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Spanish

Spanish I 1. Some Basic Phrases 2. Pronunciation 3. Alphabet 4. Articles and Demonstratives 5. Subject Pronouns 6. To Be and to Have 7. Question Words 8. Numbers / Ordinals 9. Days of the Week 10. Months of the Year 11. Seasons 12. Directions 13. Color 14. Time 15. Weather 16. Prepositions 17. Family and Animals 18. To Know People and Facts 19. Formation of Plural Nouns 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. To Do or Make

22. Work and School 23. Countries and Nationalities 24. To / In and From places 25. To Come and to Go 26. Misc. Words 27. Conjugating Regular Verbs 28. Reflexive Verbs 29. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 30. Impersonal "a" 31. Preterite Tense 32. Irregular Preterite Tense 33. Imperfect Tense 34. Food and Meals 35. Gustar 36. Fruits, Vegetables, Meats 37. To Take or Drink 38. Commands 39. More Negatives 40. Holiday Phrases Mexican National Anthem Spanish II 41. Useful Expressions 42. Present Progressive 43. Haber 44. Present Perfect 45. Places

46. Transportation 47. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to 48. House 49. Furniture 50. Comparative and Superlative 51. Irregular Forms 52. Clothing 53. To Wear 54. Future Tenses 55. Preceding Adjectives 56. More Adjectives 57. Sports and Hobbies 58. Nature 59. To Say and to Go Out 60. Para vs. Por and Pero vs. Sino 61. Object Pronouns 62. Parts of the Body 63. Asking Questions 64. To Give and To Bring 65. Relative Pronouns 66. Disjunctive Pronouns 67. To Hear and to Smell 68. Animals 69. Past Perfect 70. Suffixes Spanish III (Not finished yet!)

71. Adverbs 72. Passive Voice 73. Uses of the Infinitive 74. Shopping 75. Post Office and Bank 76. Conditional Tenses 77. Infinitives followed by Prepositions 78. Office / School Supplies 79. Parts of a Car / Gas Station 80. Subjunctive Mood 81. Irregular Subjunctive Mood 82. Uses of the Subjunctive 83. Travelling / Airport 84. Cosmetics / Toiletries 85. Other Perfect Tenses Spanish

1. Some Basic Phrases

Buenos das! buayn-ohs dee-ahs Hello! / Good morning! Buenas tardes! buayn-ahs tard-ays Good afternoon!

Buenas noches! buayn-ahs nohch-ays Good evening / Good night Hola! oh-lah

Hi!

Cmo se llama usted? Cmo te llamas?

coh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted What is your name? (formal) coh-moh tay yah-mahs What is your name? (informal)

Me llamo... may yah-moh I am called... Mi nombre es... mee nohm-bray ays My name is...

Cmo est usted? coh-moh ay-stah oo-sted How are you? (formal) Cmo ests? coh-moh ay-stahs How are you? (informal)

Qu tal? kay tahl What's up? Yo estoy... yoh ay-stoy I am... (when talking about your mood)

Bien / Muy bien bee-ayn / moy bee-ayn Good / Very good Mal / Muy mal / Ms o menos mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs Bad / Very bad / OK

Adis.

ah-dee-ohs Good bye. Chao. chow Bye.

Hasta la vista. ah-stah lah vee-stah Until we meet again. Hasta luego. ah-stah loo-ay-go See you later.

Hasta maana. ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah See you tomorrow. Seor / Seora / Seorita sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / sayn-yor-ee-tah Mister / Mrs. / Miss

Mucho gusto. moo-choh goo-stoh Nice to meet you. Encantado/a. ain-cahn-tah-doh/dah Delighted to meet you.

Igualmente. ee-guahl-main-tay Same here. Yo tambin. yoh tahm-bee-ain Me too.

De dnde es usted?

day dohn-day ays oo-sted Where are you from? (formal) De dnde eres? day dohn-day air-ays Where are you from? (informal)

Yo soy de... yoh soy day I'm from... Yo soy de los Estados Unidos. yoh soy day lohs ay-stah-dohs oo-nee-dohs I'm from the United States.

Cuntos aos tiene usted? quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ay oosted How old are you? (formal) Cuntos aos tienes? quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ays How old are you? (informal)

Yo tengo _____ aos. yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs I am _____ years old. Gracias. grah-see-ahs Thank you.

Por favor. por fah-bor Please. Y usted? ee oo-sted And you? (used when asking the same question) (formal)

Y t? ee too And you? (informal) Te amo. tay ah-moh I love you.

Note: For Encantado/a, you would use the masculine ending, o, if you're a man. You would use the feminine ending, a, if you're a woman. So, if you're a man, you would say Encant ado, and if you're a woman, you would say Encantada. Most adjectives work this way. Also, accents ( ) are very important in the Spanish language. You CANNOT leave out the accents or it'll cha nge the meaning of a word. The syllable with the accent is the emphasized syllable in a word.

2. Pronunciation Spanish Letter English Sound a ah e ay i ee o oh u oo ll y v b at beginning of word, real soft b between 2 vowels ny (as in canyon) r almost like a d when in between 2 vowels rr

r w/ a roll of the tongue d almost like a th when in between 2 vowels j hard h g g, sometimes a h qu k ai / all / ay eye z s z, ce, ci th (in most parts of Spain)

Note: Any time I put a double r (rr) in the pronunciation of a word, you need to roll your tounge when you say the r's.

3. Alphabet a ah j hoh-tah r air-ay b bay

k kah rr airr-ay c say l ay-lay s ay-say ch chay ll ay-yay t tay d day m ay-may u oo e ay n ay-nay v oo-bay f ay-fay

ayn-yay w doh-blay-bay g hey o oh x ah-kees h ah-chay p pay y ee-gree-ay-gah i ee q koo z say-tah

Note: The Spanish language academy no longer considers the ch, ll or rr to be se parate letters of the alphabet.

4. Definite and Indefinite Articles and Demonstratives

Masc. Singular Fem. Singular

Masc. Plural Fem. Plural the el (ail) la (lah) the los (lohs) las (lahs) a, an un (oon) una (oonah) some unos (oonohs) unas (oonahs) this este esta these

estos estas that ese esa those esos esas that aquel aquella those aquellos aquellas

Note: El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable. Use the ese froms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing. Use the aquel forms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing. Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that. They can be used in general and abstract ways.

5. Subject Pronouns yo yoh I nosotros(as) noh-soh-trohs we t too

you (informal) vosotros(as) boh-soh-trohs you all l / ella / usted ail / ay-yah / oo-sted he / she / you (formal) ellos / ellas / ustedes ay-yohs / ay-yahs / oo-sted-ays they / they / you (plural)

Note: Vosotros is used only in Spain when speaking to more than one person with whom you know well. Nosotras and vosotras refer to a group of all females, as well as ellas. U stedes is almost always used for saying "you all" in all Spanish speaking countries. Usted can be abreviated to Ud. Ustedes can also be abreviated to Uds. Please note that the subject pronouns are rarely used before verbs.

