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SOME OF THE FB FANPAGE and FB GROUP activities December 2011)

world largest salty desert??---'Salar de Uyuni" in Bolivia what is 'environmental determinism' ?

..(around the month of

the doctrine that individual human actions, beliefs, and values are controlled or determined by the ambient environment....as the doctrine normally is, societies, cultures, and civilizations are also held to be the product of their environments.. in the early stage of their interaction with their natural environment humans were greatly influenced by it they adapted to the dictates of nature .this is so because the level of technology was very low and the stage of human social development was also primitive .this type of interaction between primitive human society and strong forces of nature was termed as environmental determinism Endogenic Forces ----------------------------Orginate in the interior of the earth. Causes sudden or slow movements Eg: Earthquke, Building Mountains Exogenic Forces ------------------------Originate in the atmosphere or on the surface of the earth. Causes slow movements. Eg: Erosional and Depositional what are 'yurts' ?---portable home made of wood where is 'death valley' located? --eastern california.../// strait of hormuz and its importance on economy...////???? it connects gulf of persia nd gulf of Oman..is the only sea passage to the open ocean for large areas of the petroleum-exporting Persian Gulf.About 14 tankers carrying 15.5 million barrels (2,460,000 m3) of crude oil pass through the strait on an average day, making it one of the world's most strategically important choke points. This represents 35% of the world's seaborne oil shipments, and 20 percent of oil traded worldwide in 2011....Wiki differentiate between a gulf and a strait--------A strait or straits is a narrow, typically navigable channel of water that connects two larger land masses.../// while gulf is the large bay that is arm of ocean or sea mostly surronded by land....//// **There is a general understanding among the countries of the world to select the standard meridian in multiples of 730' of longitude. That is why 8230' E has been selected as the standard meridian of India. Indian Standard Time is ahead of Greenwich Mean Time by 5 hours and 30 minutes. **There are some countries where there are more than one standard meridian due to their vast east-to-west extent. For example, the USA has seven time zones. France has the most time zones with 12. On March 28, 2010, Russia eliminated two time zones,going from 11 to 9, but still has the most contiguous time zones.

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Which one of the following countries shares the longest land frontier with India? (a) Bangladesh (c) Pakistan (b) China (d) Myanmar (a) Bangladesh-------4,096.7 km what is coral bleaching ? it refers to decolorisation or whitening of coral system ,loss of color pigment,decrease in density of color pigment of coral system. it was first discovered by alfred mayor in 1919 however wilkinson in 1998 highlighted the issue and catogorised it in 4 categories1.extremely effected -when destruction is more than 75% such system is found in pacific ocean. 2.severely effected -when destruction is between 52 -75 eg -red sea. 3.moderately effected 25 to 50 lakshadweep ,andaman nicobar island 4.not effected below 25 causes of coral bleaching 1.epoozitics -the killing of algae by pathogen,disease such as coral plague,white band ,black band. 2.increase in pH value may bring destruction of coral reef,presently pH value is around 7.6 to 7.8 . 3.global warming is one important reason of coral bleaching as coral can not tolerate high temperature. 4.turbidity currents and sedimentation-turbidity current originate near river mouth and along river coast ,with erosion ,they act as driller and sedimentation prevent sunrays hence causes hindrance in process of photosynthesis. 5.xeno biotic -coral bleachng by chemical pollution. 6. el lino which refers to warming of eastern pacific due to global warming shifted to central pacific . 7.other factor like mining in continental shelf,oil spilling. conclusion1997 year was proclaimed as year of coral reef to create awareness around the world about the devasting situation of coral system in central pacific.accelerated coral bleaching is product of human activities.UNCCR (united nation convention on coral reef) was constituted to protect and conserve the most valuable and fragile marine ecosystem but still efforts are required. what are the gases which are responsible for green house effects?? Co2 ,CH4,No2,cfc's Trojan asteroid? Trojans are asteroids that share an orbit with a planet near stable points in front of or behind the planet where did they found?--- found in two clouds moving in the orbit of jupiter,one moving ahead of it and other moving behind it. what was the earlier name of mount everest before this name??-------Sagarmatha what is condensation nuclei?-----the impurities suspended in the atmosphere on which humidity get condensed for the precipitation. As a fact there can b no precipitation take place in absolutely clear weather. In order to get the process of condensation started, it is essential that there should be an abundant supply of microscopic dust particles in the air.Earlier the weather scientists held the view that the tiny particles of dust, of whatever type they may be, were sufficient for the process of condensation, but of late, it was discovered that condensation does not occur on ordinary dust particles.For this purpose only such particles are necessary as are capable of attracting or absorbing water. These condensation nuclei are called hygroscopic nuclei IN short condensation nuclei have two parts first is hygroscopic and second hydrophobic, hygroscopic nuclei dissolves in water and hydrophobic nuclei do not.

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Andaman Nicobar has National Highway ?/// ---- NH223 which state is largest producer of cardamom in india?? -- kerala eastern most and western most point of india??----Westernmost Point West of Ghuar Mota, Gujarat...Easternmost Point Kibithu, Arunachal Pradesh what is known as gate of tears??? -- Bab-el-Mandeb diff between national park and wild life sanctury no biotic interference is allowed in national park ; limited biotic interference is allowed in wildlife sanctuary Which are the shortest, longest and highest NH.,.? shortest is .NH 47A , Kundanoor Junction in Kochi city to the Kochi port at Willingdon Island.. longest is ;- NH-7 which runs from Varanasi to Kanyakumari western ghat and eastern ghat meet at which place?? nilgiri hills wat prospect do isro space program hold in a country like india wit stil lack f developmnt funds to suffice whole f population evn for basic needs f population like food shelter education n healthcare? If we stop investing in sci & research activities we will never be able to develop indigenous technologies and this would severely hamper our growth trajectory. Though the pace at which developmental activities happen in our country is of agreat concern, stopping space program will not solve the problem. It is very much possible to build roads, provide healthcare and education to the people even without stopping the space programs.All it needs is a strong political will and able administration. The largest glaciers are............? A. mountain glaciers B. alpine glaciers C. continental glaciers D. piedmont glaciers continental glaciers how continental drift modifies oceanic currents?? wht do u kw abt Zulu time?? zulu tym is k\a universal coordinated tym..it is a succesor of greenwich mean tym in near by close succession range it is based on International Atomic Time (TAI) with leap seconds added at irregular intervals to compensate for the Earth's slowing rotation...An email sent from someone in the Z time zone will have the time zone listed as "+0000" in the headers of the email. census 2011 recorded 54% increase in urban settlements; what is the number of urban settlements in india? 7935 in 2011 bt it ws only 5161 in 2011 so thrs 54% f increase alarmingly what was the capital of Odisha before Bhuvneshwar??? silver city f india...cuttack! Lunar eclipse occurs on A full moon day fertilizers used for increasing acidity of soil? Altered the speed of ocean currents

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fertilizers increase the nutrient contnt f soil bt dsnt neutralise acidity morevr excess f fertilizer cn lead to more soil acidity agriculture involving both crops and livestock is called mixed farming...its called diversified farming when farmers are rearing cows, buffaloes, sheep goat, and fisheries with crop cultivation ... in case of mixed farming farmers only rear cows and buffalos wid crop which one of the following states is RELATIVELY less in danger in case of earthquake comprare to others?? 1.madhya pradesh 2.rajasthan 3.gujarat 4.jammu and kashmir mp... no tectonic plates mvnts around ths state along wit absence f mountain ranges wch r unstble as in case f j&k How many national parks are there in India 166 authorised in india...kumbhalgarh nd todgarh raoli wildlife sanctuaries of rajasthan are recently given status of national park .. in which river paris is situated? a.tiber b.seine c.danube none of these seine.......Belgrade situated on Danube river pochampad irrigation project lies on which river Godavari river Samiti: vishay Narsinham: Banking Sudharna Ferwani: National Stock Exchange Goeporia: Bank grahak suvidha Abid Husen: Laghu udyog. differentiate dew,frost,fog,and mist dew-condensation occuring wen dew point is above freezing temp.. frost-condensation at or below freezing temp fog-wen condensation occurs wid dust particles coz f extra moisture in air..its like a cloud formed near to ground..also c\a dry mist mist-a step advance to fog in terms f moisture... DEFINE.... thunderstorms

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,hailstorms, dust storms.. tornadoes.. (i)thunderstorm is a type of storm where there is a severe lightening in the sky. The sky turns black and it is accompanied by heavy or moderate rainfall. (ii) hail storm is a severe kind storm in which heavy and strong winds blow accompanied by hail stones and ice pellets. (iii)dust storm is a type of wind storm in which the strong winds carry dust and sand particles with them. (iv)a tornado is a type of cyclone in which funnel shaped fast whirling air hits the ground. wats d basic differec b\w tropical cyclone and thunderstorms? tropical cyclones bring high winds and sometimes severe flooding ; thunderstorms bring dangerous lightning yeah..n apart frn dis...tropical cyclon n thunderstorms both are formed via cumulonimbus cloud bt diff being thunderstorms involve thunder n lightning how tropical and extra tropical cyclones differ from each other.. 1)extropical cyclone (ETC) have a clear frontal system wich tropical cyclone(TC) DONT.. 2)etc cover land and sea both while tc are over sea bt on land they dissipate 3)tc are much more destructive and strong then etc 4)etc flow frm west to east and tc east to west.. 5)TC are k\a cyclones in indian ocean..hurricane in atlantic ocean..typhoon in west pacific and south china sea..and willy willies in west australia. why tropical cyclones are not formed near the equator? cyclones turn anti-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere;that is why tropical cyclones do not form around the equator - it does not have the spin of the Earth to give that direction........ bcos of d pressure gradient force due to earth's spin, air in motion get deflected frm its path at the poles, this apparent deviation is called the coriolis force; towards the north pole coriolis force deflects the air towards the right and towards the south pole the deflection is towards the left; at the equator coriolis force is negligible thats why tropical cyclones do not form around the equator Do u know Ahmedabad, a city established by Ahmed Shah is celebrating 600 years of its existence. Referred to as Manchester of the East once, the city is today one of the fastest growing cities in the world what is the reason of hardness of Diamond? Presence of carbon carbon covalent bonding vich gives rise to a face centered latis...nd due to this it makes diamond highly rigid. SLOPE DEVELOPMENT BY DAVIS. DAVIS MODEL OF SLOPE DEVELOPMENT IS TIME DEPENDENT and slope evollution passes through three stages youthfull, maturity and old stage.in each stage there is decline in energy of the system including slope gradient,river velocity etc. in these stages geomaterial is removed by downwasting and accumulated in lower river valleys. mt. summits are being eroded and mass material is directed towards the valley.thus summit are declining and valleys are rising.

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youthfull stage -absolute relief remains constant as summit are not eroded due strong lithology.relative relief increases because valley deepning increases .slope have convexity. mature stage -lateral and valley widening are predominant process. and valley deepning decreases but continue ,v shaped valley transformed into U-shaped valleys. absolute relief begin to fall due to mt. summital erosion and relative relief also gradualy decreases. old stage-in this stage entropy is maximum,energy is minimum ,downcutting stops, v shaped valley transfor. to u shaped valley. thus slope development passes through 1.convexity 2.rectiliner 3concavity thus slope development culminates into convexo concave profile which is similar to peneplain.

does continental drift affect climate change? if so how? yes. it changes the shape of the ocean, in turn changes the direction and other physical properties of ocean currents..The amount of carbon dioxide that can be held in oceans is a function of temperature. As ocean acts as sink hole of co2, any decrease in its area its area increases the concentration of co2 in the atmosphere

name the disease which has characteristic leucopenia ? leucopenia is a autoimmune disease......so hiv can also be added in it...leukemia...Viral Hepatitis and typhoid what is meant by oxidising angent (O.A)? substance dt oxidizes another substance....the one which accepts electron is oxidizing agent.. A substance which undergoes reduction is called. O.A......A substance which undergoes oxidation is called. R.A (REDUCING AGCNT) Discuss abt Group - displacement law? with the emission of alpha particle..new elemnt has mass number 4 less than the original.....and if a beta particle emitts...mass number remains unchnged....... what is the use of cloud chamber? cloud chamber is used to detect the presence and kinetic energy of radioactive particles...Scottish physicist:Charles Thomson Rees Wilson invented A new optical disc format known as the Blu-ray Disc(BD) is becoming popular.In what way is it different from the traditional DVD? a dvd usually is of 4.7 gb while a bd is of 25 gb that is in simple words a dvd is of 6 cd and a bd is of around 5 dvd....blue ray disc not only has greater storage bt the quality is also f far superior quality than in dvd format... basic difference is in technology is that blue ray disc uses blue color spectrum wavelength to wright the disc so write more closely than the traditional method hence the capacity and quality both enhanced depletion in ozone caused by chloroflorocarbons...... Bcoz ozone depletn occurs by free radicals catalyst lyk (OH.),(CL.),(BR.) frm which (OH.) R Naturally found in stratosphere. . . .bt due to heavy uses of freeze. . . .etc. Tm amt.oe Cl,br re increses day by day. CFCl3+electromagnetic radiation-->CFCl2+Cl

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dis Cl get reactd wid ozone O3 Cl+O3-->ClO+O2 produced O2 . . . Den d ClO AGAIN cmbine wid O3 to give 2O2 ClO+O3-->Cl+2O2 . . .dis reaction cntinues n d ozone layer get depletd What is Acidophilus? bacteria found in human body..which aids to digestion of food inside human body...more likly human friendly bactria...also aids in keeping many foreign microbes out of body helping body .....found in intestine....or degestive tract.......also aids in fermentation wat are quasi crystals? most crystals compose of a three dimensional arrangement of atoms that repeat in an orderly pattern.but quasicrystals are different from other crystals.they have an orderly pattern but it never repeats itself exactly.The 2011 nobel prize in chemistry was awarded to Israeli scientist Dan Shechtman for the discovery of quasicrystals..... pentagonal structures what z frostbite? it is a consequence of cold exposure...has long lasting effect...it is characterized by freezing of tissues...damages the skin and tissues due to extreme cold...occur due to rapid change from hot warm to freezing temp. .. first the swelling occurs than itching skin become red then bluish nd later black nd coarse with pain in affected region .. usually people with sensitive skin suffer .. if ignored can lead to skin cancer too wts frost nip n trenchfoot? frost nip is frostbite which do not affect cells in deep skin .. trench foot is frostbite plus unhygienic condition .. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy ...write abt it NMR is a spectroscopic technique which relies on the magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus. When placed in a strong magnetic field, certain nuclei resonate at a characteristic frequency in the radio frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Slight variations in this resonant frequency give us detailed information about the molecular structure in which the atom resides. Why do doctor say dont take anti biotic when you get cold and flu .? bcoz cold n flu r caused by virus n there is no effect of antibiotic on viruses who first discoverd the nucleus in the cell?? Robert Brown in 1831 When Neils Bohr shook hand with werner Heisenberg,what kind of force they exerted? .Electromagnetic.....wen two electrically chargd body interact wit ech othr they generate electromgntic force! According SI units system which expression is correct? 1. 2 second 2. 2 sec 3. 2 s 3 option is right what is encephilatis ? its a viral inflammation of brain...mostly due to viral infection...with symptoms..headache,fever,seizure etc Who is regulate respiration system in brain it depends on the amount of carbon dioxide in blood...regulated by respiratory center in medulla oblongata and pons

