the most common tasks, such as copying text from one location and pasting it to another location. These are called context-sensitive menus. These menus help you complete tasks quickly. Most mouse devices also have a wheel that help you to scroll through documents or pages. To scroll, place your finger on the wheel and roll it back and forth. This moves the document up and
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down. There are different types of mouse devices available in the market. A regular mouse has a rubber or a metal ball on the underside. The mechanical movement of the mouse device moves the ball. This movement further moves the pointer on the screen. An optical mouse can be used in the same way as a regular mouse. However, it does not have a ball. It uses a laser to detect movement.

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Topic:

Input, Output, and Storage Devices

Sort the types of devices into their associated categories by writing the statement number in its corresponding option box. Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Mouse Microphone Keyboard CD-ROM Printer Stylus Floppy Disk Headphone Scanner Hard Disk Speaker Monitor DVD-ROM

Option 1 Input Device

Option 2 Output Device

Option 3 Storage Device

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Note: The correct answers are shown on the next page.

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Option 1 Input Device

Option 2 Output Device

Option 3 Storage Device

9, 6, 3, 2, 1

12, 11, 8, 5

13, 10, 7, 4

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Topic:

Self Test for Lesson: Introduction to Computers

Each pair of statements contains a true statement and a false statement. For each pair of statements, indicate which statement is true by placing a mark in the True column to the right. Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Use the KEYBOARD KEYS to turn on the computer. Use the POWER BUTTON to turn on the computer. Keyboard lights blink when the computer STARTS UP. Keyboard lights blink when the computer SHUTS DOWN. ROM retains its contents even after the computer is turned off. RAM retains its contents even after the computer is turned off. Use FIREWIRE to connect a digital camera to the computer. Use NETWORK PORT to connect a digital camera to the computer. Use the WINDOWS KEY to open the Start menu. Use the TAB KEY to open the Start menu. Use the LOG OFF COMMAND when the computer stops responding. Use the POWER BUTTON when the computer stops responding. The RIGHT button on the mouse is used to display a menu. The LEFT button on the mouse is used to display a menu. You can erase the information that is stored in RAM. You can erase the information that is stored in FLASH MEMORY. Use a NUMERIC KEY to access the HELP file. Use a FUNCTION KEY to access the HELP file. True False

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Note: The correct answers are shown on the next page.

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Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Use the KEYBOARD KEYS to turn on the computer. Use the POWER BUTTON to turn on the computer. Keyboard lights blink when the computer STARTS UP. Keyboard lights blink when the computer SHUTS DOWN. ROM retains its contents even after the computer is turned off. RAM retains its contents even after the computer is turned off. Use FIREWIRE to connect a digital camera to the computer. Use NETWORK PORT to connect a digital camera to the computer. Use the WINDOWS KEY to open the Start menu. Use the TAB KEY to open the Start menu. Use the LOG OFF COMMAND when the computer stops responding. Use the POWER BUTTON when the computer stops responding. The RIGHT button on the mouse is used to display a menu. The LEFT button on the mouse is used to display a menu. You can erase the information that is stored in RAM. You can erase the information that is stored in FLASH MEMORY. Use a NUMERIC KEY to access the HELP file. Use a FUNCTION KEY to access the HELP file.

True

False

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Lesson 2
Common Computer Terminology

Lesson Contents

Introduction to Hardware

What Is an Operating System?

Overview of Programs and Data

Introduction to Networks

Using the Internet

Self Test

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Lesson Introduction
An automobile, such as a car or a van, is available in different models and colors, but its essential components remain the same. All automobiles have an engine, a body, and wheels. Similarly, computers are available in various sizes and shapes, but they all have common components that work in the same manner. The essential components of a computer are hardware and software. In this lesson, you will learn about common computer terminology, such as hardware, software, data, and network.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Identify the primary hardware components of a computer. Explain an operating system. Explain programs and data. Describe a network and the types of networks. Explain the terms Internet, World Wide Web, and intranet.

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Topic:

Introduction to Hardware

Hardware refers to all the physical components of a computer. It includes all input devices, processing devices, storage devices, and output devices. The keyboard, mouse, motherboard, monitor, hard disk, cables, and printer are all examples of hardware. You use hardware to provide input to a computer and also to get the desired output. For example, when you play a musical instrument, such as a piano, you provide input by pressing the keys and get the desired output in the form of music. Similarly, computers also need input and output devices to perform tasks. Apart from input and output devices, a computer uses processing devices to work on the input data and generate the desired output. The most important processing device is the CPU. The CPU is the brain of the computer. It processes the input to perform calculations and produce output. A motherboard is a large circuit board that connects input, output, and processing devices. The motherboard circuits provide pathways that allow data to pass through these various components. It also contains chips that determine how, when, and where data can flow through the computer. Depending on the task that you want your computer to perform, you can choose the appropriate hardware. For example, you can use a NIC to connect your computer to other computers. You can also use expansion cards, such as video cards, to add new features or enhance the performance of your computer. All of these devices are plugged into the motherboard.

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Topic:

What Is an Operating System?

In addition to hardware, a computer needs software to function. Software sends instructions to the hardware to perform the necessary tasks. The most important software on the computer is the operating system, which controls and manages the hardware connected to your computer. The operating system provides an interface that helps you to interact with the computer. An example of one of the latest operating systems is Windows Vista. A user interface can be either text-based or graphics-based. Most operating systems provide a graphical user interface (GUI), which displays images and pictures that allow you to interact with a computer easily. An operating system with a GUI provides an easy-to-use interface to help you install hardware or software. For example, Windows Vista provides a setup wizard, which guides the user through each step of a particular task, such installing hardware or software. An operating system ensures that your computer is functioning properly. You need to update your operating system regularly to ensure that it is compatible with any new hardware that you install.