6. To Be and to Have ser - to be estar - to be tener - to have soy somos estoy estamos tengo tenemos

eres sois ests estis tienes tenis es son est estn tiene tienen

Note: Ser is used to indentify or describe. It tells what something is, its basi c characteristics, or its origin. Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels. Uses of Ser Identify person/object Inherent characteristics or qualities Nationality/Occupation Telling time Express ownership Impersonal expressions Passive voice El edificio es un templo. La casa es grande. Carlos es pobre. Es carpintero. Son las tres. Los libros son de Juan. Es necesario. El telefono fue inventado por Bell. The building is a temple. The house is large. Charles is poor. He is a carpenter. It's three o'clock. The books are John's. It is necessary. The telephone was invented by Bell.

Uses of Estar Location/position Temporary condition/stateState of health Form progressive tense El libro est en la mesa. La ventana est abierta. Juan est enfermo. Miguel est estudiando. The book is on the table. The window is open. John is sick. Michael is studying.

Common Expressions with "to be" to be afraid - tener miedo to be against - estar en contra to be at fault - tener la culpa to be careful - tener cuidado to be cold - tener fro

to to to to to to to to to to to

be be be be be be be be be be be

curious - ser curioso (a) happy - estar contento (a) hot - tener calor hungry - tener hambre in a hurry - tener prisa, estar de prisa jealous - tener celos lucky - tener suerte patient - tener paciencia successful - tener xito thirsty - tener sed tired - estar cansado (a)

7. Question Words what qu which cul(es) who quin(es) how much cunto (-a) how cmo how many cuntos (-as) when cundo whom a quin(es) where dnde whose de quin(es) why por qu

8. Numbers / Ordinals 0 cero cay-roh

1 uno oo-noh first primero 2 dos dohs second segundo 3 tres trays third tercero 4 cuatro kuah-troh fourth cuarto 5 cinco seen-koh fifth

quinto 6 seis says sixth sexto 7 siete see-ay-tay seventh sptimo 8 ocho oh-choh eighth octavo 9 nueve new-ay-vay ninth noveno 10 diez dee-ays tenth dcimo 11 once ohn-say eleventh

undcimo 12 doce doh-say twelfth duodcimo 13 trece tray-say thirteenth dcimo tercero 14 catorce kah-tor-say fourteenth dcimo cuarto 15 quince keen-say fifteenth dcimo quinto 16 diez y seis dee-ays ee says sixteenth dcimo sexto 17 diez y siete dee-ays ee see-ay-tay seventeenth

dcimo sptimo 18 diez y ocho dee-ays ee oh-choh eighteenth dcimo octavo 19 diez y nueve dee-ays ee new-ay-vay nineteenth dcimo noveno 20 veinte bayn-tay twentieth vigsimo 21 veinte y uno bayn-tay ee oo-noh twenty-first vigsimo primero 22 veinte y dos bayn-tay ee dohs twenty-second vigsimo segundo 30 treinta trayn-tah thirtieth

trigsimo 40 cuarenta kuar-ain-tah fortieth cuadragsimo 50 cincuenta seen-kuain-tah fiftieth quincuagsimo 60 sesenta say-sain-tah sixtieth sexagsimo 70 setenta say-tain-tah seventieth septuagsimo 80 ochenta oh-chain-tah eightieth octogsimo 90 noventa noh-bain-tah ninetieth

nonagsimo 100 cien(to) see-ain-(toh) hundredth centsimo 1000 mil meel thousandth milsimo

Note: If you are just saying 100, you use just cien. If it's over 100, you use c iento. So 101 is ciento uno. And 156 would be ciento cincuenta y seis. Also you can also use diecisis, di ecisiete, dieciocho, and diecinueve for 16, 17, 18, and 19, respectively. They are pronoun ced the same but are combined into one word.

9. Days of the Week lunes loo-nays Monday

martes mar-tays Tuesday mircoles mee-air-coh-lays Wednesday jueves hway-bays Thursday viernes bee-air-nays Friday sbado sah-bah-doh Saturday domingo doh-ming-oh Sunday el da ail dee-ah the day la semana lah say-mahn-ah the week el fin de semana ail feen day say-mahn-ah the weekend hoy oy today

maana mahn-yahn-ah tomorrow mi cumpleaos mee coom-play-ahn-yohs my birthday

10. Months of the Year enero ay-nair-oh January febrero fay-bray-roh February marzo mar-soh March abril ah-breel April mayo mi-oh May junio hoo-nee-oh June julio hoo-lee-oh July

agosto ah-gohs-toh August septiembre sayp-tee-aim-bray September octubre ohk-too-bray October noviembre noh-bee-aim-bray November diciembre dee-see-aim-bray December el mes ail mais the month el primero de [month] ail pree-mair-oh day _____ the first of [a month] el ao ail ahn-yoh the year

11. Seasons spring la primavera winter

el invierno summer el verano autumn el otoo

Note: To say in the summer, spring, etc. use en and the season. En verano means in the summer.

12. Directions north el norte east el este south el sur west el oeste

13. Colors red rojo violet violeta pink rosado brown marrn orange anaranjado dark brown caf yellow amarillo black negro green verde

gray gris blue azul white blanco light blue celeste gold dorado purple morado silver plateado

14. Time Qu hora es? What time is it? Es la una. It's one. Son las dos/tres/cuatro... It's two/three/four... Es medioda. It's noon. Es medianoche. It's midnight. Son las cinco y cinco. It's 5:05 Son las ocho y cuarto.

It's 8:15 Son las diez menos cuarto. It's 9:45 Son cuarto para las diez It's 9:45 (common in Mexico) Son las nueve menos diez. It's 8:50 Son diez para las nueve It's 8:50 (common in Mexico) Son las tres y media. It's 3:30

15. Weather Qu tiempo hace? What's the weather like? Hace buen tiempo. The weather's nice. Hace mal tiempo. The weather's bad. Hace fro. It's cold. Hace calor. It's hot.

Hace sol. It's sunny. Hace viento. It's windy. Llueve. It's raining. Nieva. It's snowing. Est nublado. It's cloudy.

16. Prepositions a at al lado de beside con with alrededor de around contra against cerca de near de of, from lejos de far from en

in, on delante de in front of entre between, among debajo de below, under hacia towards, about en frente de opposite para for, in order, by detrs de behind por for, through, along, via encima de above sobre on, over hasta till, until sin without desde from, since

Note: There are two prepositional contractions with definite articles. A and el combine to form al, and de and el combine to form del.