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The major ingredient of leather is? (A) Carbohydrate (B) Collagen (C) Polymer (D) Nucleic acid B...collagen the major extracellular matrix component found in skin or leather f organisms! king of chemicals--sulphuric acid.....its a compound wch cn b easily used to convert mny compounds into their diffrnt forms since it cn act not only as oxidisin bt also reducin agents so bng most chemically active

100 years for our National anthem...... It was first sung at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress on 27 December 1911. "Jana Gana Mana" was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on January 24, 1950

The literacy rate has gone up from 64.83 per cent in 2001 to _____ per cent in 2011 showing an increase. 74.04%

(Role of Indian Post in the trade and social development) definitely Post has played it's significant role in connecting people & in time until coming of ICT revolution and in recent days the scope has increased in some areas and in some reduced too. today courier service, speed post demand has increased significantly and due to high speed of functioning making it indispensable to modernized the whole syatem and digitized as much as possible

What is "Take out Financing" in context of financing of infrastructure projects? ake-out financing is a method of providing finance for longer duration projects of about 15 years by banks sanctioning medium-term loans for 5-7 years. It is given that the loan will be taken out of books of the financing bank within pre-fixed period by another institution, thus preventing any possible asset-liability mismatch. After taking out the loan from banks, the institution could offload them to another bank or keep it. i

Indian context(planning commission): under 'take out finance', the banks take up the earlier maturities while the IDFC takes up the later ones. these are stop-gap arrangements till a market for long-term corporate bonds is developed.

How is the interest/cost of borrowing treated in such cases.. ie. who receives them.. and

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from whom? interest is received by the lending banks/FI/original lender or the taking over institution on whose books credit facility extended to the borrower is borne ..income not to be recognised on accrual basis

if rbi decides to gv licence to only those banks who hav less than 10%assets from real estate and capital market..wat do u think is the logic behind same As per Banking Regulation Act Banks are not allowed to invest into Real Estate properties besides their regular need for Office & Operational needs. The reason for the same is that Banks get funds are much cheaper rate than any other sector in the economy which is always less than appreciation in Land prices so this would be simply an arbitrage window for the large corporate houses & it would amount to artificial fueling up of property prices which in turn would hurt genuine home buyers. Hence RBI discourages banks to enter into property investments. Keeping this in the mind while releasing draft of guidelines for issue of new bank license RBI has capped 10% of the assets limit. As mentioned earlier Real Estate Businessmen & Banks both the parties always scout for each other & RBI's job is to keep a safe distance between them.. however there are so many ways how this rule can be flouted but RBI wants to keep flaws as minimum as possible...

which countries are termed as baltic countries.. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania are referred to as baltic states.the Baltic Sea Region is made up of nine countries and a number of metropolitan areas. the region encompasses the Baltic States, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Poland, and the western Russia, with St Petersburg and Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania

what is GST Network? who heads it? a special purpose vehicle (SPV) responsible for implementing IT infrastructure needed to roll out GST..goods and service tax by nandan nilakeni

what are the main sources of indirect taxes of the union govt? are these taxes progressive or regressive? Sources of Indirect taxes - Excise tax, Service tax, Custom Duties, sales tax, securities transaction tax. Most commonly they are Ad valorem taxes (according to the value) indirect taxes r essentially regressive bcos consumption expenditure as % of income decreases as income go up, people with lower income end up spending most of their income on consumption & thus as % of income they pay much more indirect tax than people with higher income.there has been efforts to reduce this progressive character of indirect taxes by levy of indirect taxes at lower rates on essential commodities, which form major chunk of the consumption basket of lower income group and by imposing higher rates of & additional taxes on luxury items which weigh more in the consumption basket of the rich

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A total of 13 countries are now estimated to be left in the trillion-dollar stock market club, including the U.S., the U.K., Canada, Brazil, Australia, Hong Kong, South Korea, China, Japan, Spain, Germany, Switzerland and France.

The Indian market had first achieved a trillion-dollar size about four-and-half years ago on May 28, 2007, but moved out of this coveted league about a year later on July 1, 2008. It again joined this elite club of markets with trillion-dollar valuation about a year later on June 3, 2009. India slipped below Trillion Dollar mark to $994.97 billion recently

is repo rate really a discount ? how ? The discount rate at wich a central bank repurchases government securities frm de commercial banks, depending on de level of money supply it decides to maintin in the country's monetary system. To temporarily expand de money supply, de central bank decreases repo rates (so that banks can swap der holdings of govt securities for cash). To contract de money supply it increases de repo rates. Alternatively, de central bank decides on a desired level of money supply n lets de market determine de appropriate repo rate. Repo is short for repossession.

hw inflsn is respbl fr rupee gt dwn supposedly u hv a hundred rupees u go market n buy ten kgs f rice bt thn inflation increases so does produce prices hence aftr six months u go to same market wit a hundred rupees n buy only 7 kgs f rice so though u hv same amount f money yet its value hs dcreased due to inflation hence wen inflation rises the value f rupees depreciates due to dcrease in purshasin power parity....

which is the top performing state in MNREGA during the financial year 2011-12(1st half year)? 1.Tripura 2.Andhra Pradesh 3.Sikkim

what is carbon credit? A permit dat allow d holder to emit one ton of co2.it z used to reduce emmison of co2. . .

capital deepening &capital wideing Capital deepening- is a term used in economics to describe an economy whr capital per worker is increasing. dis is also referred to as increase in de capital intensity. measured-capital stock per labour hour. capital wideing-Capital widening is a term used to describe de situation whr capital stock is increasing at de same rate as de labour force n de depreciation rate, dus capital per worker remains constant. de economy will expand in terms of aggregate output, but productivity per worker will remain constant.

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satisfaction with life index? The Satisfaction with Life Index is created to show life satisfaction in different nations...its subjective well being correlates most strongly with health, wealth, and access to basic education to show life satisfaction in different nations..example of directly measuring happinessasking people how happy they areas an alternative to traditional measures of policy success such as GDP or GNP.

Globalisation index Globalization Index is a study that assesses the extent to which the world's most populous nations are becoming more or less globally connected....it reveals that even as the world economy slowed, Internet growth in poor countries and increased cross-border travel deepened global links..

Geniun progress indicator The genuine progress indicator (GPI) is an alternative metric system wich is an addition to da national system of accounts dat has been suggested to replace, or supplement, gross domestic product (GDP) as a metric of economic growth...it is an attempt to measure whetr a country's growth, increasd production of goods, n expanding services hav actually resulted in de improvement of de welfare (or well-being) of de people in de country.

agricultural year?

Agricultural year is the period of time necessary for the arising of seasonal agricultural products, including the preparation of the land, and the sowing, planting harvesting and, whenever applicable, threshing of the crop, Provided, however, That in the case of coconuts, citrus, coffee, ramie, and other crops where more than one harvest is obtained from one planting, the words "agricultural year" shall mean the period of time from the preparation of the land to the first harvest and thereafter from harvest to harvest. In both cases, the period of time may be shorter or longer than a calendar year.

according to world gold council the top 6 gold holders of the world are us, germany, the IMF, italy, france and china. what is world gold council all about? The World Gold Council is the market development organisation for the gold industry and the global voice of authority for gold...working within the investment, jewellery and technology sectors, as well as engaging in government affairs...

Based in the UK, with operations in India, the Far East, Europe and the US, the World Gold Council is an association whose 22 members comprise the worlds leading gold mining companies, representing approximately 60% of global corporate gold production...

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Pls explain about money de-valuation? Reasons why Indian Rupee getting low? Money devaluation is a process of reducing the value of own currency in comparison with the other currencies so that the exports get cheaper. At the same time imports will get costlier. Devaluation will benefit the countries which are export oriented...

Indian has devaluated its currency twice in 1966 and 1991 to boost the exports. But this devaluation is didnt increase the exports as expected...

but recent devaluation is .. because of supply and demand concept of dollar in india. here reasons r:1> loosing of euro credibility ..so $ obviosly in demand.2> india's slowing growth of economy... investor loosing confidence..so net invesment is -ve 3> -ve BOP..4> inflation in country 5>worldwide slowing of economy

explain what are hedge funds exactly Hedge funds are considered an alternative investment vehicle. The term alternative investment alternatice investment is the general term under which unregulated funds opertate this include pvt ewuity and real estate funds .The todal alternative categ is not covered within the scopre of this section but it is useful to know thath often peopple refer to hedge funds as alternative investments.

1. Exchange Rate is the rate at which one currency may be converted into another. 2. There are a wide variety of factors which influence the exchange rate, such as interest rates, inflation, and the state of politics and the economy in each country. 3. There are two main systems used to determine a currency's exchange rate: floating currency and pegged currency. 4. Floating currency rate is determined by the market patterns i.e. demand and supply and central bank does not interfere and manage the exchange currency rate. 5. Generally, countries with mature, stable economic markets will use a floating system. Virtually every major nation uses this system, including the U.S., Canada and Great Britain. Floating exchange rates are considered more efficient, because the market will automatically correct the rate to reflect inflation and other economic forces. 6. A pegged, or fixed system, is one in which the exchange rate is set and artificially maintained by the government. The rate will be pegged to some other country's dollar, usually the U.S. dollar. The rate will not fluctuate from day to day. 7. Countries that have immature, potentially unstable economies usually use a pegged system. 8. During the period 1950-1951 until mid-December 1973, India followed an exchange rate regime with Rupee linked to the Pound Sterling, except for the devaluations in 1966 and Love is all we want LIKE OUR FB Fanpage at IAS OUR DREAM 12

1971. 9. On September 24, 1975, the Rupees ties to the Pound Sterling were broken. India got linked to a basket of currencies of the world. 10. Whereas in 1992 India introduced Liberalized Exchange Rate Management System (LERMS) i.e. a dual (official as well as market determined) exchange rate in India and in 1993 India switched to floating exchange rate system.

What's the difference between roles of "Comptroller & Auditor General" and "Controller General of Accounts" ??? CAG estyle ka kaam hai.pure accountability...CGA donkey work hai(hard work)...pure accountancy...

role of Comptroller & Auditor General : - To enhance accountability of the executive to the Parliament and State Legislatures by carrying out audits in the public sector and providing accounting services in the states in accordance with the Constitution of India and Laws as well as best international practices. - Where entrusted, to provide technical guidance and support to local bodies including Panchayati Raj Institution to enhance their accountability.

Controller General of Accounts is the apex accounting body in the Government of India. The accounts of the Civil Ministries are compiled and maintained by the Pay and Accounts Offices, the basic accounting units..The Pay and Accounts Offices maintain line item wise accounts of all the transactions involving Consolidated Fund of India, Contingency Fund of India and Public Account of India. Various subsidiary accounts such as Loan accounts, Fund accounts etc. are also maintained by these units.. The accounts compiled by the Pay and Accounts Offices are consolidated on a monthly basis in the Principal Accounts Offices at the Ministry's headquarters. The consolidated accounts of the Ministry are rendered to the Controller General of Accounts. The accounts received from various Ministries are consolidated in the office of the Controller General of Accounts to generate the accounts of the Government of India as a whole.

Mahalanobis committee was setup for ? for determing the india's economic direction.. socialists, capitalists, .....finally decided mix approach

S.S.Tarapore committee was setup for ? Fuller Capital Account Convertibility........ tarapore committe was set up twice.....1997 nd 2006

define letter of credit(LC) A letter of credit is a promise to pay.

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it is a letter from a bank guaranteeing that a buyer's payment to a seller will be received on time and for the correct amount . if In the event that the buyer is unable to make payment on the purchase, the bank will be required to cover the full or remaining amount of the purchase

J.J.Irani committee was setup for ? company law

what it effect when the value of indiand currency goes down? devaluation .. it affect the BOP badly , but help MNC companies in india( if rupe)

what is cummulative output growth....??? it is an avg of growth various sector like minnig, manufacturing, construction, factory production .. taken over a time period

What is RTGS System? **The acronym RTGS stands for Real Time Gross Settlement. RTGS system is a funds transfer mechanism where transfer of money takes place from one bank to another on a real time and on gross basis.

**This is the fastest possible money transfer system through the banking channel. Settlement in real time means payment transaction is not subjected to any waiting period.

*** The transactions are settled as soon as they are processed.

***Gross settlement means the transaction is settled on one to one basis without bunching with any other transaction.

*** Considering that money transfer takes place in the books of the Reserve Bank of India, the payment is taken as final and irrevocable.

what was O P Sodhani Committee formed for? what were its recommendations? formed in 1992, to examine issues related to products available for hedging of forex risks & for suggestions for further development of forex market in india

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sm of d recommendations r i)corporates shd b permittd 2 hedge upon declaration of d underlying exposure;ii)to increase number of mkt participants;iii)banks shd b allowed to offer hedging products like caps, collars, etc;corporates must b permitted to cancel& rebook option contracts, etc

what are the four broad categories that the services sector consist of as per Central Statistical Organization (CSO) classification ? 1.Financing,insurance,real estate,business . 2. Transport, storage nd communication 3. Community, social nd personal services 4. Trade, hotel nd restaurants

the share of services in Indias GDP at factor cost (at current prices) rose rapidly from 30.5 percent in 1950-51 to 55.2 percent in 2009-10; is construction segment included in it? nopes its a part of secondary sector so its nt included

what is currency swap A swap that involves the exchange of principal and interest in one currency for the same in another currency

what is commercial paper (CP) ? commercial paper is an unsecured promissory note with a fixed maturity of 1 to 270 days. Commercial paper is a money-market security issued (sold) by large banks and corporations to get money to meet short term debt obligations (for example, payroll), and is only backed by an issuing bank or corporation's promise to pay the face amount on the maturity date specified on the note.

what is a "holding company"? A parent corporation that owns enough voting stock in another corporation to control its board of directors (and, therefore, controls its policies and management). A holding company must own at least 80% of voting stock to get tax consolidation benefits, such as tax-free dividends. ..............investopedia

Lets understand this with an eg. :Kalyani Investment Co. Ltd is a HOLDING COMPANY which holds shares of the following companies

Bharat Forge - 13.6% BF Utilities - 15.36% Hikal Ltd - 31.36%

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This gives Kalyani Investment Co. Ltd authority to participate in the meetings of say , Hikal Ltd , where it owns 31.66% share.