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Topic:

Overview of Programs and Data

The hardware and the operating system together are referred to as a platform. Programs, also called applications, use this platform to perform tasks. There are many types of programs. Some programs allow you to perform tasks such as writing letters, doing calculations, or sending e-mail messages. For example, a word processor, such as Microsoft Office Word 2007, is a program that helps you create a letter. Other programs allow you to create illustrations, play games, watch movies, or communicate with other computer users. Programs process data that you provide as input to your computer. This data can be in the form of text, graphics, audio, or video depending on the type of program. For example, Calculator is a program that requires input in the form of numbers. Similarly, Sound Recorder is a program that requires input in the form of audio. When the program receives the data, it processes the data and displays the output on the screen. You can save this output in a file. Depending on the type of data that a file contains, the file is classified as an audio file, a text file, a graphics file, or a video file.

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Topic:

Introduction to Networks

Consider a scenario where an organization has 10 employees. These employees use computers to perform daily tasks. They also need to print data frequently. Instead of giving each employee a printer, which would be expensive, all computers can be connected to a single printer. You can connect your computer to other computers to share information and hardware components. A group of computers and associated devices that are linked together to facilitate sharing information is called a network. Networks can also be used to share data and devices such as printers. You can also communicate with other computer users on the network. A typical network has the following three components: Server. The main computer on a network that provides services to other computers on the network. A server decides which computers are allowed to access the hardware and software on the network. Workstation. A computer connected to a network. You use a workstation to access the hardware and software on a network. Communication channel. A path or link that connects computers or peripheral devices, such as printers and disk drives, to transfer information. Cables are commonly used as communication channels in a network, but networks can also transfer information through wireless connections. Depending upon the area covered, a network can be categorized as a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN).
Type of Network

Feature

LAN

A LAN connects devices within a limited area, such as a home or a small group of offices. It commonly includes computers and shared resources such as printers and scanners.

WAN

A WAN is a network that connects devices in geographically separated areas. You can use the resources of a WAN to connect two or more LANs by using long wires, optical cables, and satellites. Many organizations use a WAN to connect their networks across different countries. The Internet is an example of a WAN.

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Topic:

Using the Internet

The following table contains the transcript of an online animation.

The Internet is a worldwide collection of public networks that are linked to each other for information exchange. The Internet started as a network to facilitate communication between government and educational departments in the United States. When other networks were connected to this network, it became a vast medium for exchanging information and ideas. Today, the Internet connects many commercial, government, and educational networks, as well as individual computers, which share data. The Internet offers a range of services to its users, such as file transfers between Internet users and electronic mail for sending messages. The World Wide Web (WWW), or the Web, is another service that the Internet provides. WWW includes specially formatted documents that are interlinked and stored on servers around the world. You can use the Internet and its services to send messages to other Internet users, search and apply for jobs, watch movies, and buy and sell products. Many organizations use a special type of network to communicate and share information within the organization. Such a network is called an intranet. An intranet is similar to the WWW but is accessible only to authorized users of the organization. An intranet is much smaller than the Internet and can provide services such as document distribution, software distribution, access to databases, and training.

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Topic:

Self Test for Lesson: Common Computer Terminology

Sort the items into their associated categories by writing the statement number in its corresponding option box. Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Includes computer devices Helps control the physical components Allows you to play games or watch movies Helps provide input to a computer Ensures reliable operation of the computer Uses the platform to perform a task Helps you view the output of a computer

Option 1 Hardware

Option 2 Operating System

Option 3 Application

Note: The correct answers are shown on the next page.

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Option 1 Hardware

Option 2 Operating System

Option 3 Application

1, 4, 7

2, 5

3, 6

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Lesson 3
Computer Performance and Features

Lesson Contents

Types of Computers

The Role of Memory

Computer Performance

Productivity Programs

Communication Programs

Educational and Entertainment Programs

Self Test

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Lesson Introduction
Consider a situation where you want to buy a television. There are many brands and models available in the market. You need to make a decision based on the features that you want and the price of the product. Similarly, there are different types of personal computers available in the market. They differ on the basis of features such as price, size, and speed. In addition, these factors affect the overall performance of the computer. After you buy a television, you need to choose from different kinds of channels that are available. These channels may offer entertainment, sports, or news. You can choose to view a channel based on your preferences. In the same way, after you start using a computer, there are different types of programs available that help you perform different tasks. You can use a word processor to create documents or a spreadsheet to perform mathematical calculations. Communications programs can help you talk to people at distant locations. With entertainment programs, you can watch movies, listen to music, or play games.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Compare the features of different types of computers. Explain the role of memory. Explain the basics of computer performance. Describe the types of productivity programs and their uses. Describe the types of communication programs and their uses. Describe the uses of educational and entertainment programs.

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Topic:

Types of Computers

Different types of computers are available in the market today. The most common computer is the Personal Computer (PC), typically used by individuals and small businesses. A personal computer is a computer that is designed for use by one person at a time. A personal computer is used in the workplace to create documents, manage business records, and communicate with others. It is used in schools to teach lessons, research over the Internet, and work on assignments. You can also use a personal computer to play games, view videos, and listen to music. Depending on the size and the purpose of a personal computer, it can be categorized into four different types: desktop, laptop, handheld, or tablet. You select a computer depending on the tasks that you want it to perform. For example, if you want to use the computer to edit photos or play complex games, you need a computer with a fast CPU and a good display adapter. The following table describes the different types of computer in detail:
Type of Computer

Feature

Desktop computers

Desktop computers are made up of individual components such as a monitor, a keyboard, a system unit, and a printer. Desktop computers are not portable and are generally placed on the surface of a desk or a table. The components of desktop computers can easily be replaced or upgraded. Desktop computers usually have more memory, a larger hard drive, more ports, and a bigger display than laptops and other portable computers. Desktop computers can run continuously for long periods of time.

