You are on page 1of 3

BRASSICAS GROWERS GUIDE

NURSERY ESTABLISHMENT (for Cabbage, Kales & Spinach)


Dimensions 1 meter by any length is considered standard measurements. Preparation Dig well and harrow to make a fine tilth. Add decomposed manure and DAP mix well. Prepare furrows running across the width of the nursery at a spacing of 10 15cm. depth of the furrow show be 2cm deep Drench the furrow with Nordox/Cuprocaffaro 75WG at the rate of 40g/ 20L of water to control Sow thinly Watering Keep the nursery moist to ensure there is adequate moisture for germination Water once or twice per day depending on the weather conditions Shading: Provide shade during the first two weeks using grass or shade net. Pest control Common pests as the cutworm or cricket control using Jawabu 48EC Nematode control, appropriate nematicide. Weeding Keep the nursery free from weeds to control insect pests Hardening off Its necessary to diametric the seedlings before planting in the main field. This reduces the failure rate. Harden by reducing the frequency of watering. Hardening starts at the 3rd week after germination. Transplanting Transplant when the seedlings are 8 10cm in height or 1 1 month after germination (long periods occasioned by cold temperatures) Transplant the sturdy healthy seedlings Transplant late in the afternoon Spacing 45 x 45 or 60 x 45 or 60 x 60cm Closer spacing smaller heat but high yield per unit area while wider spacing give bigger heat but low production per unit area. Although for hotter areas larger spacing is desirable to reduce moisture stress.

PLANTING (for Cabbage, Kales & Spinach)


Add adequate manure in the planting hole, one or two handful depending on the soil fertility. Add also 5 grams of tea spoonful or bottle top to each planting hole of DAP. Mix well with manure and DAP with the soil.

Topdress with CAN 5 gm/ plant from 4th 5th week. Latest 7th week from transplanting. NB/ when controlling the pest farmers mix the insecticide with foliar fertilizers (Farmphoska range). At planting farmers control cutworms agrotis ssp and white grabs by drenching the holes with Jawabu 48EC at 40ml/ 20L For weeding one can use a selective herbicide Galigan 240EC at the rate of 1L per 1000L of water.

DISEASE AND PEST CONTROL (Cabbage & Kales)


Pest: Pest control is guided by proper scouting in order to detect pest damage before it reaches the economic damage. Cricket/cutworms/ grabs: Attacks the newly transplanted crop. Damage occurs mainly during the night. Its therefore advisable to spray late in the evening. Cut seedlings at the base of the stem. Control: Spray with Jawabu 48EC or Farm X 25EC (60 ml-100 ml/ 20L or 25ml/20l of water respectively) 1st week after transplanting. From 3rd week after transplanting: Cabbage Aphid: they are pale to dark green lice insects covered b dust of mealy powder found in colonies. They damage the crop through sucking the cabbage leaf. The attacked leaves curl and turn whitish. Attack starts at the growing strip or the leaf edges. There are different strains of cabbage aphids and some strains are resistant to two dosages of chemicals. If there are certain strains proofs tolerant increase application rate or change molecule. Control: Danadim 40EC at (30 40ml/20lt) PHI 7 14 days, Farm-X 25EC at (25 ml/ 20L) PHI 1day, Diazol 60EC at (40 50ml/ 20L) PHI 7 14 days Diamond Back Moth: Attack is serious during dry spells. The larval stage is the destructive stage. The larva is a tiny greenish caterpillar which prefers feeding on the lower side of the leaf. The caterpillar feeds on leafs making holes, heavy leads to skeleton dried leaves. Control: Delfin 6.4WG - biological insecticide PHI zero days at the rate of 8 20gm/ 20L of water depending on infestation rate, Farm-X 25EC at the rate of 25 ml/ 20L and has a PHI of 1 (one) day.

Diseases: Disease attack has become critical in cabbage production. Disease attack can cause 100% crop loss. If control starts when the disease is detected it becomes an expensive exercise because it require higher frequency of spraying and higher doze. The farmer should therefore start disease control as early as 3rd week after transplanting and set spray interval of 14 days. Ring spot; Symptoms appear as a circular brown grey spots on the leaves which are bordered by a green margin and with black specked concentric zones.

Control: Copper oxychloride (50gm/20L of water) PHI 7 14 days, Topsin M preventive and curative chemical (20ml/ 20L of water) PHI 7 days

Black rot: Its a common disease in thigh altitude areas. Yellow brown dry leaf margins are observed in the affected plants. Late stages of infection, the infected areas turn black and soft and eventually rot giving characteristic offensive odour. Control: Cuprocaffaro Micro 37.5WG (50gm/ 20L of water), Topsin M (20ml/ 20L of water) Downey Mildew: Results in fluffy grown on the underside of the leaf which later produce brown spots on the upper surface. Control: Topsin M at the rate of 20ml/ 20L of water, Equation pro at the rate of 10g/ 20L of water Black leg (Dry rot cankers): control by spraying 1 4th week with Cuprocaffaro Micro 37.5WG 50g/20l and spraying with Topsin M 20ml/ 20L 4th8th week.

Notes There are some cabbage hybrids that are resistant to certain diseases like black rot and fusarium yellow. Hence it is highly recommended to plant cabbages with resistance so as to minimize the use of agrochemicals. Spinach is rarely attacked by insects and diseases.

Maturity: depends on whether hybrid or open pollinated Cabbage: 80 120 days Kales: 60 days and economic picking period commences for a period of 2 months. Spinach: 45 55 days Yields: depends on type (hybrid or open pollinated), plant population and crop management. Cabbage: 28 65 Tonnes/ Acre Kales: 16 20 Tonnes/ Acre Spinach: 10 24 Tonnes per Acre