17. Family and Animals family la familia grandfather el abuelo dog el perro parents los padres grandmother la abuela cat el gato husband el esposo grandson el nieto bird el pjaro wife la esposa granddaughter la nieta fish el pez father el padre uncle el to

horse el caballo mother la madre aunt la ta goat la cabra son el hijo nephew el sobrino pig el cerdo daughter la hija niece la sobrina cow la vaca children los hijos cousin (m) el primo rabbit el conejo sister la hermana cousin (f) la prima

turtle la tortuga brother el hermano relatives los parientes mouse el ratn

18. To Know People and Facts

conocer - to know people saber - to know facts conozco conocemos s sabemos conoces conocis sabes sabis conoce conocen sabe saben

19. Formation of Plural Nouns If a word ends in an -cin, -tad, -dad, or -tud, it'll be feminine. Also, if you a re talking about a female, you will use the feminine articles (la seora). Words ending in an -o are masculin e. Days of the week are also masculine. And if you're talking about a male, use the masculine articl es. There are some exceptions to these rules and you just have to memorize them. To make words endi ng in a vowel plural, add an -s (libro = libros). Add an -es to make words ending in a constin ant (papel = papeles). If a word ends in a -z, change the z to a c and add -es (cruz = cruces). After maki ng the word plural, you must make the articles plural also. There are very few exceptions to making word s plural.

20. Possessive Adjectives

Terminal Forms

Singular Plural Singular Plural my

mi mis mo (a) mos (as) your

tu tus tuyo (a) tuyos (as) your/his/her/its

su sus suyo (a) suyos (as) our

nuestro (a) nuestros (as)

nuestro (a) nuestros (as) your

vuestro (a) vuestros (as) vuestro (a) vuestros (as) your/their

su sus suyo (a) suyos (as)

Because su and sus can have so many meanings, the definite article may be used w ith the definite article may be used instead of su with the following forms: de Ud., de l, de ella , de Uds., de ellos and de ellas. los libros de ellos their books The terminal forms are placed after the noun, and must be preceded by the defini te article, except in direct address. When used with the indefinite article, it corresponds to the Eng lish "of mine, of yours," etc. el libro mo my book Qu haces, hijo mo? What are you doing, my son? un amigo mo a friend of mine

21. To Do or Make hacer - to do or make hago hacemos

haces hacis hace hacen

22. Work and School doctor dentist lawyer professor teacher engineer architect writer journalist musician painter pharmacist banker carpenter barber mechanic salesman electrician postman policeman soldier pilot secretary typist nurse el el el el el el el el el el el el el el el el el el el mdico dentista abogado profesor maestro ingeniero arquitecto escritor periodista msico pintor farmacutico banquero carpintero barbero mecnico vendedor electricista cartero

el el la la la

agente de policiael soldado piloto secretaria mecangrafo enfermera

history math algebra geometryscience physics chemistryzoology botany geographymusic art drawing painting linguisticslanguages la historia las matemticas el lgebra la geometra la ciencia la fisica la qumica la zoologa la botnica la geografa la msica el arte el dibujo la pintura la lingstica las lenguas / idiomas

23. Countries and Nationalities

Country Masc. (Fem) Nationality Germany Alemania alemn (alemana) Argentina Argentina

argentino(a) Australia Australia australiano(a) Bolivia Bolivia boliviano(a) Canada Canad canadiense Columbia Colombia colombiano(a) Costa Rica Costa Rica costarricense Cuba Cuba cubano(a) Chile Chile chileno(a) China China chino(a) Ecuador Ecuador ecuatoriano(a) Egypt Egipto

egipcio(a) Spain Espaa espaol(a)

India India indio(a) England Inglaterra ingls (inglesa) Italy Italia italiano(a) Japan Japn japons (japonesa) Mexico Mxico mexicano(a) Russia Rusia ruso(a) South Africa Surfrica surafricano(a) United States los Estados Unidos (norte)americano(a) France Francia francs (francesa) Portugal Portugal portugus (portuguesa)

Poland Polonia polaco(a)

24. To / In and From to a from de in en

Remember to use the prepositional contractions when a noun with an article follo ws the preposition.

25. To Come and to Go venir - to come ir - to go vengo venimos voy vamos vienes vens vas vais viene vienen va

van

26. Misc. Words a lot mucho always siempre very much muchsimo everyday todos los das a little poco now ahora very little muy poco usually usualmente sometimes a veces there ah well bien over there all after despus

too bad qu malo poorly mal

27. Conjugating Regular Verbs Verbs in Spanish end in -ar, -er or -ir. Before a verb is conjugated, it is call ed the infinitive. Removing the last two letters gives you the stem of the verb (cantar is to sing, cant- is the stem.) To conjugate regular verbs in the present tense, add these endings to the stems: -ar -er -ir o amos o emos o imos as is es is es s a an e en e en

Remember that verbs do not require the subject pronouns, so just canto means I s ing. Here are some more regular verbs: -ar verbs

-er verbs -ir verbs bailar to dance

aprender to learn vivir to live desear to want

comer to eat escribir to write escuchar to listen

correr to run compartir to share estudiar to study

leer to read recibir to receive

hablar to speak

vender to sell

practicar to practice

beber to drink

tomar to take

comprender to understand

viajar to travel

To make sentences negative, simply put no in front of the verb.

28. Reflexive Verbs The subject and the object are the same with reflexive verbs - the subject acts upon itself. A reflexive verb in Spanish will be marked with se attached to the end of the infinitive. Th ese verbs are conjugated like regular verbs, except the reflexive pronoun agrees with case and gender and precedes the verb when not used in the infinitive form. Reciprocal verbs are the same as reflexive except the action passes from one person to another. It can only be used in the first and t hird person plural forms. Reflexive verbs sometimes use the "-self" forms in English, while the rec iprocal verbs use "each other." Reflexive Pronouns me te se nos os se

Some common reflexive verbs:

acostarse - to go to bed baarse - to bathe oneself casarse - to get married despertarse - to wake up irse - to go away levantarse - to rise sentarse - to sit down vestirse - to dress oneself atreverse - to dare quejarse - to complain

29. Irregularities in Regular Verbs Some verbs have vowel changes in the present tense for all forms except first an d second person plural. After dropping the endings (-ar, -er, or -ir), the e of the last syllabl e changes to ie, and o in the last syllable changes to ue. Some -ir verbs change the e to i. e to ie o to ue e to i pensar - to think querer - to want, like, lovecerrar - to close comenzar - to begin despertar - to awaken empezar - to begin entender - to understandperder - to lose preferir - to prefer sentar - to seat sentir - to regret, feel contar - to count poder - to be able costar - to cost dormir - to sleep encontrar - to find, meetjugar - to play morir - to die mostrar - to show volar - to fly volver - to return pedir - to ask (for) repetir - to repeat seguir - to follow servir - to serve vestir - to dress

pensar contar

pedir pienso piensas piensa pensamospensis piensan cuentocuentascuenta contamoscontis cuentan pidopidespide pedimospdis piden

30. Impersonal "a" When the object of a verb (except tener) is a definite person, it is preceded by a. It isn't used if a number precedes the object though. The pronouns alguien (somebody), alguno (some one), nadie (nobody), and ninguno (no one) require a as well, when used as the direct object . It is also used before geographical names that are not already preceded by an article. Veo a Juan. I see John. Veo a alguien. I see somebody. Describe a Chile. Describe Chile.

