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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.

U)

Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U)

Preface:
Advertising Management is one of the very important specializations for the Marketing students because of the greatness it got in its name. The advertising is changing in the 21st century with the increasing creativity of the advertisers. It got several changes right from the once upon a times Washing Power Nirma Nirmas Ad to latest Vodafones Zoo-Zoo Ad. Advertising is the means of informing as well as influencing the general public to buy products or services through visual or oral messages or by written communication. The present specialization source is prepared according to the revised syllabus of Kakatiya University. I promise this source will be very useful to all the students pursuing Marketing specialization. This source is a collection from different authors books, internet sources, journals and my own views. I heartfully accept the suggestions from you all to contribute my knowledge to the future generation.

***** With Best Wishes *****

Suresh Chandra.Ch
Ph.D Research Scholar, Kakatiya University.

E-Mail: suresh.scholar@gmail.com

Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U)

SYLLABUS

UNIT -I Integrated Marketing Communications Meaning Definition - the Promotion Mix and IMC Planning Process. Introduction to Advertising Scope Objectives DAGMAR5Ms of Advertising Functions and Importance Socio- Cultural and Ethical Dimensions of Advertising Recent Trends in Advertising Advertising for Social Causes. UNIT - II Advertising Copy: Meaning Essentials of Good Advertising copy Message Strategy Copy Writing Art Direction and Production Advertising Copy for Print Media Advertising Copy for Electronic Media T.V., Radio, Internet Creativity in Advertising. UNIT III Advertising Media Planning and Strategy Types of Media - Electronic MediaOut Door Media Media Scheduling Decisions Media Mix Decisions and an overview of Media Scenario in India. UNIT -IV Advertising Budgets Planning for Advertising Budgets Methods of Determining Advertising Budgets Advertising Effectiveness Need and Problems Tools and Techniques of Measuring Communication Effectiveness and Sales Effectiveness of advertising. UNIT -V Advertising Agency and Advertising Industry and Regulation: Structure of Indian Advertising Industry Advertising Agencies Media Companies and Supporting Organizations Recent Trends in Indian Advertising Advertising Agencies- Functions Selecting and Compensation to Advertising Agencies Advertising Agencies in India. Legislation affecting advertising Self Regulating code of advertising Regulations Governing Different types of Advertising. Advertising council of India.

Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U)

Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U)

INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS

Integrated Marketing Communications is a term used to describe a holistic approach to marketing. Integrated Marketing Communication is the integration of all marketing tools, approaches, and resources within a company which maximizes impact on consumer mind and which results into maximum profit at minimum cost.

DEFINITION OF IMC

Integrated marketing communication is the integration of all the promotional tools such as advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, direct marketing and public relation along with other components of marketing mix to gain edge over competitor is called as Integrated marketing Communication.

INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION PROCESS

The marketing manager or the organization is the sender of the message. The message is encoded as advertising copy, publicity material, sales promotional displays or sales presentation by sales people. The media for delivering the message may be the

print media like press and magazines or the electronic media like TV, radio and films or a salesman who makes a presentation. The decoding step involves the consumers

interpretation of the message. This is often the most challenging aspect of marketing communication as consumers may not always interpret the message the way the sneder wants them to interpret.

Steps involved in IMC Planning Process:

Step 1: Identifying the Target Audience This step involves identifying the target audience whom the marketing information or communication is to be sent. This is the primary step in the

Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) communication process. Here, the marketers should aware of the decisions related to what, how, when, and where message will be said, as well as who will say it

Step 2: Determining Communication While determining the communication, the six objectives which are called as the buyer readiness stages involved in the communication process are: Buyer-Readiness Stages Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Purchase

Step 3: Designing a Message While preparing or designing the message to be conveyed through IMC process, the AIDA(Attention, Interest, Desire, Action) framework guides message design. Message content contains appeals or themes designed to produce desired results Rational appeals Emotional appeals Love, pride, joy, humor, fear, guilt, shame

Moral appeals

Key decisions are required with respect to three message structure issues:

Whether or not to draw a conclusion One-sided vs. two-sided argument Order of argument presentation

Message Format: Design, layout, copy, color, shape, movement, words, sounds, voice, body language, dress, etc.

Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) Step 4: Choosing Media Here, the marketer uses the different media channels like:

Print media(news papers, magazines, journals, periodicals etc.) Electronic media(TV,Internet, Radio, E-scrolling boards etc.)

Step 5: Selecting the Message Source In this step, the marketers concentrates on the issues like: Highly credible sources are more persuasive A poor spokesperson can tarnish a brand Step 6: Collecting Feedback In this last step, the marketers performers the actions like:

Recognition, recall, and behavioral measures are assessed May suggest changes in product/promotion.

Thus, these are the steps involved in the Integrated Marketing Communication Process.

PROMOTION MIX

Promotion mix is one of the very important marketing mix elements. Through promotion mix, the products information is successfully delivered to the desired people. The promotion refers to the process of giving communication about the products or services to the target people. The promotion mix elements include the following:

Advertising - Any paid presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Examples: Print ads, radio, television, billboard, direct mail, brochures and catalogs, signs, in-store displays, posters, motion pictures, Web pages, banner ads, and emails.

Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U)

Personal Selling - A process of helping and persuading one or more prospects to purchase a good or service or to act on any idea through the use of an oral presentation. Examples: Sales presentations, sales meetings, sales training and incentive programs for intermediary salespeople, samples, and telemarketing. Can be face-to-face or via telephone.

Sales promotion - Media and non-media marketing communication are employed for a pre-determined, limited time to increase consumer demand, stimulate market demand or improve product availability. Examples: Coupons, sweepstakes, contests, product samples, rebates, tie-ins, self-liquidating premiums, trade shows, trade-ins, and exhibitions.

Public relations - Paid intimate stimulation of supply for a product, service, or business unit by planting significant news about it or a favorable presentation of it in the media. Examples: Newspaper and magazine articles/reports, TVs and radio presentations, charitable contributions, speeches, issue advertising, and seminars

CONCEPT OF ADVERTISING:- Advertising is one of the very important functions in 4th P, i.e., Promotion. Advertising is derived from the Latin work, Advertere which means to turn the attention. According to American Marketing Association AMA, advertising is defined as any paid form of non-person presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services through an identified sponsorer.

Advertising is uses as a weapon by the marketer to give communication to the consumers and customers and to influence their mind to purchase the products which were being advertised.

NEED & OBJECTIVES OF ADVERTISING:

Nowadays, sales have direct

relationship with the advertising. Advertising is needed for achieving the following objectives. 1. Advertising is a way of communicating information to the consumer.

Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 2. Advertising enables consumers to exercise the rights of choice. 3. Through advertising the manufacturer specifies the instructions, usage of the goods & services. 4. Advertising helps in improve in the economy of developed and developing countries. 5. Advertising stimulates increases in production and consequently generates more employment. 6. Fore wider distribution advertising helps the organizations. 7. Advertising is essential and integral to marketing system.

BENEFITS OF ADVERTISING:- Advertising have many benefits: They are: Consumer gets information about products & services through advertising. Advertising helps in building the brand image. Ex: Ads of Pepsi, Coca-Cola in Monsoon, Winter season. Advertising used as a tool for innovation. Ex: IBM ads. Advertising can be used to promote new product and to call attention to changes in old products. Ex: Lux Soap ads. Advertising provides long term and indirect benefits. Ex: Hutch companys ad taken Pug(dog ) in the ad, after its huge success in Indian market, the sales & prices of Pugs raised more than 200%. Advertising also help for services, which includes Government services and private services. Ex: Polio ads, Consumer Awareness ads, Telecommunications network related ads.

Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U)

SCOPE OF ADVERTISING FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS :-

Advertising is playing a great role in the modern competitive business world. Every product, every company, every marketing strategy is having touch competition in the present scenario. Therefore, the companies are spending some crores of rupess towards advertising for brand awareness, and to influence the consumers to purchase the products and services. Advertising contributes to the different people in organization activity for better performance. These include:

1. For Manufacturers:

1. It increases and stabilizes the sales turnover. 2. It maintains the existing market and explores the new. 3. It controls products & prices. 2. For Middle Men(Market Intermediaries):

1. It guarantees sales and especially quick sales. 2. it acts as a sales men 3. It makes possible retail price maintenance.

3. For Sales Men:

1. It creates a colorful background. 2. It lightens the burden of job as the advertising gives brand publicity as well as features of the brands, therefore it makes easy for the salesmen to introduce or demonstrate the products 3. It increases the self confidence of the salesmen.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U)

4. For Consumers:

1. It acts as a driven force in decision making. 2. It ensures better qualitative products at reasonable price.

NATURE OF ADVERTISING:- Advertising is a growing business in India today. It has been gaining importance in our economy. The role which advertising plays continues to increase in significance year after year. Advertising helps to increase mass marketing while adding the consumer to choose from amongst the variety of products offered for the selection. Advertising got late entry in the India which is accepted only 25 years ago , because of the late industrialization in our country. Advertising can be productively used for the benefit of producers, traders, consumers, and the countrys economy.

THE 5 MS OF ADVERTISING

MISSION Mission is said to be the long term goal for which the advertising is prepared for the products or services. The mission includes two main goals which include MISSION sales goals, advertising objectives MONEY factors to consider: a) Stage of PLC, b) Market share and consumer base, c) Competition and clutter, d) Advertising frequency, and e) Product substitutability. MESSAGE Factors to be considered in this message are: message generation, message evaluation and selection, message execution, social-responsibility. (AIDA?) (Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action) MEDIA In media, the following factors are to be considered. They are: Reach, frequency, impact; Major media types, Specific Media vehicles, Media timing, Geographical media allocation.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) MEASUREMENT At last, the value of the advertising is evaluated with 5th M, called as Measurement. The measurement includes: communication impact and sales impact.

ROLE OF ADVERTISING IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:

Advertising contributes to economic growth by helping to expand the market, particularly for new products, and by helping to develop new market segments. Ac Company which invests in research and development in order to develop new products has to depend a great deal on advertising for establishing the market for these products.

Advertising is a used as a motivating factor for the consumers. Advertising is also a potent vehicle for achieving acceptance of desirable land useful concepts and ideas where the profit motive is minimal or missing altogether. Ex: Ads of Consumer awareness (Jago grahak jago by Doordarshan), Polio ads etc.