Now, it may happen that a holding company could only be an investment company owing other companies shares OR , it may itself be a company producing a particular commodity . The former type r known as NOHC- NOn - operating Holding company .]

Road Accidents in India The annual cost of road accidents and injuries: Rs 550 billion, close to 3 per cent of the GDP. Conversely, the amount thats earmarked to improve highways: Rs 103 bn, 1/5th the loss. 80 per cent of all crashes and 65 per cent of near-crashes occur when drivers have not been paying enough attention for as little as 3 seconds. Over 50% of accidents take place close to home/ familiar surroundings Over 90% of people who have a safety incident blame the other party More than 85 per cent of drivers rate their driving abilities as being either excellent or above average, an overconfidence bias that leads to unsafe behavior on the road (Outlook Dec 12, 2011)

IDR: Indian Depository Receipts IDR is an exact reverse of the ADR/GDR issue. A foreign company can raise capital from Indian public, the same way that Indian companies can raise capital through ADR/GDR issues. The government of India framed the IDR rules sometime in 2004

what are ECB, ADR & GDR? external commercial borrowing (ECB)..facilitate foreign money to indian corporates via credits,commercial lones

ADR (American Depository Receipts) n GDR (Global Depository Receipts) is that an Indian corporate can deposit its stock (shares) with a foreign depository and raise money from foreign public by offering these ADR/GDR issues for subscription. Usually the corporate conducts a roadshow (advertising and publicity for its issue) and attracts the attention/interest of the foreign public to subscribe to its capital.

briefly state the functions of exim bank the export import bank was establishd not only enhance the export but to also encourage foreign trade and investment in india... to increas partnership wid indian industries specialy samal n med enterprise ones

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write a note on credit default swap(CDS) Its basically buying insurance against a default.

Example I'm a banker, gave car-loans to dude, but I'm afraid he might not pay back the full money. So I'll goto some other Bank X who sells Credit default Swaps (CDS). I've to pay regular premium Bank X, but if someday that dudes default on his car-payment, Bank X will pay me the money.

trace the origin of export credit guarantee corporation(ECGC) and briefly state its role

ECGC of India Ltd, strengthen the export promotion by covering d risk of exporting on credit. It functions under the administrative cntrll of the Ministry of Commerce & Industry.

ROLE_ Provides a range of credit risk insurance covers to exporters against loss in export of goods and services.

IT Offers guarantees to banks and financial institutions to enable exporters to obtain better facilities frm them.

Provides Overseas Investment Insurance to Indian companies investing in joint ventures abroad in the form ofr loan. Provides information on credit-worthiness of overseas buyers

Offers insurance protection to exporters against payment risks

Provides guidance in export-related activities

Assists exporters in recovering bad debts

write a brief note on national housing bank (NHB) owwned by rbi...headquarter in delhi...is apex instituition of housing and finance.. established with an objective to promote housing finance institutions both at local and regional levels provide financial such institutions register, regulate and supervis Housing Finance Company (HFCs)

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what are NOSTRO and VOSTRO accounts? Simply put, Nostro (means "ours") account is an account held by a domestic bank with a foriegn bank abroad in "foreign currency". Eg: SBI holding a dollar account with Bank of America... So it is "our account held by you"

Vostro (means "yours") account on other hand is "your account held by us" ie. when bank of America holds a ruppee account with SBI in India.

They are two sides of the same coin ie. An account that is nostro for SBI is a Vostro for BoA. Main function is to facilitate foreign exchange transactions, and overcome exchange rate risks.

wat are capital goods...?????? Any tangible assets that an organization uses to produce goods or services such as office buildings, equipment and machinery. Consumer goods are the end result of this production process...!!!!!!!!

capital goods are reusable; capital goods add to productive capacities;capital goods are not consumed,do not change form during production process(wear & tear notwithstanding) and are not part of the final product;intermediate goods form part of the final products in its original form or in some other form whereas inputs lose its orginal form and identity totally to get absorbed in the final product which is known by a different name ;thus intermediate goods and inputs are not reusable nor do they add to the productive capacity.

what is CENVAT ?

stands for central value added tax;it is the tax on manufacture of goods within the territory of india after allowing credit of tax paid on goods and services used in the manufacturing process;so it is practically the second generation of value added tax credit scheme in india after MODVAT, which was introduced in 1986 to do away with the cascading effect of central excise duty.Subsequently, MODVAT scheme was restructured into CENVAT( Central Value Added Tax) scheme in 2004,under which, a manufacturer of final product or provider of taxable service is allowed to take credit of duty of excise as well as of service tax paid on any input or any input service

Finance Ministry directed State-run Banks to do away with Separate Promotion Policies

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* An employee will have to work in all verticals before being promoted to the middle management level * The new policy spells the end of fast-track promotions at managerial levels * The guidelines will ensure that there are eligible candidates across all verticals in all 21 state-run bank

How exit policy leads to unemployment? a liberal Exit policy allows companies to close down operations or shut down the industry completely, without paying due compensation or providing Job security to the already employed labourers . This leads to unemployment. Therefore, a balance needs to be maintained between exit policy & labour market flexibity.

Dabir-ul-Mulk, Najm-ud-Daula Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan @ Ghalib @ Asad (27 December 1797 15 February 1869), was a classical Urdu and Persian poet from India during British colonial rule. During his lifetime the Mughals were eclipsed and displaced by the British and finally deposed following the defeat of the Indian rebellion of 1857, events that he wrote of. Most notably, he wrote several ghazals during his life, which have since been interpreted and sung in many different ways by different people. He is considered, in South Asia, to be one of the most popular and influential poets of the Urdu language. Ghalib today remains popular not only in India and Pakistan but also amongst diaspora communities around the world.

can anyone explain for me tobin tax Tobin tax...... suggested by Nobel Laureate economist James Tobin, was originally defined as a tax on all spot conversions of one currency into another. The tax is intended to put a penalty on shortterm financial round-trip excursions into another currency.

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Worlds longest running trade dispute resolved (this somewhere around 2009)

* The EU has agreed to cut tariffs on banana imports from non-ACP countries. ACP stands for Africa, Caribbean and Pacific * The banana wars was the longest running trade dispute in the world, which started when the EU imposed banana import tariffs in 1993 * The import tariffs were instituted in order to favour former European colonies * However, the tariffs were criticized by Latin America and USA. The WTO ruled the tariffs illegal in 2005 and 2008 *The new deal includes a EUR 200 million compensation package for the ACP countries * The EU is the largest market for bananas in the world

Uruguay Round of Talks 1986.....wat featured the discussions ?

The Uruguay Round produced significant improvements in market access for NAMA productsin the developed country markets, as tariff averages were reduced from 6.3% to 3.8%........GOT SUCCESS IN 95 WHEN COMMITMENT MADE BY DEVELOPIN AND DEVELOPE COUNTRY IN TIME BOUND PERIOD

GATT (General Agreement on Trade & Tariffs) established in the year ?--1947 .....In 1993, the GATT was updated ( GATT 1994 ) to include new obligations upon its signatories.One of the most significant changes was the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Bretton Woods conference....write 20 words ...?....underline a context wherin this conference dealt wit making of ITO (International Trade Org.)


What are the Criticism made against WTO ? it favour developed country ,, a kind of neo imperialism will impart by mnc...WTO ocredibility is going down becuase of not coming of conclusion in doha talks.

Write 20 words on NAMA !

NAMA refers to all products not covered by the Agreement on Agriculture. In other words, in practice, it includes manufacturing products, fuels and mining products, fish and fish products, and forestry products. They are sometimes referred to as industrial productsor manufactured goods.

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Why is NAMA so important? Over the past years, NAMA products have accounted for almost 90% of the world merchandise exports.

What did the Uruguay Round achieve on tariffs for NAMA products? The Uruguay Round produced significant improvements in market access for NAMA productsin the developed country markets, as tariff averages were reduced from 6.3% to 3.8%. In the case of developing countries, the most important contribution was made in the form of new tariff bindings. Binding coverage for NAMA products in developingcountries increased from 21% to 73%, which has considerably increased the predictability of trade.

What do tariff bindings meanand how do they work? A tariff binding is a ceiling level above which a Member cannot apply a tariff. In other words, it is the maximum tariff that may be applied by a Member. However, such rates are not cast in stone. They may be increased or withdrawn subject to compensation being provided to the WTO Members affected by such action. The applied tariff is the tariff effectively applied. It can be lower than the bound rate and the difference has been called water or the binding overhang.

Why are there NAMA negotiations in the DDA? Despite the significant improvements in market access for NAMA products that previousGATT rounds and the Uruguay Round produced, tariffs continueto be an important barrier to world trade, as tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff escalation remain.

How were tariffs cut in the previous Rounds? In the first GATT rounds, tariffs were cut on a selective product-by-product basis through requests and offers made between participants. However, subsequently contracting parties decided to use formulas to cut tariffs across-the-board. For example, during the Kennedy Round (linear cut formula) and inthe Tokyo Round (Swiss formula)developed countries applied formulas, but with several exceptions. In the Uruguay Round developing and developedparticipants negotiated their tariff cuts using a variety of methods to reach a reduction average target comparable to that of the Tokyo Round (1/3 cut).

Why has a formula approach been agreed to in the NAMA negotiations? Following intensive discussions, participants recognized the advantages of the formula approach. A formula approach provides transparency (every Member will know how the otherwill reduce its tariffs); efficiency (simpler process than request/offer approach), equity (tariff reduction depends on rules rather then bargaining power); predictability (easy to foresee the results of the negotiations

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What was India's Problem in Doha? India asked for protectionism measures to be allowed to developing country in agri field as this sector is most vulnerable and could not be able to stand foreign competition\

World blamed India for failure of Doha talks....What were the allegations ...nd wat is India's point of view in this regard ? india is true repreesents of devlopin cntries ,,and under fight of developed and developing cntry ,,india is oftenly blammed to not bridge the gulf in between of them

Each nation can make its own Quality control rules as provided under SPS annex added under GATT...True or False yes under special product scheme ,, special product can be taken where rest rule will not follw .

Doha is capital city of? Quatar

What did India Gain from WTO? gats is profit for us ,, as v are service exporter s, and on aoa ,, agreement on agriculture was a gainful agreement for us ,, as all anti free market box subcidy will rationlise by aoa

In IMF, every nation has one vote only. Unlike WTO where rich (developed) nations have more voting powers. ............(True or False ?) Reverse statment z true

How is WTO better than GATT? gatt was just an aggrement while wto itself is an institution.so obciously it can better monitor trade policies of govts. and even with wto..int. trade shoots upto 10000bn$(aprox.).also GATT included only sumthing wit regards to tariffs,,,but WTO inckudes services (lik bpo etc)..Intellectual property rights....WTO gives a plateform to chalk out future strategies with giving due consideration to developing ,LDC so principle like equity, inclusive , transparancy etc.. ensured.

What is red tape ? Red tape is excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making. It is usually applied to governments, corporations and other large organizations.

Under the rule of WTO ....if India grants a special favor to one nation it is not neceesary that India will have to give that special favor to all member-nations of WTO......True or

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False ? ans is False..........MFN status .. which is given to WTO member party . so concession , rules to one extend to all automatically

What is a Geographical indicator ? A geographical indication is a sign used on goods that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities, reputation or characteristics that are essentially attributable to that place of origin. Most commonly, a geographical indication includes the name of the place of origin of the goods. Agricultural products typically have qualities that derive from their place of production and are influenced by specific local factors, such as climate and soil. Whether a sign is recognized as a geographical indication is a matter of national law. Geographical indications may be used for a wide variety of products, whether natural, agricultural or manufactured........let me give an example for the same. Prashadam (Laddoo) of Tirupati Balaji has been given the GI tag.KANNauj ke gatte, AGARA ka PETHA..etc.

TRIPS doesnt have any annexes.,,,,,,,True or False ? yes it have annexture ,, but not yet accepted in round talks so ans stands TRUE

Under GATT comes 1. SPS 2. TBT 3. SCM.....write few lines on each point !

The Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement (SPS) allows members to take scientifically based measures to protect public health. The agreement commits members to base these measures on internationally established guidelines and risk assessment procedures. In the case of particularly stringent measures, countries must present scientific justification. Generally speaking, the SPS Agreement is a compromise that permits countries to take measures to protect public health within their borders so long as they do so in a manner that restricts trade as little as possiblle.

likewise, the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT) strikes a delicate balance between the policy goals of trade facilitation and national autonomy in technical regulations. The agreement attempts to extricate the trade-facilitating aspects of standards from their trade-distorting potential by obligating countries to ensure that technical regulations and product standards do not unnecessarily restrict international trade.

Write 20 words on TRIPS trade relater intellectual prop right ,,, ,,safeguard sto innovation and inventer and to avoid duplicacy and piracy

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Write 20 words on GATS ! general agreement on trade in services ,, to create open marketing in service sector globally to create healthy compititon in global market

second objective of WTO is 'Dispute Resolution'....what is it actually? The WTOs procedure for resolving trade quarrels under the Dispute Settlement Understanding is vital for enforcing the rules and therefore for ensuring that trade flows smoothly.

A dispute arises when a member government believes another member government is violating an agreement or a commitment that it has made in the WTO. The authors of these agreements are the member governments themselves the agreements are the outcome of negotiations among members. Ultimate responsibility for settling disputes also lies with member governments, through the Dispute Settlement Body.