31. Preterite Tense The preterite tense expresses an action in the past. It is used to describe even ts that are finished or complete. It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem.

-ar verbs -er and -ir verbs - -aste- -amos-asteis-aron - -iste -i -imos -iste -eron

Viv en Espaa dos aos. I lived in Spain for two years. Ellos hablaron con los nios. They spoke with the children. Quin comi la fruta? Who ate the fruit?

32. Irregular Preterite Tense A few verbs are irregular in the preterite tense. The following are the most com mon: dar - to give decir - to say, tell estar - to be di diste di dimos disteis dieron dije dijiste dijo dijimos dijisteis dijeron estuve estuvisteestuvo estuvimos estuvisteis estuvieron

hacer - to do, make ir - to go / ser- to be poner - to put, place hice hiciste hizo hicimos hicisteis hicieron fui fuiste fue fuimos fuisteis fueron puse pusiste puso pusimos pusisteis pusieron tener - to have traer - to bring venir - to come tuve tuviste tuvo tuvimos tuvisteis tuvieron traje trajiste trajo trajimos trajisteis trajeron vine viniste vino vinimos vinisteis vinieron

33. Imperfect Tense The imperfect is another past tense that is used to express an action as going o n in the past, as repeated or habitual. It is also used with mental and physical conditions and fo r descriptions. The preterite tense is used much more often than the imperfect tense though, except with these verbs: querer, creer, pueder, esperar, tener, and saber. It is formed by adding these e ndings to the infinitive stem. -ar verbs -er and -ir verbs -aba-abas-aba -bamos-abais -aban -a -as -a -amos -ais -an

Yo viva en Espaa. I used to live in Spain. Luisa estaba triste. Louise was sad. El venda radios. He was selling radios. Only a few verbs are irregular in the imperfect tense: ser - to be ir - to go ver - to see era ramos iba bamos vea veamos

eras era erais eran ibasiba ibais iban veasvea veais vean

34. Food and Meals breakfast lunch supper dinner meal food bread roll butter meat fish vegetables fruit cheese crackers candy sandwich ice cream el desayuno el almuerzo la cena la comida la comida el alimento el pan el panecillo la mantequillala carne el pescado las legumbresla fruta el queso la galleta los dulces el sndwich el helado tablecloth

napkin fork knife spoon plate, dish glass cup salt saltshaker pepper pepper shakersugar sugar bowl vinegar coffeepot teapot tray el la el el la el el la la el la el el el la la la mantel servilleta tenedor cuchillo cuchara plato vaso taza sal salero pimienta pimientero azcar azucareroel vinagre cafetera tetera bandeja

35. Gustar Gustar plus a noun means to like something. Literally, it means to please and ta kes an indirect object, so the construction of the sentence will be different than that of English. Me gusta(n) I like Nos gusta(n) we like Te gusta(n) you like Os gusta(n) you like

Le gusta(n) you/he/she likes Les gusta(n) you/they like

Gusta is used with singular nouns, while gustan is used with plural nouns. With le and les, you can add a Ud., a l, a ella, a Uds., a ellos and a ellas to make the meaning clear. Me gustan las flores. I like the flowers. (Literally: To me are pleasing the flo wers or the flowers are pleasing to me.) Nos gusta la casa. We like the house. No me gusta. I don't like it. Le gusta a Ud.? Do you like it? Le gustan a ella. She likes them.

36. Fruits, Vegetables and Meats apple orange banana la manzana la naranja la banana

lettuce cabbage cauliflower la lechuga la col la coliflor broccoli corn on the cob el brcoli el elote / la mazorca el rbano

grapefruit lemon lime peach apricot fig grapes pear plum cherry pineapple melon watermelon strawberry raspberry blackberry la toronja el limn la lima el melocotn el albaricoque el higo unas uvas la pera la ciruela la cereza la pia el meln la sanda la fresa la frambuesa la zarzamora green peasasparagusgreen been spinach tomato carrot turnip beet celery onion cucumberparsley squash artichoke eggplant rhubarb los guisanteslos esprragos la habichuelala espinaca el tomate la zanahoria el nabo la remolacha el apio la cebolla

el el la la la el

pepino perejil calabaza alcachofa berenjena ruibarbo

radish pepper garlic potato sweet potato beans beef lamb pork sausage ham bacon goose duck chicken turkey lobster el pimiento el ajo la patata la batata los frijoles / las judas la carne de vaca el cordero el cerdo la salchicha el jamn el tocino el ganso el pato el pollo el pavo la langosta

37. To Take or Drink tomar - to take or drink tomo tomas toma tomamos tomis toman

When tomar means to drink, it usually refers to alcohol. In Mexico, tomar can be intransitive, as beber is almost never used. In Spain, tomar is always transitive, such as tomar una co pa- to have a drink and tomar un caf - to have a coffee.

38. Commands To form familiar commands, regular -ar verbs end in -a, and -er and -ir verbs en d in -e for the t form. Change the final -r to -d for the vosotros form. Negative familiar commands use the subjunctive forms, so -ar verbs end in -es and -is, while -er and -ir verbs end in -as and -is for the t and vosotros forms.

Affirmative Negative

-ar -er or -ir -ar -er or -ir t -a -e -es -as vosotros -ad -ed -is -is

Habla! = Speak! (t form) Comed! = Eat! (vosotros form)

No comis! = Don't eat! (negative vosotros form) Irregular Familiar Commands

t vosotros

decir hacer ir irse poner salir ser tener venir di haz ve vete pon sal s ten ven decid haced id idos poned salid sed tened venid

To form formal commands of verbs, drop the -o ending of the yo form, and add the opposite vowel ending. This means -ar verbs will add -e for the Usted form and -en for the Uste des form; while -er and -ir verbs will add -a for Usted and -an for Ustedes. To make a command negat ive, just add no before it.