Laptop computers

Laptop computers are lightweight personal computers. Laptop computers are smaller in size as compared to a desktop computer and are designed for travel. Laptop computers are also called notebook computers. The main feature of laptop computers is that they are small and portable. As the name suggests, these can easily be placed on the lap of a user. Desktop computers run on electricity only, while laptop computers run on electricity or on batteries that can be recharged. However, laptop computers consume more power than desktop computers with a similar hardware setup. Laptop computers perform the same tasks as desktop computers, but laptop computers generally cost more than desktop computers.

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Handheld computers

Handheld computers are devices used for specific everyday tasks, such as managing personal data. These are smaller than laptops and provide fewer features compared to desktop computers or laptops. These can also perform basic word-processing activities and help you access the Internet. You can also send and receive e-mail messages by using handheld computers. Several handheld computer models can also work as cellular phones or digital cameras.

Tablet computers

Tablet computers are fully functional computers that allow you to write directly on the screen by using a tablet pen. You can also use the tablet pen to perform mouse functions. Tablet computers, therefore, do not need a keyboard and a mouse.

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Topic:

The Role of Memory

When a computer performs a task, it stores data in the memory. The data that is stored in the memory is internally represented in the form of 0s and 1s. Each 0 or 1 is called a bit. A combination of eight bits is called a byte. The following table explains the various terms used to measure storage or memory capacity.
Term Description

Bit

A bit is the smallest unit of information that a computer handles. A single bit can hold only one of two values, 0 or 1. One of the two values is always present. A single bit conveys little meaningful information. However, you can obtain more meaningful information by combining consecutive bits into larger units. A byte is a combination of eight bits arranged in a particular sequence. Each sequence represents a single character, symbol, digit, or letter. A byte forms the basic unit that is used to measure the storage capacity of a storage device. One kilobyte (KB) is equal to 1,024 bytes. Most of the user data stored in a computer, such as simple e-mail messages or a text file, occupies storage space of a few kilobytes. One megabyte (MB) is equal to 1,024 KB. The amount of information contained in 1 MB is approximately equal to a complete textbook. One gigabyte (GB) is equal to 1,024 MB, which is approximately a billion bytes. Most computers today have hard disks with large capacities that are measured in gigabytes. A gigabyte denotes a huge storage capacity. For example, a video film stored on a computer can occupy more than 1 GB of space. One terabyte is equal to 1,024 GB, approximately a trillion bytes. Storage devices having capacities in terabytes are generally used by organizations that need to store large volumes of data. A terabyte is so large that a few terabytes of memory space can contain the complete text of a large number of books.

Byte

Kilobyte

Megabyte

Gigabyte

Terabyte

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Topic:

Computer Performance

Whether you use your computer for business or for personal use, it is important that your computer perform efficiently. However, performance does not depend on a single factor. The following table lists some of the important factors that affect the overall performance of the computer.
Factor Description

CPU speed

The CPU is the brain of the computer and its speed is an important factor that affects the overall performance of the computer. The CPU speed is the rate at which the CPU can perform a task, such as moving data to and from RAM, or performing a numerical calculation. If you have two computers that are identical except for the CPU speed, the computer with the faster CPU completes a task more quickly.

Hard disk factors

Hard disks differ in storage capacities as well as their speed of data storage and retrieval. If the speed of data retrieval is fast, the computer takes less time to start and to load programs. Additionally, the speed and size of the hard disk play an important role when a program needs to process large volumes of data.

RAM

The speed of retrieving data stored on RAM is very fast and for this reason the computer uses it to store the information that is currently in use. If the amount of RAM is large enough to hold all of the information in use, this can result in faster computer performance. The RAM speed and the amount of RAM are important factors in personal computer performance. When there is not enough RAM in a computer, the computer slows down or fails to function properly.

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Topic:

Productivity Programs

You can use different computer programs to perform a variety of tasks. You can use computer programs to organize numbers, write letters or proposals, maintain records, create and modify images, convert text into visuals, and create magazines and brochures. The following table lists the different types of programs and describes their uses.
Program Description

Word-processing and publishing programs

You use word-processing programs to create and modify text-based documents. You can type in and modify text, use the spelling checker and the built-in thesaurus, and format the document. By using these programs, you can also create personal and professional documents. Microsoft Office Word 2007 is a commonly used wordprocessing program. Publishing programs are used to combine text and graphics to create documents such as brochures, greeting cards, annual reports, books, or magazines. These programs also include word-processing and graphics features that allow you to refine parts of the document.

Presentation programs

You use presentation programs to present your information in the form of slides. You can add sound and pictures to these slides to make them more attractive and informative. Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 is a commonly used presentation program.

Spreadsheet programs

You use spreadsheet programs to create budgets, manage accounts, perform mathematical calculations, and convert numerical data into charts and graphs. Spreadsheets store information in a table, with values spread over horizontal rows and vertical columns. Each value is stored in a cell. A cell is the intersection of a row and a column. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 is an example of a spreadsheet program.

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Database programs

You use database programs to store and manage data in an organized way. By using these programs, you can also sort or search for the information stored in a database. In addition, you can create simple reports from the data that you have stored. For example, you can use a database program to store customer details, create and manage inventory, and track sales. You can then create reports to target sales or plan customer services. An example of a database program is Microsoft Office Access 2007.

Graphics programs

You use graphics programs to create and edit drawings. You can also use these programs to enhance photographs. The Paint program in Windows Vista is an example of a graphics program that allows you to create drawings.

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Topic:

Communication Programs

Just as you use a telephone or postal mail to communicate with friends and family, you can also use computers to communicate with people. Computers use special programs called communication programs that allow you to send and receive messages with other people in a digital format. The table below describes the different types of communication programs and their uses. The following table contains the transcript of an online animation.
Programs used to send e-mail messages

Sending e-mail messages is the exchange of messages from one computer user to another computer user. This exchange can be within a local area or from one part of a country to another. You can send an e-mail message to or receive an e-mail message from one or several persons at any time of the day. To send an e-mail message you must have an Internet connection and an e-mail account. This Internet connection is provided by an Internet service provider (ISP). You can use several programs, such as Windows Mail, to create an e-mail account. If you have an e-mail account, it will be similar to username@example.com, where the username is your name. The @ is the at sign and example.com is the domain name. A domain name identifies the name and type of organization with whom you have an e-mail account. After you have an e-mail account, you need to know the e-mail account of the person to whom you want to send an e-mail. You can send both text and pictures through e-mail; however, this depends on various factors, such as the type of service you have or the kind of picture you are sending. Sending and receiving e-mail messages is an instant way of communicating with anyone. It only takes a few seconds to send and receive an e-mail. This also depends on the speed of your Internet connection.

