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. .

VMware vSphere 4.1

, 2011

32.973.26-018.2
004.4
69

. .

69 VMware vSphere 4.1. .: , 2011. 448 .: .


ISBN 978-5-94074-685-0

VMware vSphere 4.1


vSphere, , , , , . ,
, . , ,
. .
, , VMware vSphere.

32.973.26-018.2
004.4
.
.
, , .
,
. , .


ISBN 978-5-94074-685-0

. ., 2011
, , 2011


................................................................................................ 8
? ........................................................................................... 8
? .................................................................. 8
? .................................................................... 8
................................................................................ 10

...................................................................................... 11
1. vSphere ........................................................... 12
1.1. ............................................................................................. 12
1.2. ESX(i) ................................................ 13
1.2.1. ESX ESXi ..................................................... 13
1.2.2. .......................................................................... 15
1.2.3. ESXi ........................................................................ 18
1.2.4. ESX ......................................................................... 21
1.2.5. ESX ............................................... 26
1.2.6. ESXi............................................... 32
1.3. ............................................................................... 33
1.3.1. vCenter...................................................... 33
1.3.2. vCenter Server ............................ 35
1.4. vSphere, vCenter, ESX(i). - ......... 41
1.4.1. vSphere
vCenter........................................................................................... 41
1.4.2. vCenter ESX(i) ............................ 48
1.4.3. - .................................................. 53
1.5. ESXi, ESX vCenter 3.x .................................. 55
1.5.1. vCenter Server 4 Update Manager 4 ............... 56
1.5.2. ESX(i) Update Manager ....................... 59
1.5.3. VMware tools ... 60
1.5.4. ........................... 62
1.5.5. ESX 3.x ESX 4 ...................................... 63
1.6. ............................................. 64
1.6.1. ESX, SSH .................................. 64
1.6.2. ESXi, SSH .................................. 66
1.6.3. vSphere CLI, vMA ....................................................... 67
1.6.4. ................................................................. 69

1.6.5. ................................................. 70
1.7. ................................................................ 74
1.7.1. .............................................................................. 75
1.7.2. .................................................................................... 79
1.7.3. ............................................................. 79
1.7.4. ............................................................... 83
1.7.5. :
?...................................................................................... 85

2.
................................................................................ 88
2.1. ESX(i), .............................. 88
2.1.1. , vmnic ............................... 91
2.1.2. Service Console VMkernel ............ 93
2.2. VMware
vNetwork Switch..................................................................................... 98
2.3. vNetwork Distributed Switch,
dvSwitch. ........................................................................... 101
2.3.1.
VMware ...................................................................... 102
2.3.2. dvSwitch,
vmnic .............................................................................................. 105
2.3.3. dvSwitch,
Service Console VMkernel ............................................................. 109
2.3.4. dvSwitch ........................................... 111
2.3.5. dvSwitch: Miscellaneous
Advanced ..................................................................................... 112
2.3.6.
....................................................................... 113
2.3.7.
VMware .................................................................... 117
2.4. Security, VLAN, Traffic Shaping NIC Teaming ................ 118
2.4.1. VLAN, . VLAN
................................. 118
2.4.2. VLAN dvSwitch. Private VLAN ........................... 123
2.4.3. Security ................................................................................. 126
2.4.4. (Traffic Shaping) ....... 128
2.4.5. NIC Teaming. ................. 128
2.4.6. Cisco Discovery Protocol, CDP ................................................ 134
2.5. ......................................................................................... 135
2.5.1. Jumbo Frames ....................................................................... 135
2.5.2. TSO TCP Segmentation Offload, TOE TCP offload
engine ............................................................................................ 137
2.5.3. VMDirectPath ......................................................................... 138

2.5.4. .................................................................. 139


2.6. ................................................................ 140

3. vSphere ..................... 141


3.1. .......................................................................... 142
3.2. DAS .............................................................................................. 144
3.3. NAS (NFS)..................................................................................... 145
3.3.1. NFS ESX(i) .................... 147
3.4. SAN, Fibre Channel ........................................................................ 149
3.4.1. multipathing ....................................................... 152
3.4.2. multipahing. PSA, NMP, MMP, SATP, PSP............... 155
3.4.3. (Zoning) (LUN masking,
LUN presentation) .............................................................................. 160
3.5. SAN, iSCSI .................................................................................... 162
3.5.1.
iSCSI ESX(i) .............................................................. 164
3.5.2. iSCSI Multipathing .................................................................. 169
3.6. VMFS, Virtual Machine File System .................................................. 172
3.6.1. VMFS. Grow Extent ........... 178
3.6.2. VMFS,
VMFS LUN ............................................. 181
3.7. RDM, Raw Device Mapping ............................................................. 183
3.8. NPIV ............................................................................................. 186
3.9. SCSI............................................................................ 188
3.10. vSphere API for Array Integration, VAAI.
..... 191

4. , ,
.......................................................................... 194
4.1. (Advanced settings) ................................ 194
4.2. ............................................................................... 195
4.2.1. ...................................... 196
4.2.2. ESX ................................................................... 198
4.2.3. ESX(i),
Active Directory ............................................................................... 200
4.2.4. , vCenter ... 201
4.3. SSL ....................................................... 208
4.4. Host Profiles .................................................................................. 210
4.5. SNMP .................................................................. 217
4.5.1. SNMP vCenter ................................................ 218
4.5.2. SNMP ESX(i) ................................... 221

5. .................................................. 222
5.1. . .............................................. 222

5.2. (Clone Template) .......................... 227


5.2.1. ....................................... 227
5.2.2. (template) ............................... 229
5.2.3. , SysPrep ................................... 231
5.2.4. ......................................... 234
5.3. .................................................... 236
5.3.1. Memory ................................................................................. 237
5.3.2. CPUs ..................................................................................... 237
5.3.3. IDE, PS2 controller, PCI controller, SIO controller, Keyboard,
Pointing device ................................................................................ 238
5.3.4. Video card ............................................................................. 238
5.3.5. VMCI device, VM Communication Interface .............................. 239
5.3.6. Floppy drive ........................................................................... 239
5.3.7. CD/DVD Drive ........................................................................ 239
5.3.8. Network Adapter .................................................................... 240
5.3.9. SCSI controller ....................................................................... 247
5.3.10. Hard Disk ............................................................................. 249
5.3.11. Parallel port .......................................................................... 250
5.3.12. Serial port ............................................................................ 250
5.3.13. SCSI device.......................................................................... 251
5.3.14. USB controller USB device.................................................. 251
5.3.15. VMDirectPath ....................................................................... 252
5.4. ......................................................................... 254
5.4.1. vmdk ........................................ 254
5.4.2. .......................................... 260
5.4.3. (alligment) ...................................................... 266
5.4.4. Raw Device Mapping, RDM ..................................................... 270
5.5. .............................................................................. 272
5.6. , ............... 276
5.7. (Snapshot) ....................................................... 284
5.8. VMware tools ................................................................................. 292
5.9. vAPP ............................................................................................. 296

6. .
.
. DRS......................................................... 299
6.1. . ....... 299
6.1.1. limit, reservation shares
......................................................................................... 299
6.1.2. ...................................................................... 307
6.1.3. Limit, Reservation Shares ..... 311
6.1.4. Storage IO Control, SIOC, .............. 314
6.1.5. Network IO Control, NIOC traffic shaping ................. 317
6.2. ESX(i) ....................... 319

6.2.1. CPU ...................................................................................... 320


6.2.2. Memory ................................................................................. 323
6.2.3. Disk ....................................................................................... 340
6.2.4. Net ........................................................................................ 340
6.3. ........................................... 340
6.3.1. ....................................... 341
6.3.2. ......... 352
6.3.3. ........................................... 358
6.4. Alarm ........................................................................... 359
6.5. ( suspend) ....... 363
6.6. Storage vMotion
..................................................................................... 365
6.7. vMotion .......................... 366
6.8. DRS. DPM........................................................................ 372

7.
....................................................................... 388
7.1. .................................... 388
7.1.1. VMware High Availability, HA .................................................... 389
7.1.2. VMware Fault Tolerance, FT ..................................................... 406
7.2. ,
VMware Update Manager ...................................................................... 417
7.2.1. esxupdate vSphere CLI vihostupdate ..................................... 417
7.2.2. vSphere Host Update Utility ..................................................... 417
7.2.4. VMware Update Manager ........................................................ 419
7.3. ................................... 431
7.3.1. ESX(i) vCenter ............................... 431
7.3.2. ........................ 432
7.3.3. VMware Data Recovery ........................................................... 438
7.3.4. VMware Consolidated Backup
vStorage API for Data Protection..................................................... 445



.
,
.
VMware VMware vSphere 4.
ESX ESXi, vSphere, , ,
, .
vSphere, .
, ESX ,
, .
, ,
, , .

.

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, .
, .

?
vSphere 4.1.
, , VMware.

?
1. vSphere.
VMware vSphere 4? ? VMware?

, ? , vSphere.
( ) ESX?.
vSphere 4
VMware. . . vSphere .
2. . . ?
,
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.
3. vSphere. VMware vSphere , SAN NAS.
vSphere , Fibre Channel, iSCSI NFS ESX(i). ,
. multipathing, iSCSI, SCSI.
ESX(i) VMFS. , .
4. , . . . ,
.
ESX(i), vCenter Server Update Manager.
Host Profiles, ESX(i).
5. . . ,
vCenter . , .
, thin provisioning.
. , , , .

10

. , , .
6. . . . DRS.
, .
vSphere
. , DRS, ESX(i)
.
, ESX(i)
. , vSphere

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7. . ,
. ,
.
, ,
VMware. ,
.


Mikhail.Mikheev@vm4.ru. .


VMware ESX Server ( ) 2005 .
2007 (http://vm4.ru),
,
VMware. ,
, , ,
, . ,
, ,

. ,
,
. , , ,
.
,
:
, , , , , , ,
, .
, .

1. vSphere
VMware vSphere 4, .

1.1.
vSphere : VMware ESX(i) VMware
vCenter Server. ESX(i) ESX ESXi.
ESX ESXi . , . ESXi ESX
. ,
- ESX(i)..., - ESXi (
ESX). , . , , . ,
. .
vCenter Server Windows, , ESX(i),
, .

VMware vSphere:
vSphere CLI (Command Line Interface) .
ESXi
ESX. ,
- . vSphere CLI
Linux Windows;
vSphere Management Assistant (vMA) -
Service Console. vMA Virtual Appliance, Linux, ,

. , vSphere CLI;
VMware Data Recovery VMware ;
VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB) , VMware Infrastructure 3 (
vSphere). , VMware Data Protection
API ;
VMware Converter :
, VMware, ESX(i);

ESX(i)

13

, ;
, ESX. . , ;
, . ,
Norton Ghost, Symantec LiveState, Symantec Backup Exec System Recovery, StorageCraft ShadowProtect, Acronis True Image;
, VCB;
, .
. p2v physical to virtual. ( v2v
v2p .
VMware );
vCenter Update Manager ESX(i), .
, .

( , ).
vSphere , ESXi. , .

, . http://www.vm4.ru/2010/11/vsphere.html.

1.2.
ESX(i)

.
ESX(i), . : ESX.
ESX(i) . ,
. .

1.2.1. ESX ESXi


, .
.
ESX Linux.

14

vSphere

VMware ,
. VMkernel.
Linux Red Hat Enterprise Linux. ESX . ,
FTP. Linux
, - - ESX,
- .
Linux (, , Service Console, SC)
, ,
, , vSphere.
- , i ESX.
ESXi Linux.
Linux ( Busybox), . Linux ESXi
, 1,5 , ESX.
( ESXi 1 , ESX 10 ).
:
, , ESX ESXi, . ,
vMotion, Fault Tolerance, DRS, .
ESX Linux - , ( , Linux) .
ESXi.
, VMware
( vSphere CLI,
vMA), ESX ESXi
.
, -
PowerShell, . ,
VMware VMware PowerCLI (cmd-let) PowerShell. ( ,
vSphere CLI) ESX, ESXi, vCenter.
ESXi -, ESX.
, ESXi, ( vCenter. vCenter ,
ESXi - vCenter).
i-, :
. - ESXi
,
. , ( ESXi , , ESX), ;
ESXi - USB.

(ESXi) ;

ESX(i)

15

ESXi PXE. VMware Auto


Deploy ;
, ESXi , , , .
:
ESX Linux , ESXi. , Linux
. . , i-
i- .

1.2.2.
ESX(i) , .
, ESX(i) .
. VMware HCG Hardware
Compatibility Guides, (http://vmware.com/go/hcl).
:
1. System CG .
2. I/O CG .
3. SAN CG .
,
. ,
.
,
.
.
: ESX(i) 4 ATA,
SATA, SAS SCSI, HBA FC iSCSI. , , . Getting Started
with ESX 4.
. ,
ESX ,
/ . . ATA
SATA, ESX(i) 4, ,
.
ESX(i) , RAID.
: . , .

16

vSphere

, ESX(i). ,
http://vmware.com/go/hcl.
ESXi -.
, , (ESXi) .
-.
.
ESXi : ESXi USB (
VMware Workstation Player),
ESXi.
ESX(i) , BIOS firmware .
( ) . , , ( ) -
ESX(i).
: ,
ESX(i) , ( ). BIOS
. ,
.
.
ESX(i) 4, 64- (x86-64).
( , ,
Intel AMD 64- ),
- . 64- :
;
, ;
, VMware CPU Identification Utility. Download
Drivers and tools. 64- , ,
vMotion, EVC (Enhanced vMotion
Compatibility).
64- , Intel-VT AMD-V. 64- . :
BIOS , , , 64-
- , . BIOS -. Hardware Virtualization, Intel-VT, AMD-V.

ESX(i)

17

, ESX
esxcfg-info | grep HV

:
0 Intel VT / AMD-V ;
1 Intel VT / AMD-V , ;
2 Intel VT / AMD-V , BIOS;
3 Intel VT / AMD-V BIOS .
: VMware Fault Tolerance
http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1008027. Fault Tolerance vMotion ,
, . , .



VMware. .
.
,
. ,
- , . ,
ESX(i) ( , , DRS).
ESX(i) .

. ESX(i), vCenter.
, ESX(i) vCenter Evaluation. 60 (
Enterprise Plus). 60
ESX(i) vCenter ( ).
VMware , .
. .
( : http://www.vm4.ru/2010/10/vsphere-licensing.html).
, ESXi. C
Installable ESXi, HDD\LUN\
Flash. -, ESXi .
ESXi Embedded.

18

vSphere

Installable Embedded ( ESXi HDD\LUN\- -)


.
, Installable , - USB-HDD.
Installable ,
ESXi . .
, (
http://www.vm4.ru/2010/01/all-about-esxi.html).

ESXi PXE. , : http://www.vm4.ru/2010/08/auto-deploy.html.
VMware
, Dell, IBM HP, - ESXi HP (IBM, DELL ) Edition. ESXi,
CIM Provider ,
.
,
ESXi VMware,
(
).

1.2.3. ESXi
ESX . , ESX. .
ESXi .
, .
.
, ESXi.
,
/LUN. , , ESX(i),
, . vMotion vSphere
LUN . . 1.1.
ESX(i) Windows.
,
ESX(i) LUN , Windows-. , ,
physical-2-virtual. , ESX(i)

ESX(i)

19

. 1.1.

