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Ph. Delarue a, A. Bouscayrol a,, A. Tounzi a, X. Guillaud a, G. Lancigu b

b a L2EP Lille, USTL, 59655 Villeneneuve dAscq Cedex, France Jeumont SA, 27 rue de lIndustrie, 59573 Jeumont Cedex, France

Abstract More and more conversion systems have been proposed to capture wind energy in order to produce electrical power. In this paper, an energetic macroscopic representation is used to describe such systems composed of very different parts. This representation yields the simulation model of the overall system based on energetic considerations. Moreover, a control structure can be deduced from this representation by simple inversion rules. Hence, the different strategies of wind turbine management can be shown by the theoretical control structure. In order to illustrate this modelling and control methodology a 750 kW wind energy conversion system is studied and simulated. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Wind energy; Wind systems; Wind turbine, Control

1. Introduction The wind energy conversion systems (WECS) have increasingly been developed over the last 10 years. Indeed, they offer energy without negative environmental impact. Constant-Speed Constant-Frequency (CSCF) systems were rst developed using a pitch angle control [1] in order to minimize the wind uctuations on the transfer power. CSCF systems generally use synchronous or squirrel cage induction

Corresponding author. Tel.: +33-3-20-43-42-53; fax: +33-3-20-43-69-67. E-mail addresses: alain.bouscayrol@univ-lille1.fr (A. Bouscayrol); http://www.univ-lille1.fr/l2ep/ (A. Bouscayrol).

0960-1481/03/$ - see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0960-1481(02)00221-5

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Nomenclature Cp e f F I J L m P r R sij S T u v l r power coefcient of the wind turbine electromotive force (V) coefcient of viscous friction (N m s) various forces (N) various currents (A) moment of inertia (kg m2) various inductances (H) various modulation coefcients various powers (W) various resistances ( ) blade radius (m) switching functions of power electronics converters swept area of the blades (m2) various torques (N m) various voltages (V) various speeds (m/s) tip speed ratio various rotation speeds (rad/s) air density (kg/m3)

machines. Variable-Speed Constant-Frequency (VSCF) systems have been developed to reduce the inuence of the wind uctuations with variable speed machines. These generators can be squirrel cage induction or doubly fed induction machines [24]. Variable-Speed Variable-Frequency (VSVF) systems improve the annual energy production [5] and are more exible under various wind conditions and reduce the stresses of the turbine [6]. Nowadays, several solutions can be found, as a result of the design evolutions of aerodynamics, power electronics and electrical machines. The squirrel cage induction machine with two voltage-source-converters is the most exible conversion structure [711]. Synchronous machines with a high pole number [12] or Vernier reluctance machines for low speed [13] are also used in order to avoid the mechanical gearbox. Various control strategies are proposed to extract maximum power from the wind [811,14] and to manage the system according to the standard operating modes [15,16]. Hence, many different WECS are provided, with several power components using different technologies and knowledge: turbine, mechanical power train, electrical machines and power electronics. They have to be simulated in order to provide comparisons for a critical choice. However, dynamic modelling of such complex systems is not always made [17,18]. Indeed, if each part can easily be studied, there are sometimes problems in connecting models of the devices, which are of a different nature. Even if global softwares (saberTM, matlabTM, etc.) have adapted libraries

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and toolboxes, the connections of such elements cannot be made without a preliminary study and sometimes they involve modications of standard models. The aim of this paper is to deal with a modelling and a control methodology in order to simulate such WECS. This description [19] allows the subdivision of the whole complex system into simple blocks which allows a synthetic and physical representation [20] based on the causality principle [21,22]. This methodology has been successfully applied in the case of traction applications [23,24]. A rst modelling of a WECS with an induction generator has also been proposed [25]. In this paper, the modelling of such a system is extended to its control design and simulation. The rst part is devoted to the description of a studied wind generation system. In the second part, a control structure of this system is suggested according to inversion rules. The last part focuses on the transposition of the modelling and control into the matlabsimulinkTM software. Then simulation results are provided.

2. Modelling of a wind energy conversion system The WECS studied is a VSVF structure. It ensures an energy conversion from the wind to an AC grid. An overall modelling is built, thanks to the energetic macroscopic representation (EMR). As the modelling of the blade is often neglected, this part is particularly detailed. 2.1. The wind energy conversion systems studied The subscript of each power variable is associated with the physical element, from where the variable comes. The different choices will be justied by the modelling of the global system. The WECS is a xed-pitch turbine with a horizontal axis and three blades. A gearbox ensures the adaptation between the rotation shaft of the blades (low speed) and the rotation shaft of the machine (high speed). In the system studied, the electromechanical conversion is provided by a permanent magnet DC machine instead of the AC machine classically used in wind generation system. The DC machine has been chosen due to its simple electrical model. Hence, we can avoid a too complex representation as this study is principally focused on the representation of the overall system. The electrical power produced supplies a capacitor, thanks to a four quadrant-chopper. The DC voltage of the capacitor consists of a DC bus, which is converted to AC voltages by a three-phase power converter. Finally, after ltering the ripples induced by the modulations of the converters, a three-phase transformer adapts the voltage magnitudes to those of the AC grid (Fig. 1). 2.2. Global modelling of the overall system The EMR yields a synthetic description of complex systems based on the action reaction principle between power devices [26]. The components (or sub-systems) of

