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1/12/2011

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ISSUESTOADDRESS...
CHAPTER13:
ELECTRICALPROPERTIES
Howareelectricalconductanceandresistance
characterized?
Whatarethephysicalphenomenathatdistinguish
conductors,semiconductors,andinsulators?
Formetals,howisconductivityaffectedby
imperfections,T,anddeformation?
Forsemiconductors,howisconductivityaffected
byimpurities(doping)andT?
ScanningelectronmicroscopeimagesofanIC:
Al
Si
(a)
(d)
VIEWOFANINTEGRATEDCIRCUIT
AdotmapshowinglocationofSi(asemiconductor):
Sishowsupaslightregions.
A dot map showing location of Al (a conductor):
0.5mm
45m
Si
(doped)
(b)
AdotmapshowinglocationofAl(aconductor):
Alshowsupaslightregions.
Fig.(a),(b),(c)fromFig.18.0,
Callister6e.
Fig.(d)fromFig.18.25,Callister6e.(Fig.18.25iscourtesy
NickGonzales,NationalSemiconductorCorp.,WestJordan,
UT.)
(c)
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Ohm's Law:
AV= I R
voltagedrop(volts) resistance(Ohms)
current(amps)
ELECTRICALCONDUCTION
AV
I
e
-
A
(cross
sect.
area)
L
Resistivity, andConductivity,o:
geometryindependentformsofOhm'sLaw(recallnormalizationwithoc)
AV I
E:electric resistivity

L
=
A

field
intensity
y
(Ohmm)
J:currentdensity

o =
I

conductivity
Resistance:

R=
L
A
=
L
Ao
Silver 6.8 x 10
7

METALS
Soda-lime glass 10
-10

CERAMICS
conductors
RoomTvalues(Ohmm)
1
CONDUCTIVITY:COMPARISON
Polystyrene <10
-14

Copper 6.0 x 10
7

Iron 1.0 x 10
7
Silicon 4 x 10
-4

SEMICONDUCTORS
Concrete 10
-9

Aluminum oxide <10
-13
POLYMERS
Polystyrene <10
Polyethylene 10
-15
-10
-17
Silicon 4 x 10
4

Germanium 2 x 10
0

GaAs 10
-6
semiconductors
insulators
SelectedvaluesfromTables18.1,18.2,and18.3,Callister 6e.
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100m
Cu wire
I = 2.5A - + e
-
EX:CONDUCTIVITYPROBLEM
Whatistheminimumdiameter(D)ofthewiresothat
AV<1.5V?
AV
R
L AV
<1.5V
100m

R=
Ao
=
I
2.5A
6.07x10(Ohmm)
7 1

tD
2
4
SolvetogetD>1.88mm
PauliExclusionPrinciplegivesrisetoenergybands
QuantumMechanics
statesthatnotwo
electronscanoccupythe
same state)
Electronsnot
accompanying
h
samestate)
http://www.aps.org/p
ublications/apsnews/2
00701/images/Wolfga
ng_Pauli_1.jpg
EnergyleveldiagramforahypotheticalN
4
molecule.Thefourshared,outerorbital
electronsaresplitintofourslightlydifferentenergylevels(thePauliexclusionprinciple).
thesamestate
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Metalsaregoodconductors
sincetheirvalencebandisonly
partiallyfilled.
Metals:
Thermalenergyputs
manyelectronsinto
a higher energy state.
+ -
net e
-
flow
CONDUCTION&ELECTRONTRANSPORT
e e eq n o =
n
e
=#ofe
q
e
=Chargeofe

e
=E mobility
ahigherenergystate.
net e flow
EnergyStates:
thecasesbelow
formetalsshow
thatnearby
energystates
ibl
Energy
filled
empty
band
s
Energy
partly
filled
l
empty
band
GAP
Mylevel
highest
filledstate

e
y
areaccessible
bythermal
fluctuations.
filled
band
valence
band
f
i
l
l
e
d

s
t
a
t
e
filled
band
valence
band
f
i
l
l
e
d

s
t
a
t
e
s
Fermi
http://www.bayarea.net/~kins/
AboutMe/GIFs/Fermi_2.jpg
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Insulators:
Higherenergystatesnot
accessible duetogap.
Semiconductors:
Higherenergystates
separatedbyasmallergap.
ENERGYSTATES:INSULATORSAND
SEMICONDUCTORS
g p
Energy
filled
valence
empty
band
t
e
s
GAP
Energy
filled
valence
empty
band
e
s
GAP
?
Engineered
material:Gaps
aretunable
moretocome
filled
band
valence
band
f
i
l
l
e
d