-ar -er or -ir Usted -e -a Ustedes -en -an

Beba! = Drink! (Usted form) Coman! = Eat (Ustedes form) No beban! = Don't drink! (negative Ustedes form) Ir and ser have irregular forms as formal commands: vaya and vayan for ir and se a and sean for ser. Verbs that end in -car, -gar and -zar have the following changes in commands as well: c becomes qu, g becomes gu, and z becomes c.

39. More Negatives To make sentences negative, you place no before the verb. Other negatives may pr ecede or follow the verb, but if they follow, they must follow a negative verb (a double negativ e). The word order is no + verb + negative. nada nadie ninguno (a) tampoco ni ni...ni ni siquiera nunca, jams nothing, (not) anythingnobody, (not) anybodyno, none neither, either nor neither... nor not even never, ever

Nunca means ever when it follows a comparative; jams means ever when it follows a n affirmative verb.

40. Holiday Phrases

Feliz Navidad Merry Christmas Feliz Ao Nuevo Happy New Year Feliz Cumpleaos Happy Birthday

Mexican National Anthem: Mexicanos, al Grito de Guerra by Francisco Gonzlez Bocanegra Mexicanos, al grito de guerra El acero aprestad y el bridn; y retiemble en sus centros la tierra Al sonoro rugir del can. Cia oh patria! tus sienes de oliva De la Paz el arcngel divino, Que en el cielo tu eterno destino Por el dedo de Dios se escribi. Mas si osare un extrao enemigo Profanar con su planta tu suelo, Piensa oh patria querida! que el cieloUn soldado en cada hijo te dio. Guerra, guerra sin tregua al que intente De la patria manchar los blasones! Guerra, guerra! Los patrios pendonesEn las olas de sangre empapad. Guerra, guerra! En el monte, en el valle Los caones horrsonos truenen Y los ecos sonoros resuenen Con las voces de Unin! Libertad! Antes, patria, que inermes tus hijos Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen, Tus campias con sangre se rieguen, Sobre sangre se estampe su pie. Y tus templos, palacios y torres Se derrumben con hrrido estruendo, Y sus ruinas existan diciendo: De mil hroes la patria aqu fue. Patria! patria! Tus hijos te juran Exhalar en tus aras su aliento, Si el clarn con su blico acento Los convoca a lidiar con valor. Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva! Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria! Un laurel para ti de victoria!

Un sepulcro para ellos de honor! Mexicanos, al grito de guerra El acero aprestad y el bridn, Mexicans, at the cry of battle lend your swords and bridle; and let the earth tremble at its center upon the roar of the cannon. Your forehead shall be girded, oh fatherland, with olive garlands by the divine archangel of peace, For in heaven your eternal destiny has been written by the hand of God. But should a foreign enemy Profane your land with his sole, Think, beloved fatherland, that heaven gave you a soldier in each son. War, war without truce against who would attempt to blemish the honor of the fatherland! War, war! The patriotic banners saturate in waves of blood. War, war! On the mount, in the vale The terrifying cannon thunder and the echoes nobly resound to the cries of union! liberty! Fatherland, before your children become unarmed Beneath the yoke their necks in sway, May your countryside be watered with blood, On blood their feet trample. And may your temples, palaces and towers crumble in horrid crash, and their ruins exist saying: The fatherland was made of one thousand heroes here. Fatherland, fatherland, your children swear to exhale their breath in your cause, If the bugle in its belligerent tone should call upon them to struggle with bravery. For you the olive garlands! For them a memory of glory! For you a laurel of victory! For them a tomb of honor! Mexicans, at the cry of battle lend your swords and bridle; and let the earth tremble at its center

y retiemble en sus centros la tierra Al sonoro rugir del can. upon the roar of the cannon.

If you're wondering why I didn't include the Spanish national anthem, it's becau se the anthem has no words; it's all instrumental.

Spanish

41. Useful Expressions Hay Haba Hay que + infinitiveTener que + inf. Ir a + inf. Acabar de + inf. Hace + time There is/are There was/were It is necessary to + inf. To have to + inf. To go to + inf. To have just + past participletime + ago

42. Progressive Tenses The progressive tense indicates an action that is ongoing. It is formed by using estar (in any tense) with a present participle. Present participles are formed by dropping the ending of the verb, and adding the following endings to the stem: Present Participles -ar -ando -er -iendo -ir -iendo

Juan est hablando. Josh is talking. Estaban cantando. They were singing. Estuve escribiendo una carta. I was writing a letter.

43. Haber Haber - to have

he has ha hemos habis han

44. Present Perfect The present perfect tense is a compound tense using haber with a past participle . (Haber is only used as a helping verb; it is never used to show possession.) This tense can be trans lated as have or has done something. Please note that the preterite tense is used more often than thi s tense when expressing the past.

Past participles are formed by dropping the infinitive ending, and adding these endings: Past Participles -ar -er -ir -ado -ido -ido

The following verbs have irregular past participles: abrir (to open) - abierto ( opened); escribir (to write) - escrito (written); morir (to die) - muerto (died); poner (to put) - pue sto (put); ver (to see) visto (seen); volver (to return) - vuelto (returned); decir (to say) - dicho (sa id); hacer (to do) - hecho (done). No han vendido la casa. They have not sold the house. Dnde ha puesto Ud. la llave? Where have you put the key? Hemos gastado mucho dinero. We have spent a lot of money. Qu ha dicho Ud.? What did you say?

45. Places movies el cine office la oficina restaurant el restaurante bank el banco mountain la montaa pastry shop la pastelera swimming pool la piscina

meat shop la carnicera cafe el caf ice cream shop le heladera house la casa fruit shop la frutera concert el concierto fish shop la pescadera library la biblioteca pharmacy la farmacia theater el teatro candy store la dulcera country el campo bookstore la librera supermarket el supermercado paper store la papelera

bread shop la panadera flower shop la floristera

46. Transportation by bus en autobs by bicycle en bicicleta by car en coche by motorcycle en motocicleta by subway en metro by taxi en taxi by plane en avin by train en tren by boat en barco on foot a pie

47. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to querer-to want

poder-to be able to, can deber-to have to, must quiero queremos

puedo podemos debo debemos quieres queris

puedes podis debes debis quiere quieren

puede pueden debe

deben

48. House house living roomden dining roomkitchen bedroom room closet bathroom fireplace stairway wall floor ceiling roof hall window ground floorsecond floor la la el la la el el el la la el el el el la el el casa sala de reciboel gabinete comedor cocina recmara cuarto armario cuarto de baola chimenea escalera pared suelo techo tejado pasillo ventana piso bajo primer piso

49. Furniture furniture table couch sofa desk chair armchair bookcase carpet rug

curtain, drape lamp picture wardrobe bed dresser chest of drawersstove refrigerator el le el el el la la el el la la el el la el la la el mueble mesa divn sof escritorio silla butaca estante para librosla alfombra tapete cortina lmpara cuadro guardarropa cama tocador cmoda estufa refrigerador

50. Comparative and Superlative Comparisons are expressed as follows: ms...que menos...que tan...como tanto(a, os, as)...como more... than less... than as... as as much/many... as

El gato es menos inteligente que el perro. The cat is less intelligent than the dog. Mi prima tiene ms discos que nadie. My cousin has more records than anyone. No tengo tanto dinero como ustedes. I don't have as much money as you. To form comparatives, just add ms or menos before the adjective or adverb. To for m the superlative, place the definite article before the comparative. Note that de is used to express in after a superlative. ms alta taller la ms alta the tallest Rosa es la nia ms alta de la clase. Rosa is the tallest girl in the class.