SOCIAL& CULTURAL ASPECTS OF ADVERTISING:People living at once place are called as society. Each society have their own culture, customs, traditions, religions. Culture got its birth in the society. Culture

includes the complex whole, which includes knowledge, belief, art, Morales, customs traditions which are transmitted from one generation to next generation. Social and cultural values are spread through advertising. Advertising takes the issues in social and cultural values and it focus to build brand image to its products. And also, through advertising, the social and cultural generations and influences the people. Some important concepts which gives the social and cultural aspects of advertising are: 1. The give-and take culture (or) universal togetherness is possible through advertising. Ex: Airtels ad depicts the togetherness of two different countrys people with the help of two kids playing foot ball at borderline. values are spread to different

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 2. Culture is learned behaviour. Through advertising the cultural spirits can be increased.Ex: Ambicas ad concept which shows that through using the dhoop sticks, pray to god gives more meaning. It also succeeded to influence the people to use dhoop sticks while praying. 3. Advertisements reflect the cultural values of ours. Ex: Ads showing our marriage system values. 4. Advertising is a social process, it honors time-tested norms of social behaviour, and should not affront(disturb) our moral sense. Ex: Fas Bikni ad was not accepted in India. As a result, they changed the ad in Indian market as it is against to the social feelings of the Indians. 5. cultural feelings gets its true representation in advertising. Ex: Shingar Kumkum ads concept which targets on Indian women.

ETHICS IN ADVERTISING:- Ethics in general refers to moral values. Ethics is a choice between good and bad, between right and wrong. Ethics are governed by a set of principles of morality at a given time and at a given place.

Some important characteristics of ethics in advertising are:

1. Advertising has ethical values. maintained. i. Ads should not deceive

The following ethical qualities should be

or

cheat

customers

by

communicating

substandard/defective products. ii. iii. Do not destroy or distort competition by any means of advertising. Do not tarnish the image of competitors by unfair trade practices in advertising. iv. Ads should not be indecent and obscene. Ex: Fas ads are indecent as for as Indians point of view is concerned. v. Gambling by giving fake or too many magics (gimmics) through advertising comes under immorality.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) ASSURANCE OF ETHICS IN ADVERTISING IN INDIA:- In order to follow the ethical code, in India, ASCI(Advertising Standards council of India) was set up by 43 founder members in 1985. ASCI proposes the similar code of Advertising Standards Authority(ASA), U.K.. These guidelines are: 1. To ensure the truthfulness& honesty representation of Advertising and to safeguard against misleading advertising. 2. It ensures that advertisements are not offensive and generally accepted standards of public decency. 3. It safeguards against indiscriminate use of advertising for promotion of products which are regarded as hazardous to society. It ensures that advertisements observe fairness in competition so that consumers need to be informed on choices in market place AIDA Model The Consumer action is explained in sequential stages with the help of AIDA Model. AIDA stands for: AIDAAttention Interest Desire Action

ATTENTION:- This is the first and foremost step for the advertiser. In this stage, the advertiser concentrates on layout and makes using of typography, colours, contrast by white space, movement and correct position of advertisements to create attention in the minds of consumers. attention about the ads. Celebrities and their dramatization makes the people to feel

INTEREST:- As the most of the people likes illustrations rather than copy, in this step, the advertiser concentrates on ad copys illustrations , the ad copy may be humorous oriented or scientific oriented but these must result in creating interest to the consumers.

DESIRE:- The ad copy must used as a tool to motivate the people to buy, physiological and psychological feelings generate the desire to purchase the particular products. The

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) advertisers must over come the barriers like changing the behaviour of reservations in the mind of customers. They have to clarify and provide the evidence, testimonials, facts & figures.

ACTION :-The advertisers presents the action by : 1. Products are associated with the company 2. The message is repeated. 3. Certain immediate action appeals are used. Thus, the interest and desire stages are the affective stages which affect the attitudes and bring action, i.e., about an intention to buy. Hence, these are the steps involved in AIDA model which is used to influence the consumer.

DAGMAR APPROACH:

Russell H. Colley introduced the DAGMAR Approach in the year 1961 in a book sponsored by the Association National Advertisers called Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results.

The DAGMAR approach provides a specific approach to evaluate whether the advertising objectives (goals) have been achieved or not. This is used in advertising planning and includes a precise method for selecting and quantifying goals and for using those goals to measure performance. The main advertising objective is to influence the ultimate behaviour of buyer. DAGMAR approach provides refinement (improvement) & extension to these. DAGMAR defines advertising goal as a specific communication task to be accomplished among a defined audience in a given time period. DAGMAR provides the framework for the development of operating objectives of advertising. The DAGMAR approach is explained with the help of 52 possible Advertising objectives. These goals include :

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 1. Closing and immediate sale. 2. Move the prospect step-by-step closer to a sale. 3. Build a brand image. 4. Contribute to increased sales. 5. Aim at some specific step leading to sale. 6. To inform the consumers to consummate sales and build customer satisfaction. 7. To help the sales force and to help the trade channels (supplementary benefits). 8. To project a corporate image.

The DAGMAR Approach follows the Communication process which is aimed at consumer thinking process regarding products & services. The DAGMAR Process: UNAWARENESS

AWARENESS

COMPREHENSION & IMAGE

ATTITUDE

ACTION

Step 1: UNAWARENESS:- When the brand is first introduced in the market, generally the customers will not be having any awareness about the brands. Here the advertiser

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) aims at crafting awareness methods by giving broad advertising through medias, the ads in most cases specifies the advantages, usage, specialties.

Step2: AWARENESS: - As the consumer gets the information about the brand he gets the awareness about the brands. Here, some times the customers get or develop the positive information or some times negative information. The advertiser should clarify the every doubt that is posed by the customers. The advertisers should keep on telecast the ads frequently to ensure that the customers having awareness about their brands.

Step 3: COMPREHENSION & IMAGE: - Comprehension refers to grasping or simplifying the information that was got through the advertisements about the brands. In this step, the customers learn something about the brands characteristics and appeals, and compare the brand with its competitors brands. The customers generate the image of the brand in their mind and they think more about brand and its utility & necessity. Step 4: ATTITUDE: - In this step, the attitude of the consumer makes him to a conclusion towards buying. Here, the consumer develops the favourable or unfavourable attitude towards the products and services. The role of advertiser is vital to create favourable attitude to the consumers. Step5: ACTION:In this step, the advertisers work results in action from the

consumer. The action phase involves some overt(clear) move on the part of buyer, such as trying a brand for the first time, visiting a showroom, or requesting information from the seller or marketer. CHALLENGES TO THE DAGMAR APPROACH:challenges to the DAGMAR model are: 1. SALES GOAL:- Some times, the ad awareness does not affect the sales. So, in recent years, advertising effects are measuring with short-term sales for packaged goods with great precision through controlled experiments. 2. PRACTICABILITY:- Practicability refers to chances & effects of implementation. The check list of DAGMAR provides the insufficient details to implement the approach. Then it leads to a problem of practicability. The six different kinds of

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 3. MEASUREMENT PROBLEMS:- Attitude, awareness, brand comprehension are often difficult to measure. These all together results in measurement problems. 4. NOISE IN THE SYSTEM:- DAGMAR system is often affected by the Noise in the system. Apart from Advertising factor, many other causal factors that determines the sales. Ex: Awareness is often affected by the variables such as competitive promotion, unplanned publicity. 5. INHIBITING THE GREAT IDEA:- Many advertisers are having Great creative idea dreams. The DAGMAR model is a basically rational, planned approach that, among other things provides guidance to creative people. It influences the work and efforts some times resulted into a negative feedback. 6.HIERARCHY MODEL OF COMMUNICATION EFFECT:- Sometimes, action can precede the attitude formation and even comprehension with an impulse purchase of a low-involvement product. At this point there is a general agreement that, indeed, the appropriate model will depend upon the situation and a key problem in many contexts is in fact to determine what that model is.

ADVERTISING FOR SOCIAL CAUSES Advertising not only gives the message about products and services to the viewers and customer and consumers, it also provides many benefits to the society. Many

advertisements are impressing the citizens of India with their creativity and social cause. Advertisements like Jago Grahak Jago are providing consumer awareness through the ads. Through this ads the citizens of India are getting awareness about the

consumer/customer rights while purchasing products and services. The ads based on eye donation and AIDS related ads are making the citizens think wise to help others and not be in the risk of doing mistakes. Many advertisements like Aitels ad on two boys playing Foot ball at the boarder makes the impression like the Indian are very friendly and also suggest us that there are no barriers for communication. Through this ad, the Airtel got good reputation and also providing its contribution for social togetherness. Thus, these are the examples which provide benefits not only to the companies, but also

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) provides many advantages and awareness in the minds of the

viewers/prospects/consumers/customers.

RECENT TRENDS IN ADVERTISING

Mobile advertising is considered as one of the latest trends in advertising. In mobile advertising, the advertisements reaches at any time because mobile phone is always beside to the customers. Mobile advertising is accepted very personally by users. Advertising costs became very less for the advertisers because of the mobile advertising. Advertising is well noticeable because of low amount of ads. With the dawn of the Internet came many new advertising opportunities. Popup, Flash, banner, Popunder, advergaming, and email advertisements (the last often being a form of spam) are now commonplace. In the last three quarters of 2009 mobile and internet advertising grew by 18.1% and 9.2% respectively. Older media advertising saw declines: -10.1% (TV), -11.7% (radio), 14.8% (magazines) and -18.7% (newspapers ). The ability to record shows on digital video recorders allow users to record the programs for later viewing, enabling them to fast forward through commercials. Additionally, as more seasons of pre-recorded box sets are offered for sale of television programs; fewer people watch the shows on TV. However, the fact that these sets are sold, means the company will receive additional profits from the sales of these sets. To counter this effect, many advertisers have opted for product placement on TV shows like Survivor. Particularly since the rise of "entertaining" advertising, some people may like an advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a friend. In general, the advertising community has not yet made this easy, although some have used the Internet to widely distribute their ads to anyone willing to see or hear them.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) Another significant trend regarding future of advertising is the growing importance of the niche market using niche or targeted ads. Also brought about by the Internet and the theory of The Long Tail, advertisers will have an increasing ability to reach specific audiences. In the past, the most efficient way to deliver a message was to blanket the largest mass market audience possible. However, usage tracking, customer profiles and the growing popularity of niche content brought about by everything from blogs to social networking sites, provide advertisers with audiences that are smaller but much better defined, leading to ads that are more relevant to viewers and more effective for companies' marketing products Advertising education has become widely popular with bachelor, master and doctorate degrees becoming available in the emphasis. A surge in advertising interest is typically attributed to the strong relationship advertising plays in cultural and technological changes, such as the advance of online social networking. A unique model for teaching advertising is the student-run advertising agency, where advertising students create campaigns for real companies. Organizations such as American Advertising Federation and AdU Network partner established companies with students to create these campaigns.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U)

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ADVERTISING COPY:- Advertising t copy refers to written material which is to be set in type for the print media or spoken by announcers for broadcast commercials.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ADVERTISEMENT COPY: Advertisement copy is a specialized form of communicating ideas that are meant to serve the requirements of modern marketing. It helps in making link between advertisers and their prospects. It is a key creative activity in advertising. It includes the elements of an advertising message, whether printed or broadcast. The ad copy also includes trade marks, the company logo and mascot, borders and other illustrations and visual symbols. The advertisers collect the sources for an advertisement copy by reading magazines, news papers, consulting with the consumers, T.V., Radio, Internet commercials. Ad copy involves the writing skills, which include command over language and an intellectual and creative mentality. While preparing the ad copy the copywriters collect considerable information before they start working on a copy. The study research reports, such as

psychographic studies and market reports that are available from research organizations. They collect first hand information about the product, the prospects and their buying behaviour.