LUN ( , )
(, Windows-)
.
, ESXi , , ESXi, / ,
, . : ESXi
vmhba0:C0:T0:L0.
LUN, , , .
(vmhba#) ,
, BIOS. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
, .
:

20

vSphere

ESXi /LUN
ESXi.
. (zoning, LUN masking/presentation) ,
LUN, , ESX(i).
, LUN,
, .
, :
VMFS /LUN
2 512 , LUN 1,81,9 ;
VMFS 1 .
, VMFS - 256 . VMFS, ESX ,
VMFS ( .: http://www.vm4.ru/2010/06/default-vmfs-block-size.html).
ESXi .
: F2, - BIOS. Configure
Management Network. IP, DNS- . Network Adapters, , ESXi (. 1.2).

. 1.2. ESXi

ESX(i)

21

,
, . . 1.3.

. 1.3. ESX(i)

( vmnic#), . . 1.3 ,
, , ESX(i).
vCenter, ESX(i).
VLAN , , , . VLAN , . VLAN .
ESXi root . :
1. Configure root password.
2. .
.

1.2.4. ESX
ESX , ESXi.
, , .
Scripted Install - , . : Install ESX

22

vSphere

in graphical mode Install ESX in text mode. ,


30 . ,
,
Next, Next, , .
1, 2, 3. .
, , HP iLO, Fujitsu iRMC, IBM RSA, Dell DRAC
IP KVM. .
, , , , 2 Change .
. .
.
. , .
VMware ( , ).
, .
.
ESX Evaluation, .
ESX , 60
- ,
.

. ,
ESX.
,
, . . 1.3.
( vmnic#), . . 1.3 ,
, , , ESX(i).
vCenter, ESX(i).
(. 1.4) . (
), (
) MAC-. , . ,
.
VLAN , , , . VLAN , . VLAN .

ESX(i)

23

. 1.4. ESX

, , . ,
. , , ESX.
, - ESX
- , .
, . .
. , , ESX(i), , . vMotion vSphere LUN
. . . 1.1 ESX Windows. ESX
LUN, , ,
Windows- (, physical-2-virtual). , ESX(i)
LUN ( ,
) (, Windows-)
.
, ESX 3, ESX 4
LUN. , : vmhba0:C0:T0:L0.
LUN. ,
LUN.

24

vSphere

, , ESX.
(, , Windows . 1.1)
. ESX
ESX, VMFS,
, ESX (. 1.5).

. 1.5. VMFS

: , ESX(i), ,
Fibre Channel iSCSI (FC iSCSI HBA, Host Bus Adapter). ,
/LUN , BIOS , (Boot):
1. BIOS , HBA (FC iSCSI)
.
2. ,
. BIOS,
: PCI, , BIOS . Option
Rom Scan. , ,
, Yes.

ESX(i)

25

3. BIOS .
Standard Setup .
8,5 . , : /boot /vmcore, 1250 .
,
VMFS, esxconsole.vmdk , Service Console. , ESX 3, Service Console ESX 4
. / (root), /swap SC
.
Advanced Setup, ,
VMFS Service Console.
VMFS.
, ESX /LUN, esxconsole.vmdk,
SC /LUN. /boot /vmcore.
. LUN
, .

, Service Console.
/swap, / /var/log.
, vmdk-
.
, ? SC /.
, ESX
(, , ). , ,
. , :
/, root . ,
5 10 (5 , , );
/swap Service Console.
1600 , , SC , ;
/home, 512 . Service Console. , - SC.
,
/home ;
/tmp, 2048 ;

26

vSphere

/opt Program Files Windows.


- SC,
/opt,
;
/var/log, 2048
.
/var/log, /var . 512 ;
/vmimages iso, . iso (NAS SAN)
ESX(i).
iso ESX ,
, /vmimages .
: ESX (/boot /vmcore),
VMFS
. . . , , .
, VMFS. VMFS , 1 . ,
VMFS
- 256 .
VMFS, VMware 1012683 (http://kb.vmware.com/
kb/1012683).
ESX
NTP.
root .
ESX SSH. ,
, , root. ,
ESX SSH root.
SSH root
.
.

1.2.5. ESX
ESX , .
- Scripted install with kickstart file.
ESX Red Hat
. ESX Red Hat,

ESX(i)

27

VMware. , ,
ESX and vCenter Server Installation Guide.
, , , , .
ESX
:
ESX
/root/ks.cfg,
, ESX.
ESX
- .
;
ESX
;

.
,
ESX (. 1.6).

. 1.6. ESX

ESX Scripted Install to first disk, , VMFS . ks-first-safe.cfg.


VMFS
ESX Scripted Install to first disk (overwrite VMFS).
ks-first.cfg.

28

vSphere

root mypassword. ESX


vSphere.

ESX , .
DHCP.
. : ESX
, .
ESX.
. DVDROM, USB ISO, ( HTTP, HTTPS, NFS, FTP).
, , ESX ( Service Console, ). , VMFS.
, ,
ESX .
%post .
%post
ESX
ESX.
, - Advanced Settings, , ESX.
, . : ESX
DNS, hosts,
.
ESX?
- . , ESX
nano script_name

nano script_
name, , . ,
, . :
#!/bin/bash

,
. , :

ESX(i)

29

Command > filename filename;


Command >> filename filename;
Command < filename filename;
Command < filename > newfile filename ,
newfile;
Command << delimiter , delimiter.
. . EOF End of file, .
:
#!/bin/bash
cat > /etc/resolv.conf << DNS
search mydomain.com
nameserver <primary_DNS_server>
nameserver <secondary_DNS_server>
DNS

cat /etc/resolv.conf.
, DNS, (delimiter).
cat , .
DNS DNS.
ESX. , , - .
, .
. ESX /etc/vmware/esx.conf ,
. , :
2:
#!/bin/bash
; vSwitch2 32 .
esxcfg-vswitch a vSwitch2:32
; vMotion.
esxcfg-vswitch A vMotion vSwitch2
; NIC vmnic2.
esxcfg-vswitch L vmnic2 vSwitch2
; vMotion VMkernel
.
esxcfg-vmknic a i 10.1.72.156 n 255.255.255.0 vMotion
; Service Console ntpClient.
esxcfg-firewall e ntpClient
; .
esxcfg-auth --passmaxdays=90 --passmindays=30 --passwarnage=15 :

30

vSphere

( nano Ctrl+X),
. :
chmod +x scriptname


./script_name

, . ESX.
, script_name , ,
, DNS ESX ,
vMotion .
. ESX. Host profiles
(, ,
) .
2 ( , ) %post ,
ESX.
,
ESX. esxcfg-*
. , , , %post,
ESX. :
cat > /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S99myconfig << CFG
esxcfg-vswitch a vSwitch2:32
esxcfg-vswitch A vMotion vSwitch2
esxcfg-vswitch L vmnic2 vSwitch2
esxcfg-vmknic a i 10.1.72.156 n 255.255.255.0 vMotion
esxcfg-route 10.1.137.253
esxcfg-firewall e ntpClient
esxcfg-auth --passmaxdays=90 --passmindays=30 --passwarnage=15
CFG

, %post, S99myconfig,
ESX. esxcfg-*
ESX, .
: ESX?
USB, DVD
.

ESX(i)

31

USB- :
1. EXT2, EXT3 FAT32.
2. ks.cfg.
3. ESX scripted install using USB ks.cfg.
USB- :
1. ESX.
DVD PXE.
2. ( Enter) Install ESX in graphical
mode Install ESX in text mode. F2.
3. . - :
ks=cdrom:/ks.cfg CD/DVD, ;
ks=ftp://<path>/ks.cfg ftp-;
ks=http://<server>/<path>/ ks.cfg
HTTP;
ks=nfs://<server>/<path>/ks.cfg
nfs-;
ks=UUID:<disk-uuid>:/<path>/ks.cfg
VMFS uuid.
, ESX . DVD .
, IP-, . :
, IP- .
( ESX )
. ( USB):
1. EXT2, EXT3 FAT32.
2. ks.cfg ,
ESX.
3. ESX. ( Enter) ESX
scripted install using USB ks.cfg, F2
- ESXID=< ESX>. , ESXID ,
ESX
IP-.
http://www.vm4.ru/2010/10/
esx-esxi-kickstart.html.
.
. , .

32

vSphere

1.2.6. ESXi
4.1
ESXi. , ESX, ESXi
.
, Tab
ks=file://etc/vmware/weasel/ks.cfg.
VMware ESXi 4.1 Installable and vCenter Server 4.1 Setup Guide
.
: http://www.
vm4.ru/2010/07/esxi-kickstart-file.html.
ESXi : ESXi.
, , CD-ROM
iso .
(. http://www.vm4.ru/2010/09/esxi-kickstart.html . 1.7).

. 1.7. ESXi

, , , ftp . , - ESXi, ( :
ks=ftp://192.168.10.10/ks) ,
.
PXE, , -
.
, .

33

1.3.
ESXi, ESX. :
vCenter Server . vCenter Server.

1.3.1. vCenter
C ESX(i) .
,
IP- ESX(i). Windows,
vSphere. Windows: XP, Vista, 7, Server 2003, Server 2008, 32- 64- .
, , . .
vSphere Client ( vSphere).
- ESX(i). IP- ,
Download vSphere Client. , . , 4.1
VMware, ESX(i)
. VMware
,
download. vCenter Server,
vSphere -
vCenter.
vSphere, IP- ESX(i) .
.
, , .
.
, .
Home.
Inventory . Configuration
(. 1.8).
:
1. Licensing Features . ,
60 .
2. Time Configuration NTP. NTP NTP.
3. DNS and Routing DNS .
4. Networking . .
.

34

vSphere

. 1.8. vSphere ESX(i)

5. Storage . . .
.
vCenter Server, .
.
vCenter, .
, ESX(i) . - .
vCenter .
vSphere ESX(i)
vCenter .
,
ESX(i) , vCenter Server. ,
ESX. ESX(i) .

35

1.3.2.
vCenter Server
vSphere VMware vCenter Server,
ESX(i) vCenter, .
.

VC
vCenter Server 4 ( http://pubs.
vmware.com.
VMware vSphere Compatibility Matrixes). ,
.
vCenter : 2 , 2
, 12 . : vCenter
Server, - - vCenter, 128 1500 (
). - . IE6 7, Mozilla Firefox 2.x 3.x.
vCenter Windows. vCenter Windows Server 2003 SP2 2008 R2 ( 4.1
64-) 64- Windows XP Pro. , - .
vCenter .
, vCenter,
, .
vCenter Server ,
. ESX(i) ,
vCenter Server.
vCenter Server
. , , . ?
vCenter ESX(i):
vCenter;
vCenter HA (High Availability),
FT (Fault Tolerance);
vCenter , ESX(i), ;
vCenter (snapshot),

.

36

vSphere

vCenter ESX(i):

vCenter, , .
vCenter ,
- . ESX(i) ,
vSphere,
ESX(i) . , vCenter Server. .

vCenter Server
vCenter SQL Server 2005 Express,
Microsoft.
, . , VMware SQL Server 2005 Express
, 5 50 .
:
IBM DB2;
Microsoft SQL Server 2005;
Microsoft SQL Server 2008;
Oracle 10g;
Oracle 11g.
. vCenter, .
. ,
- .
, SQL Server 2005 Express, . ESX and vCenter Server Installation Guide.
vCenter,
vCenter .

vCenter Server 4 vSphere Client


ESX vCenter
C vCenter Server 4 ESX , ESX 2.0 2.1.
C vSphere Client ESX
, 2.5 , Virtual Center, 2.5 . , ESX Virtual Center :
1. ESX 2.0 Virtual Center 1;
2. ESX 2.5 Virtual Center 1.5;
3. ESX 3.0 Virtual Center 2.0;
4. ESX(i) 3.5 Virtual Center 2.5;
5. ESX(i) 4.# vCenter Server 4.#.

37

ESX(i) 3.x VI Client ESX(i) . vSphere Client.


vSphere vSphere
Compatibility Matrixes.
www.vmware.com/pdf/vsphere4/r40/vsp_compatibility_matrix.pdf.

vCenter Server
vCenter ,
. vCenter Guided Consolidation Service

vCenter Linked Mode.
vCenter IP-. vCenter , vCenter
IP- vCenter (vpxa.cfg).
vCenter , ESX(i) ,
vCenter , vCenter .
ESX(i) vCenter NAT.
,
vCenter.
vCenter
, Local System.
Windows
authentication SQL Server.
, vCenter Server:
VMware vCenter Server vCenter, ;
vSphere Client vCenter . ,
( , ESX(i) , vCenter);
Microsoft.NET Framework vCenter
vSphere Client. , ;
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express Microsoft, vCenter. .
, SQL Server 2005 Express ;
VMware vCenter Converter Enterprise for vCenter Server
vCenter, . . vCenter,
;

38

vSphere

vCenter Guided Consolidation Service vCenter,


;
VMware vCenter Orchestrator , . , IPv4,
IPv6. 4.1, vCenter
Orchestrator , ,
VMDK-,
thick- thin vCenter.
,
http://www.vm4.ru/2010/03/vmware-orchestrator.html;
vCenter Update Manager vCenter, ESX(i) (
). . .
vCenter, .
vCenter , (Standalone) , vCenter
Linked Mode. , vCenter ESX(i).
Linked Mode . Linked Mode ,
Standalone.
. SQL Server
2005 Express ( ) - .
. ESX and vCenter Server Installation
Guide. SQL Express
5 /50 . : 1 , 4 .
System ,
Windows Authentication SQL Server.
, vCenter Server, Linked Mode. .
vCenter vSphere. vCenter Server -
vCenter ESX(i).
vCenter ESX(i) 3.x,
( ) (, VI 3).

Linked Mode
vCenter 4 vCenter .
vCenter ,

39

vCenter . ,
vCenter. , vCenter .
vCenter ,
.
vCenter, ,
(Peer-to-Peer). vCenter 1000 ESX(i) 10 000 (
), vCenter Linked Mode 3000 ESX(i) 30 000 .
: vCenter Server Standard. vCenter Server Foundation Linked Mode.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
(. 1.9):

. 1.9. vCenter

40

vSphere

vCenter Server
Linked Mode Microsoft Active Directory Application Mode
(ADAM). ADAM Microsoft Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). ADAM
vCenter Server. ADAM vCenter
. :
IP- ;
(Thumbprints);
;
.
ADAM ,
vCenter. ADAM vCenter .
vCenter Linked Mode ,
. , vCenter , , (),
vCenter .
.
vCenter AD . , DNS.
vCenter Server
. vCenter
, .
(, )
vCenter , .
1. . , .
2. , Linked Mode FQDN vCenter. vCenter .
3. vCenter, , ,
Virtual Center 2.5 vCenter 4. ,
, FQDN vCenter.
vCenter .
vCenter,
: Start All Programs VMware vCenter Server Linked
Mode Configuration.
Modify Linked-Mode configuration FQDN
vCenter, .
vCenter Programs and Features ( ) Add or Remove
program ( ) Windows Server 2008 -

vSphere, vCenter, ESX(i). -

41

. VMware vCenter Server,


Change Linked Mode.
, .
ESX and vCenter Server Installation Guide.

1.4. vSphere,
vCenter, ESX(i). -
.
vCenter. , ESX(i) ,
(, HA/DRS) (vMotion).

1.4.1.
vSphere vCenter
, vCenter vSphere.
vCenter. vSphere - vCenter ESX(i). , .
,
, vCenter Server. , . vCenter (
).
vCenter , ,
. 1.10.
, .
Inventory
:
1. Hosts and Clusters , .
, , .
2. VMs and Templates
,
. , , , -
.
3. Datastores ,
ESX(i) .
4. Networking , , ,
VMware.

42

vSphere

. 1.10. vCenter

Administration :
1. Roles .
2. Sessions vCenter, .
3. Licensing vCenter ESX(i).
.
4. System Logs vCenter ( vSphere vCenter) ESX(i) ( ESX(i) ).
. , . , .
5. vCenter Server Settings vCenter Server.
, ,
SNMP.
Management vCenter:
1. Scheduled Tasks vCenter Server.