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The following table contains the transcript of an online animation.


Programs used to chat

Another type of communication is through chat programs, which allows you to send and receive messages immediately. You can use a chat program to communicate with several people at the same time. A commonly used communication program is Windows Live Messenger. When you are chatting with someone, the person on the other end receives your messages immediately. Through chat you can also talk to the person you are chatting with. This is called voice chat. Another form of chatting allows you to also see the person you are talking to. You use a device called a webcam to do this. You can also share pictures and other files through Windows Live Messenger.

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Topic:

Educational and Entertainment Programs

Consider a scenario in which you want to learn a new language. However, there are no schools in your area that teach the language. With an educational software program, a computer can help you learn the new language. Educational software programs often use audio-visual clips and games to make learning more effective. Educational software is used in classrooms, offices, and homes. Educational software is available on various topics that are applicable to different age groups. For example, Microsoft Encarta is a widely used digital encyclopedia that is available on both CD-ROM and DVD-ROM. You can also use computers as a source of entertainment. You can use entertainment software to play games, listen to music, record music, draw pictures, and watch movies on a computer. Video CDs and DVDs that allow you to watch movies and music videos as well as listen to music are all examples of entertainment software that is used for recreation.

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Topic:

Self Test for Lesson: Computer Performance and Features

Question 1 Which of the following features are true of laptops as compared with desktop computers? Select all answers that apply. They generally cost more for similar hardware. They consume less power. They are good travel companions. They are easier to upgrade. Question 2 Which of the following are true statements about RAM? Select all answers that apply. The amount affects the computers performance. Its contents are permanent. It has lower data-retrieval speed compared with storage memory. It stores active data and programs. Question 3 Which of the following programs should you use to create personal and professional documents? Select the one best answer. Word 2007 Paint PowerPoint 2007 Excel 2007

Note: The correct answers are shown on the next page.

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Answer 1 Which of the following features are true of laptops as compared with desktop computers? Select all answers that apply. They generally cost more for similar hardware. They consume less power. They are good travel companions. They are easier to upgrade. Answer 2 Which of the following are true statements about RAM? Select all answers that apply. The amount affects the computers performance. Its contents are permanent. It has lower data-retrieval speed compared with storage memory. It stores active data and programs. Answer 3 Which of the following programs should you use to create personal and professional documents? Select the one best answer. Word 2007 Paint PowerPoint 2007 Excel 2007

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Lesson 4
Computer Operating Systems

Lesson Contents

Functions of an Operating System

Introduction to the Windows Vista GUI

Start Menu Options

Working with Windows-Based Programs

Managing Files and Folders

Performing Basic File Operations

Self Test

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Lesson Introduction
An operating system performs four primary functions. It manages and controls the hardware connected to a computer. It helps other programs running on a computer to use the hardware. It helps you organize and manage files and folders on the computer. It provides a user interface that allows you to interact with the hardware, the operating system itself, and other programs.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Explain the common functions of an operating system. Identify the components of the Windows Vista GUI. Explain the options that are available in the Windows Vista Start Menu. Work with the Windows Vista GUI within programs. Manage files and folders in Windows Explorer. Perform basic file operations.

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Topic:

Functions of an Operating System

An operating system controls how programs work with each other and how they interact with the computer hardware. It also creates the file system that determines how your data is stored within a storage device. The performance of an operating system depends on the number of bits that it can transfer at a time. Early operating systems could transfer only 8 bits of data at a time and were called 8-bit operating systems. However, with the introduction of the GUI interface, 16-bit operating systems were developed. Operating systems, such as Windows Vista, can transfer data up to 32 bits or 64 bits at a time, depending on the hardware of the system. An operating system such as Windows Vista provides a GUI that makes it easier for you to give instructions to a computer. The following table describes the functions of an operating system.
Function Description

Provides a user interface

Many operating systems provide visual elements, such as icons and menus, to help you interact with a computer. You can use a mouse to select icons and issue commands. For example, you can double-click a file to open it with the appropriate program.

Provides utilities to configure your system

A GUI-based operating system provides easy-to-use utilities to help you configure your computer. These utilities are small programs that help you perform specific functions, such as connecting to a network, managing resources, and adding new programs to your computer. For example, Windows Vista provides a backup program to save your important data.

Helps manage computer resources

An operating system helps manage hardware. Programs communicate with the operating system to work with the required hardware, such as the CPU, to complete the required tasks.

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Helps secure data by controlling user access to a computer

An operating system allows you to secure your data. It helps you specify authentication and authorization rights to control access to your computer and its resources. Authentication is the process by which the computer system validates a user's logon information. An operating system can help you create a username and a password, so that only those users who know the username and password can access the resources on your computer. In addition, you can associate specific permissions to each username. This is called authorization. For example, you can prevent users from printing documents from your computer.

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Topic:

Introduction to the Windows Vista GUI

Windows Vista provides a GUI that has a number of components to help you interact with a computer. Components of the GUI include desktop, taskbar, notification area, the Start button, and Sidebar. This illustration describes the different components of Windows Vista GUI.

1.