s
t
a
t
filled
band
valence
band
f
i
l
l
e
d

s
t
a
t
Insulators: Aparallelplatecapacitorinvolvesaninsulator,ordielectric,between
twometalelectrodes.Thechargedensitybuildupatthecapacitorsurfaceisrelatedto
thedielectricconstant ofthematerial
kE D c
E,Electricfieldstrength(V/m)
kE D o c =
D,charge
density(C/m
2
)
c
o
electricpermittivityinvacuum,
constant,8.9x10
12
C/(Vm)
k,dielectricconstant
(materialproperty)
constant, 8.9x 0 C/(Vm)
k o c c =
c electricpermittivity
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Imperfectionsincreaseresistivity
grainboundaries
dislocations
impurityatoms
Theseacttoscatterelectronssothatthey
takealessdirectpath.
METALS:RESISTIVITYVST,IMPURITIES
vacancies
C
u
+
3
.
3
2
a
t
%
N
i
C
u
+
2
.
1
6
a
t
%
N
i
d
e
f
o
r
m
e
d
C
u
+
1
.
1
2
a
t
%
N
i
2
3
4
5
6
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y
,



0
-
8

O
h
m
-
m
)
1
1
2
a
t
%
N
i
Resistivity
)] ( 1 [ rt o T T + = o
o temperaturecoefficientofresistivity,
o
is
intrinsic(noimpurity)resistivity
T (C)
-200 -100 0
d
e
1
2
R
e
(
1
0
0
C
u
+
1
.
1
2

P
u
r
e

C
u
Resistivity
increaseswith:
temperature
wt%impurity
%CW
AdaptedfromFig.18.8,Callister 6e.(Fig.18.8adaptedfromJ.O.Linde,
Ann.Physik 5,p.219(1932);andC.A.WertandR.M.Thomson,Physicsof
Solids,2nded.,McGrawHillBookCompany,NewYork,1970.)
Why????
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Variationinelectricalresistivitywithcompositionforvariouscopperalloyswithsmalllevelsof
elementaladditions.AlldataareatfixedT(20C).
( ) x
o
| + = 1

o
resistivityofpuremetal
| slope
x amtofalloy(impurity)addition
DataforPureSilicon:
o increaseswithT
oppositetometals

o
undoped
e
E
gap
/ kT
Energy
PURESEMICONDUCTORS:CONDUCTIVITYVST
l t i l d ti it
Arrheniuseq.!
filled
band
filled
valence
band
empty
band
f
i
l
l
e
d

s
t
a
t
e
s
GAP
?
electrons
cancross
gapat
higherT
electrical conductivity, o
(Ohm-m)
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
pure
band
material
Si
Ge
GaP
CdS
bandgap(eV)
1.11
0.67
2.25
2.40
AdaptedfromFig.19.15,Callister5e.(Fig.19.15adapted
fromG.L.PearsonandJ.Bardeen,Phys.Rev.75,p.865,
1949.)
SelectedvaluesfromTable
18.2,Callister6e.
50 100 1000
10
-2
10
-1
10
p
(undoped)
T(K)
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CONDUCTIONINTERMSOFELECTRONANDHOLEMIGRATION
Light(shown),heat,
some input of energy
ElectricalConductivitygivenby:
# holes/m
3
someinputofenergy
toexcitee from
valencebandto
conductionband
Conductioncanbeeither
bynegativecarriers,

o = ne
e
+pe
h
#electrons/m
3
electronmobility
#holes/m
holemobility
y g ,
electrons(ntype)and/or
positivecarriers,holes
(ptype).
Electronsmovetowards
(+)potentialandholes
moveto()potential
kT
Eg
o
e
2