, ,
, , .

vSphere, vCenter, ESX(i). -

43

2. Events , vCenter .
3. Maps
. ,
, .
4. Host Profiles .
5. Customization Specification Manager vCenter .
.
, .
Solution and Application ,
vSphere -. . 1.8
VMware Update Manager, VMware Data Protection,
VMware Guided Consolidation ,
RDP .
- Home,
.
(. 1.11).

. 1.11.

44

vSphere

vSphere Getting Started. ,


Summary. Getting Started
Edit Client Settings Show Getting Started Tab.
.
Hosts and Clusters,
(. 1.12).

. 1.12.

vCenter . :
1. Summary . Commands,
. ,
,
Edit Settings. , ( ) .
2. Virtual Machines , .

vSphere, vCenter, ESX(i). -

45

vCenter. , . .
.
3. Performance
.
.
4. Configuration .
.
5. Tasks & Events
.
6. Alarms
(alarm) vCenter.
7. Permissions , .
8. Maps
vCenter. vMotion map ( vMotion),
.
9. Storage Views .
, . .
.
Configuration
- - -. , Configuration. ; , Home Hosts and Clusters Configuration.
Tasks Alarms
. . Tasks ,
, ,
(. 1.13).

. 1.13. Tasks

. Open Console.
(. 1.14).

46

vSphere

. 1.14.

:
. :
. VMware tools.
,
VM Power;
(snapshot) ,
(Snapshot Manager);
FDD DVD.
VM, :
Power ;
Guest VMware Tools Ctrl+Alt+Del. , Ctrl+Alt+Ins.

vSphere, vCenter, ESX(i). -

47

VMware Tools,
, . , Ctrl+Alt.
, ,
, ,
ESX(i). , , (
ESX(i) vCenter , ,
).
Home Administration System Logs. C
vCenter
( vSphere vCenter) ESX(i) (
ESX(i)). , .
, .
Ctrl+Shift+F, . ,
. :
;
VMware tools;
x Description ();
,
Linux;
ESX(i) ;
, .
, Custom Attributes ( ). . vCenter: Administration Custom
Attributes Add. Summary Edit Annotations
(. 1.15).
, ,
vSphere (,
Virtual Machines) :
, ;
.
View Column;
(, , , ).
vSphere, ;
( , ).
File Export Export List.
html, csv, xls, xml.

48

vSphere

. 1.15.


vSphere
vSphere vCenter , , VMware
Virtual Center Server. (
SQL Server Express) - , , . vCenter
. , .
vCenter vCenter Management WebServices.

1.4.2. vCenter
ESX(i)
, ESX(i) vCenter.
vSphere vCenter.
:
1. ESX(i) vCenter.
2. ESX(i) vCenter.

vSphere, vCenter, ESX(i). -

49

3. Service Console,
firewall, ntp, SSH, syslog. DNS ( ).
4. . VMkernel,
,
.
5. . , VMFS, VMFS.
6. , HA DRS.

vCenter
vCenter , Datacenter. , , , , .
, Datacenter . , , . vCenter,
,
.
,
,
ESX, Datacenter .
vCenter.

vCenter New Datacenter. .
Datacenter Add
Host. IP- ESX(i), root . , (FQDN). root
vCenter, ESX(i) vpxuser,
- vCenter ESX(i). , root ESX(i)
vCenter .


ESX vCenter .
Evaluation ()
. ESXi
.
.
, , , 60
.

50

vSphere

vCenter ,
, vCenter . .
ESX(i) , (),
ESX(i). ESX(i)
.
Home Licensing. . 25-
, .
vCenter ESX(i) - . , vCenter
ESX(i).
Manage vSphere Licenses :
1. Add License Keys . , . (Label), .
2. Assign Licenses vCenter ESX(i) , , .
3. Remove License Keys - .
vCenter ESX(i), . - , Standard Enterprise Plus,
, ,
.
- , . , - ,
( ).

ESX(i)
ESX(i) Firewall (
ESX), NTP , , SSH.
4.1 .
Home Hosts and Clusters Configuration . :
1. Security Profile ESX firewall. , iptables Service Console ESX . :
esxcfg-firewall. firewall Host Profiles, . .
ESXi Security Profile , . .

vSphere, vCenter, ESX(i). -

51

2. Time Configuration NTP


ESX(i) .
3. Licensed features . , vCenter vCenter, ,
, .
4. DNS and Routing ,
DNS, DNS Service Console
VMkernel.
5. Virtual Machine Startup and Shutdown
, . , , . , ,
(Suspend).
6. Authentication Services ESX(i) Active Directory. .
.
Security Profile ESXi 4.1 (.
. 1.16).
, :
Local Tech Support
ESXi;

. 1.16. Security Profile ESXi 4.1

52

vSphere

Remote Tech Support SSH ESXi;


Direct Console UI - ESXi.
SSH ESX
root.
,
:
1. (

vSphere ).
2. root
su

.
PATH,
.
, , sudo. ,
.
root
SSH - . , ,
.
root ESX SSH :
nano w /etc/ssh/sshd_config


Permit root login no

no yes.
SSH:
service sshd restart

ESX SSH root.


ESXi , ESXi Lockdown
Mode, .
ESX(i): Configuration
Storage. , VMFS. , Local1 Storage1
. , , : lo-

vSphere, vCenter, ESX(i). -

53

cal_esx1. VMFS vCenter. ,


, local@esx1 .
, , . , : AD DNS, ,
vCenter ( ). HA / DRS, ,

.
/etc/hosts
ESX(i) vCenter.
DNS ,
, , DNS.
ESXi Lockdown-, (Configuration Security Profile). VMware ESXi, vCenter. ESXi
root. , , root,
ESXi vSphere. ,
ESXi -
.
vCenter, - ESXi . ,
vCenter.
:
Lockdown vSphere ESXi, Users and Groups . . ESXi
Active Directory, AD. ESXi - . ESXi;
Lockdown- ;
Lockdown-.
, Lockdown - root vSphere, PowerCLI, vSphere CLI, vMA, vSphere API.
, .

1.4.3. -
: ESX vCenter -
.
vCenter ESX Log in to Web Access (. 1.17).

54

vSphere

. 1.17. - vCenter

( Windows
vCenter Service Console ESX).
- vSphere 4 .
vSphere,
. -
:

vSphere;
;
;
ESX vCenter (add to inventory);
ESX vCenter;
, , , (suspend) ;
;
;
, -;

ESXi. ESX vCenter 3.

55

, ;
CD/DVD .
Windows Linux,
.

1.5. ESXi, ESX


vCenter 3.x
VMware (VMware Infrastructure 3) Virtual Center 2.x ESX(i) 3.x. vCenter Server 4
ESX(i) 4 .
, . :
1. Virtual Center 2 vCenter 4, Update Manager 1
Update Manager 4. : , / vCenter
.
2. , .
-
, VMFS. : ESX
ESX 4, ESX 3. -
.
3. .
4. ,
. , ESX(i) 3.x,
ESX(i) 4 . VMFS ESX(i) 4
VMFS ESX(i) 3.x, VMFS
, .
VMFS .
Storage vMotion (. ).
vSphere , , vCenter, ESX(i) Evaluation, 60
vSphere, Storage vMotion.
.
5. ESX(i) 3.x ,
. : vSphere Home Administration Licensing.
. vCenter
Add-or-Remove Program ( ).

56

vSphere

6. .
VMware Tools.
ESXi, Update Manager, ,
.
VMware Tools .
.

1.5.1. vCenter Server 4


Update Manager 4
, () Virtual Center 2.x Update Manager 1.
.
:
1. Virtual Center 2.x vCenter 4.
2. vSphere ESX(i) 4 vCenter 4.
ESX3 VC2 Virtual Infrustructure Client, VIC.
3. Update Manager 1 Update Manager 4 (
VUM 4 , ).
4. (plug-in) Update Manager 4 vSphere.

Virtual Center 2.x vCenter 4


, () Virtual Center 2.5 (
, vCenter 4, ).
. vCenter 4.1
64- . vCenter 32- ,
vCenter 64- vCenter . .
http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1022104. vCenter , , (
vCenter) VMware Data Migration Tool (http://pubs.vmware.com/vsphere-esx-4-1/wwhelp/
wwhimpl/js/html/wwhelp.htm#href=upgrade/t_back_up_data_migration.html http://
link.vm4.ru/tmqjw).

VMware VirtualCenter Server. ,


, Virtual
Center. vCenter Server 4 autorun.exe
. vCenter Server.
, :
1. Welcome Screen Next .
2. EULA I agree to the terms in the license agreement.

ESXi. ESX vCenter 3.

57

3. Customer Information , (User Name) (Organization) vCenter.


4. License key (
), , vCenter (Evaluation) . vCenter 60 .
60 vCenter .
5. Database Options
, . . ESX and vCenter Server Installation Guide
vCenter. : , Virtual Center 2.x
, vCenter 4.x. .
vCenter 4. , SQL Server 2005 Express, Database Username Database
password .
6. Update Manager ,
Update Manager 1 vCenter 4. OK.
7. , Virtual Center 2.x vCenter 4.
8. Database upgrade warning Yes, I want to upgrade my vCenter database I have taken a backup of the existing vCenter database.
9. vCenter Service . ,
Windows authentication SQL Server

System.
10. Configure Ports .
11. Ready to Complete Install.
vCenter 4 , Virtual Center 2.x.
50 vCenter
4 .
300 8 .
1000 16 .

vSphere
vSphere Client . :
vCenter autorun.exe vSphere
Client;
- vCenter 4;
- ESX(i) 4 ( 4.1
VMware, ESX(i)).
, .

58

vSphere

VMware Update Manager 1.0


VMware vCenter Update Manager 4
Update Manager 1.0 Update Manager 4. Update Manager vCenter.
, , vCenter, Update Manager vCenter.
, Update Manager 1.0, autorun.exe
vCenter. vCenter Update Manager. ( VUM
1 VUM4, VUM 4 ):
1. Welcome Screen Next.
2. EULA .
3. vCenter Server Information vCenter: IP IP- vCenter, Username/Password
, vCenter.
4. Database Information .
. SQL 2005 Express
.
5. Database Upgrade Yes, I want to upgrade my Update Manager
database I have taken a backup of the existing Update Manager database.
6. vCenter Update Manager Port Settings IP-, Update Manager ( ).
vCenter ESX(i).
, Update Manager. Update Manager
, Yes, I have Internet connection and I want to configure proxy settings now.
7. Proxy Settings - Update
Manager , .
8. Ready to Install the Program Install.

(plug-in) Update Manager


vSphere
Update Manager 4,
. .
plugin, vSphere.
Update Manager vSphere , Update Manager.
, vCenter, Plug-ins Manage Plug-ins.
Download and install for the Update Manager
plug-in. .

ESXi. ESX vCenter 3.

59

1.5.2. ESX(i)
Update Manager
ESX(i) Update Manager .
vSphere. Home Solutions and Applications
Update Manager.
Baseline ( Update Manager, ) ESX(i) 4. Baselines and Groups
Upgrade Baselines Create . baseline:
1. Baseline Name and Type Name baseline, ESX4. Baseline Type baseline.
ESX(i), Host Upgrade.
2. Select Upgrade Files ESX upgrade iso Browse ISO ESX4 / zip-
ESXi.
3. ESX Upgrade COS VMDK Location ,
vmdk Service Console.
4. ESX Upgrade Post upgrade options ,
, .
ESX, .
ESX.
Baseline ESX(i).
, (folder) ,
, .
,
.
Baseline :
1. vSphere Hosts and Clusters, , baseline (, ), Update Manager.
2. Attach . baseline Attach.
3.
.
4. ,
Scan for Updates. Upgrades Scan.
5. Recent Tasks Scan Entity. .

60

vSphere

, Baseline.
Update manager. Baseline, .
. , Non-Compliant ( ).
.
( )
. . :
1.
vCenter Remediate.
2. baseline.
3. .
4. Host Remediation Options ,
(maintenance).
, , ,
.
5. Finish Remediate Entity. disconnected .

vCenter , disconnected. ,
.
, ESX 3 ESX 4
(
ESX). , , ESX 3
.

1.5.3.
VMware tools
VMware VMware tools. -
, .
, ESX 4,
,
.
,
3- ESX,
ESX 4.
, ESX(i) 3, 4. ESX(i) 4 7.
Upgrade Virtual
Hardware. -

ESXi. ESX vCenter 3.

61

Guest Install/Upgrade VMware tools


/ VMware tools (
Windows, Linux . ).

(, ) Virtual Machines.
. , .
Update Manager. vSphere
Home Solutions and Applications Update Manager.
Create Baseline Group. :
1. Name and Type (, Hardware&tools Upgrade)
Virtual Machines and Virtual Appliance Baseline Group.
2. Upgrades:
VM Hardware Upgrades VM Hardware Upgrade to Match
Host;
VM Tools Upgrades VMware tools Upgrade to Match Host.
3. Patches .
4. Ready to Complete Finish.
, , Baselline Group
, . Baseline Group. :
1. VMs and Templates, .
, ,
Datacenter.
2. Update Manager Attach Baseline Group (Hardware&tools Upgrade).
3. Scan for Updates. VM Hardware upgrades VMware
Tools upgrades.
Not-Compliant .
, Remediate. :
1. Remediation Selection Baseline Group Hardware&tools Upgrade,
. , ,
. ,
. Version , .
, ESX 4 7.
2. Schedule , ,
(suspend). , ,
.
3. Rollback Options ,
. ,

62

vSphere

. , .
, .
,
, . , (Snapshot). :
,
. , , , -
. ,
.
4. Ready to Complete Finish.
VMware tools, .
Update
Manager . VMware Tools
, Remediate , Update Manager , VMware Tools
.
Remediate , Update Manager ,
VMware Tools .
Sysprep ( - )
Update Manager , Remediate
.
. - VMware tools
Unmanaged. , VMware Tools , Virtual
Appliance. , VMware Data Recovery. ,
Virtual Appliance.

: MAC-. IP DHCP MAC- .


,
( IP-).

1.5.4.

vSphere CLI vihostupdate. ESX(i). , ESXi, HP CIM Providers.

ESXi. ESX vCenter 3.

63

ESX esxupdate .

(Maintenance mode). . .
, :
HTTP:
vihostupdate.pl --server <server> --scan --bundle http://<webserver>/rollup.zip

:
vihostupdate.pl --server <server> --scan --bundle <local_path>/rollup.zip

--server IP- ESX(i).


HTTP, HTTPS FTP.
:
vihostupdate.pl --server <server> --install --bundle http://<webserver>/rollup.zip
--bulletin bulletin1,bulletin2

vihostupdate.pl --server <server> --install --bundle <local_path>/rollup.zip bulletin


bulletin1,bulletin2

bulletin, .
, :
vihostupdate.pl --server <server> --query

vSphere Upgrade Guide.

1.5.5. ESX 3.x ESX 4


, ,
. ESX ( ESXi,
)
rollback-to-esx3

. ESX 4 , ESX 3. (VMDK) Service Console esxconsole-<UUID> .

64

vSphere

, 7, ESX .
7 4 (Downgrade), VMware Converter.

1.6.

vSphere.
:
, ;
;
.

ESX(i):
,
iLO/IP KVM;
SSH ESX(i);
vSphere CLI.

1.6.1. ESX, SSH


, *nix. - , , .
ESX Alt+F1, root , .
Service Console, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.
,
Linux. , , . 1.1.
, .
SSH. SSH, PuTTY.
ESX. , root SSH SSH
ESX. :

;
root.
,
.