The desktop is the screen area that you can see when you log on to Windows Vista. When you open programs or folders, they appear on the desktop. You can also store icons on the desktop for easy access to programs, files, and folders. An icon is a small picture that represents a program, a folder, or a file. The Recycle Bin icon is visible on the desktop when you log on to Windows Vista. When you delete a file or a folder, Windows Vista places the file or the folder temporarily in the Recycle Bin. You can change the background picture or pattern, called Wallpaper, on the desktop. Wallpaper is decorative and does not change how Windows Vista functions. In Windows Vista, the Start button opens the Start menu. You can use the commands on the Start menu to start a program, or to restart or shut down the computer. The taskbar is a rectangular bar that is usually located at the bottom of the screen. You can use the taskbar to select a program running on your computer. The taskbar displays the programs in the form of taskbar buttons. The program displayed on the taskbar in the graphic is Word 2007.
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4. 5.

The notification area displays the time, a volume icon, and icons of some programs running on a computer. For example, the printer shortcut icon appears after a document has been sent to the printer and disappears when the printing is complete. The Windows Sidebar displays toolsalso called gadgetsthat provide updated information about weather, time, or your appointments. The Sidebar is visibly distinct when you point to it.

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Topic:

Start Menu Options

The Start menu is the central link to all the programs that are installed in your computer. You use the Start menu to run these programs, open folders, and adjust computer settings. The Start menu is divided into three parts: The large left pane shows a short list of programs that are installed on your computer. You can click All Programs to see the list of all the programs that are installed in your computer. Any new program that you install is added to the All Programs list automatically. The Start Search box is in the lower left corner. You can use this search box to find files or open programs by typing the appropriate search terms. The Start Search box searches for the term in all the programs, files, and folders on your computer including e-mail messages, saved instant messages, appointments, and contacts. You can use the various links in right pane to access folders, files, settings, features, and to lock, log off, or shut down your computer. For example, you can use the Documents link to open the Documents folder, where you can store and share your documents. Use the Control Panel link to control the various aspects of the operating system and hardware, such as setting the system time and date, adding and removing programs, and troubleshooting hardware and software. You can use the Help and Support link whenever you have a question about the operating system.

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Topic:

Working with Windows-Based Programs

In Windows Vista, a window is a rectangular area on the monitor that displays a program. Each program has its own window. In this demonstration, you will see how to work with programs in Windows Vista. The following table contains the steps and transcript of an online demonstration. Step List

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Working with Windows-Based Programs To start Paint, click the Start button, click All Programs, click Accessories, and then click Paint. In the Paint window, notice the title bar. To move the Paint window, drag the title bar. In the Paint window, notice the menu bar. In the Paint window, notice the Tool Box and the Color Box toolbars. To move around the Paint window, drag the horizontal scroll bar to the right, and then drag the vertical scroll bar down. To minimize the Paint window, click the Minimize button. To restore the Paint window, on the taskbar, click the Untitled - Paint button. To maximize the Paint window, click the Maximize button. To restore the window to its original size, click the Restore Down button. To resize the window, move the pointer to the corner of the window until the shape of the pointer changes to a double-headed arrow, and then drag the window. To close the Paint window, click the Close button.

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Transcript

The Windows Vista user interface provides a combination of a taskbar, menus, and icons that help you manage your computer. You can use the mouse pointer to make selections and issue commands, such as opening the Paint program. The Paint program is displayed in a window.

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A window has several parts that you can use to control the appearance and the operation of the program. The title bar contains the name of the window.

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You can use the pointer to drag the title bar, and move a window to any location on the screen.

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A menu bar is a rectangular bar, usually at the top of the program window. The menus contain many commands that perform various functions in a program. For example, you can click the commands on the File menu to save a file or open a file.

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A toolbar is a horizontal or a vertical block of buttons. You can click these buttons to give commands to the program.

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You can use the scroll bars to move horizontally or vertically in the program window.

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You can click the Minimize button to reduce the size of the window. The reduced window appears as a button on the taskbar.

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To view the Paint window in its previous size, click the Paint button on the taskbar.

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You can click the Maximize button to expand the program window so that the window covers the entire screen.

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After you maximize the window, the Maximize button becomes the Restore Down button. You can click the Restore Down button to return the window to its original size.

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You can resize a window by moving the pointer to a corner of the window. The pointer changes its shape to a double-headed arrow. You can then resize the window by dragging the window. However, it is important to know that you cannot resize a window that is already maximized.

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You can exit a program by clicking the Close button.

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Topic:

Managing Files and Folders

Suppose you own a book shop. To manage it efficiently, you need to first categorize books based on their subject, such as management or fiction. You can then arrange these books in separate sections of a cabinet. You need to provide appropriate name to each section so that it is easier to locate a book. Similarly, in the Windows operating system, you use Windows Explorer to arrange files in appropriate folders. Windows Explorer is a program that helps you locate and open files and folders. The Windows Explorer window in Windows Vista is divided into two sections, called panes. The pane on the left side, called the navigation pane, displays the structure of drives and folders on your computer. A folder is a container for programs and files in GUI interfaces. It is represented by an icon of a file folder on the screen. It can hold both files and additional folders. The pane on the right is called the content pane. It displays the contents of a drive or folder. You can select folders from the list displayed in the navigation pane to view its contents in the content pane. In this simulated lab, you will use Windows Explorer to expand a folder, create a new folder, and rename a folder. You will also use Windows Explorer to copy a file, move a file, and delete a file from a folder. The following table contains the steps of an online simulation. Step 1 To view the Activities folder, click the Start button, and then click Documents. Step 2 To view the contents of the Vacation folder, in the navigation pane, under the Activities folder, click the Vacation folder. Step 3 To view the contents of the Vacation folder as a simple list, click the Views arrow, and then click List. Step 4 To create a new folder in the Vacation folder, click Organize, and then click New Folder. Step 5
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To name the new folder, for the purposes of this exercise, press SPACEBAR to have the name typed for you, and then press ENTER. Step 6 To rename the Activities folder, in the navigation pane, click Activities, and then, for the purposes of this exercise, press SPACEBAR to have the folder right-clicked for you. Step 7 On the shortcut menu, click Rename, for the purposes of this exercise, press SPACEBAR to have the folder name typed for you, and then press ENTER. Step 8 To move a file to a new location, in the content pane, click the Insurance Agency file, click Organize, and then click Cut. Step 9 To paste the file in the Legal folder, in the navigation pane, click the Legal folder, click Organize, and then click Paste. Step 10 To verify that the Insurance Agency file has been moved, in the navigation pane, click the Volunteer Activities folder. Step 11 To copy a file, in the content pane, click the Notes file, click Organize, and then click Copy. Step 12 To paste the file, in the navigation pane, point to the Vacation folder, click the arrow that is located to the left of the Vacation folder, and then click the Memos folder. Step 13 Click Organize, and then click Paste. Step 14 To delete the Draft Garden Report file, in the navigation pane, click the Volunteer Activities folder. Step 15 In the content pane, click the Draft Garden Report file, click Organize, and then click Delete. Step 16 To confirm that you want to send the file to the Recycle Bin, in the Delete File message box, click Yes.