=o o
Arrheniusequation;Why2? Producetwo
chargecarriers electronandhole
mx B y
T k
E
e
g
o
T k
E
o
g
+ =
=
=
1
2
ln ln
1
2
o o
o o
Determiningtheactivation
energyforconduction
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Intrinsicsemiconductors:#ofthermallygeneratedelectrons=
#ofholes(brokenbonds)
Extrinsic semiconductors: Impurities added to the
INTRINSICVSEXTRINSICCONDUCTION
Extrinsicsemiconductors:Impuritiesaddedtothe
semiconductorthatcontributetoexcesselectronsorholes.
Doping=intentionalimpurities
Siisthemainmaterialinsemiconductors
Largebandgap(1.1eV);allowsSitooperateatwarmertemperatures(150
o
C)
Canformanativeoxide,SiO
2
,forinsulatingbarriers(importantinfabrication)
Sicanbemadeintolarge(12inchdia.),highpurity,singlecrystalingots.
Czochralski method.
Wafersarecutfromtheingot
DopingofSi
Sihas4outershellelectrons
ntype:Phosphorous,arsenic(groupV),donateextraelectron
ptype:boron(groupIII)forSi
ntype
4valenceelectronsofAsallowittobondlikeSi,butthefifthelectronisleftorbitingAs
site theenergytoreleasethefifthelectronintotheCBissmall

o ~ne
e
kT
E Eg
o
d
e
) (
=o o
E
g
isbottomofconductionband
E
d
isthedonorlevel
Arrheniusequation,again!
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ptype
Boronhasonly3valanceelectrons.WhenitsubstitutesforaSiatoms,oneofitsbonds
haveamissingelectron(hole)
Holetunnelsaround,andcanbelibratedbythermalvibrationofSiatoms,fromtheB
siteintotheVB.

o ~p e
h
kT
E
o
a
e

=o o
ptype
ntype
?type
?type
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Arrheniusplotofelectrical
conductivityforanntype
semiconductoroverawide
temperaturerange.Atlow
temperatures(high1/T),the
materialisextrinsic.Athigh
temperatures(low1/T),the
materialisintrinsic.In
betweenistheexhaustion
range,inwhichallextra
electronshavebeenpromoted
to the
why?
tothe
why?
CompoundSemiconductors
GroupIIIVandIIVcompoundsnominallyhave
theZincBlendstructureandareintrinsic the inc lend structure and are intrinsic
semiconductors.Canbedoped,likeSi,tochange
conduction(extrinsic)
MXCompounds:GroupIII3+valence,GroupV
5+valence avg.of4+valenceperatom//
GroupII2+valence,GroupVI6+valence avg.4
valenceperatom
Applications:
Solarcells
Lightemittingdiodes(occurswith
electronholerecombination)
Higheroperationspeeds,etc.
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Allowsflowofelectronsinonedirectiononly (e.g.,useful
toconvertalternatingcurrenttodirectcurrent).
Processing:diffusePintoonesideofaBdopedcrystal.
Results:
+
p-type n-type
ICDEVICES:PNRECTIFYINGJUNCTION
Noappliedpotential:
nonetcurrentflow.
Forwardbias:carrier
flowthroughptypeand
ntyperegions;holesand
electronsrecombineat
pn junction; current flows
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
p type n type
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
p-type n-type
+ -
14
pnjunction;currentflows.
Reversebias:carrier
flowawayfrompnjunction;
carrierconc.greatlyreduced
atjunction;littlecurrentflow.
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
p-type n-type
- +
PNRectifyingJunction
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LightEmittingDiode(LED)
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/led.htm/printable
http://spie.org/Images/Graphics/Newsroom/Importe
d/0695/0695_fig4.jpg
Bandgapdetermines
light,viaDeBoglie
equation=h/(mv)
TheTransistor
InventedbyShockley,Bardeen,
andBrattainin1948.Nobelprize
in1956.
Athreeterminaldevicethatacts
likeasimpleonoffswitch.
ThebasisofIntegratedCircuits(IC)
technology
Computers,cellphones,
automotivecontrol,etc.
Ifvoltage(potential)appliedto
thegate,currentflowsbetween g ,
thesourceandthedrain.
On/offswitch logicswitch,
go/nogo
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Howtodoweprocessthematerials?
Features?
Controlling
oxide
thickness?
MakingSintype?
MakingSiptype?
FabricatingSingleCrystal,HighPuritySi
Czochralski method
Zonerefining
http://www.mindfiesta.com/images/article/Metallurgy_clip_image003_0002.gif
l s C C K / =
K =segregationcoefficient
C =concentrationofimpuritiesinsolidand
liquid
MoresoluterejectedasTdecreases
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Cleanrooms
Featuresbeingmadeare
submicron DUSTisyour
enemy! Candestroyentire
waferofmultipleprocessors
Cleanroomclassification
p p
http://docs.engineeringtoolbox.com/documents/933/cleanroomclass
particlesizediagramISO.png
http://zedomax.com/blog/wp
content/uploads/2009/12/silico
nwafer.jpg
http://philip.greenspun.com/images/pcd0094/microdisplaycleanroom
31.3.jpg
Turbulentflow Laminarflow
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleanroom
Oxidation
Oxidation =growthofanoxidelayerby
thereactionofoxygenwiththesubstrate
Providesdopant maskinganddevice
isolation
ICtechnologyuses
Thermalgrownoxidization(dry)
O
2
richenvironment,7501100
o
C,
largebatchprocess(150+wafers)
Si+O
2
SiO
2
Wetoxidation
Si+H
2
OSiO
2
+2H
2 2