65

1.1. Linux

cd
cp
find
ls

mkdir
mv
ps
rm
shutdown

vi
nano
cat
more
man

useradd
passwd


.
cp [ 1] [2]

.
ls /vmfs/volumes/
:
-l
-a

. .
mv [ ] [, ]
.
ps -ef


shutdown now
shutdown r now

, ESXi
nano /etc/hosts
.
cat /etc/hosts
, .
more /etc/hosts

man <, >

.
useradd < >

passwd < >

:
ESX;
vSphere, ESX. Home Inventory
Users and Groups Add. SSH,
Grant shell access;
, useradd passwd;
Active Directory AD (. 4).
,
SSH.

66

vSphere

su

root. root.
root
SSH, SSH
nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config


PermitRootLogin no


PermitRootLogin yes.

SSH
service sshd restart

Service Console ESX .


,
esxcfg-

Tab.
. 1.6.4.

1.6.2. ESXi, SSH


VMware SSH
ESXi .
, .
ESXi
. vSphere ,
Configuration Security Profile Properties Local Tech Support.
- , Troubleshooting Options Enable Local
Tech Support. Enter
Disable Local Tech Support , , .
,
Alt+F1 .

~#

67

.
SSH ( -
Security Profile), Remote
Tech Support.
SSH.
ESXi Linux Busybox.
Linux (. 1.1) .
Busybox ,
/usr/bin/busybox

ESXi , ESX(i).
,
esxcfg-

Tab.
. 1.6.4.
ESXi , ESX. ESXi
vSphere CLI, .
, ESXi .

vim-cmd vmsvc

, .
,
vim-cmd vmsvc/power.getstate <ID >

ID.
ID
vim-cmd vmsvc/getallvms

1.6.3. vSphere CLI, vMA


vSphere CLI , ESX ESXi. ,
vCenter Server.
vSphere CLI ,
, vSphere CLI . API ESX(i) vCenter
.
vSphere CLI ESXi
ESX. ESXi vSphere CLI

68

vSphere

(read-only). , - , .
vSphere CLI :
Windows;
Linux;
vSphere Management Appliance, vMA.
.
vMA . Service Console.
vSphere CLI, ESX(i).
vMA :
1. VMware (http://communities.vmware.com/
community/vmtn/vsphere/automationtools/vima). ovf (Open Virtualization Format).
2. vSphere vMA
. File Deploy
OVF Template.
3. . .
IP vi-admin.
vMA SSH. vi-admin.

vifp addserver <servername>

ESX(i) vCenter. (root ESX(i) Windows,


vCenter).
.

vifp listservers

, , :
vifptarget -s <servername>

vSphere CLI
.
:
vicfg-nics --list


ESX(i).

69


vifptarget -s <servername>

.
vMa,
bash

ESX(i)
vSphere CLI, vMA Active Directory
vSphere.
/ , .
. vMA,
, vMA sudo/
opt/vmware/vima/bin/vmware-vima-netconf.pl.

vSphere Management Assistant Guide, http://vmware.com/go/vma4.

1.6.4.
-
. ( SSH), vSphere CLI.
. 1.2 .
ESXi ESX , CLI ESX .
, esxcfg-, vSphere CLI vicfg-. esxcfg vSphere CLI , vicfg-.
.
vSphere CLI . ,
vSphere CLI (ESX(i) vCenter).
--server ( vifptarget -s <servername>
).
. , ,
. more . 1.1.
VMware.

70

vSphere

1.2. vSphere CLI

vSphere CLI
esxcli
resxtop
svmotion
vicfg-advcfg

ESXi
+
+

ESX
CLI ESX
+
esxcli
+
esxtop

+
esxcfg-advcfg

vicfg-cfgbackup +

vicfg-dns
vicfg-dumppart

vicfg-iscsi

vicfg-module
vicfg-mpath

+
+

+
+

esxcfgcfgbackup
esxcfg-dns
esxcfgdumppart
esxcfg-hwiscsi
esxcfg-swiscsi
esxcfg-module
esxcfg-mpath

vicfg-nas
vicfg-nics
vicfg-ntp
vicfg-rescan

+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+

esxcfg-nas
esxcfg-nas
esxcfg-ntp
esxcfg-rescan

vicfg-route
vicfg-scsidevs

+
+

+
+

esxcfg-route
esxcfg-scsidevs

vicfg-snmp
vicfg-vmknic

+
+

+
+

esxcfg-snmp
esxcfg-vmknic

vicfg-volume

esxcfg-volume

vicfg-vswitch

esxcfg-vswitch

vihostupdate
vmkfstools

+
+

+
+

esxupdate
vmkfstools

vmware-cmd

vmware-cmd

PSA Multipathing

Storage VMotion

ESXi
DNS

iSCSI (
)
VMkernel

LUN
NAS
NIC
NTP
,
LUN VMFS

SNMP

VMkernel

VMFS


. VMFS
vmdk
.
, ,

1.6.5.
ESX(i) , vSphere. , :
,
;

71

ESX(i),
;
. , , , ESX(i),
ESX(i).
,
.


SSH
PuTTY PuTTY Connection Manager,
.
PuTTY - http://www.putty.org/. , ESX, ESXi (
SSH ) vMA (. 1.18).

. 1.18. PuTTY


PuTTY Connection Manager (. 1.19).
http://puttycm.free.fr.


, , Veeam FastSCP (http://www.veeam.
com/ru/product.html).
vSphere. C -

72

vSphere

. 1.19. PuTTY Connection Manager

. , VMFS NFS-
(. 1.20).
ESX(i) Windows (
).
, ,
WinSCP (http://winscp.net). C ESX,
ESXi SSH (. 1.21).
. Windows, , ESX(i), . ,
Linux ESX(i).
, , /etc,
. /var/logs . /vmfs/
volumes .


, , RVtools.
vCenter, -

73

. 1.20. FastSCP

. 1.21. WinSCP

.
vHealth (. 1.22).
http://www.robware.net.

74

vSphere

. 1.22. RVTools

1.7.
vSphere.
.
, ,
, . , , -,
-
. , . , ,
, .
ESX(i). ?
, ,
:
, ESX(i),
, . ,
vSphere ( HA/FT), .
, , , . .
()

75

. .
. , Fibre Channel SAN? 1
Ethernet iSCSI SAN? iSCSI, 10 ?
NFS? . ?
, SSD-?
, .
, .
, .


. System Center Operations
Manager (OpsMgr, SCOM).
VMware Capacity Planner.
- VMware.

, ,
, .

1.7.1.
,
ESX(i).
, - vSphere.
, .


, . , , ,
( SSE4 . .) .
- ESX-,
, . ,
(, VMware vMotion) ESX(i).
: vMotion,
. .
. , SSE 4.2 ,
. , ,
, -

76

vSphere

. , . , vCenter .
: , - .
, ,
(!) BIOS. / BIOS,
vMotion. , . BIOS
.
. .
ESX 3.5 Update 2 4 VMware EVC Enhanced vMotion Compatibility.
,
. ,
SSE 4.2. ,
SSE 4.
EVC, SSE 4.2. ( )
vMotion.
EVC , AMD-V Extended Migration Intel VT FlexMigration. :
AMD: Opteron Rev. E/F;
Intel: Core 2 (Merom).
, http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1003212.
: ,
vMotion .
. ,
.
, vMotion (c AMD Intel ) .
.
1. ESX, aka vMotion
ESX(i)
(. ).
, (
EVC), ( );
ESX(i)-, .
EVC EVC , Extended Migration /
FlexMigration. EVC
.

77

2. vMotion ,
. ,
VMware vSphere,
vMotion, Free Essentials,
vMotion .
EVC,
. EVC, , . ,
. Options
CPUID Mask Advanced. , vCenter. .
vMotion.
vMotion , , VMware Fault Tolerance, FT.
, VMware Fault Tolerance, vMotion.
300 . , :
Intel 31xx, 33xx, 34xx, 35xx, 36xx, 52xx, 54xx, 55xx, 56xx, 65xx, 74xx, 75xx;
AMD 13xx, 23xx, 41xx, 61xx, 83xx.
FT
VMware 1008027 (http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1008027).

:
1) ( , );
2) ;
3) -;
4) .
( ), , . ,
.
, , ESX(i) . .
, ESXi
, , Advanced Enterprise Plus,
( ).
: .

78

vSphere

, . ,
.
, , .

Intel-VT / AMD-V.

.
, (ring).
0 , , .
. , , . :
ESX(i) Binary translation .
ESX(i) , ,
, . ,
ESX(i) . 0. ,
. 64- ;
. .
, ,
.
.
10%-
.
. -
ESX(i), ;
. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) AMD-V.
, , .
1 ( ). ,
, , , ;
. , , , . , ,

79


. ESX(i).
( ) .
, . ,

, (, BIOS).
, - .

1.7.2.
. . :
1. , . . .
2. , . ESX(i) .
,
. , ,
.
3. ,
. , ,
. .
4. 2 3 .
, , , .

1.7.3.
,
: , / -
- (Input/Output per second, IOPS,
I/O).
. ,
, .
:
- . , , ;

80

vSphere

(thin) ,
( thin- vmdk, thin provisioning ESX(i). ,
thin provisioning ESX(i), );
, . ( ) LUN;
,
. :
, ,
;
,
30% ;
( , ),
.
, .
(
ESX(i). , (snapshot)
ESX(i),
.)
:
= ( T +
+ S + R).
:
T (thin) . ,
1. , ,
. , thin- , .
,
;
S . 10/30/200 , ;
R .
, . : .
, , . . 1.3.

81


1.3.

, %
, ?

20

10%

15

20 + 20

10%

20

20 + 80

10%

50

10

20

200%

20

:
15 (20 + 20 10% + 2 2 0) = 360 ;
20 (40 + 40 10% + 2 2 0) = 920 ;
10 (100 + 100 10% + 6 6 0.5) = 1130 ;
20 (20 30% + (20 30%) 200% + 2 2 0) =
= 400 .
2810 . 815
LUN. LUN 2 512 .
, LUN 1,4
. 45 LUN 600
800 LUN. ( ) . ,
(, ).
.
/ , . - (IOPS, Input/
Output per second). , .

:
1. SAS/SCSI (
).
2. SAS/SCSI.
3. ,
(HBA FC iSCSI Ethernet- NFS iSCSI).
4. .
5. , .
6. .
- LUN NFS.

82

vSphere

7. LUN RAID, .
RAID.
:
, .
RAID. , - . ( I/O)
, ;
RAID . , , ,
RAID . :
RAID-10 , , 50% ;
RAID-6 ,
(3040% RAID-10 100% ), , RAID-10;
RAID-5 . RAID-6
( RAID-10), ( ). RAID-5
,
RAID-,
( RAID-0)
;
RAID-0, RAID ,
;
, .
;
. IP
, iSCSI NFS. ,
, .
, ,
.

(
RAID ). .
. , 1000 IOps,
67% , 33% .
RAID-10 RAID-5?

83

RAID-10 , (
). RAID-5 , , . ,
RAID-5 .
RAID-10:
1000 0,67% = 670 IOps;
1000 0,33% = 330 2 (
) = 660 IOps.
1330 IOps. 1330 IOps,
, RAID-10 .
RAID-5:
1000 0,67% = 670 IOps;
1000 0,33% = 330 4 = 1320 IOps.
1990 IOps.
SAS 15k
150180 IOps. SATA 7.2k 70100 IOps. ,
: 5060 SATA 100120 SAS.
.
RAID-10 SATA 2226 .
RAID-5 SAS 1619 .
, . , .
.
IOPS
. ( ) , VMware Capacity Planner. .

1.7.4.
. :
1. . -
. ,
, teaming.
2. .
(Teaming).
3. . / VLAN.

84

vSphere

( ) . 1.
4 6, vSphere.
, vMotion, Fault Tolerance,
IP, , .
, ?
:
1. . Service Console ( ESX) VMkernel, Management traffic ( ESXi).
2. vMotion.
3. Fault Tolerance.
4. iSCSI / NFS, .
5. . ,
( ).
. ,
. , .
vMotion .
,
- . vMotion vMotion. , ,
- , vMotion.
Fault Tolerance , vMotion. , , FT .
Fault Tolerance. :
Fault Tolerance , ,
.
iSCSI NFS,
.
. ,
, .
. ? (
)? ?

ESX(i).
10 Ethernet.
IP Fault Tolerance.

85

1.7.5. :
?
. , .
,
. ? , 16 256 4
64 8 32 . ?
( ) ,
.
1. ,
. ( )
XYZ ,
. .
2. , ,
,
.
3. . ,
.
4. , . . 64
21 3
( 4 21 = 84 ).
32 , 8 10 = 80. , ,
, . Transparent Page Sharing,
.
5. , .
. ,
,
(, ). ,

. (4 2 = 2)
. ,
256 (2 64) = 128 (4 2) 21 = 42 .
8 2 = 6 256 (2 32) =
= 194 , (8 2) 10 = 60 ! ,

.

86

vSphere

6. ,
( ,
). ,
40 ,
( 32 ) ( ,
). ( 64 )
.
7. (, -). .
8. - (Blade servers) ( , ,
). , ,
. .
-
? , ,
, 6 (2 = + vMotion, 2 = iSCSI,
2 = ). IPMI\iLO 7 ( ) . 8
56 , - , 56 . -
( ) 1012.
9. ,
, ().
- , , , , .
10. , , , . ,
.
.
, , .
, -
.
, , , ,
. , .

87

,
,
.
. ,
.
(, vMotion). , , , ( ) , .

2.

, ESX(i),
vSphere.
vSphere , virtual switch vSwitch.
:
VMware, VMware (dvSwitch, distributed
vSwitch) ( Cisco, Nexus 1000V). VMware vSphere,
ESXi. . .

2.1. ESX(i),

, :
ESX(i) .
, IP-,
MAC- . .
, .
(. 2.1).
.
, ,
, IP-, , VLAN ,
.
ESX(i), (Uplink).
( Service Console), NFS/iSCSI/
vMotion/Fault Tolerance ( VMkernel, ),
. ( . , . , .)

ESX(i),

89

. 2.1. ESX(i)
: VMware

(
) (
) (. 2.2).

. 2.2. ESX(i)
: VMware

90

.
:
(network interface card, NIC) ,
. ESX(i) vmnic#. ,
vmnic, : . ;
(vSwitch ) ESX(i);
(Port groups) , . ;
.
, Service Console VMkernel.
, vSphere Configuration
Networking (. 2.3). . 2.2.

. 2.3. ESX(i)
vSphere

,
(. 2.4).
Edit, .

ESX(i),

91

. 2.4.

2.1.1. ,
vmnic
, IP, MAC- ,
ESX(i) (. beaconing). , ,
. GUI : Configuration Networking
Properties vSwitch ( ) Network Adapters vmnic Edit.
.
, , ,
vmnic . . , , VMDirectPath.

92

, VMDirectPath,
. , , , vmnic . , .
vmnic. .
vmnic Configuration Network Adapters (. 2.5).

. 2.5. ESX(i)

vSwitch , . Observed IP ranges ESX(i)


. ,
, . , . 2.5
, vmnic0 vmnic1
, vmnic2, vmnic3 vmnic4 . , ,

VLAN .

ESX(i),

93

. ESX(i)
vmnic. esxcfg-nics l ESX .
, (. 2.5).

2.1.2.
Service Console VMkernel
, , . Service Console ( ESX, ESXi Service
Console), VMkernel ( ) .
,
Flexible, vmxnet2, vmxnet3, E1000. , ,
Service Console VMkernel.