What is the role of the Secretariat of WTO ? dispute resolution on agreement in bilateral and multilateral trades...manage administratively and financially the WTO functioning

Present Director-General of WTO ? pascal lamy

What was the Primary objective of WTO ? The world trade organization is only global international with the ruler of trade between nations. At it heart are the wto agreement negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world trading nation and ratified in their parllaments.increaing of trade volume globally and establishing fair , transparent , just rules to regulate the world trade.dispute solving , policies and agreement making. AND connecting whole world thru trade activities

When Domestic players are given subsidies / preference over the foreign players by Govt. of India.,,,,it is a tariff barrier or a non-tariff barrier ? obviously its a nontariff barrier..and gatt worked for cutting open these non tariff barriers primarily.and these type of subsidies provided by govt. of usa and so developing countries complaint against it.

What is a Tariff Barrier nd what is a Non- Tariff Barrier !

tariff barriers r duties levied on the goods(import) in order to create an obstacle to trades. This is also called import restriction n is a sort of protectionist measure. Ad-valourm duty is an example of

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tariff barrier. . Non-tariff barriers r, on the other hand , the trade barriers on imports but not in the usual form of a tariff. For example -countervailing duties n anti-dumping measures, import quotas,special licenses, other technical barriers etc.

non-tariff barriers are government laws, regulations, policies, conditions, restrictions, or specific requirements, and private sector business practices or prohibitions, that protect the domestic industries from foreign competition. They are the means of keeping the foreign goods out of domestic market while abiding by the multilateral agreements that the country has signed through the WTO...

What is the multifunctionality role of agriculture and which subsidy derives support for it?

multifunctionality refers to the non-trade benefits of agriculture, that is, benefits other than commerce and food production.

[1] These include, in the WTO definition of multifunctionality, environmental protection, landscape preservation,rural employment, and food security. [2] These can be broadly classified as benefits to society, culture, a national economy as a whole, national security, and other concerns. For example, in addition to providing food and plant-derived products for the population, agriculture may also have provide jobs for rural people and contribute to the viability of the area, create a more stable food supply, and provide other desired environmental and rural outputs.

Differentiate between safeguard duty and anti-dumping duty.

safeguard duty -)safeguard duty can be imposed on any product imported into the country, in such increased quantities, absolute or relative to domestic production, and under such conditions as to cause or threaten serious injury to the domestic producers of like or directly competitive products, irrespective of the source of origin of the imported product.

anti-dumping duty-)Relief to the domestic producers against dumped imports is provided under Section 9-A of the Customs Tariff Act and the Customs Tariff (Identification, Assessment and Collection of Anti-dumping Duty on Dumped Articles and for Determination of Injury) Rules, 1995. Dumping means export of an article from any country or territory to India at less than its normal value i.e. when the prices at which the goods are exported to India are less than the comparable price for the like product when destined for consumption in the domestic market of the exporting country. The Central Government can impose anti-dumping duty only if the imports of dumped article into India causes and threatens material injury to any established industry in India and

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materially retains the establishment of any industry in India.

Multi Fibre Arrangement (MFA) was replaced by what in 2005? Why? Agremnt on trade in textiles nd clothng directed the abolition of multi fiber agremnt over 10yrs singned in 1974 was an elaborate system of quotas imposed by develop countries over textile nd clothing imports from developing countries on 1st jan 2005 this quota hv been abolished nd this is expected to benefits traditional textile exporter like India nd China....

Mention the Ministerials of the WTO that have been held since the emergence of the WTO in 1995, chronologically? Singapore 1996 geneva 1998 seattle 1999 doha 2001 cancun 2003 hongkong 2005 geneva 2009

What are the four modes mentioned in the General Agreement on Trade in Services(GATS) of the WTO and in which of the four modes does India have special interest? Mode1 or cross border supply of service provided by service provider without physically present example: BPO

Mode 2 service that are consume abroad exmple: education

Mode 3 or service where commercial presence of service provider is essential exmple: banking

Mode 4 : all presence of natural person under this... The natural person move across the border to provide services exmple: skilled professional like doctors

Which one is the last country to join WTO? Russia is the latest country to join WTO.

How many members are there today in WTO? 157 member there. Confirmed

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What is MERCOSUR ? economic and political agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay....to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency.

has India signed a PTA wit Mercosur ? yes,.. india signed PTA with it... but its has failed....

India Afghanistan PTA.........Afghanistan grants preferential tariff to 8 products from India including black tea, ayurvedic and Homeopathic medicine, other medicine, sugar, cement......

India grants preferential tariff to 38 products from Afghanistan which type of products ? agriculture products like dates

According to SAFTA ....NDLCS has to reduce tariffs for LDCS products to 0-5 % in 3 years from contract....which r NDLCS nd LDCS countires ? india, Pakistan, Sri Lanka are categorised Non-Least Developed Contracting States (NLDCS) Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Maldives are Least Developed Contracting States (LDCS).

Is Afghanistan a SAFTA member ? Afganistan is a member of SAFTA but it has got relaxation of 3yr to reduce the tarrif level 0% as agreed by SAFTA. the yr for others is till 2012

The main objectives of SEZs are The main objectives of the SEZ Act are:

(a) generation of additional economic activity (b) promotion of exports of goods and services; (c) promotion of investment from domestic and foreign sources; (d) creation of employment opportunities; (e) development of infrastructure facilities;

The Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Policy was announced in ............ (year -India) 2000

Difference between debits nd credits ? In personal a/c [ "Dr" is receiver & "Cr" is giver ]........In Real A/c ["Dr" is what comes in & "Cr" is

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what goes out ]........In Nominal A/c ["Dr" is All incomes and gains & "Cr" is All expenses and losses ]

The theme for this years International Trade Fair in India was ? Indian handicraft-d magic of giftd hands

31st India International Trade Fair held recently ...at which place ? new delhi(pragati maidan)

Country's prosperity or adversity is not judged by its favorable or unfavorable balance of trade but by its favorable or unfavorable balance of payment...Comment ! to some extent it is right that how much a country can take competition. ARAB countries has always their +Bop but the economy level and people there are not so much competant as indians are. whereas india's always having -BoP but Rimmitances sent to it by NRI shows the competancy level of india.

The Red Corridor is a term used to describe the region in the east of India that experiences considerable Naxalite maoist militant activity.Red Corridor or Compact Revolutionary Zone (CRZ)...write more on it. Red corridor expanding from AP to pashupati in nepal... Nd 8 states of india i.e. AP, CHHATISGARH, MAHARASHTRA, ORRISA, WB, JHARKHAND, BIHAR, MP, 200 district comprises by CRZ 60 of them highly sensitive area... Also expanding thier (maoists) footprint to northeastern states...

Sukhoi-30 fighter aircraft its russian 5th generatin fighter ppane..... in india alteast 6 airbase will equiped wid dis plane....

novel Kaval Kottam, won the Sahitya Akademi award for the year 2011... write author's name and also write name of Tamil muvi based on novel. su.venkatesan....muvi based on novel is aravan directed by vasantha balan

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What is the Duronto Express? The Duronto Expresses are one of the fastest trains in India.The Duronto trains are to ply between the Metro Cities of India. Mamata Banerjee announced the introduction of the non-stop Duronto Express trains in the Indian Rail budget 2009-10 as a first step towards high speed rail travel .it is Fastest train by Indian Rail(even faster then Rajdhani & Shatabdi)..recently Government is planning to introduce tatkal scheme effective from april 1,2012

jayamala sabarimala case...put some light on it ! She was the centre of the cyclone when she claimed that she touched the Lord Ayyappa idol in Sabarimala. Women from the age 10-50 are banned from entering sabarimala. It created a furor in India and led to ideological warfare in Indian media and courts. The crux of the controversy lies in her claim that she had touched and prayed for her late husband's health at the famous Indian hill shrine of Lord Ayyappa at Sabarimala in Kerala state in April 1987. Women who are fertile are barred from the temple because of the legend that Lord Ayyappa, to whom the temple is dedicated, was a celibate and confirmed.he controversy is not going to die down since Hindu activists have demanded a proper atonement by those defiled the temple, especially by Jayamala. And the case whether women should be allowed in Sabarimala is considered by Supreme Court.

IAS OUR DREAM The Whistleblowers Protection bill has been passed by the Union Cabinet on August 9, 2010. The bill is officially known as the Public Interest Disclosure and Protection to Persons Making the Disclosure Bill, 2010. Indian Law: Key Features of the Whistleblowers Protection Bill Some of the key features of the proposed Indian law are as follows: It will protect the whistleblowers from any discrimination or victimization in their workplace. It provides for concealing the identity of a citizen who discloses information about the misuse of power and money. Those who reveal the identity of the whistleblower will be held liable and penalized, by the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC). The offenders will be liable for imprisonment up to 3 years and a fine up to Rs.50, 000. There will be penalization in case of delays in response, under the Right to Information Act. A fine of Rs.250 will be imposed for every day of delay beyond the set deadline.

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There will be penalization for officials who try to mislead the CVC. The bill provides for addressing complaints against public sector employees and employees of the Central and the State Government. The bill also ensures the honest government officials are not harassed in anyway but those individuals who file false complaints and charges will be liable for imprisonment up to 2 years and fine up to Rs.30, 000.

No Dow logo in London Olympics,,,,put light over it

The organisers of the 2012 London Olympics said that Dow Chemical's name will not appear on a fabric 'wrap' around the main stadium, in an issue which sparked threats of an Indian boycott. India is opposed to the company's involvement with the Games because of its links to the 1984 Bhopal gas disaster which killed tens of thousands of people in the Indian city. The London organisers, LOCOG, said it was never their intention Dow's name would be on the wrap during the Games, but Dow had now also agreed that its branding will not now even appear on five 'test' panels either. A LOCOG spokeswoman told AFP: "There will definitely not be any Dow Chemical branding on the wrap before, during or after the Olympic Games. "There was discussion about (having the branding on) the test panels but Dow Chemical have now agreed to adhere to what we call our 'clean policy'." Dow is a major sponsor of both the London Games and the International Olympic Committee. India's Olympic chief said on Friday that any decision to boycott the London Games over the involvement of Dow rested with the government. Vijay Kumar Malhotra, the acting president of the Indian Olympic Association (IOA), said his body could only lodge a protest against the use of Dow Chemical as a sponsor with the Olympic organisers, but could not decide on a boycott. Dow is now the parent company of Union Carbide, whose pesticide plant leaked gas into Bhopal in 1984 in the world's worst industrial accident.

Robinhood Tax...Write abt it ? Robinhood Tax... much talked about this tax in the recent G20 meet. Its about taxing the financial transactions. It is similar to tobin tax ( but rhe tobin tax was related to taxing foreign exchange only).The money thus raised could be used to poverty allevation, fighting climate change...

Bandipur Tiger Reserve on the Kozhikode-Kollegal National Highway 212, a key link between the two States...which two states m talking abt...

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karnatka kerala

movie Dam 999 banned ,,,,why ?,,,what is der in dat movie ? Its a uae-indian english 3D movie. . .based on d dam disaster of banqiao dam of china who killed more than 250,000 peoples..Bnned in TN on d basis of dat it disturb d cordinal relations between TN N KErala. .made by sohan roy, director frm kerala

United Russia party convention nominated Vladimir Putin, as the presidential candidate for the 2012 Presidential elections....a billionaire business man is standing against him,,,,i guess,,what is his name ? Mikhail Prokhorov.

Name the Brazilian Filmmaker & Journalist, who died in Goa while addressing IFFI Forum...? Oscar Maron Filho.

Scientists discovered the Gene called ABCC9 that Controls ....................? It can reduce the length of time we sleep

Ameya Walavalkar...belongs to which sport ?....why in newzzzz? Ameya Walavalkar registered his sixth win of the season in the Formula LGB Swift class, thereby clinching his maiden drivers championship title in the sixth and final round of the JK Tyre-FMSCI National Racing Championship at the MMRT in Irungattukottai.

Ustad Sultan Khan...played which instrument ?....belonged to which gharana ? sarangi...indore gharana

NASA launched Rover, nicknamed Curiosity to explore ...what ? (1)Mars's habitability. (2) to determine whether Mars is/has ever been an environment able to support life. (3) it is intended to chemically analyze samples i.e.,soil, drill rocks with a laser and sensor system.

UPA-II Government set up an expert group headed by Planning Commission member...................... for power sector reformation b.k.chaturvedi

Ken Russell died last month,,,who was he ...he was known for ? English film director..known for making films on controversial topics !

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Afghanistan awarded Mining Rights for Three ................ Blocks to Indian Consortium led by SAIL Afghanistan has awarded mining rights for three iron ore mines in hajigak to indian consortium led by SAIL.

The Supreme Court ruled on 28 November 2011 that awards passed by the Lok Adalat either in criminal or civil matters are bound to be implemented through a court decree,,,,,,,,!,,,,what is a Court decree,,,,xplain to a layman ! an official proclamation by a judge that defines the legal relationships between the parties to a hearing, a trial, an appeal or other court proceedings

Kuwaits Prime Minister and Cabinet Resigned amid Accusations of Corruption......name ? Sheikh Nasser Muhmad al-Ahmad al-Sabah

MCD (Municipal Corporation of Delhi) Trifurcation....Union Gov approvd it....how wl it b divided ? it divides delhi into three separate corporations East Delhi Municipal Corporation, North Delhi Municipal Corporation, South Delhi Municipal Corporation..

Who is Justice M. Karpaga Vinayagam ?...position of responsibilty ? chairperson for appelate tribunal of..Electricity, Petroleum and Natural Gas

Indira Goswami passed away recently,,,,she was ?,,,,major wrks include ?...sobriquet ? indira goswami was an assamese editor,poet,scholar and writer. popularly known as mamoni baideo..her pen name r sobriquent r pet name is mamoni raisom goswami...She was the winner of the Sahitya Akademi Award (1983), the Jnanpith Award (2001) and Principal Prince Claus Laureate (2008) and many othr awards...her famous works include The Moth Eaten Howdah of the Tusker, Pages Stained With Blood and The Man from Chinnamasta....well known for her attempts to structure social change, both through her writings and through her role as mediator between the armed militant group United Liberation Front of Asom and the Govt of India. Her involvemnt led to the formtn of People's Consultative Group, a peace committee.

Nagas lifted Economic Blockade from Manipur after ............. Days 121 days

Vishwakarma Rashtriya Puraskar is given for ? Previously known as Shram Vir National Awards, est. in the year 1965 for rewarding & recognizing

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the efforts of workers from the industrial undertakings at the national level, given by Government of India, Ministry of Labour & Employment.