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Fig. 1.

this representation are associated with each physical device. First, they are reduced to their global functions according to their internal causalities [19]. The power between two connected blocks can be expressed by the product of their exchange variables. The EMR of the studied WECS is composed of several power components linking the wind to the AC grid, which are called upstream and downstream power sources (Fig. 2). Several elements, which will be detailed in the following part, can be pointed out: the blades (mechanical conversion function), an equivalent shaft (mechanical accumulation function), the gearbox (mechanical conversion function, which adapts the rotation speed), the ideal machine (electromechanical function), the winding of the machine (electrical accumulation function in the inductance), the chopper (electrical conversion function, which yields the DC bus), the capacitor (electrical accumulation function, which imposes the DC voltage), the three-leg inverter (electrical conversion function), an equivalent lter (electrical accumulation function of the inductances), the three-phase transformer (electrical conversion function, which adapts the AC voltages of the lines to those of the grid). The elements, which induce energy accumulation, are all depicted by a rectangular pictogram. The elements, which induce energy conversion without energy accumulation, have different pictograms: triangular pictogram for mechanical conversion,

Fig. 2.

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circular pictogram for electromechanical conversion and square pictogram for electrical conversion. Hence, this modelling gives a global overview of the energy modication in the WECS. Energy accumulation and conversion are differentiated. Indeed, this difference is the basis of the suggested control methodology, as will be seen in the next section. 2.3. Modelling of the blades The wind power acting on the swept area of the blade S is a function of the air density r and the wind velocity vwind. The transmitted power Pblade is generally deduced from the wind power using the power coefcient Cp Pblade 1 Cp rSv3 . 2 wind (1)

The power coefcient is a non-linear function of the tip speed-ratio l, which depends on the wind velocity and the rotation speed of the shaft shaft (Fig. 3(a)) l R shaft , vwind (2)

where R represents the blade radius. In the curve, lopt is the value of l which corresponds to the maximum of Cp. As the transmitted power can be assumed to be the product of the torque and the rotation speed of the shaft, an expression of the blade torque can be deduced from (1) Tblade 1 v3 wind Cp(l) rS . 2 shaft (3)

But this classical modelling results in a problem. If the wind blows at zero rotation speed, there is no blade torque and the system cannot start to run. To solve this problem, the rotation speed is replaced by the tip speed ratio (2) Tblade Cp(l)1 rSRv2 . wind l 2 (4)

Fig. 3.

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Fig. 4.

A new coefcient, the torque coefcientCT(l) CP(l) / l, can then be dened. It also has a non-linear evolution with respect to l, but it avoids the singularity at zero rotation speed. This coefcient is sometimes used to dene the torque [7,27]. Using an extrapolation method for the lower values of l, we obtain, for l 0, a non-zero value of Cp / l (Fig. 3(b)). Then, when the wind is blowing, a small torque acts on the blades and the rotation occurs. Moreover, a blade velocity vblade and a tangential force Ftang can also be dened according to the blade radius R vblade Tblade R

shaft

RFtang

(5)

If we take the previous considerations into account, the model of the blades can be described as shown in Fig. 4(a). This internal description leads to the external exchange variables of the macroscopic representation of the blades (triangular pictogram, Fig. 4(b)). 2.4. Modelling of the mechanical parts As both mechanical shafts are linked by the gearbox (mgear gear ratio), there is only one state variable [20]. An equivalent shaft is so dened [25]. It yields the rotation speed of the shaft, shaft, from the gear torque, Tgear, and the blade torque (J, moment of inertia and f, coefcient of viscous friction) d Jshaft dt with Jshaft J1 J2 f m2 shaft gear f1 f2 . m2 gear

shaft

shaft

(6)

This element is depicted by a rectangular pictogram with an oblique bar according to the EMR (Fig. 5). This representation indicates an energy accumulation: this device yields a rotation speed of the shaft which is a state variable.

Fig. 5.

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Fig. 6.