ESX,
Service Console (vswif)
Service Console ESX.
ESX, IP-, . IP- Service Console vSphere,
vCenter, IP
ESX. Service Console (heartbeat)
VMware HA. , Service Console.
, , . . 2.6.
Service Console. , -

. 2.6. ESX

94

. ,
( ) ESX .
,
- Service Console,
, , vmnic.
( vmnic , , ),
SC , .
, vmnic Service Console, . ,
.
. , Service Console
. 2.6 .

:
SC;
.
SC , ,
(, ).
: Configuration Networking
dd Networking (
. 2.6). ,
. ,
Service Console. , Next. , vmnic . Next. (Network Label) .
, .
Service_Console_2 .
,
Service Console? , , SC GUI Service Console,
.
Service Console
(, ,
Service Console ). , Serice Console
(, , VMkernel) .

ESX(i),

95

. . ,
.

IP. ,
.
, , SC , . : Configuration
Networking Properties
Ports Add. .
, Configuration Networking Distributed Virtual Switch
Manage Virtual Adapters Add.
SC,
, (, IP-)
ESX .
ESX BIOS- ESXi.
iLO .
. Service Console vswif GUI vswif#,
esxcfg-vswif.

ESXi
ESX Service Console. ESXi
Service Console. ESXi VMkernel, ,
Management traffic (. 2.7).
, ,
Service Console ESX,
VMkernel .

VMkernel (vmk)
ESX, ESXi
VMkernel, . :
vMotion ;
iSCSI iSCSI;
NFS;
Fault Tolerance
Fault Tolerance-;
( ESXi) ( ESX
Service Console).

96

. 2.7. ESXi

. , .
, ,
. , ; ,
.
: , . ,
, .
,
Service Console ( ESX): Configuration Networking :
dd Networking
VMkernel ;
Properties Add
Ports;
Configuration Networking Distributed Virtual Switch
Manage Virtual Adapters Add.
VMkernel. IP .
, VMkernel (. 2.8).

. -

ESX(i),

97

. 2.8. VMkernel ESXi

. ,
VMkernel . .
ESXi Management traffic iSCSI NFS. IP-,
,
.
.
vmk GUI vmk#,
esxcfg-vmknic.

98

2.2.
VMware
vNetwork Switch
Configuration Networking,
(,
esxcfg-vswitch l). :
, Service Console, VMkernel ;
;
;
.
, .
. ESX(i)
. ,
, ,
Uplinks.
. ESX(i), , , (Uplinks)
. ports group? -,
.
, , . ,
.
VLAN,
(traffic shaping), - , .
,
1- 12- VLAN = 34.
. , ,
, , , ,
.
, VLAN (traffic shaping)
- ( ) .
: Production, Test_Project_SCOM . . , ,
Production. . , . .
, .

VMware vNetwork Switch

99

, ( , ),
.
:

, :
1. , vmnic. Configuration
Networking dd Networking.
2. . Virtual Machine.
3. vmnic.
. ,
. . , - . ,
VMware vShield Zones (http://www.vmware.com/products/
vshield-zones/).
4. . ,
.
VLAN ID VLAN .
. 3 , , . , vmnic, (
/ VLAN ). , , . . . 2.9 2.10.

. 2.9.

100

. 2.9 . .
-
. , IP-. ,
vmnic ? Configuration Network
Adapters. . . 2.10.

. 2.10. ESX(i)

?
Observed IP ranges .
IP- , ESX . , .
, vmnic, , ,
.
, . 2.9 2.10, vmnic ? vmnic0 vmnic1. -

vNetwork Distributed Switch, dvSwitch

101

vSwitch0. , ,
,
.
MAC- , MAC- ( vmnic#) vSwitch .
, :
1. Configuration Networking Properties,
, .
2. Ports Add. ,
, .

?
, .
:
VLAN;
Security ();
Traffic Shaping ( );
NIC Teaming ( ).
.
. Number of Ports
( ) ,
. VLAN ,
.
.

2.3.
vNetwork Distributed Switch,
dvSwitch.
VMware . , vNetwork Distributed Switch, dvSwitch.
, :
2.3.4 2.3.5 dvSwitch;
2.4 , , , Security,
VLAN, Traffic shaping NIC Teaming.

102

2.3.1.
VMware
:
( ) . :
, , .
, , VLAN
ESX(i).
- () , ESX(i).
, .
,
ESX(i), .
, ,
, ( Network vMotion). , ,
.
VMware, distributed
vSwitch Private VLAN traffic shaping ( ,
, . 2.4.2 2.4.4). 4.1 , :
Network IO Control . NIOC . 6, ;
Load Based Teaming
.

VMware Cisco.
Cisco, Cisco Nexus
1000V, vSphere (
vSphere, Enterprise Plus). , Cisco.
, ( Cisco), , , , ,
vSphere. .
VMware.
,

vNetwork Distributed Switch, dvSwitch

103

, vSphere Enterprise Plus ( 60- vSphere, Evaluation-).


, dvSwitch , vCenter. ,
, , , (. 2.11). , - .
vCenter control plane VMware,
. ESX(i) vCenter , .
VMware IO Plane, .
ESX(i),
vCenter.

. 2.11.
: VMware

VMware
, vCenter. vCenter dvSwitch, vCenter
.
vCenter
ESX(i), .

104

, vCenter VMware.
vSphere vCenter. ,
vCenter Datacenter, .
Datacenter,
Datacenter dvSwitch .
Home Networking. Datacenter New vNetwork Distributed Switch.
:
Name . ;
Number of dvUplink ports
vmnic . :
,

dvSwitch ;
,
. . ,
, . View Details
, , (link status), PCI-, IP
MAC-;
Automatically create a default port group. ,
128 . ,
, .
.
, .
. 248
. 4096 . ,
, .

dvSwitch, Home Inventory Networking


. 2.12.
Demo_dvSwitch .
Demo_dvSwitch-DVUplinks-28 , . , -

vNetwork Distributed Switch, dvSwitch

105

. 2.12. dvSwitch

,
dvSwitch .
Ports . 28 ,
.
Demo_dvPortGroup , , Service Console
VMkernel.
. VMkernel Service Console.
VMware , dvSwitch
, SC VMkernel .

, VM Network
vCenter.

2.3.2. dvSwitch,
vmnic
, .
, . Home Networking dvSwitch Add Host.
Datacenter, dvSwitch
, vmnic. vmnic, dvSwitch ( ).

106

vmnic, , ,

dvSwitch.
Add ost
, vCenter ( ). ,
Datacenter dvSwitch
Datacenter - .


(Uplinks) dvSwitch
dvSwitch (dvUplink)
. , dvSwitch , (. 2.13). ,
,
.

. 2.13. dvSwitch

vNetwork Distributed Switch, dvSwitch

107

dvUplink1, dvUplink2 . .
, Configuration Networking Distributed Virtual Switch (. 2.14).
dvUplink ( +),
( vmnic#), dvSwitch.

. 2.14.

, .
, dvSwitch , , Home Networking
dvSwitch Configuration.
. .
, . - (dvUplink1). , ,
.
- . . ,
dvUplink# ,
.
dvUplink dvSwitch,
Properties General Edit dvUplink port,
. ,
, 10 , . 10
.

108

dvUplink1 dvUplink1, dvUplink_10Gb


dvUplink_1Gb, .
- dvUplink# ( vmnic#) ( dvUplink#).
dvSwitch : Home Networking Configuration .
,
dvSwitch.
: ,
. , ,
, Home Hosts and Clusters
Configuration Networking Distributed Virtual Switch
dvSwitch Manage Physical Adapter.
. 2.15.

. 2.15. dvSwitch

vmnic# vmnic, Configuration Network Adapters. Remove vmnic


, Add NIC ,
vmnic .
vmnic, (. 2.16).

vNetwork Distributed Switch, dvSwitch

109

. 2.16. vmnic

vmnic (dvUplink) , , dvSwitch ,


dvSwitch , (. 2.17).
dvSwitch , , ,
VMware.

2.3.3. dvSwitch,
Service Console
VMkernel
dvSwitch Home
Networking dvSwitch New Port Group.
(
), VLAN ( VLAN dvSwitch
). dvSwitch , ,
(
).
,
, . , -

110

. 2.17.
dvSwitch

Port binding. . :
Static binding , Number of ports. ,
. ,
, , . 16 ,
16 ( - ), ;
Dynamic binding , Number of ports. , .
. 16 100 , 16 . , 17- ,
. ,
Connected;
Ephemeral no binding . , .

vNetwork Distributed Switch, dvSwitch

111

, .
, VMware, . .

Service Console VMkernel


dvSwitch
, ,
ESX(i) Service Console VMkernel. ( ) , .
, VMkernel
Service Console , ( ).
SC VMkernel .
Configuration
Networking Distributed Virtual Switch Manage Virtual Adapters.
SC VMkernel - dvSwitch.
Add. :

. ;
VMkernel SC ;
Select port group ,
.
Select Standalone port
. Standalone- , SDK,
.
VMkernel ,
vMotion ( Use this virtual
adapter for vMotion) Fault Tolerance (Use this virtual adapter for Fault
Tolerance logging);
IP Settings IP ;
.

2.3.4. dvSwitch
Home Networking dvSwitch, Edit Settings,
.
General:
Name dvSwitch;
Number of dvUplink ports ,
;

112

Edit dvUplink port , . , dvUplink1


Primary_vMotion_uplink;
Notes .
Advanced:
Maximum MTU Maximum Transmission Unit, IP. / Jumbo Frames. IP-, .
iSCSI/NFS-, vMotion, . Jumbo Frames
. .
Cisco Discovery Protocol Cisco,
. VMware, dvSwitch GUI. :
Down CDP ;
Listen ESX
Cisco, . ;
Advertise ESX ,
;
Both ESX ,
;
Administrator Contact Information ,
CDP Advertise
Both.
Network Adapters , .
Private VLAN Private VLAN.
, . .

2.3.5.
dvSwitch: Miscellaneous Advanced
,
. , dvSwitch , .
.
, .
Security . .
Traffic shaping . , dvSwitch

vNetwork Distributed Switch, dvSwitch

113

(Egress), (Ingress) .
.
VLAN dvSwitch VLAN .
Private VLAN. .
Teaming and Failover .
Miscellaneous dvSwitch.
, , .
Advanced :
Override port policies
. , Home Inventory Networking
dvSwitch Ports. , .
Edit Settings ,
Override port policies;
Live port moving
(standalone) dvSwitch dvSwitch .
( ) SDK, VMware
vSphere CLI. ;
Configure reset at disconnect , , , , .
, Override port policies
- ;
Port Name Format
.

2.3.6.


VMware
( ) VMware, .
:
1. ESX(i), Home Inventory Network. -

114

,
.
2. Host Profiles,

Host Profiles. .
, .
: ,
,
.
(,
Management VLAN,
Production . .).
Host Profiles
-, , ,
- ,
, .
Host Profiles
ESX(i).
. , ESX(i)
vCenter (. 2.18).
.

. 2.18. dvSwitch
: VMware

vNetwork Distributed Switch, dvSwitch

115

. . .
. .
dvSwitch . ,
. ( ) . .
. ,
, . ,
. , vmnic
.
. .
, Home Inventory Networking dvSwitch Migrate Virtual Machine Networking .
. 2.19.

. 2.19.

:
1. Source Network
.
2. Destination Network ,
.
3. Show Virtual Machines .
.

116

: Home Inventory Networking


Virtual Machines.
( )
.
dvSwitch.
( SC VMkernel) , dvSwitch.
dvSwitch Service Console
VMkernel. .
, .
Home Hosts and Clusters Configuration Networking
Distributed Virtual Switch Manage Virtual Adapters. Add, Migrate
existing virtual adapters (. 2.20).

. 2.20. ESX(i) dvSwitch

SC VMkernel dvSwitch. ,
, ,
MAC- (
DHCP, ).
Host Profiles.

vNetwork Distributed Switch, dvSwitch

117

Host Profiles dvSwitch


. :
1. dvSwitch. .
2. .
dvSwitch. .
3. .
Home Management Host Profiles Create
Profile.
4. .
Home Management Host Profiles,
Attach Host/Cluster.
,
. ,
, .
,
, . .

2.3.7.

VMware
dvSwitch vCenter. ESX(i) dvSwitch.
/etc/vmware/dvsdata.db. 5 . dvSwitch ESX(i) /etc/vmware/esx.conf.
.dvsData VMFS (. 2.21).
, ,
.
. ,
, /usr/lib/vmware/bin/net-dvs,
ESX(i).
vCenter . ,
,
.
vCenter
. , -

118

. 2.21. dvSwitch

( 24 ). . VMware http://kb.vmware.
com/kb/1010913.
iSCSI ,
iSCSI LUN.
, ESX(i) ,
iSCSI , -
.

2.4. Security, VLAN,


Traffic Shaping NIC Teaming
, (
), VMware.
, . 2.3.4 2.3.5.

2.4.1. VLAN,
. VLAN

. VLAN , .
,
OSI .

Security, VLAN, Traffic Shaping NIC Teaming

119

. 2.22. () , VLAN

?
( , VLAN )
(),
VLAN, (). ,
( ) 1 1 (
VLAN ID = 1), 2 VLAN 2 . . ,
,
. () ,
.
: , , VLAN.
VLAN
. , .
:
, , ;

, vlan, .
VLAN, (
) , vlan id ( VLAN, VLAN) 1

120

4094. , , vlan id
, , vlan .
, vlan.
VLAN ,
(,
) . vlan
? vlan id, vlan
. vlan
id = 10,
vlan id, .
VLAN (, , )
. , VLAN,
.
, , ESX(i), : ESX(i) VLAN. vlan id ,
.
VLAN , .
vlan:
external switch tagging, EST VLAN ,
, . VLAN , VLAN;
virtual switch tagging, VST VLAN . ,
VLAN , ESX(i), ;
virtual guest tagging, VGT VLAN . ( , ) VLAN ( ), VLAN
( ).
EST . 2.23.

. 2.23. External switch tagging

Security, VLAN, Traffic Shaping NIC Teaming

121

, VLAN .
ESX(i) , ESX,
, VLAN .
EST , VLAN ESX(i).
, EST ESX(i) VLAN (5 15 ).
VLAN .
VST . 2.24.

. 2.24. Virtual switch tagging

VLAN .
, ( vmnic) VLAN. ,
. ,
ESX(i), ,
( ) VLAN, VLAN . VLAN ID . ,
Configuration Networking vSwitch
VLAN ID .
VGT . 2.25.
, VLAN .
VLAN (
). VMware, , , VLAN ID 4095.
Configuration Networking vSwitch
VLAN ID.

122

. 2.25. Virtual guest tagging

, , VLAN, VLAN
.
. .
VGT e1000 vmxnet3.
vmxnet3 Windows VMware Tools VLAN, - . . 2.26.

. 2.26. VLAN vmxnet3

Security, VLAN, Traffic Shaping NIC Teaming

123

E1000 Intel Pro1000,


Intel (http://www.intel.com/design/network/
drivers/), ,
VLAN . . 2.27.

. 2.27. VLAN e1000/Intel Pro 1000

, Intel 64-
.
VMware, VMware.
VLAN ( Private VLAN) - - . . .

2.4.2. VLAN dvSwitch.


Private VLAN
VLAN dvSwitch -,
vSwitch (. 2.28).
, dvSwitch.
, VGT, (
), VLAN ID = 4095 ( ), VLAN Trunking.

124

. 2.28. VLAN
VMware

, , VLAN ID
,
.
dvSwitch Private VLAN. : - VLAN
(, VLAN 5), - . ,
.
VLAN
VLAN , . Private VLAN (Secondary) VLAN , Primary VLAN 5. . 2.29.
, ( ) VLAN 5. , , VLAN 5
, (Secondary) VLAN, .