Barshaman Pun..who is he /? y y governor of the bank for nepal newly appointed finance minister there

The Bangladeshi Parliament on 29 November 2011 passed a landmark bill, the Vested Properties Return (Amendment) Bill 2011........what is d feature of this act ? bill that will enable the return of property seized from the country's Hindu minority

Who is C.S. Verma..why in newzz? director of BHEL..chairman at SAIL..gm at indian rail financial corporation ,and gm at delhi stock exchange..(DSE)

ONGC announced two significant oil discoveries at d start of this month ...which r these two areas ? North Kadi area of Gujarat's Mehsana district..Panna Area 40 kms from Mumbai High.Also in Hortoki village in northwest Mizoram

KYC Registration Agency (KRA) ...watzz dat />? To prevent duplication in customer identification process, market regulator SEBI today issued guidelines for KYC(know your customer) Registration Agencies and said wholly-owned subsidiaries of stock exchanges and depositories would be eligible able to act in such a role.

Basava Sri Award for 2010 was given to ?...which Indian state gives it ? given to Medha Patkar.by karnataka state.The award is presented on the basis of an individuals contribution for social reforms and social change and work for bringing about religious harmony.

section497 of the Indian penal Code...Supreme Court had to say sumthing regarding it ,,,,wat was dat ? grounds - that the provision reduces a married woman to a property of the husband, and that punishment is meted out to the man though the woman with whom he had consensual sex was an equal partner in the alleged crime.

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Kishori Scheme launched ..provide details ? Delhi becomes the first State in the country to reach out to as many as 7.5 lakh girls at one go with a scheme that aims to provide them a better and healthier life with dignity...to promote menstrual hygiene among these girls..sanitary napkins would be distributed to adolescent girls.

National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) decided to roll out 21 ART Plus centres to to provide second line drugs to HIV patients...what actually r these second line drugs? y they called so ? Any therapeutic agent that is not the drug of choice, or the 1st normally used to treat a particular condition; in rheumatoid arthritis, 2nd-line agents are used when standard 'first-line' therapyie, anti-inflammatory agents and corticosteroids fail !!!

.............................defeated India 4-3 in the final of the Champions Challenge hockey tournament in Johannesburg Belgium

Legendary weightlifter ............................. resigned as vice-president of the national body, Indian Weightlifting Federation on 1 December 2011 k.malleshwari

BEDMAP...whats dat ? A new detailed digital map, BEDMAP configured by British and Australian scientists, revealed astonishing new geological facts about Antarctica, not known till now.... describing the thickness of the Antarctic ice sheet collected on surveys undertaken over the past 50 years have been brought together into a single database.

The theme was 'Getting to Zero' this year.....which is dat day ! World AIDS day

Columbian Film Porfirio received some award in India...which one ?..write abt the filmm also ! Golden Peacock Award for the Best Film at the 42nd International Film Festival of India 2011 "Porfirio" is a documentary telling the story of Porfirio Ramirez -- a Colombian paraplegic who highjacked a plane in 2005 with two live grenades he had hidden in his diaper while in his wheelchair. His purpose was to demand state compensation for a 1991 shooting that left him paralyzed from the waist down.

World Disability Day observed on ?..date ? 3 dec

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The one-day global conference in Bonn on Afghanistans future ended on 5 December 2011,,,write abt Bonn ....?..geographical location...famous for ? bonn was capital of east germany... dr ambedkar once studied there...its on d banks of rhine river....And Bonn has developed into a hub of international cooperation in particular in the area of environment and sustainable development.The City currently hosts 17 United Nations institutions.

Kishore Biyani ..in newzz why ? Deccan Chronicle will buy the stake owned by his flagship firm, Pantaloon, in Future Capital Holdings. He sold it for 700 crores.

Kepler-22b..whats dat ? A new planet discovered by kepler satellite of NASA. orbiting in habitable zone around its sun about 600 light year away n may be a potentiallyl viable life sustaining planet

Justice P.N. Bhagwati Award ,,,winner this year ? naveen jindal .for outstanding contribution to legal education and corporate philanthropy...and on the same day Justice V.R Krishna Iyer Award was awarded to the two Union Ministers, Kapil Sibal and Salman Khurshid

Integrated Skill Development Scheme (ISDC) for the textile and apparel sector was launched by the Ministry of .Textile ....what r d salient features of this scheme ? 26 textile parks ka PPP ki help se development,,,6 maharastra,,4 rajasthan,,2 andra nad tamilnaad others,,,,3600 crore total amount is granted and also cover apperal inhancement fund of 10544 crore....

The Union Ministry for Urban Development on 6 December 2011 launched the National Common Mobility Card (NCMC), by the name More....what is it actually ? The brand name has been chosen More signifying the national bird Peacock .to promote the user to perceive it as a single transport system and provide the commuter with a seamless, efficient and hassle free travel experience across the length and breadth of the country. The implementation of More will be partly funded by Central Government under the JnNURM scheme covering the buses sanctioned under the scheme.

...................received Cond Nast Traveller India Award-2011,,,name the city in India ? Udaipur

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Lok sabha on 7 December 2011 passed the New Delhi Municipal Council (Amendment) Bill 2010..features ? y y The bill seeks to change the structure of the NDMC by making the MP of the area its member with voting right. Prior to this, the MP was just a special invitee to the council. NDMC will have three women members and two nominated members.

EMB-145I is in newzz...wats dat ? The first fully modified aircraft, EMB-145I for the indigenously developed Indian Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) undertook its maiden flight from Sao Jose dos Campos in Brazil on 6 December 2011

...............................won a green award for reducing emissions of polluting gases in the national capital Delhi Metro Rail Corporation(DMRC) ..22 crore carbon credits given toDMRC in oct 2011

ICICI Bank and IDBI Bank together launched Indias first credit default swap (CDS) on 7 December 2011.......What is CDS ? explain to a layman ! The difference between traditional insurance and CDS lies in the fact that it guarantees security to the buyer. In case of default, buyer gets the face value, while seller gets the assurance that apart from the defaulted value, they will get a chance to recover loan at some later time.

Scientists identified a new gene HTR7,,,,,,,,,,this gene is mainly reponsible for /? wich make people alcoholic

England batsman ..............received Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) medal from Britain's Queen Elizabeth II.....? name of d cricketer ...?...Member of the Order of the British Empire is given for ? Alistair Cook...It is given for distinguished services in areas such as social services, science, arts, sports etc.

Indian government approved the setting up of an Independent Evaluation Office to evaluate impact of flagship programmes.................put light over this Independent Evaluation Office ! IEO will be an independent office attached to the Planning Commission under a Governing Board chaired by the Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission. It will be funded by the Planning Commission and will have as its head a full-time Director General (DG) in the rank and status of Member,

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Planning Commission. It will have full functional autonomy to discharge its functions.

...........was elected chairman of the UN panel of external auditors...his also ? Mr Vinod Rai..his also Comptrolr and audtor gnrl of india

What is teledensity ...what is d teledensity of India ..presently ? The overall teledensity (telephones per 100 people) in India reached 76.03%.,,,as per d latest data provided by TRAI !

Defence Minister ordered a probe based on a revelation that possible corruption in the procurement of Rs. 500-crore worth of equipment..who is d present Defence Min. of India.....nd what is d matter all abt ? A k Antony... image analysing softwares which are outdated without regular updates.

25th national sub-junior badminton championship..who won ? Laa talar

The Parliamentary panel on law and justice, headed by ...............stated that the Constitution should be amended to set up a National Judicial Commission with powers to initiate criminal prosecution and sacking of corrupt judges. whose d chairperson ? Abhishek Manu Singhvi

India won its 6th SAFF Championship title against ?...which nation Afganishtan 4-0

He famously captured vignettes of Goan life on canvas in his trademark style for over two decades.....is passed away recently...who was he ? Mario miranda

Green Film Festival was held in Delhi from 6 December to 10 December 2011. ................................. was the theme of the festival. 'Biodiversity Conservation'..

The Supreme Court directed state governments to build adequate number of night shelter to ensure that no homeless person has to sleep under sky this winter.. A Bench of justices Dalveer Bhandari and Justice Dipak Misra

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The Lok Sabha on 12 December 2011 passed the amendments to the Petroleum and Minerals Pipelines (Acquisition of Right of User in Land) Act, 1962....what r d salient features ? The Bill aims to make provisions for sufficient deterrence to criminals from committing the offence of pilferage or sabotage penalty.. n even death sentence in extreme cases..

CCEA approved National Electricity Fund.....what is CCEA..?....write abt it ! Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs... Cabinet committees are smaller group of ministers that is formed to reduce the burden on the cabinet which is the supreme decision making body..cabinet commitee on economic affairs deals with the economic issues...

A Sukhoi Su-30 MKI fighter aircraft from the Lohegaon Air Force Station crashed on 13 December 2011 at a place near Wadebholai, 25 km away from the Pune city..............MKI in Su-30 MKI stands for ? MKI stands for "Modernizirovannyi, Kommercheskiy, Indiski" meaning "Modernized, Commercial, Indian"

Abhijeet Gupta .. is related to which sport,,,why is he making newzz ? chess player form bhilwara, Rajasthan...wins FIDE in london

What was d Supreme Court of India verdict on Mullaperiyar dam ? * There is no immediate requirement to lower the water level to 120 feet that was the demand from Kerala's side. The water level should maintain its status quo of 136 feet. * SC reprimands both Kerala and Tamil Nadu for adding fuel to fire considering the rising tensions in the border areas. * The court cannot be utilized for political gains. * The SC commented harshly on Tamil Nadu CM Jayalalithaa's attempt to stoke controversy through print ads. * On Tamil Nadu's demands for CRPF protection for the dam, the SC ruled that this decision should be taken by the Centre. *The Sc also commented that the empowered committee was looking into the safety aspects of the dam. The judges said, ""If there would have been an emergency situation, the committee would have taken up the matter or brought it to our notice. In the absence of either, we believe the situation is not grave as being projected."

The apex court acknowledged the fears of Kerala with regards to the safety of its people and the possible safety hazard of the aging dam. The bench of judges hearing the matter said, "Safety of the people is paramount, whether in Tamil Nadu or Kerala...this can't be compromised."

......................Emerged as the Best City in India in the implementation of BSUP....which

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city...also what is BSUP...write abt it ? Ahmedabad...BSUP means basic services to urban poor...ahmedabad , is emerged as the best city in implementing BSUP. BSUP means that to provide poor people their basic needs

new President of Tunisia is ?.....which party /? Moncef Marzouki

hydrogel made by scientist in newzz...what actually is d newz ? Hydrogel is helps grow new scar-free skin over third degree burn.It is made by water and fibrous polymer.

The Lok Sabha on 13 December 2011 unanimously passed a Bill to further amend the Cable Television Networks Regulation Act, 1995....write a few features ,,,,abt this ACT ! As per the amendments, there will be a check on objectionable contents. Doordarshan will be able to provide more free-on-air channels in the DTH mode to audiences across the country. Cable TV operators violating the provisions of the Bill will face penalty By 2014, the entire cable network will be digitized.

........................Governemnt announced a package of two thousand crore for the distressed cotton, soya and paddy growers....recently ...state ? Maharashtra

CRISIL Research released its report on profitability of textile companies on 14 December 2011...CRISIL full form ?...write few points abt it ! Credit Rating AND INFORMATION SERVICE IN INDIA ..a global analytical company providing ratings, research, and risk and policy advisory services.

Lord Swraj Paul was in newzz ...why ? Lord Swraj Paul, leading NRI industrialist, has been conferred with the Life Time Achievement award for his outstanding contributions in various fields. The award, instituted by an Indian company Powerbrands..

Non-Stop India .....a book ....author ? mark tully.. released recently.... by dr.kalam

Parliamentary committee headed by former Finance Minister Yashwant Sinha rejected reform to allow ..........% FDI in insurance sector It rejected the proposal of 49% FDI in sector on grounds that the alternate route for meeting the

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capital needs of the sector has not been seriously explored.

NASA developed SPACE HARPOON...what actaully will it do ? an equipment that will collect samples of comet

The Government of India and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) on 15 December 2011 signed an agreement for the first tranche (113 million US dollars) under the 350 million US dollars ...... Clean Energy Transmission Investment Programme...it is wit which state in India ? Himachal Pradesh

Citizen Engagement through Social Media...was sumthing Sibal is wrking on these dayzz...elaborate ! online accounting to all the literal citizens of india through social networking sites.

Trichy Sankaran...was in newzz why ? sangeetha kalanithi.. in recent chennai il thiruvaiyaaru prog

................was named Time magazines 2011 Person of the Year on 14 December 2011 'The Protester'... from arab spring to athens and wall street to Moscow

Jacques Chirac was in newzz...whose he ? former president of france...found guilty of corruption

RBI announced non-direct intervention measures in the wake of steady weakening of the rupee against the dollar.....What actually r those non-direct intervention measures ? by not actively trading in forex market by using official forex reserves

Who is the worlds largest COAL Miner ? The world's largest coal miner is Coal India Ltd (CIL's)

OPEC decided to increase its Production Limits to 30 million Barrels a Day....What does OPEC stand for...how many members does it has..nd where is its HQ ? Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries - 12 members -.Qatar, Indonesia, Libya, the United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria), Ecuador, Gabon,Angola,Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela are members of OPEC and the head quartes are in Vienna.. A special point-HQ is in non member country...

Government agreed to give some Percent of the Group B Posts in Paramilitary Forces to ex-

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servicemen....how much is d percent ? 10%

MS Reddy in newzz ? why ?..who was he ? Famous telugu film producer, social activist and also writer of some novels in telugu.. dadasaheb falke award laureat n recently passed away @ 92

George Whitman...died recently..who was he ? George Whitman, who has died aged 98, was for more than 50 years the proprietor of Shakespeare and Company, the English language bookshop on the Left Bank of the Seine in Paris.

Reserve Bank of India has came up wit its policy recently...d Repo Rate it decided is ? 8.5 pc

Pentavalent vaccine ***At present, there are 170 countries using the pentavalent vaccine of the 193 World Health Organisation member states. ***Pentavalent vaccine will protect children from Diphtheria, Pertussis, Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae Hib disease, which is a new addition to the routine immunisation programme in the country. ***Goa has been administering pentavalent vaccine from the State budget since 2008 which was initially introduced in selected blocks but the entire State was covered in 2011.

Bhimbetka is famous for ? Raj. MP border ... It is the most ancient rock sculpture found in India, and is the evidence of these rock shelters being inhabited by man for more than thousands of years..the site has been honored as the World Heritage Site by UNESCO...

What is a default (Economy question) default occurs when a debtor has not met his or her legal obligations according to the debt contract, e.g. has not made a scheduled payment, or has violated a loan covenant (condition) of the debt contract. A default is the failure to pay back a loan..