2 2
Highergrowthrates,lowoxide
density(lowerdielectricproperties)
Selectiveoxidation:Useofsiliconnitride
topreventoxidationinspecificregions
http://www.semi.org/cms/groups/pu
blic/documents/web_content/~expor
t/CTR_032685~1~000086~DC_SNIPPE
T_LAYOUT/866811.jpg
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Lithography
Lithography =processbywhich
geometricpatternsare
transferredfromamask(reticle)
toasurfaceofachiptoformthe
device device.
Mooreslaw(1965)
Linewidth =widthofsmallest
featureobtainableonSisurface
(dependent)
Photoresist (PR)=lightsensitivepolymermaterial
Patternsareimprintedusingphotoresist
Positiveresist =theportionofthephotoresist thatis
exposedtolightbecomessolubletothephotoresist
developerandtheportionofthephotoresist thatis
unexposedremainsinsolubletothephotoresist
developer(exposed,removed)
Negativeresist =unexposed(uncrosslinked)portionof
thephotoresist isdissolvedbythephotoresist
developer (exposed,staysput)
Whytheyellowlight?
ICFeatureMaking
(1) PRspunontowaferandprebaked(driveoffsolvents)
(2) Alignmask,usingastepper,overthesubstrate(PR).Maskis
steppedoverthewaferandexposedtoUV makingseveral
patterns(devices)onasinglewafer(registration)
(3) Postbake hardenedtheresistthatisexposedtoUV.
Regionnotcoveredbyresistisimplantedoretchedaway.
(4) ResistisstrippedawaybyawetstripperorO
2
plasma
(ashing).Lithographypatternedmanytimeswithdifferent
masks.
http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/ArgonneNow/Fall_2006
/Center_for_Nanoscale_Materials.html
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Etching
Wet:isotropic,undercut Dry:anisotropic,directional
(Cl andFbasedgasremoval)
IonImplantation(Doping)
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pnDiodeFab Steps
pnDiode
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Metallization
Metallization =growing
interconnectionsto
connect devices
(a)
connectdevices
Lowelectricalresistance,
goodadhesionto
dielectricinsulators
Electromigration =
processbywhichmetal p y
atomsdiffusebecauseof
apotential.Notgood a
materialsresearcharea!
FilmDeposition
Tobuildadevice,various
thinmetalorinsulating
filmsaregrownontopof
eachother
Evaporation
Sputtering
Evaporation
MBE
Sputtering
CVD(ALD)
CVD
http://wwwrpl.stanford.edu/user/files/www/ald1.gif
MBE
http://www.sandia.gov/media/NewsRel/NR2000/images/jpg/MBE.jpg
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WireBondingandPackaging
(a)
(b)
(c)
LargelydeterminestheoverallcostofIC
Massproduced,notindividuallypackaged
Packages:polymers,metals,ceramics
YieldandReliability
Yield=ratiooffunctionalchipstototal#ofchips
Most yield loss during wafer processing b/c of complex Mostyieldlossduringwaferprocessing,b/cofcomplex
processing
Reliability
Nodevicehasinfinitelifetime.Statisticalmethodsto
predictexpectedlifetime
Failuremechanisms
Diffusion regions (nonuniform current flow) Diffusionregions(nonuniformcurrentflow)
Oxidelayers(dielectricbreakdown)
Lithography(unevenfeaturedefintion)
Metallayers(poorconnections)
Lossofpackagehermeticity
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Electricalconductivity andresistivity are:
materialparameters.
geometryindependent.
Electrical resistance is:
SUMMARY
Electricalresistance is:
ageometryandmaterialdependentparameter.
Conductors,semiconductors,andinsulators...
differentinwhetherthereareaccessibleenergy
statesforconductanceelectrons.
Formetals,conductivityisincreasedby
reducingdeformation
reducingimperfections
decreasingtemperature.
Forpuresemiconductors,conductivityisincreasedby
increasingtemperature
doping(e.g.,addingBtoSi(ptype)orPtoSi(ntype).