Security, VLAN, Traffic Shaping NIC Teaming

125

. 2.29. Private VLAN


: VMware

VLAN :
Community Secondary VLAN
VLAN Promiscuous ( F),
C D.
Isolated Secondary VLAN
Promiscuous VLAN ( , , ).
C D E F,
A ;
Promiscuous Secondary VLAN,
dvSwitch
Primary VLAN. E F .
VLAN . VLAN ID VLAN ID Primary VLAN.
Private VLAN ,
Private VLAN.
Primary VLAN (
dvSwitch). , Primary VLAN,
Secondary VLAN Isolated Community (. 2.30).
, dvSwitch,
Secondary VLAN . . 2.31.

126

. 2.30. Private VLAN

Private VLAN ESX(i), .


Private VLAN, , .

2.4.3. Security
- , Security :
Promiscuous Mode .
Accept, promiscuous,
( VLAN VLAN ). Reject,

. ,
- (sniffer), . , ,
. Reject;

Security, VLAN, Traffic Shaping NIC Teaming

127

. 2.31. Private VLAN

MAC Address Changes MAC-. Reject MAC- vmx


, . MAC-,
, . , MAC-
. Accept . ,
, MAC Address
Changes = Reject, - MAC- ;
Forged Transmits MAC- MAC- ( vmx),
. , = Reject.
Accept . Accept
NLB Microsoft
.
, MAC Address Changes, Forged Transmits
, MAC-

128

(*.vmx). ,
.

2.4.4.
(Traffic Shaping)
-
.
, , .
,
( ,
VLAN).
.
Traffic shaping (Configuration Network Properties
Edit
), :
Average Bandwidth / .
, ;
Peak Bandwidth ,
. . Average
Bandwidth;
Burst Size ,
average bandwidth, , .
,
Peak Bandwidth ( ).
:
( , ). , 2
, .

, .

2.4.5. NIC Teaming.

, NIC Teaming, . , (vmnic).

Security, VLAN, Traffic Shaping NIC Teaming

129

,
vmnic? :
.
. ,
, , . VMware
,
VLAN: Ethernet ( OSI)
.

,
,
.
vmnic, .
.
,
vmnic, , .
,
.
. 2.32.
Failover Order. (Active
Adapters), (Standby Adapters) (Unused Adapters) .
, - vmnic , Standby. ( ) Active, . Unused

, -
.
Failback. Failover Order.
vmnic3 Active, vmnic2 Standby, vmnic3
vmnic2. , vmnic3 ? Failback
Yes, vmnic2 Standby, vmnic3 Active. ,
Failback = No, vmnic3 , Standby. ESX(i) , vmnic ? .
Network Failover Detection.
Notify Switches. (Yes) (No) MAC- ESX(i).
(
)
vmnic -
ESX(i) rarp - MAC- .

130

. 2.32.
NIC Teaming

Yes ,
, MAC- .
,
Microsoft NLB.
Network Failover Detection. ESX(i) , ? :
Link Status Only , . ,
vmnic, , .
, VLAN . .

Security, VLAN, Traffic Shaping NIC Teaming

131

, -
;
Beacon Probing ,
(. 2.33) . , , ( 510 )
vmnic , MAC , . ,
, vmnic,
vmnic . -
- .

. 2.33. ,
Beacon Probing

, vmnic5, , . Link status only ESX(i)


. beaconing
vmnic5 vmnic3 vmnic2.
: beacon-
vmnic , , beacon-
.
Shotgun,
, , , - .
, .
, -
Spanning Tree. , beaconing -

132

, beaconing. , beaconing
.
, .
Load Balancing. ,
, .
Use explicit failover order . vmnic Active .
Failover Order.
, .
, (vmnic#).
. ,
:
Route based on the originating port ID .
( )
, .
-
vmnic; vmnic . .
vmnic , .
. , ,
. , ,
.
;
Route based on source MAC hash MAC- . MAC- .
, ,
. ;
Route based on ip hash ( ) IP.
IP- IP. , , , vmnic.
,
, IP- .

( link aggregation, Ether-Channel, Ethernet trunk, port channel,
Multi-Link Trunking) ,

Security, VLAN, Traffic Shaping NIC Teaming

133

. , MAC-
vmnic,
. ,
.
,
; IP .
:
( ),
.
ESX(i)
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP).
Link Aggregation (Etherchannel)
, IP;
Route based on physical NIC load

ESX(i) 4.1. Port ID. . -, , pNIC
,
pNIC, . -,
30 ( ).
: Route based on the physical
NIC load . (
,
4.1). , , Route based on ip hash. ,
. etherchannel
, Route based on ip hash .
Route based on ip hash, Route based on physical NIC
load, Route based on the originating port ID.

, ,
CPU .
,
, .

134

2.4.6. Cisco Discovery Protocol, CDP


CDP Cisco, . ESX(i) 4 .
CDP , .
esxcfg-vswitch -b <vSwitch>

CDP <vSwitch>.

esxcfg-vswitch -B <mode> <vSwitch>

CDP <vSwitch>. <mode>:


Down CDP ;
Listen ESX Cisco,
.
;
Advertise ESX ,
;
Both ESX ,
.
CDP listen both, Cisco. Configuration Networking
vSwitch (. 2.34).

. 2.34. CDP

135

2.5.
, Jumbo Frames, TSO, MAC- .

2.5.1. Jumbo Frames


Jumbo Frames IP. , ( ) .
IP- 1500 , Jumbo
Frame 9000 .
Jumbo Frames ,
,
, . Jumbo Frames 1
10 .
Jumbo Frames
VMkernel NFS, iSCSI vMotion. Jumbo
Frames , vSwitch dvSwitch,
VMkernel.
: Home Networking dvSwitch Edit Settings
Advanced Maximum MTU. . 9000.
VMware Jumbo Frames
.
ssh vSphere CLI ESX(i).

esxcfg-vswitch -m <MTU> <vSwitch>


esxcfg-vswitch l

, Jumbo Frames . /
VMkernel.

136

Jumbo Frames , Windows Server (2003 2008, Enterprise Datacenter Edition),


Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10.
vmxnet2 vmxnet3. VMware
Jumbo Frames .
Windows , . 2.35.

. 2.35. Jumbo Frames vmxnet3

Jumbo Frames :
ping -f -l 8972 < >

- :
ping <IP > 8972(9000) bytes of data.
8980 bytes from < >: icmp_seq=1 ttl=128 time=3.36 ms

Jumbo Frames VMkernel


Jumbo Frames VMkernel
.
esxcfg-vmknic l

VMkernel. MTU 1500, , Jumbo Frames . -

137

, ,
. , Jumbo Frames. , :
esxcfg-vmknic d < , >


esxcfg-vmknic -a -i <ip address> -n <netmask> -m <MTU> < ,
>

: VMkernel vmk#.
.
< , >
, .
VMkernel vMotion, FT, iSCSI NFS. , , . ,
MAC- .
. Jumbo Frames ESXi .

VMkernel, , . .
vSphere CLI
VMkernel . .
1. VMkernel MTU = 9000 - .
2. .
Configuration Networking Distributed
Virtual Switch Manage Virtual Adapter Add Migrate existing
virtual adapter.
Jumbo Frames VMkernel, . ESXi.

2.5.2. TSO TCP Segmentation Offload,


TOE TCP offload engine
TOE (TCP offload engine) , TCP/IP,
, , -

138

. TSO, TCP Segmentation Offload,


large segment offload, LSO. TSO ( 64 ) MTU,
.
VMware TSO, .

.
, ,
.
VMkernel. , VMware,
vSphere ( , ) TSO
, TSO ,
(. http://
communities.vmware.com/thread/217825).
, VMDirectPath.
TSO BIOS . , TSO ESX(i), , ESX(i) , TSO.
TSO, ESX(i) TSO ( ).
VMkernel TSO . ,
esxcfg-vmknic l

TSO MSS 65535, TSO . ,


(
, Jumbo Frames).
TSO ESX(i) . : Configuration Advanced Settings
Software UseHwTSO .
, . TSO ESX(i) ( ).

2.5.3. VMDirectPath
VMDirectPath
PCI . .
. .

139

2.5.4.
. ,
. 2.36.

. 2.36.
dvSwitch

,
( VLAN, traffic shaping, security .)
.

140

2.6.
.
/ . :
, Service Console ESX
VMkernel management network.
,
ESX(i) ;
vMotion , ( ) vMotion , .
vMotion . ,

;
Fault Tolerance. , ( )
Fault Tolerance , ;
iSCSI/NFS;
, . ,
,
,
.
VLAN
.
. , , VLAN.
.

, . , VMware VMware
vShield Zones (http://www.vmware.com/products/vshield-zones/).

3.
vSphere
vSphere ,
.
, . ,
LUN ( volume),
(presentation) . ., .
. .
ESX(i) . ESX(i)
(. 3.1):

. 3.1.

142

vSphere

, . , , . , Virtual
Machine Disk (*.vmdk). ,
VMware File System, VMFS. VMFS (LUN) ( FC iSCSI).
, ESX(i)
NFS .
VMFS NFS , .
(LUN), ESX(i) . RDM, Raw Device Mapping. LUN
, ,
LUN.
RDM RDM- SCSI-.
RDM- , FibreChannel iSCSI.
HBA Host Bus Adapter, , . Fibre Channel HBA
Fibre Chanel SAN, RAID
. , ( ) , SCSI, SCSI. SCSI
(
ESX(i) 4 IDE, SCSI).
, . 3.1
VMware vitualization layer. ,
, ;
NFS; LUN iSCSI, RDM.
SCSI ( IDE) ,
. SCSI ,
VMFS. VMFS (
) RDM ( ) .

3.1.
,
.
, :
SAN, Storage Area Network
.
. -

143

Fibre Channel iSCSI ( , SAS/SCSI, );


NAS, Network Attach Storage .
. ESX(i) NAS
NFS;
DAS, Direct Attach Storage
.

vSphere. .
:
. , ;
, (snapshot) .
, -
, - . ,
NAS SAN;
. ,
. , ,
/ . , ;
vSphere .
. 3.1.
3.1. vSphere

Fibre
Channel
iSCSI
NAS
DAS

VMotion
ESX

sVMotion

HA
API for
VMFS MSCS SIOC
DRS
Data
RDM
MFC
FT Protection

+
+
+

+
+
/+

+
+

+
+
+

+/

:
ESX(i) iSCSI , iSCSI boot;

144

vSphere

MSCS/MFC ESX(i), ; MSCS/MFC


iSCSI, VMware;
VMFS RDM , . (LUN) ESX(i) VMFS
RDM;
SIOC Storage IO Control, .
6.
, .
, ,
:
1. (
. 3.1). , RDM, NAS .
, , .
2. . , . , .
3. 1 2 , .

3.2. DAS
Direct Attach Storage, DAS . ,
, . . , DAS.
DAS, ,
(Enclosure) .
SAS SCSI, DAS. Fibre Channel, FC ( , )
LUN . DAS.
ESX(i) ,
:
(VMware
VMotion), (VMware DRS),
VMware HA VMware FT;

NAS (NFS)

145

, , : ,
ESX(i). - , ,
.
DAS (, ) , .
, DAS, .
, DAS ,
, , , . , ESX(i)
, iSCSI
NFS. ,
ESX(i) , iSCSI/NFS.

.
, ,
, .
, ,
, .
- , ,
SAS,
. , ,
SAN.

3.3. NAS (NFS)


Network Attached Storage, NAS , .
. :
. ;
;
, . NAS
DAS SAN,
.
.
(Shared) ().
, . NetApp.

146

vSphere

NAS NFS *nix


SMB Windows.
ESX NAS, NFS. SMB ESX ,
, , .
iSCSI , NFS
.
NAS
vSphere, NFS , ,
. , VMotion, DRS, HA, FT,
NFS.
, NAS
. NetApp
:
. NetApp
NFS-, 16 100 ;
;
( VMFS), ( VMFS );
c (snapshot) .
NFS, NFS vmdk. LUN vmdk , vmdk.
NetApp , , NFS
.
vmdk, vmdk
vmdk.
, . ,
;
vmdk Thin Provisioning vmdk ESX(i), thin provisioning;
Single-file FlexClone NetApp, - , .

;


ESX(i) NFS ,
. FC/iSCSI LUN resig-

147

NAS (NFS)

naturing, NFS-
.
NetApp ,
.

3.3.1.
NFS ESX(i)
NFS, ESX VMkernel, NFS. , . 3.2.

. 3.2. VMkernel

? Service
Console, , VMkernel . (
) , (multipathing NFS Link Aggregation
IP- ).
IP, VLAN ( )
NFS :
ESX
vmkping <IP NFS >

, ping
SC, ;
ESXi (. 3.3).
ping , ping SSH.
VMkernel NFS.
Configuration Storage Add Storage,
Network File System. -

148

vSphere

. 3.3. NFS- ESXi

IP NFS
(. . 3.4). , NFS
ESX(i) vCenter.
Mount NFS read only.
.
ESX(i) read/write NFS. NFS
, , iso.
ESX(i) NFS.
, Configuration Advanced Settings Software (. 3.5). NFS NFS.MaxVolumes. NFS . VMware,
http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1007909.
. ESX(i) NFS,
. NFS,
.lck-XXX, . .lck-XXX, ,
( , - - ).

SAN, Fibre Channel

149

. 3.4. NFS ESX(i)

3.4. SAN, Fibre Channel


Storage Area Network, SAN . SAN
. Fibre Channel SAN . Fibre Channel Fibre Channel . ,
, FC HBA, Host Bus Adapter. ,
FC SAN . FC SAN ,
, ESX(i).
Fibre Channel SAN . 3.6.
SAN.
SAN ESX(i) - LUN

150

vSphere

. 3.5. (Advanced Settings) NFS

( ), ESX(i) Rescan
( Configuration Storage Adapters rescan), ESX (. 3.7).
HBA, ESX(i), SCSI, SCSI. SCSI, . SAN HBA
SCSI, Fibre Channel. , FC
, . . 3.7.
FC HBA ()
(LUN), SCSI () . , ,
RAID .
. 3.8.
(
), . ( -

151

SAN, Fibre Channel

. 3.6. FC SAN
: VMware

) , FC LUN (, LUN iSCSI,


NFS).
SAN ESX?
FC SAN fabric,
- .
HBA . , FC . : FC , ,
Active-Passive. ,
LUN -
. LUN ,
LUN , ,
, . , Active-Passive roundrobin multipathing.
-, , .
Fibre Channel SAN ESX(i)?
, , .

152

vSphere

. 3.7. FC SCSI-

3.4.1. multipathing
SAN . 3.6. ,
HBA ( ),
FC, . ,

153

SAN, Fibre Channel

. 3.8. ESX(i)

SAN . LUN. ,
LUN 1 :
1. HBA 1 : SP 1 : LUN1.
2. HBA 1 : SP 2 : LUN1.
3. HBA 2 : SP 1 : LUN1.
4. HBA 2 : SP 2 : LUN1.
( , 2 3,
FC . 3.6, .)
multipathing ESX(i) , ,
LUN, . .
. 3.9.

. 3.9. LUN

154

vSphere

LUN FC_LUN_7.
vmhba2:C0:T1:L0 vmhba2:C0:T0:L0. :
vmhba# . (
HBA), ESX(i),
SCSI, . Configuration Storage Adapter;
C# SCSI. 0, SCSI . iSCSI
VMkernel, LUN;
T# target, , (Storage Processor). ESX(i), ,
-;
L# LUN. ( ) .
, , FC_LUN_7
, . HBA
.
LUN , ESX(i) - (
(I/O) Status, . 3.9).
. ,
LUN, ( . 3.9):
Fixed (VMware) , , LUN.
, , ;
Most Recently Used (VMware) ,
LUN.
, , , ;
Round Robin (VMware) round robin
. . ,
. ,
active/active.
1000 .
,
(MSCS/MFC)
.