STEPS IN CREATING ADVERTISING COPY:- the six steps in creating good advertising copy are: 1. awareness 2. Knowledge 3. Liking 4. Preference 5. Conviction 6. Purchase.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U)

1. AWARENESS:- Awareness is the first step which the copy writer to get succeed in. The awareness refers to bringing change in the attitude of the consumer with advertisement & results in watching the ad, ultimately results in buying the products. 2. KNOWLEDGE:- Through the ad, the copy writer should give the message, which increases the knowledge to the consumer over the products. Most of the consumers, they get some conclusion over the products by the knowledge which they get from the ads. 3. LIKING:- Through the ads, the advertiser & the copy writer should succeed in making the consumer feel liking about the particular ad. Any ad that brings liking of the consumers results in a good success. 4. PREFERENCE:- Through the ad, the advertiser, copy writer should bring such an attitude to the consumer, that they should be ready to prefer the particular brand which the advertiser shows. 5. CONVICTION:- Conviction refers assurance or belief about the products. Through the ad, the advertiser should show the concept in such way that the consumer strongly trusts the particular brand. Ex: Colgate Palmolive companys Colgate Tooth Paste concentrates on

Certification got by Indian Dental Association, which is the main concept in influencing the Indian customers & consumers.

6. PURCHASE:- Any ad is measured through the sales. Higher the sales, more the ad is said to be achieved the success in the minds of consumers. Ads success is measured through purchases done by the consumers over a particular period of time. Hence, these are the six stages which the right ad copy needs to have, to influence the people.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) ESSENTIAL OF A GOOD ADVERTISING COPY:- the good ad copy satisfies the following guidelines. These include: 1. Be precise 2. Be concise 3. Aim to sell 4. Be sincere 5. Be addressed according to the type of audience 6. Stimulate interest 7. Create desire 8. Inspire confidence 9. Influence the readers thoughts and/or action.

1. Be Precise:- The ad copy should be clear as far as possible. And it should deliver the message clear cut by not making the viewer to feel confusion. 2. Be Concise: - The ad as far as possible should be brief. Most of the ads contains short duration, because the short durations ads generally viewed by the most of the consumers. 3. Aim to Sell:- The ad copy should designed in such a way that it should effectively achieves its objectives. That is, the ad concept concentrates on portraying the viewers to purchase the products. 4. Be Sincere:- Majority of the ads does not follow moral values. As far as possible, the ad should be sincere, and it should not show fake details, or over impression about the products. 5. be addressed according to the type of the Audience:The ads should be

addressed on specific target audience. The ads which focus on the target group on its ads definitely get success. 6. Stimulate interest:- Through the ads, the ad manager should stimulate the interest in the minds of viewers. He gets half succeed, when he successfully stimulates the viewers. 7. Create desire:- Once, the ad stimulates the interest, it further reaches into desire to buy the particular brands product.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 8. Inspire Confidence:- Any ad, that brings confidence to the viewers surely get succeed in achieving maximum sales. 9. Influence the readers thoughts and/or action:- The ad should bring thoughts to the readers , when the reads the particular ad . Once, it generates positive thought to buy the products, and then it brings the action, that is to purchase the products.

COMPONENTS IN ADVERTISEMENT COPY FOR PRINT MEDIA :Creativity is of paramount importance in initiating the process of writing a copy.

The major elements in advertisement copy are the following contents, which may not be necessary for most advertisements. They are: 1. The Head Line 2. The Sub Head 3. The Body Copy 4. Captions 5. Blurbs(Balloons) 6. Boxes & panels 7. Slogans, Logos & Signatures. 8. Closing Idea.

1. THE HEAD LINE:- The most important element in the advertisement copy is the head line. If the headline idea fails to attract the prospect to the message and the product, the remaining parts of the ad are wasted. A head line may be set in big type or small. Headlines need not contain special messages.

Company or Brand name, Questions, news flashes, Statements from celebrities, Warnings and appeals can be listed as Head line.. There is no specified length for specifying the head line. It should relate clearly to the intended audience.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) A dramatic or provocative picture or photograph can effectively create an emotional or tragic scene, and thus become a good grabber of the prospects attention.

2. THE SUB HEAD:

Subheads further carry the idea of theme and should help

reader to have more knowledge of the product and services. This can be added when any important facts to be conveyed to the reader More space is needed to introduce the sub head. It can be put smaller type that the headline All ads do not require sub heads.

3. THE BODY COPY:- The body copy refers to the txt in the ad which contains details regarding the functions of the product/service and its benefits. It stimulates the liking & preference for a product. Explains logical & product attributes, features &values. Facts & figures, test results, guarantees, Reference list of Customer Patronizing the product are added depending on market & Competition. Emotional appeals are generally used for convenience or style goods. Rational appeal is applied for industrial goods.

4. THE CAPTIONS:- The captions are the small units of type used with illustrations, coupons and special offers. These are the small units of type used with coupons& special offers. These are set in type sizes smaller than the text. These are less important than main selling points of ad in the body copy. Sometimes an ad is planned in a picture-caption style presenting he selling points by illustrating and explaining them at he same time. 5. THE BLURB:- The blurb or balloon is a display arrangement where the words appear to be coming from the mouth of one of the characters illustrated in the ad. These are useful for comic strips. 26

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6. BOXES, PANELS, SLOGANS, LOGO TYPE & SIGNATURES:- Boxes or panels are the captions placed in special display positions so as to get greater attention. A box is a caption which has been lined on all sides and singled out from the rest of the copy. Boxes or panels placed in special display position. Boxes & panels used in ads such as coupons, special offers, consumer contests. Slogans & symbols includes trade mark(TM)s, signatures creates familiarity about the brand. 7. CLOSING IDEA:- Closing idea in ad copy is important like closing the sale in personal selling. Since ad is a one-way communication, it should be closed with enough information and motivation for the buyer to act. Ex: Buy now; Visit today our dealer/stockist, Announcement of festival discount, Contact Dealer etc. Thus, these are the components of an advertisement copy.

TYPES OF AD COPY:-

Copy writing is one major task in the creation of an

advertisement. The ad copies are of different types. Each ad copy has its own creativity and advantages. The copy writers can use any of the ad copies, that will be based on product or goods character, situation, economy and requirement. The main ad copies are: 1. SCIENTIFIC AD COPY:- In this ad copy, the technical specification of a product are explained. The merits of the product are described in scientific terms. Technical specifications of a product is included. Merits are described in scientific terms. Durables generally goes for this. Medicines in most of the times sold through a scientific copy. In this scientific copy, the strategy is to inspire confidence both among the lay people and professionals. Ex: Saffola, Mankinds Accu Check machine. In this copy, the ads are made by giving the product

2. DESCRIPTIVE COPY:attributes in described manner.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) It looks very common-place announcement There are short and Pithy sentences. Low cost and highly economical Ex: Real Estates related ads. 3. NARRATIVE COPY:- This ad copy contain narration of a fictional story. The benefits of the product emerge from the story.

4. COLLOQUIAL COPY:- Colloquial refers to informal. The colloquial copy involves informal conversational language is used to convey the message. These also include dialogues between two or more persons. Many TV ads follows this type. Ex: NECCs(National Egg Co-ordination Committee) ad.

5. HUMOROUS COPY:- Humour is very highly used in advertising. Almost all 80% of the ads concentrate on humour. Effective humour makes the advertisement noticeable. Humorous is a weapon for many ads. This can be applied considering the personality of the product. Effective humor makes the ad noticeable. Ex: M-Seals ad. 6. TOPICAL COPY:- In this, the copy is integrated to a recent happening or event. This copy concentrates on recent happening or event occurred. Most political events, national sports, parliament news extended in this. Ex: Superias ad featuring Ishanth Sharma.

7. ENDORSEMENT COPY:- In this type , the product is endorsed(approved) by an opinion leader who has a large following. Here, the opinion leaders are the celebrities to promote products. Product is endorsed by an opinion leader who has large following. Celebrities are the sources for this copy type. Ex: Boost ad featured by Sachin Tendulkar, Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Navrathna oil ad featured by Actor Chiranjeevi etc.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) Celebrity ups and downs effects the performance of the brand. Ex: Sansui, i.e., Rahul Dravid is the Brand Ambassador during the 2007 World Cup period, Indias bad performance showed loss of captaincy for Rahul Dravid, which resulted in poor sales for Sansui Brand. 8. QUESTIONING COPY:- Questioning to seek answers is the main theme of this type of copy. Several questions are put forward to emphasize a certain attribute. These are put to emphasize the important positioning aspect of the product. 9. WORD LESS AD COPY:- These ad copies normally wont contains the words, hardly back ground music, or song fulfills the ad copy. These are Pictorially oriented and non-verbal communication type. Bill-board projections are the examples.

10. PRESTIGE COPY:- These ad copies concentrates on prestige issues. They target the rich class people generally. These include:

To distinguish the favorable atmosphere is created for the sale of the product. To build the image Raymonds suitings, Vimals suitings & shirtings, Signature pens, Parker pens are the good examples.

11. REASON WHY COPY:- These ad copies concentrate on explaining the purpose of using the particular brands products. It is an explanatory copy & the reasons for purchase are explained. Compare and contrast ad copy Ex: Harpic ad, Colgate Tooth Powders ad. Thus, these are the important ad copies.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) COPYWRITING: Copywriting is the use of words to promote a person, business, opinion or idea. Although the word copy may be applied to any content intended for printing (as in the body of a newspaper article or book), the term copywriter is generally limited to such promotional situations, regardless of media (as advertisements for print, television, radio or other media). The author of newspaper or magazine copy, for example, is generally called a reporter or writer or a copywriter. The purpose of marketing copy, or promotional text, is to persuade the reader, listener or viewer to act for example, to buy a product or subscribe to a certain viewpoint. Alternatively, copy might also be intended to dissuade a reader. Copywriting can appear in direct mail pieces, taglines, jingle lyrics, web page content (although if the purpose is not ultimately promotional, its author might prefer to be called a content writer), online ads, e-mail and other Internet content, television or radio commercial scripts, press releases, white papers, catalogs, billboards, brochures, postcards, sales letters, and other marketing communications media. Content writing on websites is also referred to as copywriting, and may include among its objectives the achievement of higher rankings in search engines. Known as "organic" search engine optimization (SEO), this practice involves the strategic placement and repetition of keywords and keyword phrases on web pages, writing in a manner that human readers would consider normal. ART DIRECTION Art direction is considered as the one of the very important function of advertiser. The art direction refers to the management of the artistic and design elements of a project, esp. in film, television, advertising, or publishing; the work of an art director. Advertising art directors are usually employed as a team with a creative copywriter. The art director's key role is to come up with the visual elements of

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) advertising campaigns. Each project usually begins with a client briefing, before the creative team:

generate original ideas produce storyboards or sketches of ideas present ideas to the agency's creative director, account managers and client work up designs and finalise copy appoint graphic designers, artists, photographers and film crew select film locations, managing projects and overseeing photo/film shoots Oversee the final edit of all adverts for presentation to the client.