A "clinical death" take place when ?

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When the heartbeat stops, a person is suffering clinical death - by definition, but consciousness is not lost until 15-20 seconds later. Up to this point, a person doesn't feel anything about the critical situation

the presnt RAW Chief is ? SK Tripathi

Manipur Rifles Personnel had went on strike at some point of time in history.... can u tel when nd why ? 2000... demand to increase their allowances...For the shoot the terririst in north-west india...nakslide ke liye shut ka order

Name the Indian Home Minister whose daughter was kidnapped by the Kashmiri militants ...nd she was released later on d condition dat five of their comrades bfreed from prison. mufti mohammed sayeed

What is elephantiasis ? also called filarasis,in which the leg of indidual beomes too much swollen.nd its a helminth disease.

Difference between Protozoa and Metazoa ?

Protozoa: 1. They are single celled organisms. 2. 2. A single cell performs all functions; therefore there is no division of labour. 3. They have a cellular grade of organization, e.g. Amoeba paramecium.

Metazoa: 1. They are multi-cellular organisms. 2. They show division labour as different cells or organs perform different functions. 3. They have cellular tissue, organ and system grade of organization, e.g Sponges to chordates.

(a) Multiprogramming (b) Multitasking (c) Time-sharing (d) Multiprocessing

explain each term !

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1. Multiprogramming is a concept which increases the CPU utiliztaion by organizing jobs so that the CPU always has one job to exeute ; ( CPU should not remain idle.) 2. Multi-tasking is a logical extension of Multi programming where the CPU executes multiple jobs by switching among them, but the switches occur so frequently that the users can interact with each program while it is running. 3. multiprocessing: for solving big computational problems,,.which requires more power than a single processor,,.so,shared and solved by multiple processor's ..also called multi threading 4. Time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking.

What is NEFT? ------------------National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) is a nation-wide payment system facilitating one-to-one funds transfer. Under this Scheme, individuals, firms and corporates can electronically transfer funds from any bank branch to any individual, firm or corporate having an account with any other bank branch in the country participating in the Scheme.

List down the imporatnt monuments which Shah Jahan made ? taj mahal,red fort,jama masjid,shalimar gardens of lahore,sections of lahore fort,his father's mausoleum..

The Indian language known as the 'Italian of the East' is ? it is Telugu, the reason is that every word (sounds) which is spoken in telugu and Itaian languages will end with a Vowel.

The principal languages of Lakshdweep are ? main languages of lakshwadeep are malayalam and mahl...most spoken is malayalam

Which Union territories in India has a Legislature ? puducherry n delhi

Oriya will now be known as Odia with the passing of Constitution ..........th Amendment bill in Parliament 113th

First state to be formed on linguistic basis in India was ? 1 oct 1953 andrapradesh

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Egmore Museum is located at ? chennai 1851

Naval Aviation Museum is located at ? bagmola , goa

What is Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) the policy of using repos and reverse repos is called LAF.

A nuclear power plant is to come up in Haripur in West Bengal..put light over this,...? A nuclear park is proposed at haripur in west bengal to be built by the Russian company Rosatom.A nuclear plant which produces 1000 mw or more of energy is known as a nuclear park.It is a part of agreement between India and Russia signed during the PM's visit to Russia.There is a lot of opposition to this project in the name of environmental damages which it may cause.

what is Financial Literacy? Financial literacy is the ability to understand finance. More specifically, it refers to the set of skills and knowledge that allows an individual to make informed and effective decisions through their understanding of finances....

xplain financial inclusion nd financial exclusion ? *Finalncial Inclusion--Access to finance, especially by the poor and vulnerable groups, is an essential requisite for employment, economic growth, poverty alleviation and social upliftment. Further, financial inclusion will enable the poor and the rustics of our country to open a bank account to save and invest, to borrow and to repay, to insure and to take part in the credit. This will enable them to break the chain of poverty and *Financial Exclusion is the lack of access by certain consumers to appropriate, low cost, fair and safe financial products and services from main stream providers..

1st electric train came in India when ?> Betwn bmbay's victoria terminus n kurla along d harbour line of CR. On feb 3 ,1925 a distance of 9.5 miles

National Remote Sensing Agency is at ? its Hyderabad

Indian Institute of Remote Sensing is at?

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Kaiga is famous for ? Nuclear power project.. in karnataka

Koyali is famous for ? Oil rfinary in gujrat

explain the phenomenon of Mirage ! Mirage a virtual image formed in deserts during a clear sky due to total internal reflection of sun rays because of changed refractive index of atmoshere as hot air in sunlight rises ur forming areas of different optical density. Resembels like water when seen from a far distance.

What is MICR ..wit relation to computers ? magnetic ink character reader

magnetic disk storage in computer refers /? Hard disk

The enzyme that can join pieces of DNA together is? DNA Ligase

define centre of mass and centre of gravity ! center mass is the whol mass of the body which concentrated at the centre of the body. and...centre of gravity is point where body is balanced.

Explain each term (A) Ischemia (B) Hyperemia (C) Hemostasis (D) Hemorrhage

ischemia means its an restriction in blood supply due to the factors in blood vessels . hyperemia means increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body. hemostasis is to keep the blood with in a damaged blood vessel. hemorrhage is bleedin or abnormal flow of blood.

(A) Neutrophilia

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(B) Nephrosis (C) Necrosis (D) Neoplasia xplain each term !

y y y y

neutrophlia is a condition in which neutrophil cells increase s nephrosis is a condition in kidney,mal function of nephrons necrosis cells become dead neoplasia means new growth of cells such as increase in numbr

liver cirrhosis is caused due to ? dere r n no. f causes....like alcohol,hbv,hcv, aflatoxins

name some carcinogenic agents ! aflatoxin.mustard gas,nickel and chromium compounds...acetaldehyde, benzenem , cadmium dust and fume,DDT,environmental tobaco smoke

explain d principle behind frost formation ? on cold nights,the low temperature of the ground surface causes the temp of the surrounding air to drop.thus,the moisture in the air condenses on the ground surface,objects etc in the form of dew.when the temp drop is below freezing,the moisture will be deposited in the form of frost(powdery ice pieces)...

What is a antipyretic ?..give examples ! the drug which help in lowering of body temperature...eg:-paracetamol.

Osmium..write few lines ! Osmium is a chemical element with symbol Os. It belongs to platinum family and is the densest natural element.

Do u know ...The number of images depends on the angle between the mirrors nd can b dertermined by the follwing formula....

No. of Images = 360/angle between mirrors - 1

define focal length ! distance bw focus and centre of curvature

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What is d Kaleidoscope,,,describe d principle on which it works ! its basicaly a collection of mirrors containing sm coloured material,produces a colourful phenomenon by reflection..60 degree. angle mostly between d mirrors !..Wrks on multiple reflection principle

Define virtual image ! A virtual image is formed at the position where the paths of the principal rays cross when projected backward from their paths beyond the lens

What is umbra and what is penumbra? Umbra is the darkest portion of shadow... Penumbra is lighter than umbra... Usually the penumbra is smaller the the ubmbra, but the solar eclipse on an exception.

A. Kata Thermometer B. Anemometer C. Sling Psychromete

Write one sentence on each !

kata - -measures the cooling power of the environment. sling psychro- 2 measure relative humidity anemo metr- 2 measure wind-speed

Shah Alam II..write abt him ! also known as Ali Gauhar, was a Mughal emperor of India. A son of Alamgir II, he was exiled to Allahabad in December 1759 by Ghazi-ud-Din, who appointed Shah Jahan III as the emperor. Later, he was nominated as the emperor by Ahmad Shah...

Descirbe Kala - Azar />? Also knwn as blck fever caused by protozoan parasites. Its secnd largest parasitic killer disease in d wrld aft.malaria

Write down The functions of DNA in human body ! To help in the synthesis of protein...responsible for formation of cells. And also it affects the behaviour

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The court language of the Mughals was ? Persian

Petrology deals with ? study of rocks, its origin, structre

Who first gave the theory of inheritance of acquired characters? Mendel

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Endobiology Entrobiology Neobiology Exobiology

write in one sentence abt each ! Endobiology-it is the study of relations of plants and people... Neobiology-it is a new way of looking at the exixting biological theories and memetics and allows the social sciences to be folded into biology. Exobiology-it covers the search for life beyond earth and the effects of extraterrestrial environment on living beings.

Beadle and Tatum are scientist known for ? one gene , one enzyme theory

Barometer was invented by Evangelista Torricelli

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Concology Serology Oncology Chronology

write in one sentence abt each ! a)study of mollusks shell.b)study of blood serum.c)study of cancer.d)science of arranging events in order of their occurrence in time.

Explain Photoelectric effect !

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discovered by einstein for which he was awarded the nobel prize in physics...when light of sufficient intensity and frequency is focused upon a metal plate...electrons from the valence bond are ejected...this is known as photo electric effect Hargobind Khurana is credited for the discovery of he explained some of the characterstics of genetic code like genetic code is triplet..genetic code is comma less,etc.

Generators work in the principle of ? Faraday's law: Whenever a conductor carrying a current is placed in a Transverse magnetic field then an induced emf is generated inside the conductor directing perpendicular to both, the flow of current and the direction of magnetic field.

The scientist who received Nobel Prize in Physics twice was ? John Bardeen...marie curie got twice bt once for phy. n other for chem

Lamberts law is related to ? Illumination

Neutron was discovered by Chadwick.....it was rutherford who actually speculated the possibility of a neutral entity way befor chadwick...just for info!

The wave theory of light was propounded by ? Huygen

AIDS virus HTLV III was discovered in ? US 1981

Carbon tax was introduced in Australia ...write abt it ! The carbon was introduce in Australia ..was prime moto is to reduce the carbon emission in the country which are the biggest threat to the global warming in oder to control this many protocol is brought out and KYOTO PROTOCAL is one of them under which it mentiton the limttation for the country to reduce down the carbon emission with in there country upto certain %

What is Rule 184 of Lok Sabha ? no discussion of general public interest will be made without the permission of speaker....There is provision of voting after discussion under rule 184 in loksabha.

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To meet unforeseen needs not provided in the Annual Appropriation Act, a ...................................... has been established under Article 267(1) of the Constitution. Contingency fund.

Indias first private cargo train ...write abt it in 20 words ! named `millennium parcel express', was launched by indian railways in collaboration with the hyderabad-based multi-modal logistics company `gati'

Where is the Railway Staff College >? Baroda

-------------------------*Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) had been established to take the banking services to the doorsteps of rural masses especially in remote rural areas with no access to banking services. *These banks were originally intended to provide institutional credit to those weaker sections of the society at concessional rate of interest, who depend on private money-lenders. *The banks were also intended to mobilise and channelise rural savings for supporting productive activities in the rural areas. *However, with effect from 22 March 1997, the RRBs were allowed to lend outside the target group by classifying their advances into Priority Sector and others. *Similarly the interest rates on term deposits offered by RRBs have also been freed. * Subsequently, it has been decided to permit RRBs at their discretion to offer differential rate of interest on their term deposits of maturity subject to certain conditions. --------------------------

The Department of Revenue has two statutory bodies,,,name dem ! Central Board of direct Taxes and Central Board of Excise and Customs Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) comprising National highways connecting four metro cities viz., Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata ...what is d total length of it ? 5846 km

India has got about..................km of navigable waterways which comprise of rivers, canals, backwaters, creaks, etc......approx ? 14500

There are 23 stock exchanges in the country, 20 of them being regional ones with allocated areas. Three others are ?....name them ? National stock exchnge, over the counter exchnge of India , nd inter connected stock exchnge of india..

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Who is Alfred Wagenar ? german scientist .continental drift z his theory.

Highest Elevation in Europe ! mt. Blanc

Palpa is one of d principal dialect of whcih language ? Nepali

Who is Sauryaseni? oldest Gujarati works in the form of Prakrit..

What is Brajabuli /? it is basically maithili.. an artifical literary language develop in 16th century..

Write down the FUNCTIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF OFFICIAL LANGUAGE ?! Nodal responsibility for all matters relating to the progressive use of Hindi as the Official Language of the Union including Hindi Teaching Scheme for Central Government Employees and publication of magazines, journals & other literature related there..

------who said this ? MK Gandhiji

xplain the similarities nd dissimilarities between Hindi nd Urdu ! Both are indoaryan languages and have originated and developed togather in the subcontinent, while both differ when it comes to script, for hindi devnagiri script is used while arabic persian one is used for urdu.

Utkal Lipi is used for which language ? Odiya

Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL) is situated at ? Mysore.. Karnataka state!

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Which languages hav been accorded the status of a "Classical Language in India" ? first Tamil den Sanskrit...den Telugu nd Kanada ! In 2005, Sanskrit, which already had special status in Article 351 of the Constitution of India as the primary source language for the development of the official standard of Hindi, was also declared to be a classical language; this was followed by similar declarations for Kannada and Telugu in 2008, based on the recommendation of a committee of linguistic experts constituted by the Ministry of Culture.

The Eighth Schedule and the Seventy-First Amendment provided for the inclusion of x.........................., thereby increasing the number of official regional languages of India to from 14 to 18 (now 22) .......name those 4 languages !

Sindhi, Konkani, Meiteilon and Nepali, is d ryt answer ..v r talking of wen d no. going to 18 !

Article ............ of the Indian constitution provides recognition to "official languages" of the union to include Standard Hindi or any one or more of the languages adopted by a state legislature as the official language. no. ? Art 345

The Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution contains a list of........... scheduled languages. ...........hw many ? 22. The last four were Bodo, Dongri, Santhali and Maithili.

only non-Hindi state to have been granted the right to conduct proceedings in their High Courts in their official language is ? Tamil Nadu

Four states - have been granted the right to conduct proceedings in their High Courts in their official language, which, for all of them, was Hindi...name these four states ! Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan....also called as BIMARU states

What is Kokborok ? Principal Language of Tripura.....Also known as Tripuri... The word Kok Borok is a compound of kok "language" and borok "people", which is used specifically for the Borok people. Thus Kok Borok means "language of the Borok".

Kendriya Hindi Samiti (est. 1967)...write 20 words !

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Was cnstituted by prime minister.....It z d apex policy makng body for d policy making body for d propogation n progress of Hindi as official language of d union. Its sub-institutions were opened in Mumbai,Kolkata n Banglore in 1988 n in Chennai n Hyderabad in 1990

Official Languages Act, 1963...write 20 words ~! provides for the languages for transaction of business in union& state legislatures, acts and for certain purposes in HighCourts

Soil erosion is a process of detachment and transportation of soil by natural agencies such as water and wind. Rainfall, Slope, Vegitation, Nature of Soil, Wind Velocity are some of the factors that control Soil Erosion. The erosion caused by water can be classified as follows.