SAN, Fibre Channel

155

. multipathing VMware
, VMware.
ESX(i) multipathing multipathing.

, .
.
Fixed LUN.
Active-Active Active-Passive. Fixed
LUN .
multipathing, .

.

3.4.2. multipahing. PSA, NMP,


MMP, SATP, PSP
LUN . HBA
. LUN - SAN .
. multipathing :
/ ;
target ;
HBA , .
multipathing, , VMware. , multipathing,
VMware. ESX(i) 4 .
:
PSA Pluggable Storage Architecture;
NMP Native Multipathing;
SATP Storage Array Type Plugins;
PSP Path Selection Plugins.
, . . 3.10.
PSA , ESX(i) SAN. PSA API
VMkernel. , :

156

vSphere

. 3.10.
: VMware

MPP;
LUN;
- MPP;
;
-;
Native Multipathing Module ,
PSA API.
NMP ,
multipathing. LUN. NMP
vSphere. NMP SATP PSP.
SATP ,
NMP, .
NMP ,
SATP, ,
. SATP . VMware SATP
generic Storage Array Type Plugins
local Storage Array Type Plugin DAS.
SATP :
esxcli nmp satp list
esxcli nmp satp listrules
esxcli nmp satp listrules s < SATP>

SAN, Fibre Channel

157

PSP (Path selection plugin) . ,


multipathing (, Fixed/MRU/Round Robin). PSP , . , , .
PSA
multipathing,
. VMware MPP.
MPP multipathing plugin.
( multipathing) NMP, . MPP
,
. ESX(i) , .
(. 3.11):
MPP . MPP NMP
, ESX(i)
(, );

. 3.11. multipathing
: VMware

158

vSphere

SATP NMP, , ;
PSP NMP.
I/O.
, PSA LUN. , (esx.conf), PSA ,
multipathing . NMP VMware MPP
.
NMP, , ,
SATP , PSP
. , EMC CLARiiON CX
SATP- VMW_SATP_CX PSP-
Most Recently Used.
vSphere CLI
esxcli corestorage claimrule list

(claim rules)
PSA, NMP SATP, LUN.

esxcli nmp satp list

SATP NMP.

esxcli nmp psp list

PSP NMP.
/etc/vmware/esx.conf, . :
/storage/plugin/NMP/config[VMW_SATP_SYMM]/defaultpsp = VMW_PSP_FIXED

:
SATP VMW_SATP_SYMM PSP
VMW_PSP_FIXED. SATP EM Symmetrix,
PSP Fixed.
: Configuration
Storage Adapters HBA Paths (. 3.12).
, . ESX(i) Active
, LUN. Active (I/O). Standby

159

SAN, Fibre Channel

. 3.12.

. Broken ( )
. (Preferred)
multipathing Fixed.
Configuration Storage Devices LUN (. 3.13).

. 3.13.

160

vSphere

, LUN. NMP, VMware.


, .
multipathing, ESX(i). ,
. .
, EMC PowerPath for VMware vSphere 4 MPP.
: ESX(i) 4 VMware
, .
NMP, multipathing. : ,
? NMP ,
HBA I/O. Fibre Channel
30 . NMP 30 ,
. , LUN ESX(i) 60 . ESX(i) .
- VMware - 60 ( .
5.2.4 ).

3.4.3. (Zoning)
(LUN masking, LUN presentation)
SAN : Zoning LUN Masking.
, .
, .
, . -
, ESX(i). -
, Windows, Linux
.
LUN . , LUN, ESX
, , Windows, .
, ,
. ESX LUN , VMFS,
Windows , .
. NTFS. VMFS
. .
.
FC, . , HBA SP . FC , -

161

SAN, Fibre Channel

, .
.
WWN. WWN, World Wide Name
SAN, MAC- Ethernet.
, . 3.14,
WWN (HBA) (SP).

. 3.14. LUN

VMware , WWN. ,
ESX(i) WWN.
, WWN -
. NPIV N-Port
ID Virtualization. FC ,
. . , .
, . , HBA (, ) LUN
. WWN, LUN WWN ( HBA),
. -

162

vSphere

-; - LUN,
LUN Presentation.
.
ESX(i), , ESX(i) .
ESX(i)
LUN, LUN LUN .
. ESX(i).
, - LUN ESX(i),
SAN - . LUN
ESX(i) ( ), vSphere
CLI Mask Paths Fibre Channel SAN Configuration Guide.

3.5. SAN, iSCSI


Storage Area Network, SAN . SAN
. iSCSI SAN
IP.
Ethernet, iSCSI(iSCSI HBA) (
, ESX(i) ). ,
IP, iSCSI SAN FC SAN.
, , , FC
SAN, iSCSI.
, , ( 1 Ethernet).
iSCSI , Fibre Channel
SAN. , iSCSI.
iSCSI , initiator. iSCSI ,
( ), . ESX(i)-.
iSCSI , iSCSI .
iSCSI SCSI, SCSI
VMkernel, IP Ethernet . IP, SCSI .
iSCSI , (. 3.15).
ESX(i)
, HBA. SCSI ,
, IP, .

SAN, iSCI

163

. 3.15. iSCSI
: VMware

SCSI
iSCSI, SCSI IP, IP
TCP/IP VMkernel. VMkernel . iSCSI
.
, , iSCSI .
iSCSI ,
,
ESX(i). , , VMkernel, , Discovery.
. ,
.
, iSCSI ESX(i), iSCSI, ESX(i) ,
, . iSCSI

164

vSphere

iSCSI IP .
, .
.
( ESX(i)), iSCSI HBA SCSI, FC HBA. , FC HBA SCSI
fibre channel, iSCSI HBA IP, ,
. , IP- IP-
(iSCSI target).
, FC HBA, iSCSI .
ESX(i) .

3.5.1.
iSCSI
ESX(i)
iSCSI .
1. , Jumbo Frames. (
Jumbo Frames .) Jumbo Frames , .
2. , ( ).
.
iSCSI,
, iSCSI.
3. VMkernel
. .
Jumbo Frames .
, multipathing iSCSI.
4. NIC Teaming VMkernel
. 3 - .
5. VMware iSCSI Software Initiator ( ).
6. VMkernel iSCSI Software Initiator (. , ).
7. ESX(i) iSCSI, Discovery , , .
8. VMFS.
.

165

SAN, iSCI

iSCSI
, , iSCSI. . 3.15 iSCSI IP,
VMkernel. , VMkernel.
. 3.16.

. 3.16.
iSCSI

, .
, .
VMkernel , .
. . 3.17.

. 3.17. ESXi. VMkernel

166

vSphere

ESX(i), VMkernel. ESX(i) iSCSI IP- 192.168.75.1,


? . (, Service Console). (
vmk0, vmk4, vmk5). ,
. ,
vmk4, . VMkernel_iSCSI, , iSCSI-. ,
IP- .
esxcfg-route.
. ESXi iSCSI
VMkernel Management , iSCSI VMkernel. ,
, .

, iSCSI . .

iSCSI Discovery

iSCSI. Configuration Storage Adapters
vmhba#, iSCSI Software Adapter Properties Configure Enabled (. 3.18).
.
iSCSI Name . iSCSI qualified names (IQN), iSCSI, WWN
Fibre Channel. . ,
. . iSCSI 3.9 SCSI.
, iSCSI IP- ( ) iSCSI Name iqn.* .
ESX(i) IP- VMkernel, iSCSI.
Discovery.
discovery iSCSI, target
iSCSI. Discovery (
Send Targets) .

167

SAN, iSCI

. 3.18. iSCSI

, discovery LUN, . LUN Static Discovery.


discovery ESX(i)
LUN, .
discovery iSCSI HBA (Configuration Storage Adapters)
Dynamic Discovery Static Discovery. Add, IP iSCSI, ,
discovery, .
. LUN, Dynamic Discovery, ESX(i) Static Discovery
. Static Discovery LUN,
ESX(i) .

, .

168

vSphere

,
HBA , .
, HBA,
LUN.
.
LUN . iSCSI (IQN ). , ESX(i) 4
CHAP, .
ESX(i), CHAP . . 3.19.

. 3.19. CHAP

CHAP .
Advanced, iSCSI (. 3.20).

169

SAN, iSCI

. 3.20. iSCSI

- , , . - VMware
- . . http://www.vm4.ru/
2010/08/vsphere-41-iscsi-advanced-settings.html.

3.5.2. iSCSI Multipathing


iSCSI multipathing .
-, iSCSI ( )
, IP-. ,
ESX(i) ,
LUN.
-, ESX(i) multipathing . Ethernet ( iSCSI),
.
.
iSCSI . VMkernel. -

170

vSphere

,
.
:
1. , VMkernel.
2. VMkernel (. 3.21).

. 3.21. multipathing
iSCSI

multipathing . iSCSI .
IP,

IP- . .
iSCSI , storage VMkernel VMkernel. VMkernel -

VMkernel . LUN, .
multipathing VMkernel (, . 3.21
). ,
VMkernel vmnic .
, VMkernel Edit. NIC Teaming Override vSwitch failover order vmnic,
, Unused Adapters (. 3.22).
VMkernel,
vmnic.

171

SAN, iSCI

. 3.22. NIC Teaming VMkernel,


iSCSI

vShepre
CLI:
esxcli swiscsi nic add -n <port_name> -d <vmhba>

vmk#.
VMkernel iSCSI. iSCSI
LUN. , (C#),
vmk# (, , vmnic).
:

172

vSphere

esxcli swiscsi nic add -n vmk1 -d vmhba33


esxcli swiscsi nic add -n vmk3 -d vmhba33
. , VMkernel. ,
, Discovery iSCSI .

, vmknic iSCSI-,
esxcli swiscsi nic list --adapter vmhba33

iSCSI -
LUN. LUN, vmhba#:C#:T#:L#.
- LUN
LUN LUN .
:
vmhba33:C0:T0:L0;
vmhba33:C0:T0:L1;
vmhba33:C0:T0:L2.
:
vmhba33:C0:T0:L0;
vmhba33:C0:T1:L0;
vmhba33:C0:T2:L0.
iSCSI- ESX(i)
. , ,
LUN , iSCSI .
, LUN , .
, .
multipathing. C multipathing Fixed, Most Recently Used RoundRobin ( 3.4.1).
.

3.6. VMFS, Virtual Machine File System


, , ( DAS) LUN FC iSCSI ESX(i)
VMFS. , VMware, :
. VMFS . ,
. VMFS , ;

VMFS, Virtual Machine File System

173

. VMFS 2 . , , 2 512 ;
VMFS ;

VMFS - LUN ,
, LUN
RDM, .
VMFS . ESX(i) (LUN) - VMFS,
Configuration Storage Add Storage.
. :
VMFS - /LUN, NFS. Disk/LUN (. 3.23).
, LUN VMFS. , VMFS ,
LUN VMFS (. 3.24).

. 3.23. VMFS

174

vSphere

. 3.24. LUN VMFS

: , LUN LUN , RDM. LUN


VMFS, .
LUN, VMFS. LUN . LUN
, ESX(i) LUN . ,
. , . , LUN , . 3.9 SCSI.
.
Datastore Name, . ,
, vSphere Client. ,
. , , LUN
. , fc_lun_db_ production.
.

VMFS, Virtual Machine File System

175

. 3.25. VMFS

Formatting , . . 3.25.
VMFS, .
1 .
256 . , VMFS ( vmdk) , , 300 .
,
. ?
, , .
, .
ESX(i) 4.1 VAAI (. 3.10)
VMFS VAAI.

LUN . , VMFS LUN.
- .

176

vSphere
. , - VMFS 64 .

VMFS, Remove,
Add Storage. Remove VMFS . , , LUN Masking,
ESX(i).

VMFS
VMFS,
, .
, metadata, .
:
.fdc.sf file descriptor system file;
.sbc.sf sub-block system file;
.fbb.sf file block system file;
.pbc.sf pointer block system file;
.vh.sf volume header system file.
:
Block Size ;
Number of Extents VMFS (extent),
LUN VMFS;
Volume Capacity ;
VMFS Version VMFS;
Volume Label VMFS;
VMFS UUID VMFS.

vmkfstools -P -h /vmfs/volumes/< VMFS>

. VMFS , . 1200 .

. ,
, , , , .
.
VMFS
. - ,
. .

VMFS, Virtual Machine File System

177

, VMFS,
.
LUN , .
VMFS,
.
, LUN , .
Reservation () SCSI 2.
SCSI Reservation :
,
;
. ,
, , Storage VMotion , , ;
;
;
/;
VMFS;

( vmdk)
thin.
(*-delta.vmdk)
16 . VMFS.
- , vmdk , SCSI reservation.
vmdk- , SCSI reservation . .
: VMFS , , . , -
-, SCSI reservation, -
( ~10 ) LUN
, . . VMware, .
, ,
,
LUN.
: (snapshot) , -
LUN , .
- , . /var/log/vmkernel,
reservation conflict:

178

vSphere

Apr 24 15:59:53 esx35-1 vmkernel: 5:14:57:01.939 cpu0:1083)StorageMonitor: 196:


vmhba1:0:3:0 status = 24/0 0x0 0x0 0x0
Apr 24 15:59:53 esx35-1 vmkernel: 5:14:57:01.939 cpu0:1041)SCSI: vm 1041: 109: Sync CR
at 64
Apr 24 15:59:56 esx35-1 vmkernel: 5:14:57:04.982 cpu0:1151)StorageMonitor: 196:
vmhba1:0:3:0 status = 24/0 0x0 0x0 0x0
Apr 24 15:59:56 esx35-1 vmkernel: 5:14:57:04.982 cpu3:1041)SCSI: vm 1041: 109: Sync CR
at 16
Apr 24 15:59:56 mel-esx-02 vmkernel: 5:14:57:05.050 cpu0:1161)StorageMonitor: 196:
vmhba1:0:3:0 status = 24/0 0x0 0x0 0x0
Apr 24 15:59:57 esx35-1 vmkernel: 5:14:57:06.047 cpu3:1041)SCSI: vm 1041: 109: Sync CR
at 0
Apr 24 15:59:57 esx35-1 vmkernel: 5:14:57:06.047 cpu3:1041)WARNING: SCSI: 119: Failing
I/O due to too many reservation conflicts

,
, :
(extent) LUN, LUN
, 2 . - (
), . SCSI
LUN.
VMFS Heartbeat Region. .
, .

3.6.1.
VMFS. Grow Extent
VMFS .
, , VMFS
. Grow Extent.
Grow LUN ,
VMFS .
LUN, Grow .
Extent VMFS
LUN, VMFS .

VMFS Grow
LUN, VMFS,
Configuration Storage VMFS LUN Properties Increase. LUN (. 3.26),

VMFS, Virtual Machine File System

179

. 3.26. VMFS LUN

, VMFS . Expandable
Yes , VMFS .
, Next, Next .

VMFS Extent
VMFS LUN.
:
VMFS, LUN ( grow ) . , SAN. LUN;
VMFS 2 . VMFS
LUN, 2 512 .
VMFS LUN, 2 ,
, VMFS 4 .
VMFS 32 LUN.
VMFS 64 ,
( ) 2 .
VMFS LUN
Configuration Storage VMFS, Properties
Increase. LUN,
VMFS. LUN, VMFS. : , LUN,
RDM, LUN . VMFS
LUN , . -

180

vSphere

. LUN
VMFS (. 3.27).

