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IEEE Transmission & Distribution Conference Monitoring Electric Power Quality Chicago, IL

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30

Scott Schindlbeck Elspec North America 23 April 2008 Room s401d 1:00pm

www.elspecna.com

Originally presented at EPRI PQA/ADA Conference 2007 Long Beach, CA

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Objectives for Power Quality Monitoring Power Quality Statistics Power Quality Contracts Power Quality Troubleshooting Resolving Disputes Verifying Compliance With Standards

Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Can Power Quality Really Be Measured? Power quality has many meanings depending on what the power is used for Measuring PQ is all about deviations from normal state USERS are interested in any deviation that is large enough to cause a problem SUPPLIERS are interested in ensuring that deviations are maintained below a level that might cause problems

Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Quality Measurement Considerations PQ events are multi dimensional dips,voltage,current,time,harmonics,flicker,frequency PQ effects have thresholds ( they become problematic above a certain level)

Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Power Quality Parameters Supply voltage unbalance Voltage and current harmonics Interharmonics Rapid voltage changes Power frequency Magnitude of supply voltage Flicker Supply voltage dips and swells Voltage interruptions Transient voltages

Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Existing Standards IEC 61000-4-30 Measurement methods Measurement formulas Accuracy levels Aggregation period definition EN 50160 levels for power quality parameters time-based percentage (e.g., limiting voltage flicker to 95% of the time per week)

Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Supply Standard EN 50160 Governs supply voltage parameters 95% Excludes fault conditions, adverse weather Important standard but not a guarantee Written from suppliers point of view

Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Measurement Standard IEC 61000-4-30 Defines the method of measurement and interpretation of results for power quality parameters in single and three phase 50/60 Hz power systems

Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30

Any instrument conforming to the IEC61000-4-30 Class A standard regardless of manufacturer will read the same when subjected to the same inputs( V,I) Creates a level playing field With today's technology we can measure beyond this standard providing power quality professionals the information they need to solve real issues

Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Current Trends in Power Quality Standards Several countries are modifying Standards to improve network power quality. Examples: Norway (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate):
Reduce averaging periods from 10 minutes to 1 minute Force maximum 100% levels of compliance, (compared to 95% in EN 50160).

Hungarian Regulatory Agency:


Force averaging period every 3 seconds

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


The impact of existing standards on Power Quality Analysis and Solutions Time aggregation hides power quality issues Parameter values are limited and time-restricted Power quality variables are bound to only 3 voltages Source identification and propagation analysis becomes extremely difficult (or near impossible) due to limited information available from power anomalies

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Requirements for Optimizing Power Quality Analysis Data compression technology Continuous measurement of available information all the time in 1024 sample/cycle 2 parallel computation engines: IEC 61000-4-30 Class A and cycle-by-cycle, up to the 511th harmony Full scale readings 6000V / 75A at high accuracy Real time flickering 2, 10 and 60 second periods Periodic storage of 4 quadrant energy (active and reactive) for total 16 parameters Detailed Inter- and Sub-harmonics

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


EN 50160 Compliance Main service of an industrial customer Unexplained production interruptions and equipment failures According to EN50160 everything is OK although the site is experiencing significant damage
Electrical Utility

22kV

Compliance with EN 50160 at Industrial Customer's Main Service


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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

industrial Consumer

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Not Recording All Parameters: Hidden Line-to-Ground Event

L-L Voltages [kV] 25 20 15 10 5 0 25 20 15 10 5 0
3 Cycles / Div, Total 60 Cycles 15
Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

EN50160 limits measurements on Delta connections to Line-to-Line voltages The following event causes accumulative damage to MV Delta connected Source: Short circuit between the blue phase and the ground Result: No Record of a potentially damaging Line-to-Ground event

L-N Voltages [kV]

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Not Recording All Parameters: Event Analysis
Conclusion from 16 cycles: Line-to-Line Voltage Sag Insufficient information to identify the source(s)
Volts, L-L [kV]
21 18 15 12 9

Elspec PQSCADA Investigator

Volts, L-N [kV] Volts, L-N [kV] Volts, L-N [kV]

24 12 0 -12 -24

24 12 0 -12 -24

24 12 0 -12 -24

29-04-2007 07:33:49.974

29-04-2007 07:33:50.278

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Not Recording All Parameters: Sequence of Events (Zoom-Out) 1 second of information reveals two sequential events
Elspec PQSCADA Investigator

Volts, L-L [kV] Volts, L-N [kV] Volts, L-N [kV] Volts, L-N [kV]

21 18 15 12 9 24 12 0 -12 -24

24 12 0 -12 -24

24 12 0 -12 -24

29-04-2007 07:33:49.777

29-04-2007 07:33:50.771

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Not Recording All Parameters: Sequence of Events (L-N Added) Adding Line-to-Neutral voltages reveals the cause
Elspec PQSCADA Investigator 22 20

Volts, L-L [kV] Volts, L-N [kV]

18 16 14 12 10

24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

29-04-2007 07:33:49.777

29-04-2007 07:33:50.771

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Not Recording All Parameters: Sequence of Events (Aftershock) Aftershock event caused by simultaneous re-connection of many loads after the event
Elspec PQSCADA Investigator 22

Volts, L-L [kV] Volts, L-N [kV]

20 18 16 14 12 10 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0 28

Volts, L-N [A] Current [kV]

24 20 16 12 8 4

Monitoring the Current adds information


29-04-2007 07:33:49.777 29-04-2007 07:33:50.771

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


High Sampling Rate
100% Voltage

Event at 64 samples per cycle a Voltage Sag?