The gearbox is a mechanical converter, which adapts the rotational speed, and the torque, Tgear, with the gear ratio, mgear

gear

gear

mgear

shaft

Tgear

mgearTdcm

(7)

2.5. Modelling of the electrical machine The electromechanical conversion (circular pictogram, Fig. 6) of the DC machine links its torque, Tdcm, to the armature currents idcm, and the e.m.f., edcm, to the speed, gear, through the ux coefcient kf Tdcm edcm kfidcm kf

gear

(8)

The winding of the machine is an accumulation element, which yields the machine current from the e.m.f. and the chopper supply voltage, uchop (rdcm, Ldcm resistance and inductance of the winding) d Ldcm idcm dt edcm uchop rdcmidcm. (9)

2.6. Modelling of the electrical parts The power converters are modelled by their switching functions, sij (1 for closed switch and 0 for open switch) and their modulation functions, mi [28]. First, the power converters can be modelled in mean values. Hence, the switching and modulation functions are replaced by their mean values calculated on the switching period (0 sij 1 and 1 mi 1). The chopper leads to an electrical conversion without energy accumulation. It is thus depicted by a square pictogram (Fig. 7). Its inputs and outputs can be modelled by classical relations

Fig. 7.

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uchop ichop

mchopucap mchopidcm

with mchop

schop11 schop21.

(10)

The three-phase inverter is modelled in the same way uinv iinv minvucap with minv mtinvline i sinv11 sinv31 sinv21 sinv31 . (11)

The DC bus voltage capacitor is an accumulation element, which yields the capacitor DC voltage ucap from the inverter current iinv and the chopper current ichop d Ccap ucap dt ichop iinv ucap / rcap, (12)

where rcap is an equivalent resistor to take the converter losses into account. The association of the lter inductances and the transformer inductances leads to a common accumulation element: their currents are common state variables. It yields two independent currents iline [iline1iline2]t (the third is a combination of the two others) from the inverter voltages uinv [uinv13uinv23]t and the transformer voltages utrans [utrans13utrans23]t [25] 1 1 2 d lline line (uinv utrans) rlineiline. (13) i dt 3 1 2 The ideal transformer is an electrical converter (square pictogram) between the lter and the grid. It links the transformer voltages to those of the grid ugrid [ugrid13ugrid23]t, and the transformer current itrans [itrans1itrans2]t to those of the line, with the transformer ratio mtrans utrans itrans mtransugrid mtransiline . (14)

3. Control of a wind energy conversion system The aim of the wind generation control is to ensure the management of the power, which is delivered by the wind. But, as this system is directly connected to the grid, the reactive power has to be controlled too. Moreover, the voltage of the DC bus is a sensitive variable for the design of the power converter and the DC capacitor. This voltage also has to be controlled. As a result of inversion rules, a maximum control structure (MCS) is deduced from the EMR of the system. It consists of control blocks, which have to inverse the local function of each power component. Two other control blocks have to be built in order to dene the references of the MCS from the power references: the active power management (APM) and the reactive power management (RPM).

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3.1. Maximum control structure A control structure of the system studied is dened from its EMR according to inversion rules [19]. An element, which accumulates energy, needs a controller to inverse its physical function. An element without energy storage can be inverted directly (inverse mathematical operation). In the following gures, the inversion functions are depicted with continuous lines, and disturbance rejections with dashed lines. The inversion rules are applied to the EMR of the wind generation system. It leads to its MCS (Fig. 8). All control blocks can contain classical operations: pulse width modulations (PWM) for the converters, current controllers for the machine and the lines, etc. This control structure points out the variables to be measured. Some of them cannot be directly measured and estimation algorithms have to be added in a supplementary step (as the machine e.m.f., edcm, is estimated through the speed measurement, gear-mes). But the estimation algorithms are not presented in this paper. For example, relation (8) is directly inverted in order to produce the reference current, idcm-ref, from the reference torque, Tdcm-ref, as follows: idcm-ref 1 T . kf dcm-ref (15)

In the case of relation (9), as the current is a state variable, a controller is needed to dene the reference voltage, uchop-ref. Moreover, the disturbance variable, edcm, is taken into account and rejected externally to the controller uchop-ref Cont( idcm-ref idcm-mes) edcm-mes. (16)

Cont(xref xmes) is the controller associated to the variable x. The overall control equations are provided in Ref. [29]. One can remark that the MCS needs torque and current references. As the technical specications give only power and capacitor voltage references, other blocks have to be inserted in the control chain. 3.2. Active power management A simple relation can be found between the converted power, Pconv, and the torque of the gear, Tgear

Fig. 8.

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Fig. 9.

Pconv

Tgear

shaft

(17)

The torque reference can be deduced from the following power relation: Tgear-ref Pconv-ref . (18)

shaft-mes

The converted power, Pconv, versus the rotation shaft speed, shaftr, for different wind velocities (Fig. 9) shows that a maximum curve can be obtained for each operating point (continuous line). By associating this maximum power curve and the associated rotation speed, a look-up table is built; it gives the optimum power from the rotation speed (Fig. 10). As the power is divided by the rotation speed, a new look-up table is built with the rotation speed as input and the reference torque as output (Fig. 10). This look-up table gives the reference torque directly from the speed measurement for a maximum power strategy; maximum power generation and speed limitation for high wind velocity. A more complex strategy can be deduced from the rst one. Indeed, in most wind generators, several operating modes have to be dened [15]. If the wind velocity is too high or low, the wind turbine is turned off. For low wind velocity, the control has to allow a maximum power extraction. For high wind velocity, a constant value is imposed on the rotation speed. The APM block has to be changed.