1) Splash Erosion occurs when raindrops splash on the soil thus loosens the top soil 2) Sheet Erosion occurs when the soil is removed uniformly as thin layer 3) Rill Erosion occurs when water run off forms a finger like channel along slopes 4) Gully Erosion occurs when the volume of water increases in the slopes, Rill erosion enlarges into Gully which result in Ravines 5) Slip Erosion is caused by landslides thus damaging the fields in the foothills.

What is Podzolisation ! the process of mobilization and precipitation of dissolved organic matter, together with aluminum Al and iron Fe as they are leaching down from the A and E horizons to the B horizon, A, B, C being the layers of the soil. (A is the top layer)

xplain d process of laterisation of soil ! Laterisation aka tropical weathering is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils

Explain d geographical term RAVINES in simple words ! giv example ! ravines are formed due to erosion by streams. they usually have steep slopes. Mississippi river has a few of them

xplain green manuring ! we cultivate green manuring crop like dhaincha, sunhemp in field.these crop come floring period it can be burried in that same field with the help of plough. these croup increas soil fertility areation & increase soil organick matter content is called green manuring.

What are Peaty soils,

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soil which is formed due to decay of plants and animals. rich in organic content.

Alkaline soils can b reclaimed ,,,,explain how ? by adding gypsum

these type of soil are called as reh or kallar or usar...name it ! ans is Saline/Alkaline Soil

According to ICAR,,,soil in India can b divided into kitne types ...?...name dem ! Eight major types of soils. alluvial soil, black soil, red soil, laterite soil, desert soil, mountain soil,saline and alkaline soil, Peaty and marshy soils!

Plantation of tea , coffee , spices and tropical fruits are laid out on which type of soil in India ? Laterite Soil

What is khadar and bangar ? Bhangar is old alluvial soil , Khadhar is new alluvial soil... Bhangar is less fertile than khadar. water floods leaves a new soil every time over khadar soils.

What are loess deposits ? These are deposits of weathered rock material under the action of wind.

What is chernozem Chernozem are soils rich in calcium, which appears in excess in calcium carbonate precipitated in the lower B-horizon

---------------------------------------------------------------------***December 4...celebrated as Navy Day in India...was the day when the Indian Navy the fourth largest in the world - played a significant role in the bombing of Karachi harbor in the 1971 India-Pakistan war. The name given to the attack was Operation Trident which was launched on December 4. Owing to its success, the day of the attack has been celebrated as Navy Day ever since.

***The theme for Navy week this year is Indian Navy-Safe Seas and Secure Coasts for a strong Nation. Navy also observes this day to build bonds with the local community and reaffirm the support and encouragement given by both state and private organisations in its endeavors.

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***powerful three-dimensional Navy, which can protect India's geo-strategic interests stretching from Hormuz Strait to Malacca Strait, will not come cheap. Neither will it be built overnight. Calculations show ongoing warship, submarine and maritime aircraft acquisition programmes as well as some concrete projects in the pipeline will together cost well upwards of Rs 300,000 crore.

Presidential Fleet Review (PFR) ------------------------------------**PER is an event to showcase the readiness of naval power of the country which is reviewed by the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.

LATE DEVANAND born in 23 september 1923...his 1st movie was "hum ek hai" releasd in the year 1946....he made navketan film company in the year 1946..he made 7 films wid suriyaa...he got filmfair in 1966 for film "guide" and another for "kaalapani" in 1958...he acted in more then 100 films and made more then 35 films...he 1st directed in the movie in 1978..he is popularly known as ""GOD OF STYLE OF BOLLYWOOD"....hw got padma bhushan award in 2001 and dada saheb falke award in 2002...he died on 4th dec 2011 at the age of 88 in london due to severe hart attack.....bollywood lost the stlyle ikon....

L.C. Jain Committee Report (1990) on Development of Assam....write abt it The L.C. Jain Committee Report (1990) on Development of Assam and the High Level Commission on the North East popularly known as Shukla Commissions Report on Transforming the North East (1997) provided direction for the development. The later defined five basic deficits: a basic need deficit, an infrastructure deficit, a resource deficit, a two-way deficit of understanding with the rest of the country and a governance deficit.

Tana Riri....award is given for ? The Tana Riri award, carrying a cash prize of Rs 5 lakh, aims at encouraging women singers and musicians. Renowned vocalist and thumri exponent, Girija Devi was today(2011) awarded the Tana Riri award for her contribution to music by Gujarat Government at the 9th edition of Tana Riri ..Last year Lata mangeshkar & Asha bhonsle became Ist women singers to receive Tana Riri National Award .tana and riri are the daughters of narshinh maheta !!!

WTO has how many members ?....hw many of them hav given MFN status to INDIA....nd how many are yet to giv ? WTO has 153 member..........al ve given mfn to india..the recent among dem bein pakistan

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S L BHYRAPPA ...whose this personality in newzz !> Dr.SLB-First Kannada writer to get India's highest Literary award " Saraswathi Samman"...for his epic novel Mandra, his musical take on the question of art against morality and other philosophies of life.

Write 20 words abt Opium production in India India produces about half the opium utilized by the world's pharmaceutical industries to produce codeine, morphine, narcotine, thebaine, papaverine, and other medical products.Three states in which opium is grown are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh.

World Press Freedom Prize is given by ? UNESCO.......... Imprisoned Iranian journalist Ahmad Zeidabadi is the laureate of this years UNESCO Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize. He was selected by an independent international jury of 12 media professionals.

World Gold Council ....write abt it...also wat is India's present status der ? a non profit association(22 members) established in1987 represents 60% of global corporate gold production. head quaters in london operates in India , Far east , Turky , Eu & US. India is largest market for gold in world representing 746tonnes in 2010.But the high costs and near double-digit inflation saw demand in India - the world's largest gold consumer and importer fall by 23 percent.

Integrated Guided Missile Develpment Program......write 20 words ! it was formed in 1983 with the aim of achieving self-sufficiency in missile development & production...Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam was head of it

Do u know ? So far India has signed Civil Nuclear Agreements with: 1. United States 2. Russia 3. France 4. Mongolia 5. Namibia 6. Argentina 7. Canada 8. Kazakhstan 9. South Korea

Madam Tussaude Wax museum me....kin kin Indian's ki statue hai ? six.....AB, HR, ARB, SRT, SRK, SK, BAPU

Khonds (Tribes): were primitive tribes living in..................? state ? Orissa........They used to sacrifice humans,that ruthless tradition was put to an end by Lord Hardinge

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Hyetology means ?> A branch of the study of weather that deals with precipitation....... histology is The study of the microscopic structure of tissues. !

..............................means cultivation of the plants without use of soil. HydroponiCs....

What is Exfoliation ? Exfoliation is a form of rock weathering, also referred to as onion skin weathering. It is characterized by a layer by layer erosion of the outer surface of the rock

The mass of the earth is about 81 times that of the ..... ?--- Moon

.......................is the highest volcano in the world. It is situated in Ecuador. ? Cotopaxi by ncert 6th class

What is HELIOCENTRIC theory ? The heliocentric theory argues that the Sun is the central body of the solar system and perhaps of the universe. Everything else (planets and their satellites, asteroids, comets, etc.) revolves around it...

What are Bolides ...Tektides ? Bolides-it means a very large impactor when the impactor cannot be identified as a meteorite, comet or asteroid... tektites-Tektites are small, black blobs that might pass for hardened bits of asphalt but they are actually walnut-sized glassy stones.

difference between ASTEROIDS nd METEROIDS ? Asteroids are chunks of rock covered in frozen gases found b/w orbits of mars nd jupiter meteorites are when a particle of matter enters the earths atmosphere nd becomes incandescent as a result of friction with atmospheric atoms nd molecules also called shooting stars

What are PLANETOIDS ? another name of asteroids

VAN ALLEN BELT ..wats dat ?

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It is a radiation belt made of energetic charged particles (plasma) around Earth, which is held in place by Earth's magnetic field or gravitational pull .

this planet completes revolution around d SUN in 88 days name it ! mercury .. neptune takes 164.8 years

what r PLAgES ..on sun ? luminous area in the suns chromosphere that appears in the vicinity of a sunspot

write abt the fourth state matter ...PLASMA ! Plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized.

1 Parsec = ..............light years ?------ 3.26 light year

What are "Devil Stars " ? The Devil's Star just refers to a five pointed star or pentagram,

What are CEPHIEDS /? A Cepheid are of a class of very luminous variable stars.

CYGNUS X -1 ...watzz tat ? its an X ray source.. considered to be a black hole as well.

What is a Hubble ? a kind of telescope . .by whch we cAN see a various planet n sun . . . Upto several light years . . . . . Generally the measurement tkes in the parSec . . For da loNg distances !! :).....named after a famous astronomer EDWIN HUBBLE

What is Co -Latitude .., Co - Declination ? Co-latitude - the measurement of degrees from the pole to the equator so that the equator has a latitude of 90 degrees. co-declination_the angular distance along a greatcircle from the celestial pole.

What is ZENITH in terms of astronomy ? the highest point reached by a celestial body during its apparent orbit

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Write in detail abt Cyrus Mistry....why is he considered to b d best uttaraadhikari of Tata ? Cyrus is son of shapoor ji pallon ji mistry , mr. Shapoor ji is largest single share holder in tata group (18.5 %). Cyrus is the chairman of shapoor ji and pallon ji group. Also deputy chairman of tata sons. He is youngest son of Shapur ji plonji. M.D of Shapurji plonji group.. he has an experien of 22 yrs in Indian entertainment Industry. under his ledership Shapurji plonji construction developed his economy up to high level of 1.5 billion dollor... he was Cyrus P. Mistry who contributed in constrution of the longest Railway bridge, highest, residencial tower launched regenable Housing project..

1-2-2003 ....n important event took place .... Name it space shuttle columbia crashed....Kalpana Chawla died during the mission

FDI in retail ........a good idea or bad idea....DeBaTe

People who said it was a bad idea

*not good idea for lower middle class man specially Baniya class....but Govt is definitely going to get more profit via Taxes....Product Cost will go higher and we will be left with no option but to buy thing @high rates........Foreign company will earn more n more from us.....specially US * Its not at all a gud idea as the govt is agreed to bring WALL MART as a retail market ......bucz this will rise the competision among the domestic product aa resultant rise in price of domestic products which a middle class ppl cant afford .....now the question shuld raise of 32 Rs concept foor poor ppl and ask govt y they decided to kill the Aam Janta *Overawl not a gud idea for evry1. . . .sirf politician k liye acha hoga ruling gov.k kyunki dey earn alot n gov.k paise ko khayenge bt hmari cuntry ek devlopng cuntry hai na av v yaha k max.log poverty line k niche rehte hai wo to walmart me shopng krne nai jayenge na jo hamare yaha k khudra businesman hai unka kya hoga . . . .jb hamari body me koi foreign organisms entry krte hai to hamari body usko seh nai sakti hai to hw cn fdi in retail in india?? *FDI in retail certainly a bad idea for an economy like india,although it has worked wonders 4 china but conditins in china and indai cant be compared,china hi wholly a manufacturing economy sustaining due to its vast exports but in india dis step will put most of the control on indian retail sector in hands of foreingn firms............... * bad idea...there is a lot of difference bettween what a book about financial planning says and what happens practically,in the same way we regulated a lot of rules and said it will be good for aam janta and farmers,but nothing changes last 60 years,we all know what is the condition of poor in India,yes other countries have implemented this and got sucess but when we take example of Singapore also remember they are no 1 anti corrupt nation because of ICEB,every rule is followed,not like here where in MNREGA and PDS lot of corruption,this is bad idea

people who said dat it was a good idea

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*it will benefit india's 1.2 billion consumers who ll be able to avail goods at cheaper prices....therefore it will lead to increase in consumption in the economy....increased consumption will have a multiplier effect and thus help in creating more jobs, increase GDP etc.. since 56% pop is involved in agri related activiies....invst in agri and back end will increase....agroprocessing will increase which inturn will lead to higher employment generation since agro processing industries are highly labour intensive.... it will benefit the real estate, IT companies.... FDI inflow will help in bridging the CA deficit Kirana stores and Retail megastores can co-exist primarily due to locational factors and a loyal customer base.... reduction in wastage of agri produce will increase domestic food security and free larger volumes for export..... it is also easier to regulate large retail chains and thus prevent hoarding, black marketing etc moreover retail stores are themselves labour intensive and thus a large section of retrenched labour can itself be absorbed by them ... moreover by this india has fulfilled an international commitment which can give it leverage to negotiate better trade deals as it was a key sticking point in India-EU FTA.....

its a good idea....1. Competition definitely wil enhance goods n services like what we observed in telecom. 2. It creates a gud employment potential 3. Already safeguards for farmers r mentioned 4. Prices would certainly come down due to competition but a gud pricing policy has to be made... 5. Increases our GDP... More positives than negatives...even there was same opposition during liberalisation in 90s...


IPC 498A. Husband or relative of husband of a woman subjecting her to cruelty.Whoever, being the husband or the relative of the husband of a woman, subjects such woman to cruelty shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.