ART DIRECTION & PRODUCTION A production artist is a technical and often considered an entry level job position in a creative profession. The job title originated at advertising agencies, assigning what was known as paste-up work (now prepress production) to the position. It's often assumed to be a graphic designer or art director in training position, similar to an apprenticeship. Production artists work closely with the designer and art director to execute the design. What distinguishes "production art" from design is the lack of opportunities to utilize creativity and design training in the work involved. Although the position may be treated as low-skilled labor, the degree of technical knowledge required for some production art work may be comparable to higher skilled engineering, especially with computers.

ESSENTIAL OF A GOOD POSTER:- The following the are the important essentials which are to be made for the good poster. These include:

Short Copy Human Interest Single Unique Idea Avoid subtlety

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) Logo and Package Visibility 1. SHORT COPY:- Short copy is one of the important types in good posters. These include the following features: Fewer words will be displayed. Hardly 5 to 6 effective words are prepared. It should not exceed 8-10 words. 2. HUMAN INTEREST:- The human interest appeal is to be generated. These include the following considerations: This copy should to be read in a jiffy ( in a moment or second). Human interest appeal like Better late than Never approach is applied. Ex: A Hot shot Camera with a pretty model immediately impresses the mind. The children form a good subject. 3. SINGLE UNIQUE IDEA:This copy should to be read in a jiffy. Human interest appeal like Better late than Never approach is applied. Ex: A Hot shot Camera with a pretty model immediately impresses the mind. The children form a good subject 4. AVOID SUBTLETY:- Too much information(subtlety) will be boring to the viewer and therefore the poster writers should be, therefore, direct, straightforward and down-tothe earth. 5. LOGO AND PACKAGE: - Corporate identification marks should be kept prominently on the posters. Companys name should be placed side by side the logo. Good logo enhances the name of the company Package of the company can show prominently placed on a poster. Ex: MRF tyres Muscle Man, LICs Logo, SBIs symbol of a key-hole encompassed in a circle. VISIBILITY: - These include: Corporate identification marks should be kept prominently on the posters. Companys name should be placed side by side the logo.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) Good logo enhances the name of the company Package of the company can show prominently placed on a poster. Ex: MRF tyres Muscle Man, LICs Logo, SBIs symbol of a key-hole encompassed in a circle.

ADVERTISING COPY FOR ELECTRONIC MEDIA Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical energy for the end user (audience) to access the content. This is in contrast to static media (mainly print media), which are most often created electronically. sources are: 1.TV 2.Radio 3.Internet 4.Digital media etc. The famous electronic media

ADVERTISING COPY FOR TV MEDIA:-

TV is considered as the most powerful

media since from last decade. TV is the target media for the many of the advertising firms. Large masses of people can see the ads through the media source, ie., T.V. TV is considered as visual medium. Advertising world is today more and more dominated by commercials in TV. Advertisement on TV is a combination fo cinematography, music, story-board and idea. The following considerations should be done while making ad copy for TV media. They are: Ad copy for TV also known as TV script. TV script should stick to one selling idea. If the script contains more than one selling idea, automatically it gives confusion to the viewers. Whenever possible, show the product in use, majority of the ads concentrate on showing the products.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) Use more visuals and fewer words, it one of the success formula for the most of the TV ads. Show the package, to attract more customers for the ad. Avoid visual clichs, it creates the disturbance to the viewers. Close ups should be made while shooting for sensory stimulation. Opening with a surprise, ads having good opening makes the viewers to be in attention for the ads. Jingles(which contains lyrics and melody).Ex: Khajana Jewelleries ad got good success through good lyrics and melody. Make actors talk, by making them to talk,automatically impresses their fans as well as creates trust for the products. Ex: Chawana Prash ad performed by Amitab Bachhan. Supers (Brand name/Product benefit must be super imposed) Use Emotional Approach, this is the traditional idea to impress the viewers and convert the prospects to customers and consumers. Use Metaphors(images), having good images makes the brand more popular for the consumers. Ex: Amul Girl in butter ads, Repeat the idea, since from years, Lux is the only brand that changed its brand ambassadors more than any other brand. Ex: Lux is a beauty soap endorsed by different stars.

FORMS OF TV COMMERCIALS:Use a Film genre , these can mimic an action-movie or a spy-thriller or a bank robbery or song and dance sequence

Animals : To show the products energy or power , they are compared with some of the powerful animals.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) Ex: Hero Hondas Hunk ad is featured by Forest Buffalo, Luminous Batter invertors is featured by Leopard etc. Music and Song: These are used for personal care products. Many jewellery and fancy items are featured with good music and song. Commercials music itself may become hit with the masses. Music over rides the visuals. Background music creates more attention to the viewers, and less usage of visuals is made. Video fast and loose cutting, special effects, random colours, animation, stock footage, graphics make music and song commercial memorable. Vignettes: Vignette represents short description. Rapid fire succession, effects which depicts humorous makes the viewers to feel pleasure. Ex: M-Seal ad, in that particular ad, when the father is in a life & death situation, his son forces to make more zeros to make big share, unfortunately, a water drop from sealing erases the entire value of the share which his son gets. Endorsement/Testimonials: A celebrity or an actual user endorses a product. Ex: Sachins Boost, Lux ads. Use Anachronism: A humorous situation from historical or fictional figures delivers the effect of endorsement without paying to a live figure. Ex: Jago Grahak Jago (Gold quality related ad)

COLLOQUIAL COPY: Informal conversation is used to convey the message. Conversation between two more persons is involved in colloquial copy concept. Ex: Godavari Fertilizers ad, NECCs ad etc. Demonstration: Demonstration by the model or brand ambassador is involved in it. Ex: Vanish ad, in that particular ad, the model gives the demonstration about the product. HUMOUR IN ADVERTISING: Humour is directed to regional and linguistic peculiarities. Indian ads are good at showing humor in ads. SLICE OF LIFE: A short play-like situation.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) The dialogue poses a consumer problem, and the solution offered by the product. Ex: Vicks Real life situation in slice of Life Scenes. Ex: Cadbury invited viewers to send in real moments of their lives, Vicks-Action 500 ad. DRAMATIZATION: By putting the ad dramatically top the audience, & finally solving with the help of the product that is advertised. ANIMATION: - These are mainly aimed to child related products. Mogli, Super man, Shakthi mans Parle-G, Boomer, Big Babool etc. Hence, these are the important forms in TV Commercials. Advertiser should follow any of these types, but it depends on product and budget.

OUT DOOR ADVERTISING COPY:-

Outdoor copy is one the important types in

advertising copy. These include the following considerations to be taken while preparing the ad copy for out door. Includes billboards, painted bulletins or displays (such as those appearing on walls of buildings), and electric spectaculars The oldest and simplest media business Is particularly effective along metropolitan streets and other high-traffic areas Faces public concern over aesthetics

Out door & transit advertising is primarily the graphic artists medium. People glance at the posters and bill boards No one stops to read them carefully The copy must be simple, direct and compact. Out door ads generally use symbols which are easily recognised even from a good distance.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) AD COPY FOR RADIO: Radio is an electronic media. Creating an Ad copy for Radio is harder as it cannot use the crutches of a visual. Radio ads have to be extra creative since they use only the sound to deliver a message. Radios total dependence on audio is a limitation, but at the same time, it is a strength too. The following are the essentials in creation of good radio ad copy. 1. Simplicity: Ad copy for radio should be simple and should give the clear meaning and straight-away to the point. 2. Personal: Radio copy should be so written as if it is addressed on one person at a time. The radio copy must develop a personal relationship. 3. Music: Radio uses catchy jingles. It provides brand identity. 4. Sound effects: Back ground sound helps the radio copy. The sound of picking the phone or softrdrink bottoles of being opened up makes the audience feel the situation. 5. Humour: Humour can be used judiciously to attract the listeners. 6. Repetition: Repetition always encourages the listeners as they feel to recall the brand in their imagination. AD COPY FOR INTERNET Internet is considered as the powerful media in the recent past. Many developed countries, the internet is the main source in the electronic media. The no. of views watching or using the internet is increasing tremendously comparing to any other media. For advertisers, the internet provides valuable source for advertising. The following are the essentials in preparing of adcopy for internet. 1. Get attention - a good headline or Ask a provocative question or announce news about the company or product. 2. Set yourself apart from the competition 3. Talk to your customer

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 4. Prove it! - If space permits, add testimonials, sales statistics and anything else that proves your claims. 5. Create a sense of urgency - If people don't sense urgency, they aren't likely to click on the link. Limited time offers are perfect. Ads focusing on holidays work well. potential customers feel the need to click on the link now. 6. Reach your target audience - If the product is for a certain group of people, target your ad specifically to that group. don't have to appeal to everyone if they aren't going to be interested in making a purchase. So, a headline that communicates the presence of such a gap -- or one that widens it (which can also be accomplished through other components, such as a surheadline, subheadline, "lift" copy, sidenotes or opening statements) -- will likely appeal to those who can immediately relate to it (i.e., people within that specific site's target market). Important tips in internet ad copy are: 1. Offer something free: People don't usually surf the Internet ready to buy. Lure them to your site with something free when possible. 2, FREE is a very powerful word. Other powerful words include: Sale, Quick, Easy, Last Chance, Guarantee, Results, Proven, Bargain, Today, Secret 3. Branding - use your brand name to create familiarity with your product.

Tips for banner ads:

1. Keep it simple and keep the loading time down. Avoid too many colors and frames They can be hard on the eyes and make your image more slow loading. An ideal size is under 20K.

2. Use the words "Click Here" - It seems simple and maybe silly, but people need to know what to do with the information you presented.

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4. Use different banners - Some studies show the longer a banner is shown, the less effective it becomes.

CREATIVITY IN ADVERTISING:Making people feel really good about a product is called affective advertising. This is difficult to do, but often humor and an honest character can make affective advertising possible.

A great example of affective advertising is found in the Geico commercials. By creating a friendly, honest, funny gecko as a spokesperson, consumers tend to trust what the gecko is saying and find humor in his actions. This creates a good feeling about the actual service Geico offers.