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Topic:

Performing Basic File Operations

Every file has an associated format that defines the way data is stored in the file. The file format is identified by a period (also called a dot) appended to a file name, followed by three or four letters. The following are some of the more common file formats: Word documents (.docx) Images (.gif and .jpg) Executable programs (.exe) Multimedia files (.wma and others)

When you open a file, the operating system selects an appropriate program to display the contents of the file based on the file format. For example, when you open a Word document, the operating system opens a word processor, such as Word 2007, to display the contents of the document. In this simulated lab, you will create and save a file, browse the file, delete the file, and restore the file. The following table contains the steps of an online simulation. Step 1 To view a program that is installed on a computer, click the Start button, and then click All Programs. Step 2 To open WordPad, click Accessories, and then click WordPad. Step 3 To add text in the document, in the Document - WordPad window, for the purposes of this exercise, press SPACEBAR to have the text typed for you. Step 4 To save the document, click the File menu, and then click Save As.
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Step 5 To name the document, in the Save As dialog box, in the File name box, for the purposes of this exercise, press SPACEBAR to have the name typed for you, and then click Save. Step 6 To close the Sample file, click the Close button. Step 7 To view a different program, click the Start button, and then click All Programs. Step 8 To open Windows Explorer, click Accessories, and then click Windows Explorer. Step 9 To open the Sample file, double-click Sample. Step 10 To close the file, click the Close button. Step 11 To delete the Sample file, ensure that the Sample file is selected, click Organize, and then click Delete. Step 12 To confirm that you want to send the file to the Recycle Bin, in the Delete File message box, click Yes. Step 13 To close Windows Explorer, click the Close button. Step 14 To restore the Sample file to its original location, double-click Recycle Bin. Step 15 In the Recycle Bin window, click Sample, and then click Restore this item.

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Topic:

Self Test for Lesson: Computer Operating Systems

Each pair of statements contains a true statement and a false statement. For each pair of statements, indicate which statement is true by placing a mark in the True column to the right. Statement 1 2 3 4 TASKBAR displays the buttons representing windows of open programs. SIDEBAR displays the buttons representing windows of open programs. AUTHORIZATION is associating specific permissions with each user name. AUTHENTICATION is associating specific permissions with each user name. START MENU displays tools that provide updated information. SIDEBAR displays tools that provide updated information. The folder hierarchy is visible in the CONTENT PANE. The folder hierarchy is visible in the NAVIGATION PANE. Use CONTROL PANEL to remove programs. Use TASKBAR to remove programs. The contents of your floppy disk appear in the DOCUMENTS window. The contents of your floppy disk appear in the COMPUTER window. Use the DOCUMENTS folder to share your documents. Use the NETWORK folder to share your documents. Folders can hold ONLY FILES. Folders can hold BOTH FILES AND ADDITIONAL FOLDERS. You CANNOT resize a window that is already maximized. You CAN resize a window that is already maximized. True False

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

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Note: The correct answers are shown on the next page.

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Statement 1 2 3 4 TASKBAR displays the buttons representing windows of open programs. SIDEBAR displays the buttons representing windows of open programs. AUTHORIZATION is associating specific permissions with each user name. AUTHENTICATION is associating specific permissions with each user name. START MENU displays tools that provide updated information. SIDEBAR displays tools that provide updated information. The folder hierarchy is visible in the CONTENT PANE. The folder hierarchy is visible in the NAVIGATION PANE. Use CONTROL PANEL to remove programs. Use TASKBAR to remove programs. The contents of your floppy disk appear in the DOCUMENTS window. The contents of your floppy disk appear in the COMPUTER window. Use the DOCUMENTS folder to share your documents. Use the NETWORK folder to share your documents. Folders can hold ONLY FILES. Folders can hold BOTH FILES AND ADDITIONAL FOLDERS. You CANNOT resize a window that is already maximized. You CAN resize a window that is already maximized.

True

False

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

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Lesson 5
Career Opportunities

Lesson Contents

Understanding the Widespread Reach of Computers

Overview of Career Opportunities

Self Test

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Lesson Introduction
Using computers is no longer restricted to any specific field of work. They are extensively used everywhere, from households to large businesses. This widespread use of computers has created many career opportunities. Depending on your field of interest and degree of knowledge about computers, you can select a job that matches your skills.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe how computers have become a central part of everyday life. Identify the career opportunities available for a computer literate person.

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Topic:

Understanding the Widespread Reach of Computers

The following table contains the transcript of an online animation.