-100%

100% Voltage

Same event at 1,024 samples per cycle

-100%

Transients!

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Averaging vs. Rapid Parameter Monitoring Standards recommend averaging periods for parameters What averaging achieves: Fewer resources required, such as less storage space and bandwidth More stable readings Similar information on every analyzer

What averaging causes: A large amount of vital power quality information remains hidden No ability to understand the network and the propagation of events

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Averaging vs. Rapid Parameter Monitoring Source: SINTEF Energy Research, Norway
Different Results: 10 minute averaging = Voltage is below 207V 3.5% of the time (nominal 230V minus 10%)

1 minute averaging = Voltage is below 207V 28% of the time.

Cycle-by-cycle RMS Voltage Monitoring is essential in order to understand the cause and provide a solution
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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Continuous Logging - 16 Cycles
Voltage drop at a large industrial area. Rule of thumb: Voltage drop plus current rise => downstream event
Elspec PQSCADA Investigator

Volts, L-L [kV] Currents [A] Volts, L-N [kV] Currents [A] Freq. [Hz]

22 20 18 16 14 14 12 10 8 26 13 0 -13 -26 20 10 0 -10 -20 52 51 50 49 48

16 waveforms sampling
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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Continuous Logging - ~300 Continuous Cycles (Zoom-Out) The change in frequency points to an external source
Elspec PQSCADA Investigator

Volts, L-L [kV] Currents [A] Volts, L-N [kV] Currents [A] Freq. [Hz]

22 20 18 16 14 14 12 10 8 26 13 0 -13 -26 20 10 0 -10 -20 52 51 50 49 48

03-01-2007 17:36:17.750

7 Seconds

03-01-2007 17:36:23.893

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Continuous Logging 45,000 Continuous Cycles (2nd Zoom-Out)
The current changes before the event again points to a downstream problem

Elspec PQSCADA Investigator 22 20 18 16 14 21

Currents [A] Freq. [Hz]

Volts, L-L [kV]

18 15 12 9

50.28 50.22 50.16 50.1 50.04 49.98

31:43.505

15 minutes

45:08.867

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Continuous Logging 250,000 Continuous Cycles (3rd Zoom-Out) Now we see that the current rises are typical to this site
Elspec PQSCADA Investigator 22 20 18 16 14 21

Currents [A] Freq. [Hz]

Volts, L-L [kV]

18 15 12 9

50.3 50.2 50.1 50 49.9

16:58:33.273

More then 1 hour

18:16:22.235

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Large Scale Event These sites are located 106km (66miles) from each other and 62km/54km from the original one Voltage & Frequency look exactly the same Current drops during the event
106km (66miles) 2

24.2 23.1

Volts, L-L [kV]

20.9 19.8 18.7 17.6 16.5 160

Volts, L-L [kV]

Volts, L-L [kV]

3
22 150

Elspec PQSCADA Investigator

2
176 172 168 164 160 156 152 148 144 140 136 40 39

Elspec PQSCADA Investigator

22 20 18 16 14

Elspec PQSCADA Investigator

21

Currents [A]

Currents [A]

140 130 120 110 100 50.3 50.2 50.1 50 49.9

Currents [A] Freq. [Hz]

38 37 36 35 34 33 50.3 50.25 50.2 50.15 50.1 50.05 50 49.95 49.9 49.85

18 15 12 9

50.3 50.2 50.1 50 49.9

Freq. [Hz]

03-01-2007 17:08:42

03-01-2007 18:24:21

Freq. [Hz]

03-01-2007 17:08:42

03-01-2007 18:24:21

16:58:33.273

18:16:22.235

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Rapid Parameter Monitoring RMS in a Welding factory (Germany) IEC 61000-4-30 instructs: 10/12 Cycle averaging
Current [A] 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 Voltage [V] 400 390 380 370 360 350 340 330 320 310

IEC 61000-4-30 one voltage drop Sliding Window Average one voltage drop

Cycle-by Cycle 5 different voltage drops

0 300 Cycle 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 70 73 76 79 82 85 88 91 94 Fixed Aver Fixed Aver 28 Sliding Window Average Sliding Window Average Cycle Current Cycle Voltage

Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Multipoint Analysis Multiple Sources
Two different events sources may be wrongly identified as same type Solving at one transformer will not prevent the event(s) from reoccurring and is likely the wrong analysis
Voltage

100%

90%

Second Event

First Event
80%

First Event

Second Event

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Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Multipoint Analysis - Time Delay and propagation Analysis Time synchronization allows time delay analysis
Voltage

100%

90%

80%
30
Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

First Event

0.1 Sec/Div

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Knowledge Availability
Certainty
100%

Controllers Power meters Educated guess Source of Information 0% When


Today at 09:0 0

Educated guess Why


Motor Startu p

What
20% Sa g

Where From
From Custo mer X

What to do
Synch . Startu ps

Knowledge

31

Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


Ideal Knowledge Availability
Certainty
100%

Source of Information:
Controllers

Continuous measurement information all the time in 1024 sample/cycle Educated guess using data compression technology of available Power meters
Educated guess Why
Motor Startu p

Source of Information 0% When


Today at 09:0 0

What
20% Sa g

Where From
From Custo mer X

What to do
Synch . Startu ps

Knowledge

32

Copyright 2007 ELSPEC Engineering, Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Power Quality Beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30


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Thank You

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