51. Irregular Forms Some adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms. Th e most common are: Adjective/Adverb Comparative Superlative good bad great small well badly much little bueno malo grande

pequeobien mal mucho poco betterworsegreaterless betterworsemore less mejorpeor mayormenormejorpeor ms menos the best the worst the greatestthe least best worst most least el el el el mejorel peor mayorel menorel mejorel peor ms menos

Note that the bueno and malo change according to gender and number while grande and pequeo change according to gender. The adverbs (the last four) do not agree with the no un.

52. Clothing

clothing clothes dress la ropa los vestidos el vestido

suit blouse skirt jacket wrap, coathat beret shoes slippers robe underweargloves purse raincoat umbrella pants vest coat shirt collar tie belt sock cap overcoat wallet shorts pajamas el traje la blusa la falda la chaqueta el abrigo el sombrero la boina los zapatos las zapatillas la bata la ropa interiorlos guantes la bolsa el impermeableel paraguas los pantalonesel chaleco el saco la camisa el cuello la corbata el cinturn el calcetn la gorra el sobretodo la cartera los calzoncillosel pijama

53. To Wear llevar - to wear

ponerse - to put on llevo llevas lleva llevamosllevis llevan me pongote ponesse pone nos ponemosos ponis so ponen

Note: You don't use possessive pronouns when referring to parts of the body or c lothing, but you do use the definite article.

54. Future Tense The future of regular verbs is formed by adding the following endings to the inf initive: --s- -emos-is -n

Many verbs use irregular stems in the future tense, but they still use the regul ar endings from above: decir (to say, tell) dir-

hacer poder poner saber salir tener venir harpodrpondrsabrsaldrtendrvendr-

(to (to (to (to (to (to (to

do, make) be able) put, place) know) leave, go out) have) come)

55. Preceding Adjectives Most adjectives follow the noun they describe, but the following adjectives drop the final -o if placed before a masculine noun in the singular: bueno - good; malo - bad; alguno - some; ninguno - no, any; uno - one; primero first; tercero third When grande means great, it precedes the noun and drops the -de before a singula r noun of either gender. Santo (saint) drops the -to before all masculine nouns, except those beg inning with Do- or To-.

56. More Adjectives large small long short good bad rich poor strong weak easy difficult fat thin grande pequeolargo corto bueno

malo rico pobre fuerte dbil fcil difcil gordo delgado high, talllow, shortpretty beautifulugly wide narrow heavy light hard soft sweet sour bitter alto bajo lindo, bonitohermoso feo ancho estrecho pesado ligero duro blando dulce agrio amargo

When any form of the definite article is placed before an adjective, then the ad jective becomes a noun. pobre - poor; el pobre - the poor man If the neuter article lo is placed before a singular masculine adjective, the la tter becomes an abstract noun. bueno - good; lo bueno - the good (everything that is good)

57. Sports

ball la pelota pool la piscina game el juego basketball el baloncesto match el partido tennis el tenis team el equipo swimming la natacin player el jugador boxing el boxeo soccer el ftbol wrestling la lucha football el ftbol americano hockey el hockey baseball el bisbol

volleyball el volibol

raquet una raqueta net una red ball (small) una pelota cleats unos zapatos de futbl bat un bate skis unos esqus glove un guante ski poles unos bastones ball un baln boots unas botas basketball hoop una canasta helmet el casco

58. Nature

continentisland peninsulagulf bay ocean coast beach sea river lake mountainvalley plain desert jungle forest garden flower rose tree el la la el la la el el el la el la el la el el la la el continentela isla pennsulael golfo baha ocano costa playa mar ro lago montaa valle llanura desierto selva bosque jardn flor rosa rbol

59. To Say and to Go Out decir - to say salir - to go out digodicesdice decimosdecs dicen salgosalessale salimossals salen

60. Para vs. Por and Pero vs. Sino Para is used to express: use or destination (for), purpose (in order to); point of future time (for, by) and to be about to (estar para + infinitive.) La carta es para Concha. The letter is for Concha. Estudia para aprender. He studies in order to learn. Lo tendr para el martes. I will have it by Tuesday. Juan est para salir. John is about to leave. Por is used to express: a place through or along which; expressions of time (in, during, at); exchange, price (for); unit of measure (by, per); way or means (by); because of, on accoun t of, for; to go for, to send for; on behalf of, for the sake of; motive, reason. It is also used after a passive verb to indicate the agent (by) and estar por + infinitive indicates what remains to be done or t o be in favor of. por el pueblo through the town por la maana in the morning Pag un peso por el libro. He paid a dollar for the book. Se vendre por libras. It's sold by the pound. Voy por tren. I'm going by train. Voy por Alicia. I'm going for Alice. Vot por Juanita. I voted for Juanita. Fue escrito por Cervantes. It was written by Cervantes. La carta est por escribir. The letter is yet to be written. Estoy por escribirla. I am in favor of writing it. Pero (but) usually follows an affirmative expression, but may follow a negative statement if the verb of the first clause is repeated, or if another verb follows. Bebe lecho pero no bebe caf. He drinks milk, but he does not drink coffee. Sino (but) is only used in negative sentences of contrasting statements when the verb of the first clause is understood but not repeated. No bebe caf sino leche. He does not drink coffee, but milk.

61. Object Pronouns Subject Direct Indirect Object of Prepositions yo I

me me me to me m me t you te you te to you ti you l he/it le, lo him/it le to him/it l him/it ella she/it la her/it le to her/it ella her/it

Usted you le, la you le to you Usted you nosotros (as) we nos us nos to us nosotros (as) us vosotros (as) you os you os to you vosotros (as) you Ustedes you les, los, las you les to you

Ustedes you ellos (as) they los them les to them ellos (as) them

1. An object pronoun generally precedes the conjugated verb, except if is used i n an affirmative command, with an infinitive or gerund. Then it is attached to the verb as one wo rd. Dme Ud. el libro. Give me the book. 2. When you have more than one pronoun, the indirect comes before the direct. If both pronouns begin with the letter l, then the first one is changed to se. 3. When one or two object pronouns follow and are attached to the verb form, an accent mark must be added to retain the original stress of the word. 4. For clearness or emphasis, the prepositional form of a plus an object of a pr eposition may be used. Nos envi a Ud. He sent us to you.