Computers are now being used extensively in business. You can use computers to maintain records, exchange information with people at distant locations, and analyze daily transactions to generate reports. You can also use computers to buy or sell products over the Internet. Computers can analyze your sales for the day to determine the products that have sold the most. As a result, you need not perform lengthy calculations to manually analyze your sales data. With advancements in technology, electronic devices such as bar code scanners are now used in stores. Bar codes are printed black-and-white bars that contain information about a product, such as its price and product ID. The bar code scanner, which is connected to a computer, reads the bar code and sends information to the computer. The computer decodes the information and generates the invoice for the customer. You do not have to manually enter information in a computer to store sales information and generate the invoice. At the end of day, the computer can automatically analyze your sales data. Computers can also be used for online transactions, such as selling products over the Internet. Customers can visit the Web sites of different stores to purchase products. They can pay for these products over the Internet, and the products can be delivered to their doorstep. Traders can also use computers to check stock prices over the Internet. This helps them organize and manage investments.

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Topic:

Overview of Career Opportunities

You can seek various job opportunities in the field of computers if you have relevant computer knowledge. Depending on your skills, you can work as an information worker, an IT professional, or a software developer. The following table describes each of these career options in detail.
Option Description

Information worker

An information worker (also called a home and office user), such as a data entry operator, a warehouse manager, or a travel agent, uses the computer to enter and maintain records. For example, a data entry operator can use the computer to create documents and maintain records. These records can be analyzed by the computer to generate reports. A warehouse manager keeps an account of the warehouse stocks. With the help of a computer, the warehouse manager also plans the schedules for the people working in the warehouse. Travel agents use computers to provide their customers with information on various holiday destinations, flight schedules, and details about a specific location. The details may range from information on the weather to hotel accommodations. Bank clerks use computer to process transactions of their customers. Using computers, bank clerks provide information, such as account balance and interest rates, to their customers.

IT professional

You can also use your computer knowledge to work as an IT professional. Network administrators, graphic designers, and database administrators are some examples of IT professionals. Network administrators are responsible for managing a network and installing new devices on the network. They also add and remove individuals from the list of authorized users. They archive files on a computer and administer access rights. Graphic designers use computers to create graphics and animations for commercial purposes. Database administrators work with databases to maintain and organize the information stored on a computer. A database is an organized collection of information on a computer.

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Software developer

A software developer creates software for commercial purposes, such as managing the inventory for a small business or editing a media file. Similar to a software developer, a computer game designer creates games that can be played on computers.

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Topic:

Self Test for Lesson: Career Opportunities

Each pair of statements contains a true statement and a false statement. For each pair of statements, indicate which statement is true by placing a mark in the True column to the right. Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 A database administrator is an INFORMATION WORKER. A database administrator is an IT PROFESSIONAL. A travel agent is an IT PROFESSIONAL. A travel agent is an INFORMATION WORKER. A graphic designer is a SOFTWARE DEVELOPER. A graphic designer is an IT PROFESSIONAL. Bar codes contain only the PRICE of a product. Bar codes contain PRODUCT information. A COMPUTER transmits data to a BAR CODE SCANNER. A BAR CODE SCANNER transmits data to a COMPUTER. A DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR handles malfunctioning equipment. A NETWORK ADMINISTRATOR handles malfunctioning equipment. Customers CANNOT pay for a product over the Internet. Customers CAN pay for a product over the Internet. A database is an organized collection of DATA. A database is an organized collection of COMMONLY USED PROGRAMS. A NETWORK ADMINISTRATOR is in charge of security. A SOFTWARE DEVELOPER is in charge of security. True False

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Note: The correct answers are shown on the next page.

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Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 A database administrator is an INFORMATION WORKER. A database administrator is an IT PROFESSIONAL. A travel agent is an IT PROFESSIONAL. A travel agent is an INFORMATION WORKER. A graphic designer is a SOFTWARE DEVELOPER. A graphic designer is an IT PROFESSIONAL. Bar codes contain only the PRICE of a product. Bar codes contain PRODUCT information. A COMPUTER transmits data to a BAR CODE SCANNER. A BAR CODE SCANNER transmits data to a COMPUTER. A DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR handles malfunctioning equipment. A NETWORK ADMINISTRATOR handles malfunctioning equipment. Customers CANNOT pay for a product over the Internet. Customers CAN pay for a product over the Internet. A database is an organized collection of DATA. A database is an organized collection of COMMONLY USED PROGRAMS. A NETWORK ADMINISTRATOR is in charge of security. A SOFTWARE DEVELOPER is in charge of security.

True

False

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Module Summary

Lessons

Introduction to Computers

Computers help you perform your tasks efficiently and quickly. They are used in almost every field, such as industry, government offices, shops, and educational institutions. Computers are made of various parts that can be broadly categorized into input devices, output devices, processing devices, and storage devices.

Common Computer Terminology

The essential components of a computer are hardware and software. Hardware refers to all the physical components connected to a computer and software refers to the instructions for the hardware to perform the necessary tasks. The most important software on the computer is the operating system, which controls and manages the hardware connected to your computer. You can share your computer components with other computer users by connecting your computer to other computers. A group of computers and associated devices that are linked together to facilitate sharing information is called a network. The Internet is a collection of these networks that are linked together.

Computer Performance and Features

The different kinds of computers come in a wide selection based on shape, size, and performance. These include desktop computers, laptop computers, handheld computers, and tablet computers. All computers have memory, which is used to store information that is being used by the operating system and programs. Information that the computer uses is represented in the form of 0s and 1s. Different computer programs perform different tasks. Productivity programs help you organize numbers, write letters or proposals, maintain records, and create images. Communications programs help you talk to other computer users. With entertainment programs, you can watch movies, listen to music, or play games.

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Computer Operating Systems

An operating system is a program that controls how the hardware works and helps manage files and folders on the computer. Some operating systems, such as Windows Vista, provide a GUI, which makes it easier for you to provide instructions to a computer. Windows Explorer is a program in the Windows operating system that helps you locate and open files and folders. Each file has an associated format. Depending on the file format, the operating system decides the appropriate program to open the file.

Career Opportunities

Computers are extensively used everywhere, from households to large businesses. Computers are used to maintain records, exchange information, and analyze daily transactions to generate reports. Computers are also being used for online trading and checking stock prices. This widespread use of computers has created many career opportunities. With relevant computer knowledge, you can work as an information worker, an IT professional, or a software developer.