History Group Activity

Bhagat Singh and B.K.Dutt dropped bombs on the Central Legislative Assembly to expess their dissatisfaction/resentment against which two bills? Love is all we want LIKE OUR FB Fanpage at IAS OUR DREAM 60

trade dispute nd trade union bill .. nd public safety bill

The Sanskrit Kavya - who composed this n when? He was "Sandhyakara Nandi"..And it was composed during the reign of King Madanapala since 1140_1155

Tulsidas, the author of Ramcharitmanas, was a contemporary of which Mughal rulers? Akbar

To which king belongs the Lion capitol at Sarnath? Ashoka

The first battle of the American War of Independence took place in the year -- 1776, 4 July

The first writer to use Urdu as the medium of poetic expression was:? Amir khusaro

who was the first indian to be elected to the british parliament? Dadabhai Naoroji was elected Liberal MP for Finsbury Central in 1892

who destroyed nalanda university?Bakhtiyar Khilji

The source of much of our knowledge of Ashoka is the many inscriptions he had carved on pillars and rocks throughout the empire. All his inscriptions have the imperial touch and show compassionate loving. He addressed his people as his "children". These inscriptions promoted Buddhist morality and encouraged nonviolence and adherence to Dharma (duty or proper behavior), and they talk of his fame and conquered lands as well as the neighboring kingdoms holding up his might. One also gets some primary information about the Kalinga War and Ashoka's allies plus some useful knowledge on the civil administration. The Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath is the most popular of the relics left by Ashoka. Made of sandstone, this pillar records the visit of the emperor to Sarnath, in the 3rd century BC. Love is all we want LIKE OUR FB Fanpage at IAS OUR DREAM 61

It has a four-lion capital (four lions standing back to back) which was adopted as the emblem of the modern Indian republic. The lion symbolizes both Ashoka's imperial rule and the kingship of the Buddha. In translating these monuments, historians learn the bulk of what is assumed to have been true fact of the Mauryan Empire. It is difficult to determine whether or not some actual events ever happened, but the stone etchings clearly depict how Ashoka wanted to be thought of and remembered.

megasthenes was the ambassador of selucus nicator...his daughter was married to chandragupta maurya who gave 500 elephants to selucus which were very helpful to him in his future battle for control of Alexander's empire...and megasthenes wrote indica too:) other greek writers like pliny,starbo,diodorous,plutarch,arrian and justin also provide info abt mauryan rule.

Tomb of Sher Shah Suri is located at ? it is in SASARAM(BIHAR)...sasaram it is babu jagjivan ram n meira kumar's parliamentary constituency!

'nyay ki jnjir' kis mugal smrat ne lgvayi? jahangir

Under which Indian emperor's reign was the Jama Masjid in Delhi built? shah jahan in 1644 and completed in 1658 AD

In which Indian state is the Dilwara Temple located? mount aabu rajasthan delwara jain mandir

Gift to Monotheism is d wrk of ? raja rammohun roy.

who was referred to as the 'ambassador of hindhu muslim unity' by sarojini naidu in the early years of gandhian period ? Mohammed Ali jinnah The French society was divided into 3 groups the clergy, the nobility nd the commoners

which sultan of delhi assumed the title of 'alexander the great' ? Alauddin khilji. Love is all we want LIKE OUR FB Fanpage at IAS OUR DREAM 62

house of people ka naam change kar ke loksabha kis year me kiya gaya? 1954

tuglma policy? babar in india

Vernacular Press Act passed in- 1878

Mohammed Ali Jinnah joined the Home Rule League founded by Annie-Besant

smudrgupt ko kisne "india ka nepolian" kha h?? Vincent Smith

Father of Indian Renaissance? rajaram mohan roy......

who is the "senapati" of pandav army in kurukshetra battle? dhrishta dhyuma... bro of panchali (draupadi)

maj Hudson had arrested bahadur shah & killed his sons & grandson

outram & taylor were of the opinion that revolt of 1857 was a hindu-muslim conspiracy

Who is the of shilpaddikaram and manimekhlai ? silapadikaram was written by elango adigal and manimegalai by sithalaisarthanar...both are considered as epics in tamil litt..manimegalai is a sequel to silapadikaram ..

when was netaji subhash chandra born? Jan 23,1897

who was the writer of "the art of war"? Sun Tzu, an ancient Chinese military general and philosopher authored The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy.

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Is the Society of Indus valley civilization Matriarchial ? plz Justify ! Yes bcoz lots of mother goddess is found there.soubhangna atre supported this view.

Which medieval Indian ruler prior to Akbar has been referred to as the 'Akbar of Kashmir'? Jen -ul-abedin had done Many social reform and remove Zaziya tex on brahmin in J&K Like Akber ...! That's why he called Akber of kashmir ...!

who wrote "swapnvashavdutta"? Sanskrit play in six acts written by the ancient Indian poet Bhasa

the tribal movement of mundas is also known as ulgulan the tribal movement of mundas was led by birsa munda

'"kashmir ka nero"kise kha jata h? Harsh raja deva

What's the salient features of napoleon code The Napoleonic Code or Code Napoleon is the French civil code, established under Napoleon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified. female equity . Abolition of surfdom and feudalism.

when was indian independence bill passed in the british parliament? indian independence bill was passed by british parliament on 15 july ,1947..it received royal assent on july 18

about cold war? cold war is the xtreme political unfriendliness between 2 or more countries though they actually do not fight with each other.it is neither a condition of peace nor a condition of war .it is a state of uneasy peace.the world then was called bipolar world. Love is all we want LIKE OUR FB Fanpage at IAS OUR DREAM 64

immediate cause of war of 1857? immediate cause of war of 1857 was the introduction of enfield rifles .the cartridges to b used were greased with the fat of cows and pigs.cows sacred to hindus and muslims considere pig unclean

Whats are salient feature of 1791 constitution in france established the Kingdom of the French, a constitutional monarchy, and the Legislative Assembly.

the east india association? it was established on 1st oct,1866.it aimed at providing members of the british parliament information regarding india's genuine grievance

who established the servants of india society and when? The Servants of India Society was formed in Pune, Maharashtra, on June 12, 1905 by Gopal Krishna Gokhale

vernacular press act and arms act?


y y

Vernacular Press act (1878) imposed a restriction on the press not to publish anything which is likely to excite the feelings of dissatisfaction against the government. This act didnot impose any restrictions on English newspapers. Indian Arms act of 1878 - Indians must get licenses to keep arms. This act didnot apply to europeans. both these acts were introduced by lord lytton

when was rani lakshmi bai killed? June 17,1858 founder of aligarh movement in India? Sir Shyed Ahmed Khan..........

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who founded the satyagraha sabha and in which year It was founded in 1919 by Gandhiji to protest against the Rowlatt Act. what is qutubnuma? this is like a compass to find the direction in sea. who led the revolt of 1891 in manipur? manipur-raja tikendrajit where did kittur uprising break out and when ? 1824..chinamma n ryapa..in kittur,karnatka who led the pagal panthis in bengal? tipu and karam shah who became the first woman cabinet minister of india & when? amrit kaur He went to england to plead the cause of mughal emperor akbar II , with an ambassador of the emperor Raja Ram Mohun Roy how was veena das associated with india's freedom movement ? shot the governor who set up the mahila rashtriya sangha in 1928? latika ghosh. she was a dedicated sociologist;was elected first mayor of delhi;was involved in underground activities during the quit india movement; who was she? aruna asaf ali who led the rani of jhansi regiment of ina? (clue-she was a medical doctor) lakshmi swaminathan......she married captain sehgal who was the founder of bengal gazette? james hickey

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who were navratna in akbar's court? Abul Fazl,Faizi,Tansen,Raja Birbal,Raja Todar Mal,Raja Man Singh,Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana,Fakir Aziao-Din,Mullah Do Piaza when was indian civil liberties union formed? what was it's objective? India Civil Liberties Union (ICLU) was the first Human Rights Non-governmental organisation in India formed in 1936. The importance of ICLU lies in the fact that it contributed to an understanding of what human rights meant, the rights to oppose the government. This understanding served its purpose well in the colonial period, and continues to influence the nature of human rights organisations up to today which organisation was batukeswar dutt associated wid & who was with him during d legislative assembly bombing on 8th april, 1929? He was a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, one of the first Marxist parties in India. Bhagat Singh 1st buddhist council held immediately after death of buddha. convened by mahakasapa..a disciple..to put together sayngs f lord buddha 2nd hd after a century f d frst one at VAISHALLI. significant coz monks split into 2 grps viz easterners (mahansanghika) n westerners (theravadin).. 3rd held in 3rd century BC during reign of ashoka at pataliputra. significant coz ashoka inspired by dis started his own religion..d law of piety or dhamma 4th held in next century under kanishkain kashmir.was d last buddhist council

who built mumbai gate??????? This famous monument was built to commemorate the visit of the first ever British Monarch, King George V and Queen Mary in 1911. The Gateway was built by the British and designed by the architect George Wittet. The first stone was laid by the then Governor of Bombay on March 31st, 1913. The Gate was formally opened in 1924. What was the Lex Loci Act? Proposed by the British in 1845 n passed in 1850.It allowed Hindu converts to christianity to inherit their ancestral property. Arthshastra written by chankya(Kautilya) Rajtrangini by kallhad Love is all we want LIKE OUR FB Fanpage at IAS OUR DREAM 67

Mrichhkatikam by shudrak Kadambri by waanbhatt The term Nirgrantha is associated with Jainas The Upanishads are a source of Hindu philosophy Name the authors of Dansagar, Adbhutsagar and Pavanaduta.------ Ballal Sen Ustad Mansur was a famous painter in the reign of Jahangir Tipu sultan was the ruler of Mysore Lichchhavi Dauhitra ? any idea what is this? Mother of Samundra Gupta Kumar Devi n she ws the queen of Lichchhavi Harshavardhana was also known as? he belonged to which dynasty? Siladitya, n from pushyabhuti/vardhan Who was Amoghavarsha? famous rashtrakuta ruler who transfer his capital to manyakheta ..He was related wd jainism religion ...!

Raj Ghat- the place is assign to give tribute to Bapuji (father of nation Mahatma Gandhi). It is very close to Janpath. Mahatma Gandhi is an eminent leader in the freedom struggle of India. Kishan Ghat - Memorial to the legendary farmer's leader Chaudhary Charan Singh, who was the who was the prime minister briefly in the year 1979. Abhay Ghat - Its the Samathi Sthal of former prime minister Morar...ji Desai in Ahmedabad. Shanti Van- it is located near to Raj Ghat and this place is memorial of Indias first Prime Love is all we want LIKE OUR FB Fanpage at IAS OUR DREAM 68

Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. ... Shakti Sthal- this memorial ground is the memorial ground of Indias first women prime minister Indira Gandhi. Vir Bhumi- this memorial ground is dedicated towards Indias l former prime minister Rajiv Gandhi. Vijay Ghat- our second prime minister and a very active freedom fighter Lal Bahadur Shastris memorial ground is Vijay Ghat. Two of the great Mughals wrote their own memories. There were Babar and Jahangir. The treaty of Srirangapatna was signed between Tipu Sultan and Lord Cornwallis ( this was the vry humiliating treaty fr Tipu ) The language of discourses of Gautama Buddha was Pali Who founded the 'All India Harijan Sangh' in 1932 ? Mahatma Gandhi ancient name of bundelkhand,which corresponds to oldest mahajanapadha of chedi? Jejakabhukti nd its capital was Suktimaheni The third battle of Panipat was between the it was fought between Marathas and Ahmad Shah Abdali in the year1761 The Turko-Afghan rule in India lasted for about three centuries...! until 1976 what was the indian national animal? Lion Inquilab Zindabad' (long live revolution) slogan was first used by which revolutionary ?...Bhagat Singh sri krishna deva raya was a contemporary of which mughal rural? Babur

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'jana gana mana ' was publishd in january 1912 under the title 'bharat vidhata' in which paper which was edited by Tagore himself.... tatvabodhini patrika For the Karachi session of Indian National Congress in 1931 presided over by Sardar Patel, who drafted the Resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Programme? Nehru which asian country celebrates its independence day on december 16? Bangladesh 16 december ,1971 nd thid day also celebrated as VIJAY DIWAS..... by indian army Which Indian freedom fighter was popularly called 'Mahamana' ? Madan Mohan Malaviya Where was the first Indian Institute of Management (IIM) established in 1961 ? Kolkata

What are the fiscal measures that govt should use to control inflation?
Following steps may be envisaged: 1. Removing structural bottlenecks and artificial scarcity esp. in case of foodgrain, Fruits, Vegetables distribution.. for a smoother supply flow of essential agri output. Here expenditure on construction of warehouses, cold storages, Post harvest infrastructure, efiicient PDS system etc may be considered. Currently the problem lies not so much in adequate output of the foodgrain (we infact are boasting of a buffer!), but in inefficient distribution of the same. Also in case of fruits & vegetables, loss during transport adds to inefficiencies. Expenditure on modernisation of agri will help increase the productivity of this sector. 2. Also, On expenditure side subsidies may be rationalised, even eliminated in certain cases.. subsidies do not entail any productive output in return and may inject inefficiencies in use of resources. Targetted subsidies should be teh order of the day, and effective monitoring should be taken up to ensure it reaches the right beneficiaries. Impact of such subsidies must be measured for their effectivity in addressing the target beneficiaries' needs. Love is all we want LIKE OUR FB Fanpage at IAS OUR DREAM 70

Expenditure on infrastructure sector will lead to greater capital formation, growth and increased GDP Additionally, social sector reforms should continue eg. Nrega (that adds to productive asset), employment generation programs, Education and training programs to upskill Human Capital, Financial inclusion etc.. Also Support to SMEs, Agri, manufacturing sector reforms should be taken up to push up growth. Increase in GDP will put more money in hands of people.. consequently govr will benefit by way of increased tax revenues 3. On revenue side - Tax system may be rationalized with introduction of DTC, GST, simplification of tax filing process (Saral, Sugam etc), cascading effect of multiple taxation should be avoided, black money economy to sternly dealt with (DTAA, TIEA are being signed to this effect), dealing with corruption (bringing in lokpal and lokayukta, strengthening CAG/CIC/CVC/CBI/Police force etc)... al this would help govt raise it revenues. Taxes on luxury items may be increased.. MOST IMPORTANTLY - Underlying Objective of Fiscal consolidation must not take a backseat. A greater fiscal deficit will only lead to more inflation, increased public debt, crowding out of pvt. investment, rising interest rates, lower investment, depreciating domestic currency and subsequent high import bill that adds on to more inflation :so crux lies in targeting the expenditures n increasing the revenue receipts so as to decrease fiscal deficit...that would decrease inflation rate..!.. had it been that easy our govt would not have been in such a fix.. actually the matters get complicated by trade offs involved.. for eg. More govt expenditure means more money in hands of people.. so more demand for goods and services.. and if supply does not increase accordingly (say due to structural bottlenecks) then this move will only serve to increase inflation. On the other hand, if govt expenditure are curtailed, employment, education, infrastructure, poverty alleviation measures will suffer, adversly affecting growth prospects.. causing widespread discontent (and mayb protests!).. So govt will have have to choose a "right mix" of Revenue and expenditures measures.. coupled with RBIs monetary policy measures Additionally International factors contributing to inflation eg. high commodity and crude oil prices need to be effectively managed. Love is all we want LIKE OUR FB Fanpage at IAS OUR DREAM 71

No policy can work in isolation, therefore govt must strive to bring its fiscal and monetary policy in line with each other.. and combine both to counter inflation.

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