62. Parts of the Body hand foot ear eye tongue face hair nose tooth lip stomach la mano el pie la oreja el ojo la lengua la cara el cabello la nariz

el diente el labio el estmago mouth finger fingernail elbow arm knee leg head neck shoulder throat la boca el dedo la ua el codo el brazo la rodilla la pierna la cabeza el cuello el hombro la garganta

To express pain, use an indirect object pronoun + duele(n) + body part. Me duele la cabeza. My head hurts. Le duelen los pies. His feet hurt.

63. Asking Questions Simply raise your voice at the end of the sentence. Place the predicate in front of the subject of the sentence. Add no? or verdad? or no es verdad? to the end of the statement. These translate to many phrases in English, such as Isn't it? Aren't you? Don't you? Didn't he? Isn't she? etc.

64. To Give and to Bring dar - to give traer - to bring doydasda damosdais dan traigotraestrae traemostrais traen

65. Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun connects a dependent clause to a main clause and refers to so mething already mentioned (the antecedent.) This pronoun may serve as the subject or object of a verb, or the object of a preposition. Que and quien are the most commonly used relative pronouns. Que (who, whom, that, which) refers to persons or things, except after a preposi tion, when it refers to things only. El que (and its forms - la que, los que, las que) and el cual (and its forms - la cual, los cuales, las cuales) may replace que or quien. These pronouns are used for clearn ess when there are two antecedents, and with prepositions. La casa en que vivo es pequea. The house in which I live is small. He visitado la ciudad cerca de la cual vive. I visited the city near which he li ves. Quien n, it Quien s one etc. (-es) (who) is used in a supplementary clause. When used with a prepositio means whom. (-es) is often used in place of el que and its forms as well, when it mean who, those who,

Lo que and lo cual (which) refer to the whole sentence. Cuyo (-a, -os, -as) is a possessive adjective and it agrees in gender and number with the thing possessed, which is always the word that follows it.

66. Disjunctive Pronouns Disjunctive pronouns are used independently of the verb. They are the pronouns w

hich follow prepositions, or show emphasis. m ti l ella Usted nosostros (-as) vosotros (-as) ellos ellas Ustedes

Ello is also used as a neuter pronoun meaning it. S can mean yourself, himself, h erself, yourselves or themselves. When con combines with m, ti or s, the words become conmigo, contig o and consigo. For clearness, the forms of mismo (-a, -os, -as) can be added to these pronouns.

67. To Hear, to Smell and to See or - to hear oler - to smell ver - to see oigo oyes oye omosos oyen huelohueleshuele olemosoles huelen veovesve vemosves ven

68. Animals giraffe elephant bear lion eagle parrot rhinoceros whale snake alligator hippopotamus tiger bull fox

monkey wolf turtle la jirafa el elefante el oso el len el guila el loro el rinoceronte la ballena la serpiente el caimn el hipoptamo el tigre el toro la zorra el mono el lobo la tortuga

69. Past Perfect The past perfect tense corresponds to the English "had + past participle." It in dicates an event that happened prior to another event in the past. It consists of the imperfect of hab er and a past participle. Sometimes the preterite of haber is used, but the imperfect is more common.

Carlos haba vivido en Mxico. Carlos had lived in Mexico. Habamos aprendido el espaol. We had learned Spanish.

70. Suffixes Suffixes may be attached to nouns, adjectives or adverbs. Unaccented vowels shou ld be dropped before adding the suffixes. The most common suffixes are -ito (a) and -cito (a). They express size, affection, admiration, appreciation or pity. The ending -ero (a) indicates the m aker or dealer in charge of something. To indicate where something is made or sold, add -era. When -eza an d -ura are added to adjectives, they express abstract nouns. When -dor is added to a verb (minus the final letter), it indicates the performer of the action.

Spanish

71. Adverbs Most adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the ad jective. However, two common adverbs that do not end in -mente are despacio (slowly) and demasiado (too much). Adjective Adverb

correcto facil claro absoluto rapido correctamentefacilmente claramente absolutamenterapidamente correctly easily clearly absolutelyrapidly

Lo + adverb + que expresses how, while lo mas + adverb + an expression of possib ility is translated: as ... as ... lo bien que how well lo mas pronto posible as soon as possible

72. Passive Voice In passive sentences, the subject receives the action of the verb. In active sen tences, the subject does the action. However, the meaning of both sentences is the same. The passive voice in Spanish is formed with a tense of ser and a past participle. Ser should be in the same t ense as the verb in its corresponding active sentence. The agent is expressed by por if the action is ph ysical; and by de if mental. The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject. If you use estar instead of ser, the past participle is called the predicate adjective and it is not a passi ve sentence.

Active El viento destrue la casa. The wind destroys the house. Passive La casa fue destruida por el viento. The house was destroyed by the wind. Predicate Adjective Cuando la vi, la casa estaba destruida. When I saw it, the house was destroyed.

El nino fue castigado por su padre. The boy was punished by his father. Rosa es amada de todos. Rose is loved by everyone.

73. Uses of the Infinitive

The infinitive is translated as a gerund (the -ing form of the verb) after these words: el, al, a preposition, ver or or. El correr es buen ejercicio. Running is good exercise. Parto sin hablar. He left without speaking. Oigo cantar a Maria. I hear Maria singing.

74. Shopping department store el almacn shop/store la tienda shopping mall el centro comercial (open-air) market el mercado (al aire libre) belt el cintron (fixed) price el precio (fijo) glasses las gafas sale la rebaja gloves los guantes to bargain regatear sunglasses los lentes de sol

to spend money gastar

75. Post Office and Bank

post office el correo bank el banco envelope el sobre (traveler's) check el cheque (de viajero) mailbox el buzn to cash (a check) cobrar mail carrier el cartero to save (money) ahorrar stamps las estampillas to deposit depositar package el paquete

account la cuenta

76. Conditional Tense The conditional tense expresses an idea dependent on a condition that is either expressed or understood. It can also refer to the past when it expresses probability. To form the present conditional, add these endings to the infintive for all thre e types of verbs. Verbs that had irregular stems in the future tense, also use that stem for the conditi onal tense. -a -amos

-as-a -ais -an

77. Infinitives followed by Prepositions The following verbs require a, de, en or con when followed by another infinitive , although the preposition is not always translated into English. Verb + a + another infinitive