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3.3. Reactive power management If the desired reactive power is assumed to be zero and if sinusoidal absorption is needed, the active power can be expressed by the r.m.s. value of the voltage grid, Vgrid, and the transformer current, Itrans. If the power losses are neglected in the converter switches and in the lines, this power is equal to the one of the DC bus. P 3VgridItrans ucapiinv. (19)

With these assumptions, there is a direct relation between the r.m.s. value of the absorbed current and that of the inverter. On the other hand, the voltage capacitor is dened through the inverter and the chopper current. A PI (Proportional Integral) controller can be used to control the DC voltage. It yields the inverter current reference, iinv-ref. This is then transformed into the transformer magnitude current reference, Itrans-ref, using Eq. (19). Itrans-ref is multiplied by the unitary sine wave obtained by a grid voltage measurement. The transformer current references are thus dened without shift angle between the voltage (Q 0) and that without harmonics (Fig. 11).

4. Simulation of a wind energy conversion system A 750 kW wind generation system has been deduced from the Jeumont Industry system J48, (synchronous generator). The turbine has a blade radius of 24 m. This WECS is connected to 20 kV grid. 4.1. Simulation transposition The modelling and the control of the studied WECS (see Fig. 8) and the management blocks are directly transposed to the matlabsimulinkTM software (Fig. 12). Hence, the suggested methodology gives precious help to the simulation design. All blocks can be internally described with their mathematical relations. An example is given for the blades (Fig. 13). 4.2. Simulation results Simple tests are provided in order to validate the modelling and control methodology. First, the blades are locked, in order to charge the DC capacitor. Secondly,

Fig. 11.

RPM block.

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Fig. 12.

Fig. 13.

the mechanical brake action is cancelled and the blades begin to rotate. A table of an actual wind velocity is used as input for the simulation, between 10 and 19 m/s (Fig. 15). 4.2.1. Reactive power management The DC bus voltage is initially xed at 975 V (voltage value due to the diode bridge when switches are turned off). Then, the DC bus voltage increases to its nominal value using a PI controller (Fig. 14). After that, one can notice that the DC voltage remains at a constant value in spite of the wind uctuations. Sinusoidal line currents are also controlled by PI controllers and they are in phase with line-toneutral voltages (Q 0) (Fig. 16). 4.2.2. Active power management The blade speed (Fig. 17) increases under the wind action and reaches 2.6 rad/s. During this period, the blade torque, Tblade, is greater than the machine torque, Tdcm (Fig. 19). One can notice that the blade speed is quasi-constant after the transient state. This is due to Tdcm ref f( shaft) table which corresponds to a maximum power strategy and parabolic evolution, which leads to a constant blade speed when the wind velo-

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Fig. 15.

Wind velocity.

Fig. 14.

Capacitor voltage.

city is greater than 10 m/s. The obtained power uctuates with the wind velocity (Fig. 18).

5. Conclusions An overall wind generation system has been described with the help of the EMR. This description yields a synthetic view of the overall system according to the causal relations of its components. A MCS of the wind generation system has been deduced from its EMR by logical inversion rules. Of course, the MCS possesses a maximum of control operations and measurements. It is the rst necessary step for a more practical structure, which can be deduced by adapted simplications and variable

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Fig. 17.

Blade speed.

estimations. The MCS shows the controllers and the sensors (or estimation algorithms) which are needed in such a system. Moreover, management blocks have to be dened in order to connect references of physical variables and power references. The model and control of the WECS have been very easily transposed in simulation software such as matlabsimulinkTM. The global simulation software allows us to study the inuence of each control operation (disturbance rejection, controller design, and parameter variation), and of the wind uctuations. Moreover, different management strategies can now be compared. Indeed, the inversion of power components cannot be avoided because they are based on the actionreaction principle and on the natural causality of energy accumulation. So, the management blocks are the key to the different control strategies, and many solutions can be dened.

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Fig. 18.

Power evolution.

The studied wind generation system is a virtual system. As a result of the exibility of the EMR and the MCS, the DC machine and the chopper can be easily replaced by an AC machine and a three-leg rectier [25]. The MCS can be built in the same way; only the machine control and the rectier control have to be modied. One can notice that practical control structures can be deduced for the MCS [29]. Of course, other WECS can be modelled in the same way. The studies can then be more complete by taking into account wind gusts and other practical problems [30].

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