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Glossary

Applications Applications, also called programs, use the platform to perform tasks. Authentication Authentication is the process by which the computer system validates a user's logon information. Authorization Authorization is the process by which the user can associate specific permissions to each username. Bit A bit is the smallest unit of information that a computer handles. A single bit can hold only one of two values, 0 or 1. Byte A byte is a combination of eight bits arranged in sequence. Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit (CPU) is the primary hardware device that interprets and runs the commands you give to the computer. Chat Program Chat programs allow you to send and receive messages instantly. You can use a chat program to communicate with several people at the same time. Commands A command is an instruction, which you give to a computer that causes an action to be carried out. Commands are either typed by using a keyboard or are chosen from a menu. Communication Channel A communication channel is a path or a link that connects computers or peripheral devices, such as printers and disk drives, to transfer information.

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Communication Programs Communication programs are used by computers to exchange messages and files with other people in a digital format. CPU speed The CPU speed is the rate at which the CPU can perform a task, such as moving data to and from RAM, or performing a numerical calculation. Data Data is the plural for the Latin word datum, meaning an item of information. Database Programs Database programs are used to store and manage data in an organized way. You can also use these programs to sort or search for information stored in a database. Desktop The desktop is an on-screen work area that uses a combination of menus and icons. Desktop Computers Desktop computers are made up of individual components such as a monitor, a keyboard, a system unit, and a printer. E-mail An electronic mail (e-mail) is the electronic form of the traditional postal mail. E-mail allows you to exchange messages and files over a network. Folder A folder is a container for programs and files in GUI interfaces. Gigabyte One gigabyte (GB) is equal to 1,024 MB, which is approximately equal to one billion bytes. Graphical User Interface (GUI) A graphical user interface (GUI) displays images and pictures that allow a computer user to interact with a computer easily.

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Graphics Programs Graphics programs are used to create and edit drawings. You can also use these programs to enhance photographs. Handheld Computer Handheld computers are smaller than laptops computers and provide fewer features compared to than desktop computers or laptops computers. They are used for specific everyday tasks, such as managing personal data. Hardware Hardware refers to all the physical components of a computer. Icon An icon is a small image displayed on the screen to represent an object. Input Devices An input device is used to provide information to a computer. A keyboard is an example of an input device. Internet The Internet is a worldwide collection of public networks that are linked to each other for information exchange. Internet Service Provider (ISP) An ISP is a company that provides Internet connectivity to individuals, businesses, and organizations. Intranet An intranet is a special type of network used to communicate and share information within an organization. Kilobyte One kilobyte (KB) is equal to 1,024 bytes. Laptop Computers Laptop computers are lightweight and portable personal computers. Laptop computers are also called notebook computers.

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Local Area Network (LAN) A LAN connects devices within a limited area, such as a home or a small group of offices. Megabyte One megabyte (MB) is equal to 1,024 KB. Menu A menu is a list of options from which a user can select an option to perform a desired action, such as choosing a command or applying a particular format to part of a document. Many programs, especially those that offer a graphical interface, use menus as a means to provide the user with an easy-to-use alternative to memorizing program commands and their appropriate usage. Network A network is a group of computers that are connected to share resources and exchange information. Network Drives A network drive is a disk drive that is shared with other computers on a network. Notification Area The notification area is located on the right side of the taskbar when the taskbar is located at the bottom of a screen. The notification area displays the time, a volume icon, and icons of some programs that are running on a computer. Online When a computer is connected to the Internet, it is said to be online. Operating System The operating system controls the computers hardware and provides services and access to the hardware to programs. It also manages the computers operations and tasks, such as logging on, logging off, and shutting down. Platform The hardware and the operating system together are referred to as a platform. Presentation Programs Presentation programs are used to present information in the form of slides.

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2007 Microsoft Corporation, All rights reserved.

Processing Devices Processing devices are used by computer users to process the input data and generate the desired output. Programs A program is a sequence of instructions that can be executed by a computer. A program is also known as software. Publishing Programs Publishing programs are used to combine text and graphics to create documents such as brochures, greeting cards, annual reports, books, or magazines. Server The server is the main computer on a network that provides services to other computers on the network. A server decides which computers are allowed to access the hardware and software on the network. Setup Wizard Setup wizards are provided by Windows Vista. They guide the user through each step of a particular task, such installing hardware or software. Software Software is a sequence of instructions that a computer can execute. It is also referred to as programs. Spreadsheet Programs Spreadsheet programs are used to create budgets, manage accounts, perform mathematical calculations, and convert numerical data into charts and graphs. Storage Devices Storage devices are used to store data. A hard disk is an example of a storage device. System Unit A system unit refers to the box that holds the processor, motherboard, disk drives, power supply, and the expansion bus.

Tablet Computer Tablet computers are computers that allow you to write directly on the screen by using a tablet pen.
Course: Computer Basics

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2007 Microsoft Corporation, All rights reserved.

Taskbar The taskbar is a rectangular bar that is usually located at the bottom of the screen. You can use the taskbar to select a program running on your computer. Terabyte One terabyte is equal to 1,024 GB, approximately equal to trillion bytes. The Web The Web, also known as the World Wide Web (WWW), is a collection of information that is accessible on the Internet. This information is arranged logically and stored on computers known as Web servers. Wallpaper Wallpaper is a pattern or picture on the screen background that you can choose. Wide Area Network (WAN) A WAN is a network that connects devices in geographically separated areas. Window In Windows Vista, a window is a rectangular area on the monitor that displays a program. Each program has its own window. Word-processing Programs Word-processing programs are used to create and modify text-based documents. Workstation A workstation refers to a computer connected to a network. You use a workstation to access the hardware and software on a network.

Course: Computer Basics

99
2007 Microsoft Corporation, All rights reserved.