Lastly, resonance advertising is a way of identifying with consumers. If an advertiser can create a campaign that certain target markets identify with, then resonance advertising has been achieved.

An example of resonance advertising is in Tide detergent ads. Many times mothers are busy doing laundry in between sports practices and driving their children around in mini vans. There recognition with soccer moms makes Tide a favorite pick among women with children who are very involved in activities.

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ADVERTISING MEDIA

Medium or media is a channel of communication, such as news papers, magazines, radio and television. The media are classified into two broad categories. They are: 1. Print media 2. Electronic media 1. PRINT MEDIA: these include: 1. News Papers: a. Daily b. Weekly c. Sunday d. Weekend supplement. 2. Magazines: a. Consumer Magazines b. Business Publications. 3. Direct advertising : Direct mail. 2. BROADCAST MEDIA: 1. Radio 2. Television 3. Narrow-cast media. 4. Internet 3. Outdoor media 4. Transit Advertising Media.

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ADVERTISING MEDIA PLANNING AND STRATEGY


The advertising media planning consists of the series of decisions made to answer the question s on what are the best means of delivering advertisements to prospective purchasers of the brand or service. The media planner attempts to answer specific questions like: 1. How many prospects(for purchasing a given brand of product) do I need to reach? 2. In which medium(or media) should I place ads? 3. How many times a month should prospects see each ad? 4. In which months should ads appear? 5. Where should the ads appear? In which markets and regions? 6. How much money should be spent in each medium? Th decisions and recommendations and rationales of the questions are organized in to a written document called an advertising media plan. The plan when approved by the advertiser, becomes a blueprint for the selection and use of media. Once the

advertiser has approved the plan, it also serves as a guide for actually purchasing the media. ADVERTISING MEDIA STRATEGY: There are many ways to start the media planning process, but the best way is by analyzing the situation of a brand in the market place. The reason for making such analysis is to learn how successful a brand has been against its competition, with the objective of finding opportunity areas to exploit or problem areas to correct. Ultimately, the findings of a situation analysis should lead to the establishment of marketing objectives and strategies, which in turn lead to the establishment of media objectives and strategies. Media planners often are involved in the marketing situations analysis, particularly an examination for the consumer, the competitive weight, and geographic and seasonal sales. While preparing the media planning strategy, the advertiser, must answer the questions like: 1. when ( the timing of the release)

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 2. Which ( the timing of the release) 3. How ( the media selection) 4. How ( the coordination in media planning)

The media objectives are set keeping in mind the background of the market, the firms marketing strategy and its creative strategy. Media objectives thus contribute to the overall attainment of marketing objectives. Media objectives lead to a definite media strategy to translate media goals into general guidelines involving planners selection and use of media. The best alternatives are selected.

ELECTRONIC MEDIA

In the last century, a revolution in telecommunications has greatly altered communication by providing new media for long distance communication. Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical energy for the end user (audience) to access the content. This is in contrast to static media (mainly print media), which are most often created electronically.

TV: Television is considered as the most powerful electronic media in india. Television has immense impact. No other medium can ever compete TV as far as effective

presentation is considered. It attracts attention immediately. Computer graphics has made it still more effective. It arouses interest in the producat. In print ads, these two steps require deliberation. TV commercials and sponsored programmes are impactive, even when the viewer is temporarily not before the set. TV has the following advantages. They are: Excellent quality of production Familiar, friendly voices Retailers also watch TV It is a comprehensive technique Evocation of experience

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) Demonstration , product benefits can be shown most effectively on TVs. Creative use of environment and mental make up of viewers Animation Image building, TV can be the source to create image building of the products. Emotional content is always a great strength of TV.

And, the TV is restricted to the following demerits. They are: 1. It takes time to produce commercials and sponsored programmes. 2. it is a transient medium 3. Time gap to purchasing 4. An immobile medium 5. difficult to gain enquiries. 6. time constraint 7. Production costs 8. Hardware capability 9. Statutory controls 10. Fragmentation of audiences 11. Effect of clutter

RADIO : Although, TV is considered as the powerful media in electronic media, the radio has the advantage of mobile, that is it is easily carried away to different places. Commercial radio has the strength to offer local coverage on its medium wave channels, its daily frequency, offering scope for continue messages. Radio is the most widely used medium all over the world. In a large country like India, the local radio operates like an evening news paper. It has the following advantages: 1. Radio is the most interactive medium available Radios strength is its immense flexibility, adaptability ad suitability for a modern and active life. It is the best companion. 2. We can do many other things while listening to the radio. 3. It has great impact in terms of ad recall.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 4. It improves campaign efficiency as a multiplier medium. And it is relatively closer to the point of purchase, compared o other conventional media. Limitations: There are possibilities of distortion in communication. Precision of scriptwriting is a very challenging task. In TV, vision accompanies the words and so there is no misunderstanding. Repetitions are monotonous. Radio is also a transient medium with no durability of message. Some commercials transmitted poorly on radio , where the

ads got success in TVs. Word pictures are necessary on radio.

INTERNET: Internet links 3.2 million computers in over 150 countries. It is a virtual network, it does not exist in physical form. Websites represent bookshelves of the electronic type. They are considered as electronic newspapers or magazines.

OUTDOOR MEDIA
Outdoor advertising is the oldest form of advertising. The use of sign s in advertising dates to the days of ancient Rome and Greece. Outdoor media has the following advantages. 1. The outdoor offers long life. 2. It offers geographic selectivity. Billboards give us the flexibility to ovary the ad message to suit a particular segment of the market. An advertiser can use this medium nationally, globally, by region, by markets and even by specific locations within those markets. 3. The advertiser can incorporate the names and addresses of his local dealers or agents at the bottom of the poster. ; The dealer imprint strips are calls snipes. 4. The outdoor offers impact. Shoppers are exposed to last minute reminders by outdoor advertising when they are driving down to the stores or a shopping centre. Outdoor displays are in large size and in bright colour, and have a provocative message all of which make a good impact on prospective customers. 5. Outdoor advertising allows for a psychedelic display of the product, trademark and slogan.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) LIMITATIONS: 1. Since, the copy of billboard ads must be brief, it places a limitation on getting the message across to the prospect in enough words. This brevity has made outdoor advertising merely supplementary advertising. The print or broadcasting media are mainly relied upon to deliver longer messages. 2. Outdoor advertising is non selective in the sense that the audience who get the exposure are people of all ages, sexes, educational and socio-economic levels. There is no selectivity of a particular type of audience. 3. Outdoor advertising when employed on a national basis, is relatively expensive. Bill boards and mobile advertising are the sources of outdoor advertising

Billboard advertising Billboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in stadiums. Mobile billboards are truck- or blimp-mounted billboards or digital screens. These can be dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes pre selected by clients, or they can be specially-equipped cargo trucks. The billboards are often lighted; some being backlit, and others employing spotlights. Some billboard displays are static, while others change; for example, continuously or periodically rotating among a set of advertisements. Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world, including:

Target advertising One-day, and long-term campaigns Conventions

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Sporting events Store openings and similar promotional events Big advertisements from smaller companies Others

MEDIA SCHEDULING: Media scheduling refers to the scheduling and timing of advertisement. ; The schedule shows the number of advertisements that are to appear in each medium, the size of the advertisements, and the date on which they are so appear. There are many ways of scheduling any advertising programme. No single way can be said to be best for all advertisers. Each advertiser must prepare a specific schedule most suitable for its market and its advertising objectives. Normally, the media scheduling is

done for a 4-week period. The six types of schedules available are: 1. Steady pulse: it is the easiest, ex: one ad/week for 52 weeks or one ad/month for 12 months. 2. Seasonal pulse: products like Vicks balm, Glycodin syrup, Ponds cold cream follow this approach. 3. Period pulse: Scheduling follows a regular pattern, e.g., media scheduling of consumer durables, non durables etc. 4. Erratic pulse: the ads are spaced irregularly. Perhaps, we want to change the typical purchase cycles. 5. Start-up pulse: it is concentrated media scheduling. It launches a new product or a new campaign. 6. Promotional pulse: A one shot affair it suits only a particular promotional theme. Heavy concentration during a period is the characteristic of this scheduling. For instance, financial advertising of companys issue.

Media Mix Definition Combination of advertising channels employed in meeting the promotional objectives of a marketing plan or campaign.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) OVERVIEW OF MEDIA SCENARIO IN INDIA:

Media And Entertainment industry is one of the most flourishing sectors in India. The Indian Media And Entertainment industry grew from Rs 35,300 crores to Rs 43,700 crores during the year 2005-06. The liberalization of the media sector has opened up the gates of opportunities and growth. India is witnessing a revolution in this sector with the emergence of new technologies. Many companies are taking initiatives to set up digital theatres, multi-plexes etc. India is emerging as a global destination for the Media And Entertainment players because of the following reasons:

The number of channels is increasing each day. India is emerging as one of the world's largest markets for digital and mobile music.

Entry of private sector companies and increasing FDI and FII. The concept of crossover movies and crossover audience is also gaining momentum.

The Indian Media And Entertainment industry is also making its presence felt in the global market with its movies and music.

India's large pool of creative skills and growing domestic market for animation and special effects industry.

Piracy and violation of intellectual property rights have posed a major threat to the Media And Entertainment companies worldwide. Lack of quality content has also become a major area of concern for the Media And Entertainment companies in India.

Given the high rate of economic growth and technological developments, Indian Media And Entertainment industry is poised to register a tremendous growth in the coming years.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) ADVERTISING BUDGET Advertising Budget refers to the careful determination and allocation of amount or money set aside by the advertiser to pay for advertising. Advertising budget is a conscious determination of future course of action. Because, the budget spent on advertising gives the fruitful results for the advertisers and the companies. While preparing the advertising budget, several factors are to be considered like the target customers, market share and stage in the product life cycle etc. Advertising budget is a plan for the companys future advertising, it can make a useful contribution to a profitable operation. It provides a programme of the best

assortment of tpes of advertising to be undertaken along with its time table and frequency.

Planning for Advertising Budgets The advertising budget is prepared by the advertising manager of the company. Ad agencies do help him in this planning work. At first, the advertising manager

determines the size of advertising appropriation. Next, the fund allocation is to be considered. The prepared budget is submitted to the top management through the chief of the marketing division for approval. In some other organizations, there is abudget committee, comprising of the representatives of the financial and other functional areas. The budget committee, or, for that matter, the higher management which finally approves the budgeted expenditure, evaluates such proposed expenditure to achieve the targeted sales in a given budgeted period. While preparing or planning the advertising budgets several factors are to be considered. Because, with out considering these factors, the advertising budget

preparation cannot give the best results. The following are the five factors that are considered while setting the advertising budget:

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Stage in the product life cycle: new products typically receive large advertising budgets to build awareness and to gain consumers trial.