Verb + de + another infinitive acostumbrarse aprender atreverse ayudar comenzar convidar decidirse dedicarse empezar ensear invitar ir negarse persuadir principiar rehusar resignarse resistirse resolverse venir volver to to to to to to to to to to to to to to become used toto learn to dare to help begin to invite to decide to devote oneself begin to teach to invite go to refuse to persuade to

to to to to to to

begin to refuse to resign oneself toto resist resolve to come to return to

acabar acordarse alegrarse aprovecharsearrepentirse cansarse cesar dejar encargarse gozar jactarse olvidarse tratar to to to to to to to to to to to to to have just remember be glad to profit by repent tire of cease cease take charge of take pleasure in boast of forget to try to

Verb + en + another infinitive

Verb + con + another infinitive consentir consistir divertirse empearse esforzarse insistir ocuparse pensar persistir tardar to to to to to consent to consist amuse oneself insist on endeavor to

to to to to to

insist on busy oneself think of persist in delay in

contar contentarse soar to count on to content oneself with to dream of

78. Office / School Supplies pencil el lpiz dictionary el diccionario eraser la goma tape (audio) la cinta pen la pluma map el mapa

ink la tinta newspaper el peridico paper el papel novel la novela letter la carta backpack la mochila notebook el cuaderno stapler la grapadora book el libro scissors unas tijeras

79. Parts of a Car / Gas Station car garage tank gasoline oil air grease tire spare tire wheel steering wheel

brake speed slow danger stop go service station el coche el garage el tanque la gasolina el aceite el aire la grasa la llanta llanta picada la rueda el volante el freno la velocidad despacio peligro alto siga, adelante la estacin de servicio

80. Subjunctive Mood The subjunctive is not used very often in English, but is is very common and imp ortant in Spanish. Some command forms are actually the subjunctive, so the formation of the present subjunctive should not be too difficult. Present Subjunctive -ar verbs -er and -ir -e -es -e -emos-is -en -a -as -a -amos-is -an

The past subjunctive is formed from the third person plural of the preterite. Re move the -on ending, and add these new endings: Past Subjunctive all verbs

-a -as-a amos-ais -an

An accent is added to the stem vowel as well in the first person plural form. In stead of hablaramos, it is hablramos; instead of comieramos, it is comiramos, etc. Note that there is another way to form the past subjunctive (a different set of endings), but the endings given are used mo re often. The present perfect subjunctive is formed with the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb. Similarly, the past perfect subjunctive is formed with the pas t subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb. Present perfect subjunctive

Past perfect subjunctive haya hayas haya hayamos hayis hayan + past participle

hubierahubierashubiera hubiramoshubierais hubieran + past participle

81. Irregular Subjunctive Mood Many verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive mood: dar - to give

decir - to say/tell estar - to be d des d demos deis den diga digas diga digamos digis digan est ests est estemos estis estn haber - to have hacer - to do/make ir - to go haya hayas haya hayamos hayis hayan haga hagas haga hagamos hagis hagan vaya vayasvaya vayamos vayis vayan poder - to be able to

poner - to put/place querer - to want pueda puedas pueda podamos podis puedan ponga pongasponga pongamospongis pongan quieraquierasquiera queramos queris quieran saber - to know salir - to go out ser - to be sepa sepas sepa sepamos sepis sepan salga salgas salga salgamossalgis salgan sea seas sea seamos seis sean tener - to have traer - to bring venir - to come

tenga tengas tenga tengamos tengis tengan traigo traigastraiga traigamostraigis traigan vengavengas venga vengamos vengis vengan

Many verbs are irregular in the past subjunctive as well: dar - to give decir - to say/tell estar - to be diera dieras diera diramos dierais dieran dijera dijeras dijera dijramos dijerais dijeran estuvieraestuvierasestuviera estuviramos estuvierais estuvieran

haber - to have hacer - to do/make ir - to go hubiera hubieras hubiera hubiramos hubierais hubieran hiciera hicierashiciera hiciramos hicierais hicieran fuera fueras fuera furamos fuerais fueran poder - to be able to poner - to put/place querer - to want pudiera pudieras pudiera pudiramos pudierais pudieran pusierapusieraspusiera pusiramospusierais pusieran quisiera quisierasquisiera quisiramos quisierais quisieran saber - to know ser - to be

tener - to have supiera supieras supiera supiramos supierais supieran fuera fueras fuera furamos fuerais fueran tuviera tuvieras tuviera tuviramos tuvierais tuvieran traer - to bring venir - to come

trajera trajeras trajera trajramos trajerais trajeran viniera vinierasviniera viniramos vinierais vinieran

82. Uses of the Subjunctive The main uses of the subjunctive include:

1. After the verb querer when there is a change of subject (but use the infiniti ve if there is no change of subject) 2. When one person tells (decir) or asks (pedir) another person to do something. 3. After expressions of emotion, such as esperar (to hope), sentir (to be sorry) , temer (to fear), alegarse (to be glad), when there is a change of subject. 4. After dudar (to doubt) and other verbs expressing uncertainty. 5. After most impersonal expressions, such as es posible (it's possible), es imp ortante (it's important), es necesario (it's necessary) if there is a subject for the subordin ate verb. 6. In adjective clauses is the antecedent is indefinite 7. After certain conjunctions, such as para que (in order that), sin que (withou t), and antes que (before) 8. After time conjunctions, such as cuando (when), en cuanto (as soon as), hasta que (until), when futurity is implied. 9. In contrary-to-fact conditions, the past subjunctive must be used in the if-c lause (and the main clause is in a conditional tense)

83. Travelling / Airport

passport el pasaporte single/double room la habitacin individual/doble customs la aduana train (bus) station la estacin de tren (de autobuses) arrival la llegada subway la estacin de metro departure la salida to take a trip hacer un viaje (round-trip) ticket el pasaje (de ida y vuelta) to go on vacation ir de vacaciones luggage el equipaje to pack (one's suitcases) hacer las maletas

84. Cosmetics / Toiletries

shampoo el champ brush el cepillo soap el jabn comb el peine makeup el maquillaje toothpaste la pasta de dientes shaving cream la crema de afeitar toothbrush el cepillo de dientes lotion la locin towel la toalla nail polish el esmalte para las uas electric razor la maquinilla de afeitar

85. Other Perfect Tenses Beside the present and past perfect tenses, there are also the preterite, future

and conditional perfect tenses. All are conjugated with a form of haber and a past participle. The preterite perfect is formed with the preterite of haber + past participle, a nd it has the same meaning as the past perfect. But this tense is normally only used after conjunct ions of time, such as as que, luego que, tan pronto como (as soon as); cuando (when); despus (de) que (a fter); and hasta que (until). The future perfect is formed with the future of haber + past participle and is a lso used to express probability, referring to the present. The conditional perfect is formed with the conditional of haber + past participl e and is also used to express probability, referring to the past.