Market share and consumer base: the brands having a high market share usually require less advertising expenditure whereas for products whose brand needs to be built, requires larger advertising expenditure.

Competition and clutter: In todays competitive market, where there are a large number of competitors, a brand must advertise heavily to be heard.

Advertising frequency: the number of repetitions that need to be made to put across the brand message to consumers has an important impact on the advertising budget.

Product substitutability: brands in the commodity class require heavy advertising to establish a different image. For example, cigarettes, beer, soft drinks. Also advertising is important when the brand can offer unique physical benefits or features.

The following questions are also to be satisfied while preparing the advertising budget. They are: 1. Who is the target consumer? Who is interested in purchasing the advertiser's product or service, and what are the specific demographics of this consumer (age, employment, sex, attitudes, etc.)? Often it is useful to compose a consumer profile to give the abstract idea of a "target consumer" a face and a personality that can then be used to shape the advertising message. 2. Is the media the advertiser is considering able to reach the target consumer? 3. What is required to get the target consumer to purchase the product? Does the product lend itself to rational or emotional appeals? Which appeals are most likely to persuade the target consumer?

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 4. What is the relationship between advertising expenditures and the impact of advertising campaigns on product or service purchases? In other words, how much profit is earned for each dollar spent on advertising? ADVERTISING BUDETING METHODS:

Percentage of Sales method Objective and Task method Competitive Parity method Market Share method Unit Sales method All Available Funds method Affordable method

It is important to notice that most of these methods are often combined in any number of ways, depending on the situation. Because of this, these methods should not be seen as rigid, but rather as building blocks that can be combined, modified, or discarded as necessary. Remember, a business must be flexibleready to change course, goals, and philosophy when the market and the consumer demand such a change. PERCENTAGE OF SALES METHOD: Due to its simplicity, the percentage of sales method is the most commonly used by small businesses. When using this method an advertiser takes a percentage of either past or anticipated sales and allocates that percentage of the overall budget to advertising. Critics of this method, though, charge that using past sales for figuring the advertising budget is too conservative and that it can stunt growth. However, it might be safer for a small business to use this method if the ownership feels that future returns cannot be safely anticipated. On the other hand, an established business, with well-established profit trends, will tend to use anticipated sales when figuring advertising expenditures. This method can be especially effective if the business compares its sales with those of the competition (if available) when figuring its budget.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) OBJECTIVE AND TASK METHOD: Because of the importance of objectives in business, the task and objective method is considered by many to make the most sense, and is therefore used by most large businesses. The benefit of this method is that it allows the advertiser to correlate advertising expenditures to overall marketing objectives. This correlation is important because it keeps spending focused on primary business goals. With this method, a business needs to first establish concrete marketing objectives, which are often articulated in the "selling proposal," and then develop complimentary advertising objectives, which are articulated in the "positioning statement." After these objectives have been established, the advertiser determines how much it will cost to meet them. Of course, fiscal realities need to be figured into this methodology as well. Some objectives (expansion of area market share by 15 percent within a year, for instance) may only be reachable through advertising expenditures that are beyond the capacity of a small business. In such cases, small business owners must scale down their objectives so that they reflect the financial situation under which they are operating. COMPETITIVE PARITY METHOD: While keeping one's own objectives in mind, it is often useful for a business to compare its advertising spending with that of its competitors. The theory here is that if a business is aware of how much its competitors are spending to inform, persuade, and remind (the three general aims of advertising) the consumer of their products and services, then that business can, in order to remain competitive, either spend more, the same, or less on its own advertising. However, as Alexander Hiam and Charles D. Schewe suggested in The Portable MBA in Marketing, a business should not assume that its competitors have similar or even comparable objectives. While it is important for small businesses to maintain an awareness of the competition's health and guiding philosophies, it is not always advisable to follow a competitor's course. MARKET SHARE METHOD: Similar to competitive parity, the market share method bases its budgeting strategy on external market trends. With this method a business equates its market share with its advertising expenditures. Critics of this method contend that companies that use market share numbers to arrive at an advertising budget are

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) ultimately predicating their advertising on an arbitrary guideline that does not adequately reflect future goals. UNIT SALES METHOD: This method takes the cost of advertising an individual item and multiplies it by the number of units the advertiser wishes to sell. ALL AVAILABLE FUNDS METHOD: This aggressive method involves the allocation of all available profits to advertising purposes. This can be risky for a business of any size, for it means that no money is being used to help the business grow in other ways (purchasing new technologies, expanding the work force, etc.). Yet this aggressive approach is sometimes useful when a start-up business is trying to increase consumer awareness of its products or services. However, a business using this approach needs to make sure that its advertising strategy is an effective one, and that funds which could help the business expand are not being wasted. AFFORDABLE METHOD: With this method, advertisers base their budgets on what they can afford. Of course, arriving at a conclusion about what a small business can afford in the realm of advertising is often a difficult task, one that needs to incorporate overall objectives and goals, competition, presence in the market, unit sales, sales trends, operating costs, and other factors. ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS Advertising effectiveness is a process of determining or evaluating the performance of the existing ad in the market. The advertising effectiveness or advertisng evaluation is very important for the company to determine the success or failure of a particular ad in the market. The advertising effectiveness is based on the following . 1. It consists of several measures ot ensure perofmrance of ad. 2. It is based on human responses to stimuli. 3. Provides controls to filter the biased effects. 4. Demonstrates reliability and validity empirically.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) One of the famous method of ad effectiveness was proposed by Russel H.Colley in a famous research paper. This method is also called as DAGMAR approach or Designing Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results approach. According to DAGMAR approach, the communication task of the brand is to gain a. Awareness b. Comprehension, c. Conviction d. Image and e. Action.

Advertising goals should be consistent with these communication tasks. Later performance on these counts and projected goals is compared. Ad effectiveness is classified into the following types. They are: 1. Pre testing of media 2. Post testing of media.

1. PRE TESTING OF MEDIA: Pre testing refers to before introducing to the media, the evaluation process is applied to test the effectiveness of the ad. In case of the print media, the pre testing of ads are done with the following techniques. They are: 1. Order of merit test 2. Paired comparison 3. Portfolio test 4. Mock magazine tests 5. Perceptual Meaning Studies 6. Focus group. In case of Broadcast media or electronic media, the following techniques are applied: They are: 1. Trailer tests 2. Theatre tests 3. Live Telecast ads. Apart from these methods, some of the other methods like Sales Experiment, direct Mail Tests, Physiological testing are also applied in order to determine the effectiveness of ad.

2. POST TESTING OF MEDIA: Post testing refers to after telecast of the ad, the testing process is applied. These include the following methods. They are:

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 1. Penetration Tests: These tests are also called as Readership/Viewership tests. In this,

the respondents are shown the issues of magazine they claim to have read or ad saw in TVs. And the testing process is continued in the penetration tests. 2. Error in Recognition Measurement: These methods recognizes the errors by the respondent.

MEASURING COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVENESS

A successful communication requires that a message from a source be communicated through a channel to a receiver who not only receives the message, but also comprehends it and responds to it. In advertising, the communication model can be interpreted as follows: the message is product image and information; words and/or pictures are the source of the message; television, magazines or other media are the communication channels; and the receiver is the consumer. Communication effectiveness research is designed to measure the influence of advertising upon the target audience. At the first stage, when the products ad is

telecasted, the research is made on how well the advertiser is able to communicate about the product information. By observing the ad, it should be concluded the theme of ad, the ad should as far as possible should be with easy words or daily usable words. The motions or pictures represented in the ad should be as far as possible should highlight the products image. Finally, the communication effectiveness of ad is understood based on the type of media selected. When it comes to electronic media, any famous or popular channel makes the ad to reach for more people. When it comes to print media a good magazine or popular news paper effectively communicates the ad theme and usage of product.

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SALES EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISING The advertising is directly proportion to the sales. As the advertising of a

particular product increases in different media, the result will be increase in the sales of the product. The best tool for measuring the advertising effectiveness of sales is applying a business forecasting technique that is Regression equations to determine the sales value exactly for a particular advertising value for a period of 5 or more years. Through the regression equations, the sales value can be exactly estimated for the given advertising and sales for the past years. In general, the advertising campaign increases the sales in short or long periods. In short term, some times the advertising may not give the best results in terms of sales. But, this can be achieved in the long run, where the sales increases with the increase in the advertising frequency. The advertising value and the sales are subject to change based on the product life cycle.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) INDIAN ADVERTISING INDUSTRY AND STRUCTURE

The Indian advertising industry is talking business today. It has evolved from being a small-scale business to a full-fledged industry. It has emerged as one of the major industries and tertiary sectors and has broadened its horizons be it the creative aspect, the capital employed or the number of personnel involved. Indian advertising industry in very little time has carved a niche for itself and placed itself on the global map. Indian advertising industry with an estimated value of es13, 200-crore has made jaws drop and set eyeballs gazing with some astonishing pieces of work that it has given masterpieces in the field of advertising in the recent past. Advertising agencies in the country too have taken a leap. They have come a long way from being small and medium sized industries to becoming well known brands in the business. Mudra, Ogilvy and Mathew (O&M), Mccann Ericsonn, Rediffussion, Leo Burnett are some of the top agencies of the country. Indian economy is on a boom and the market is on a continuous trail of expansion. With the market gaining grounds Indian advertising has every reason to celebrate. Businesses are looking up to advertising as a tool to cash in on lucrative business opportunities. Growth in business has lead to a consecutive boom in the advertising industry as well. The Indian advertising today handles both national and international projects. This is primarily because of the reason that the industry offers a host of functions to its clients that include everything from start to finish that include client servicing, media planning, media buying, creative conceptualization, pre and post campaign analysis, market research, marketing, branding, and public relation services. Keeping in mind the current pace at which the Indian advertising industry is moving the industry is expected to witness a major boom in the times ahead. If the experts are to be believed then the industry in the coming times will form a major contribution to the GDP

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) RECENT TRENDS IN INDIAN ADVERTISING

1. Internet advertising in India became the latest trend in advertising in India. The Indian online advertising market size is estimated between 150-175 crores and is growing at more than 50% year-on-year. Almost 70-80% of online advertising is happening on a handful of large sites like Indiatimes, Rediff, Yahoo India , Google India, Sify, Moneycontrol and MSN India. Compared to print and television the number of players and market size is still very small.

2. The second revolution in Indian advertising is the mobile advertising. Increase mobile users in India gave the opportunity to the advertisers to use mobile device as a source to target the customers. Many private telecom companies are engaged with the advertising agencies and companies to telecast the ads on mobile. As a result, the mobile advertising became one of the booming trends in Indian advertising.

3. The Indian advertising in the recent past is becoming the strongest sector. With latest success in Zoo-Zoo ads of Vodafone, the Indian advertising sector is claiming to the top of the world ratings. Increasing creating ad agencies and advertisers and ad script writers in India making the Indian ads to be in top of the world rating in coming years.

ADVERTISING AGENCIES

(1). An advertising agency, (abbreviated to 'ad agency,') is a team of experts appointed by a client to plan, produce and place advertising campaigns in the media. Advertising Agencies account for billings of Rs. 2000 crores per annum (figures specifies for the year 2003). The need for people grows in proportion to billing. It employs today 10,000 people. It will need twice this number. 2000. They are constantly in need of a diversity of talents both on the creative as well as product side. (2) Advertising agency is an independent company set up to render specialized services in advertising in particular and in marketing in general.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) Advertising agency acts as a consultant to its client, the advertiser, in formulating the advertising plans and translating them into advertising campaigns. The advertising agencies provide for the client a minimum of: 1. 2. 3. Media information, such as the availability of time and space. Creative skills, such as campaign planning and appeal planning and Research capabilities, such as providing brand preference data.

FUNCTIONS OF AN ADVERTISING AGENCY: advertising agency are: 1.

The important functions of and

Advertising agency is a company that helps s advertisers creates advertisements

and places them with appropriate media. 2. An Ad agency accepts the objective view of the advertisers plans and proposals

and thus ventures to put forward its opinions and comments. 3. The ad agency will have regular contacts with various support systems required

for the production of advertising material. 4. 5. Ad agencies provide media planning. Agencies study the products, markets, competitors and the promotional problems

of their clients, whom they usually call their accounts.

NEED OF AN ADVERTISNG AGENCY: 1.An ad agency is a company that helps advertiser create advertisements and place them with appropriate media. 2.Ad agencies offer a broad range of marketing and advertising services. 3.The agency s knowledgeable about the product sn and the industry, so, it will definitely provide advantages for advertisers. 4.Agencies provide a degree of creativity and objectivity that is difficult to maintain in a corporate advertising department.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) SELECTING AN ADVERTISING AGENCY:An important function of an

advertising manager is to select a best advertising agency that can fulfill the needs of an advertiser. The agency should understand the need for the advertising to sell a product, that advertising is salesmanship in print, sound and action; that advertising is selling, not just telling. The agency should be able to think independently on various problems, and not solve them by pre-conceived notions which it is unwilling to change. The agency should have experience in selling goods and ideas. It should generate ads that have interesting, convincing and result-bringing sales messages. It should be able to bring in more results than anticipated. The company should be financially sound and should be able to cover both local and national advertising campaigns. The size of the agency should not be seriously taken into account. The agency should be able to use both research and brains to solve problems. An agency that plans to make a profit on an account should be chosen, rather than one that maintains that it will work on a no-profit no-loss basis.

SERVICES TO BE DONE BY AD AGENCIES:- These include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. It should provide assistance in preparing or reformulating marketing plans. The ad agencies may have a full fledged research department. Ad agencies to be provide advertising research results before creating ads. The ad agencies provide special skills or experience in sales promotion schemes. They use merchandising as a comprehensive way for clients or product groups as

the dominant component of ad programme. 6. 7. They possess public relations. The ad agencies offer specialized services like campaigning radio advertising or

for technical or industrial advertising. 8. The agencys experience of handling products/services which the advertiser likes

to be advertised may be considered useful. While selecting the advertiser should consider the following details which include:

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) o Size of the agency and its corporate structure. o Organizational set-up and number of employees. o Profile of key personnel. o Services offered by the agency. o Terms of business. o Accounts held and periods for which they are held. o Growth of agencys billings. o Case histories of some campaigns. o At last, before selecting, the potential client should visit the agencies in their offices, and have meeting with the key personnel.

COMPENSATING THE AD AGENCY: -

The compensation of advertising agencies

is derived from commissions and fees. It has been customary for full service agencies to charge a commission of 15% on total billings for their services, plus reimbursement for advertising production costs. An advertiser is billed by its agency for the full cost of the advertising space used in the media. Then, the media bill the agency for the full cost of space less a commission of 15%. The agencys revenue is primarily the difference between what it bills clients and what it pays to media. Thee two major methods of compensating ad agencies are: 1.The commission 2.The fee method. Under commission method, the ad agencies receive an amount equal to 15% of the cost of the media time or space. The commission is paid by the media, which bill the agencies for the stated rate, less 15%, the advertiser pays full rate to the agency. The billing method , is the type of method is the price of the time or space charged by the media that in which ads are placed through the agency.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) ACCOUNTS EXECUTIVE IN ADVERTISING AGENCY : - It is a key career option in advertising agency. He is called an Account Director when he is a member of the Board. He is a link between a client and his staff. The marketing or advertising department of the client briefs him. He communicates this to the agency people. He reaches out to different clients for seeking new business. Even clients who want an agency' to work for them contact the accounts executive. This business development work makes it virtually a marketing manager of the agency.

ADVERTISING AGENCIES IN INDIA AN OVER VIEW:In India, advertising business is worth Rs. 8,000 crores. There were only 62 advertising agencies in 1958, which increased to 168 in 1978, more than 2.5 times the numbers in 1958. There are more than 500 ad agencies today. The oldest and largest advertisement agency in India is Hindustan Thompson Associates Ltd. The second largest advertisement agency is Lintas. Mumbai is considered to be the Mecca of Indian advertising. These days agencies are also being set up at Bangalore, Madras, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Delhi. In India the ad agencies are sole proprietary concern, partnership or private limited companies. It is better to operate agencies on professional lines, rather than as a family. It is good to install MBO (Management By Objectives). An agency must necessarily plough back at least 75 % of its profits into business. The advertising agencies are shifting from the creative mode to the marketing mode. Today the onus is on the agency to supply the client with data on his industry; the days of the clients briefing the industry are almost over. The agencies are expected to maintain database. There is a leaning towards software for optimizing media usage, and computerization of studio functions. In India, the legal structure of ad agencies is that of a small proprietary concern or a big partnership. Sometimes, they are private limited companies, either big or small. Indian advertising is a fragmented business. There are over 733 agencies accredited to INS. The top 25 account for 50% of all billings. In addition, there are many accredited agencies.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) It is the top 25 agencies, most of which are headquartered in Mumbai, that set the pace and define the shape of the industry. Agencies like HTA, Lintas, Clarion and O & M have shaped the entire advertising industry in the country. Many Indians firms are coming up, by importing Western ad techniques. Many agencies die a premature death. Most people do not appreciate that an agency like any other business - must be properly managed. It is simply not enough just to have great idea. In recent years, there has been a healthy trend towards sound management practices, especially financial planning and control.

MEDIA

COMPANIES

(OR)

SUPPORTING

ORGANIZATIONS

(OR)

ADVERTISING AGENCIES OF INDIA:

Ogilvy and Mather:

This is one of the leading advertising company in India. This organization believes that devotion to the brand defines the profile of their company. This company has offices across the globe. The objective of the company is to build brands. I t is a subsidiary of WPP Group plc. The headquarter of the company is in New York.

J Walter Thompson India: One of the most popular company in the advertising industry is J Walter Thompson India. Their objective is to make advertising a part of the life of the consumers. This is also world's best advertising brand with about 200 offices in 90 countries. This company is the first one to introduce pioneer careers in ad for women,sex-appeal ads and also produced the first ever sponsored -TV program.

Mudra Communication Pvt. Ltd: This is one of the renowned advertising company of India. This advertising organization was founded in the year 1980 at Mumbai. Recently the Ad company declared the addition

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) of public relations,rural marketing,events etc. The head office of the company is in Bombay Area.

FCB-Ulka Advertising Ltd: One of the best company in India in the advertising arena is FCB-Ulka Advertising Ltd. In US ,this advertising company ranks third and tenth in the world having about 188 offices in 102 countries. Their aim is to reflect the needs of the brand and not the personality of the brand. It has about 500 professionals and no prima donnas.

Rediffusion-DY&R: This Advertising company of India has made a benchmark in the field of creativity. India's 5th largest advertising company is Rediffusion. This advertising agency offers a wide array of integrated pr services for external and internal communications. The primary strength of the company lies in the media relations.

McCann-Erickson India Ltd: The prominent name among the best advertising companies of India is McCann-Erickson India Ltd. They define work in relation to the impact that advertising has on the lives of masses. The testimony of the company in which it firmly believes is the campaign of Coca -cola-'Thanda Matlab Coca Cola'.

RK Swamy/BBDO Advertising Ltd: It maintained the record of remaining consistently among the top ten advertising agencies in India. Established in 1973,this advertising reached great heights. This is also India's No.1 research company in the market sector and is fully run by Indians. Brand Equity is an integral part of the company.

Grey Worldwide (I) Pvt. Ltd: A significant name in India in the world of advertising agencies is Grey Worldwide (I) Pvt Ltd.The company is primarily based in Mumbai and has offices in Kolkata,

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) Ahmedabad, Bangalore and New Delhi. It is a subsidiary of Grey Worldwide. The company specializes in advertising and marketing services.

Leo Burnett India Pvt. Ltd : It has a significant presence in about 96 offices in 10 countries. This advertising agency was awarded the 'Worldwide Agency of the Year' in 2004.They are proficient in explaining how a single image is worth thousand words and can break the barriers of language but not at the cost of the ad's emotional power.

Contract Advertising India Ltd: This advertising company of India is one of the leading advertising agencies in India. It is one-to-one customer lifecycle management advertising agency. It was founded in 1992 and is situated in Mumbai. It offers a wide range of services like online marketing and strategy and many others.

LEGISLATION AFFECTING INDIAN ADVERTISING Advertising is an important and legitimate means for the seller to awaken interest in his goods and services. The success of advertising depends on public confidence; hence no practice should be permitted which tends to impair this confidence. The standards laid down here should be taken as minimum standards of acceptability which would be liable to be reviewed from time to time in relation to the prevailing norm of listeners susceptibilities. The following standards of conduct are laid down in order to develop and promote healthy advertising practices in All India Radio. Responsibility for the observance of these rules rests equally upon the Advertiser and the Advertising Agency. All those engaged in advertising are strongly recommended to familiarize themselves with the legislation affecting advertising in this country, particularly the following Acts and the Rules framed under them:1. 2. Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940. Drugs Control Act, 1950.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. India. 14. 15. Code of standards in relation to the advertising of medicines and treatments. Standards of practice for Advertising Agencies. Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisement) Act, 1954. Copyright Act, 1957. Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958. Preventation of Food Adulteration Act, 1954. Pharmacy Act, 1948. Prize Competition Act, 1955. Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950. Consumer Protection Act, 1986. Indecent Representation of women (Prohibition) Act, 1986. AIR / Doordarshan Code. Code of Ethics for advertisement in India issued by the Advertising Council of

SELF REGULATION CODE OF ADVERTISING ASCI is a voluntary Self-Regulation council, registered as a not-for-profit Company under section 25 of the Indian Cos. Act. The sponsors of the ASCI, who are its principal members, are firms of considerable repute within Industry in India, and comprise Advertisers, Media, Ad. Agencies and other Professional/Ancillary services connected with advertising practice. The ASCI is not a Government body, nor does it formulate rules for the public or the relevant industries.

THE CODE FOR SELF-REGULATION IN ADVERTISING

PURPOSE The purpose of the Code is to control the content of advertisements, not to hamper the sale of products which may be found offensive, for whatever reason, by some people. Provided, therefore, that advertisements for such products are not themselves offensive, there will normally be no ground for objection to them in terms of this Code.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) DECLARATION OF FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES This Code for Self-Regulation has been drawn up by people in professions and industries in or connected with advertising, in consultation with representatives of people affected by advertising, and has been accepted by individuals, corporate bodies and associations engaged in or otherwise concerned with the practice of advertising, with the following as basic guidelines, with a view to achieve the acceptance of fair advertising practices in the best interest of the ultimate consumer:

1. To ensure the truthfulness and honesty of representations and claims made by advertisements and to safeguard against misleading advertisements. 2. To ensure that advertisements are not offensive to generally accepted standards of public decency. 3. To safeguard against the indiscriminate use of advertising for the promotion of products which are regarded as hazardous to society or to individuals to a degree or of a type which is unacceptable to society at large. 4. To ensure that advertisements observe fairness in competition so that the consumers need to be informed on choices in the market-place and the canons of generally accepted competitive behaviour in business are both served. The Codes rules form the basis for judgement whenever there may be conflicting views about the acceptability of an advertisement, whether it is challenged from within or from outside the advertising business. Both the general public and an advertisers competitors have an equal right to expect the content of advertisements to be presented fairly, intelligibly and responsibly. The Code applies to advertisers, advertising agencies and media.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) ADVERTISING COUNCIL OF INDIA

Advertising Standards Council of India is a self regulatory voluntary organization of the advertising industry.The Role and Functioning of the ASCI & its CCC in dealing with Complaints received from Consumers and Industry, against Advertisements which are considered as False, Misleading, Indecent, Illegal, leading to Unsafe practices, or Unfair to competition, and consequently in contravention of the ASCI Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising.

Registered in Oct. 1985, u/s 25, as a Not-For-Profit Co., under the Companies Act 1956. The main objects to be pursued by the Company on its incorporation are - To monitor administer and promote standards of advertising practices in India with a view to: 1. Ensuring the truthfulness and honesty of representations and claims made through

advertising and safeguarding against misleading advertising. 2. Ensuring that Advertising is not offensive to generally accepted norms and

standards of public decency. 3. Safeguarding against the indiscriminate use of advertising for the promotion of

products or services which are generally regarded as hazardous to society or to individuals or which are unacceptable to society as a whole. 4. Ensuring that advertisements observe fairness in competition and the canons of

generally accepted competitive behaviour

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 3898 FACULTY OF COMMERCE AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT M.B.A. (III Semester) Examination (New) MARKETING MANAGEMENT Paper VI (Group A) (Elective) (Advertising and Sales Promotion) Time: 3 Hours) Section A (Marks: 5X4 = 20) I. Answer any Five of the following questions is not more than 10 lines each: [Max. Marks: 100

(a). What is AIDA ? (b). List out the functions of Account Manager. (c). What is broadcast copy? (d). Outline the function of limited service ad agencies. (e). What is Gross Rating Points (GRP) / (f). How is magazine advertising superior? (g). Explain the important tools for copy testing. (h). What are the trade shows ? Section B (Marks: 5 X 12 = 60) II. Attempt the following questions in about 4 pages each: 2. (a). Discuss the social and ethical dimensions of advertising in Indian context. Or (b). How does DAGMAR enable determining appropriate advertising strategy? Give suitable illustrations. 3. (a). What are the stages in the development of ad copy ? How does creativity aid in the development of a good copy ? Or (b). Explain the growth and development of advertising agencies in India? 4. (a). Compare and contrast between print media and broadcast media with suitable Examples. Or (b). Compare and contrast between print media and broadcast media with suitable examples. [P.T.O.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 2 3898

5. (a). Discuss the methods of planning for advertising budget with reference t the different stages of product life cycle. Or (b). What are the different techniques available for evaluating communication and sales effectiveness of advertising ? 6. (a). How do you choose between different techniques of sales promotion? Or (b). Describe the essentials of good sales promotion. How do you evaluate the effectiveness of sales promotion? Section C (Marks : 20) (Compulsory) 7. Case Analysis Riverview Hotels, Jaipur is a five Star Hotel located near the Hawa mahal of Jaipur. The major clientele for the hotel is travelers from US, UK and Australia. The hotel has been having 78 percent occupancy since establishment. The room tariff is as follows: Double room Rs. 4000 or $ 90 Suit Rs. 9000 or $ 210. The tariff includes breakfast and complementary drinks. The year 2003 is not being good due to travelers not coming to India on account of Iraq war as well as the outbreak of SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) in South East Asian countries. There is a steep fall in occupancy ratio from 78 percent to 24 percent. So far the hotel was targeting only international travelers because of the drop in the international tourism they had to reorient their strategy in favour of attracting the domestic tourists. Ramesh Lalwani GM, marketing proposed that there should be increase in the ad spend I the domestic media as well as offer suitable sales promotion incentives to tourists as well as travel agents. Questions:1. What is the advertising strategy you suggest? 2. What are the sales promotion tools which can be offered to the tourists? 3. What is the sales promotion strategy to be adopted with reference to travel agents?

_________

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 3898/1 FACULTY OF COMMERCE AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT M.B.A. (III Semester) Examination (New) MARKETING MANAGEMENT Paper VI (Group A) (Elective) (Advertising and Sales Promotion) Time: 3 Hours) Section A (Marks: 5X4 = 20) II. Answer any Five of the following questions is not more than 10 lines each: [Max. Marks: 100

(a). Explain the term trading shows. (b). what do you mean by buy-back allowance? (c). what do you mean by yellow-pages? (d). what is bench-marking? (e). Explain the term event marketing? (f). what is A.I.D.A.? (g). what is bill-board? (h). what do you mean by image marketing? Section B (Marks: 5 X 12 = 60) II. Attempt the following questions in about 4 pages each: 1. (a). Explain the social, cultural and ethical dimensions of advertising. Or (b). What are the functions of advertising? Explain the functions of an advertising manager. 2. (a). Enumerate the important advertising media and point out their relative merits and demerits. Or (b). What are the different advertising agencies working in India? Explain its functions. 3. (a). Explain the media scenario in India. Or (b). what are the elements of media mix? Discuss the problems in media planning and scheduling. [P.T.O.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 2 3898/1

4. (a). Discuss different methods used for determining advertising budget. How do you determine size of advertising budget?. Or (b). How do you measure the effectiveness of advertising? Explain the problems involved in it. 5. (a). What do you mean by sales promotion ? Explain the main tools of sales promotion. Or (b). Sales promotion does not replace advertising rather supplement it. Do you agree with this view point? Section C (Marks : 20) (Compulsory) 7. Case Analysis Blow Plast Industries has around 65% of the organized market for moulded luggages. It launched a premium brand Elanza when Samsonite( a global brand) entered the Indian context. The 79-cm model was priced around Rs3750 while the 69-cm was priced at Rs.3250. The brand was made available through 3000 dealers across the country. Designers and engineers had spent about 35000 man hours to design the brand. The product has an inner lining fused with a plastic shell and double-walled shoulder bumper. The lining prevents contact between delicate fabrics and the hard outer shell. The brand also has a special aesthetic appeal. Blow Plast has launched a few brands in the premium segment before the introduction of Elanza. Direct mailers were sent to target segment a part from being advertised in upmarket magazines like time. Blow Plast is one of the worlds lowest-cost manufacturer of luggage. Questions: 6. What kind of media would you formulate for the brand? 7. What aspects of timing patterns would you consider and why? 8. Profile the target segments for an offering like Elanza and explain how the media plan should differ for each of the segments? _________

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 3898/2 FACULTY OF COMMERCE AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT M.B.A. (III Semester) Examination (New) MARKETING MANAGEMENT Paper VI (Group A) (Elective) (Advertising and Sales Promotion) Time: 3 Hours) Section A (Marks: 5X4 = 20) III. Answer any Five of the following questions is not more than 10 lines each: [Max. Marks: 100

(a). What is Advertising ? (b). What do you mean by Event-marketing? (c). What is Advertisement Copy? (d). What is point-of-purchase advertising? (e). Explain the term Advertising Layout? (f). What is Corporate Advertising? (g). What are the elements of advertising ? (h). Explain the difference between advertisement and publicity. Section B (Marks: 5 X 12 = 60) II. Attempt the following questions in about 4 pages each: 2. (a). Explain the salient feature of the DAGMAR approach. Or (b). Discuss the role of advertising in economic development. 3. (a). What factors would you consider before selecting the advertising media? Explain the various media. Or (b). What do you mean by advertising agency ? Explain the working and organization of the advertising agencies in India. 4. (a). Compare and contrast between print media nd broadcast media with suitable examples from Indian context. Or (b). Give an overview of media Scenario in India. [P.T.O.

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Suresh Chandra.ch Research Scholar(K.U) 2 3898/2

5. (a). What do you mean by advertising budget ? Explain the methods for determining the advertising budget. Or (b). Explain the tools and techniques for measuring communication effectiveness and sales effectiveness of advertising. 6. (a).The over-all purpose of promotion is to influence buyer behaviour and after the location and shape of the consumer demand curve in favour of the product. Discuss this statement Or (b). Explain the essentials of good sales promotion. Ho do you evaluate the effectiveness of sales promotion? Section C (Marks : 20) (Compulsory) 7. Case Analysis The market for cycles in India is estimated to be around 10 million units per annum Seventy five percent of the cycles sold in India belonging to the ordinary category while All Terrain Bikes (ATB), Sports Light Roasters(SLR) and childrens cycle form the rest of the market. In this special bike segment, T1 cycles has share of 46 percent. It has launched Hercules TOP Gear, a five geared bike. The target segment consists of boys in the age-group of 11-15 years. The model which is priced at Rs.2595 is available in about 30 outlets. The proposition based on research is that one can plan one-s style of riding which makes riding effortless. The print advertisements were planned to show the features of the vehicle (aerodynamic twin-bow frame apart from gears) while the TV advertisements were planned to link the brand with cricket. Ajay Jadeja was chosen to model for the brand to project the personality of the brand cool and effortless (which is also appropriate to the celebrity). Internet has also been used as a medium with a number of interactive games for kids apart from information on cycles. Questions:1. Comment on the media strategies of the brand. 2. Is there a possibility of supplementing the media plan? 3. List out promotional measures required if necessary. _________

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