. 3.27. extent

: extent . VMFS
- LUN, LUN .
VMFS . ,
, .
extent, grow, SAN. grow VMFS LUN. 10 VMFS 10 LUN. extent 10 VMFS
LUN. , LUN
SAN.
10 LUN, VMFS,
VMFS .
VMFS LUN.
- LUN -

VMFS, Virtual Machine File System

181

VMFS, VMFS.
LUN, , .
, LUN ( RAID) .
. ESX(i) 4 VMFS, RDM vmdk. VMFS . vmdk VMware Converter.
ESX(i) 4 RDM, .

3.6.2.
VMFS, VMFS
LUN
VMFS (UUID, universally
unique identifier) VMFS LUN, .
- LUN ( iqn.*, iSCSI), ESX
VMFS Configuration Storage
. , LUN ,
VMFS, , :
ESX(i) VMFS. , LUN LUN ;
ESX(i) LUN ( snapshot).
, , ESX(i) ,
LUN. , - .
, :
- -
LUN ;
- ,
ESX(i) ESXi.
ESXi LUN .
, VMFS Configuration Storage Add Storage. LUN
VMFS Label ( ) VMFS
(. 3.28).
VMFS? (. 3.29).
:
Keep the existing signature VMFS , .
, LUN . ,

182

vSphere

. 3.28. VMFS LUN


, .
. ESX(i)
, , UUID . .
VMFS ;
Assign a new signature UUID
VMFS.
vCenter (ESX(i));
Format the disk VMFS LUN. .
. esxcfg-volumes. l
m M . M VMFS
.

RDM, Raw Device Mapping

183

. 3.29. VMFS LUN


3.7. RDM, Raw Device Mapping


RDM VMFS. VMFS
/LUN , VMFS . VMFS. - LUN
. ,
RDM,
.
LUN SCSI
. , LUN, RDM,
(NTFS, ).
RDM vmdk,
, LUN. . . 3.30.
vmdk RDM LUN (
LUN 14 ), 18 ( VMFS).

184

vSphere

. 3.30. RDM
: VMware

RDM , :
. LUN . LUN vmdk
- VMFS, LUN
RDM;
(MSCS/
MFC), . RDM;
- . , LUN
. VMFS +
vmdk , , ,
VMFS. LUN RDM ,
,
;
- (VMFS + vmdk)
.
RDM
. VMware, LUN RDM vmdk ,
VMFS + vmdk .
RDM :
, Hardware
Add. Hard Disk;

RDM, Raw Device Mapping

185

Device Type Raw Device Mapping;


Select a Disk LUN . LUN,
VMFS. !
RDM , LUN
;
Select Datastore , VMFS
(vmdk),
LUN. , ;
Compatibility Mode RDM-, ;
Advanced Options , , SCSI . SCSI (0:1) ,
SCSI ID 0. SCSI (1:0), ID 0 1. , ,
SCSI MSCS/MFC ( SCSI- 0 , RDM
). RDM Virtual, Independent.
,
(snapshot). Independent:
Persistent ,
(snapshot). ;
Nonpersistent ,
, .
.
nonpersistent
.
RDM :
Physical , SCSI
LUN ;
Virtual SCSI.
, Virtual RDM
( ESX(i))
. RDM LUN ,
. (LUN) .
Physical RDM LUN. MSCS/
MFC cluster-across-boxes physical-to-virtual.
, , physical RDM .
Virtual, , RDM,
physical RDM.
RDM, VMotion, Storage VMotion . VMotion , RDM LUN (
zoning masking).
RDM LUN .

186

vSphere

RDM LUN , LUN VMFS. , RDM Manage Path.


ESX(i) LUN RDM. , LUN .

vmkfstools -r /vmfs/devices/disks/naa.5xxxxxxxxxxx VM1_rdm.vmdk

-vmdk VM1_rdm.
vmdk, LUN/
naa.5xxxxxxxxxxx. -vmdk Add HDD Use Existing vmdk.
( naa., eui., vpx.) vSphere: Configuration Storage Adapters
.
. RDM LUN
VMotion. SCSI Bus Sharing ( SCSI), VMotion . RDM LUN
SCSI SCSI Bus Sharing,

.

3.8. NPIV
NPIV , , FC HBA WWN FC. ESX(i) NPIV,
WWN.
:
SAN , WWN;
LUN ;
;

.
.
:
WWN RDM LUN,
( ) ;
LUN (
) ESX(i), LUN ;
SIOC (
vSphere);

187

NPIV

NPIV .
SCSI-, . NPIV
, WWN .
NPIV :
SIOC ( ), FC HBA WWN. , ;
RDM, NPIV RDM
RDM
LUN .
ESX(i) NPIV , , HBA FC NPIV.
, Options (. 3.31). WWN,
RDM LUN WWN .

. 3.31. NPIV

188

vSphere

NPIV VMotion,
Storage VMotion.
, Fibre Channel SAN Configuration Guide.

3.9. SCSI
LUN . , , Configuration Storage Devices.
LUN:
Name , LUN ESX(i).
;
Identifier LUN, .
:
naa Network Addressing Authority id, SCSI. FibreChannel-. naa.;
t10 , . t10.;
iqn iSCSI iqn. naa
t10, IQN (naa
t10 , MAC-), , iSCSI, ;
eui iSCSI eui. naa t10,
eui ;
mpx ,
naa/t10/iqn/eui, ESX(i) mpx ( VMware multipath X). ,
. , CD-ROM.
Runtime name LUN vmhba#:C#:T#:L#. :
vmhba# ;
C# . iSCSI
LUN;
T# SCSI target.
. ESX(i)
;
L# LUN. .
LUN - ,
ESX(i).

.
Storage Views
Show all SCSI Volumes (LUNs) (. 3.32).

189

SCSI

. 3.32. Storage Views


ls -l /vmfs/devices/disks/

, (. 3.33).

. 3.33. ,

190

vSphere

Configuration Storage Copy to Clipboard,


. VMFS (
naa) LUN.
LUN. Configuration
Storage Adapters
LUN. Name, (. 3.34).

. 3.34. LUN

, :
VMFS;
Extent grow VMFS;
LUN RDM.
, . . 3.35.

vSphere API for Array Integration, VAAI.

191

. 3.35. RDM

3.10. vSphere API for Array


Integration, VAAI.

ESX(i) 4.1 VMware vSphere


API for Array Integration,
. , , ,
, .

192

vSphere

:
vSphere, ;
;

, VMFS .
vSphere,
VAAI:
Storage vMotion;
;
, ,
thin provisioning;
, eagerzeroedthick- VMware Fault Tolerance Microsoft Failover Cluster.
1020- ,
.
VAAI vSphere (. . 3.36).

. 3.36. VAAI vSphere

:
VAAI NFS;
ESX(i) VAAI .
, ;
RDM LUN RDM LUN;
vmdk eagerzeroedthick, thin;

vSphere API for Array Integration, VAAI.

193

LUN, , . , VAAI,
LUN . VMFS extent
, LUN ;
4.1 - , ( )
VMFS, VMFS , VAAI.

4. ,
,

4.1.
(Advanced settings)
Configuration Advanced Settings Software, ESX(i) (. 4.1).

. 4.1. (Advanced Settings) ESX(i)

, , . ,
VMware - . -
VMware (http://kb.vmware.com). .

195

:
Disk.MaxLun LUN,
ESX(i) rescan. LUN, , , 15, , Disk.
MaxLun = 16, rescan.
,
iSCSI. , , ,
(. 4.2).

. 4.2. (Advanced Settings)


iSCSI

4.2.
, .
.
vSphere,

196

, ,

, ESX; , ESX(i) vCenter; ,


.

4.2.1.

.
, :
(, VMkernel);
;
ESX Service Console;
ESX(i);
;
vCenter Server.
. (
) ,
, , .
,
.
.
. VMware
vShield Zones. ,
.

VMware (API) VMSafe. C


ESX(i) . ,
,
. - , .
, - , .
, API VMsafe. API

. API .
, , -:
Appliance, .
VMkernel. ESX ESXi. , -

197

, . , , ,
. , .

,
.
( ESX)
. ,
, ESX(i).
,
,
. . VMotion, Fault Tolerance,
iSCSI NFS
VLAN.
Service Console ESX. Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 5,
ESX . Service Console
. Service Console ,
Service Console .
.
VMware , , VMkernel (, ) Service Console. . VMware VMware Update Manager,

ESX(i). . : Service Console VMware, Red Hat.
Red Hat ( )
, ,
Service Console.
C , . , VMware vMA vSphere
Management Appliance. Linux, vSphere .
. , , vMA
ESX(i).
. , , .

198

, ,

VMware vCenter Windows. -


.
,
, vCenter . .
, ,
vCenter vSphere, .
. vCenter .
. VMware
. , Spanning tree, MAC . .

, Spanning tree . MAC-
, MAC- ,
.
: .
, ,
Security.
. LUN ESX(i).
( HBA/iSCSI / NFS), .
,
VMDirectPath, , iSCSI NFS
, .
.

4.2.2. ESX
ESX , iptables.
Service Console. ,
VMkernel .
.
Configuration Security Profile Properties (. 4.3).
, . ,
, .

. ESX, vSphere CLI. ,

199

. 4.3. Service Console

SSH
esxcfg-firewall q.
:
esxcfg-firewall q > tempFile

tempFile, .
esxcfg-firewall q | less

. q
.
esxcfg-firewall . /var/log/vmware/esxcfg-firewall.log.
esxcfg-firewall q , . , ,

200

, ,

esxcfg-firewall s

,
, etc/vmware/firewall/services.xml.
, . ,
.
, xml etc/vmware/firewall/.
,
ESX.

4.2.3. ESX(i),
Active Directory
, , , ,
. ESX(i) vCenter.
.
, , ESX(i) (
) .
, vCenter, VMware,
.
- ,
. , ,
. , .
VMware vSphere CLI/Power CLI, .
vCenter,
.
, vSphere Client, IP- ESX(i).
.
SSH PuTTY, .
Service Console (
Linux ESXi).
, 4.1, ESX(i) Active Directory.

Configuration Authentication Services.
Active Directory,
. ESX(i)
AD, , , vm4.ru, , , vm4.ru/vsphere/esxi. vsphere/esxi.

201

, ESX(i),
Permissions. , ESX Admins .
,
Add Permissions .
,
Host Profiles.
ESX(i)
vSphere SSH.

4.2.4. ,
vCenter
vCenter . . . 4.4.
(privileges, ),
(role) Administrator.

. 4.4. vCenter

202

, ,

. , , , (snapshot) . -
.
, .
- vCenter . . 4.5.

. 4.5. ,

, Administrator () Administrators
Datacenters ( vCenter). ,
,
vCenter .
, MikhailMikheev View.
vCenter , :
Windows, ,
vCenter;
,
vCenter ( ).
, -
:
1. /, . Windows vCenter ,
.
2. . Home Administration Roles. :
Add
;

203

Clone
.
, Edit.
.
3. Home Inventory :
Hosts and Clusters , , , .;
VMs and Templates , ;
Datastore ;
Networking .
. 4.6.

. 4.6.

( VMs and Templates). Permissions,


, .
, Administrators Administrator, vcenter4 (
vCenter, vcenter4 vCenter).
, Typical_VMs_Admins Resource pool
administrator (sample) vm4ru ( Datacenter, ).
. . 4.5, , .

. Permissions ,
Add Permissions (. 4.7).

204

, ,

. 4.7.

Add
, , . ,
Home Administration Roles.
Propagate to Child Objects ( ). , (
Project_X_VMs ), .
MikhailMikheev (
Windows, vCenter) VMs_Admin (
vCenter) Project_X_VMs.
vSphere , . . 4.8.
, , ,
. (Events), . , , , .
.
:
vCenter, -
. . 4.9.

205

. 4.8.

: VasilyPupkin ( ) . nonCritical_
Production_VMs ,
VasilyPupkin. vCenter,
, .
: , -
( , . , ). ,

206

, ,

. 4.9.

, - ,
.
.
. 4.10.

. 4.10.

207

,
. ,
?
, .
. 4.11.

. 4.11. ,
,

MikhailMikheev, , . , .
No access. , , .


, , ,
.
, ,
:
1. , .
- , .

208

, ,

2. , , .
, .
3. , .
. , , .
,
, . , ,
-
.
, vCenter . Administrator ( ), Read-only (
) No Access ( ). ( VMware Consolidated
Backup user (sample)).
, ,
, .
.
.
, , -
. ,
.
, .
. vSphere
, Windows,
.
:
vCenter. :
1. ( ).
2. vCenter.
3. , .
4. vCenter.

4.3. SSL
VMware vSphere, ESX(i) 4, vCenter 4, VMware Converter
Enterprise VMware Update Manager 4, SSL v3 TLS v1 (
SSL). SSL , , . ESX(i), VMware, X.509
SSL .

SSL

209

vSphere 4 , . ESX(i).
- .
(certificate authority, CA. , ).
. ,
, .
ESX(i) vCenter (
vSphere )
(. 4.12), , . ,
, , . , ,
( ).

. 4.12.


. (,
VeriSign, Thawte GeoTrust) (, Microsoft Windows Server Active Directory Certificate Cervices, AD CS OpenSSL).
.
1. ESX(i), .
2. vCenter 4 Update Manager 4. . , Update Manager

210

, ,

. ,
, .
,
, vSphere
. , VMware vSphere 4 (http://www.
virtualizationsecuritygroup.ru/publikatsii/zamena-sertifikatov.html http://link.
vm4.ru/qcegm).

4.4. Host Profiles


Host Profiles, VMware, ESX ESXi .
:
Memory reservation
Service Console;
Storage Configuration NFS;
Networking , , .
, , , VMkernel Service Console .
IP, VLAN, security, NIC teaming. ,
;
Date and Time NTP, ;
Firewall ;
Security ;
Service ntp vpxa ( vCenter).
;
Advanced .
4.1 Host Profiles
:
Cisco Nexus 1000V;
PCI- ( , ,
vmnic1);
root;
AD.
.
1. ,
.
2. .
3. (hosts
compliance).

211

Host Profiles

4. .
Home Management Host
Profiles (. 4.13).

. 4.13.

, , (, , vCenter) (. 4.14).
,
. .
(. 4.15).
. ,
:
;
;
, ;
;

;
.
,
. Edit Profile.
,
(. 4.16).
, . ,
- ,
, .
.

212

, ,

. 4.14.

. 4.15.


Attach Host/Cluster. (. 4.17)
Attach.

213

Host Profiles

. 4.16.

. 4.17.

214

, ,

.
, Hosts and Clusters
Check Compliance Now (. 4.18).
.

. 4.18.

, (,
, ). Cluster Noncompliant, , .
, esx1.vm4.ru, , , .
(maintenance mode) (Apply) .
(. 4.19).
Maintenance Mode. , ,
. (suspend) ,

215

Host Profiles

. 4.19.

, .
, Apply
. , ,
IP- VMkernel (. 4.20).

. 4.20.

216

, ,

, .
.

, . 4.21.

. 4.21.

, (Compliant) ( (Compliance
Check)). , .
, .
Exit Maintenance Mode.
.
Hosts Profiles :
. ESX(i),
, ;
. ESX(i), ;
. , , . , , ,
;
. (Home
Management Scheduled tasks),
, . ,
( )
. , SNMP. Hosts and
Clusters ;

SNMP

217

, . , -
ESX(i) - .

ESX(i) .
, Home
Management Host Profiles. Home Inventory Hosts and Clusters, Profile Compliance
(. 4.22).

. 4.22. Hosts and Clusters

, , ,
.
vCenter
Linked Mode.

4.5. SNMP
SNMP. vSphere
, .
SNMP vCenter,
alarm.
, SNMP ESX
ESXi.

218

, ,

4.5.1. SNMP vCenter


alarm, . , Add,
Action (. 4.23).

. 4.23. SNMP alarm

vCenter,
SNMP . Home vCenter Server
Settings SNMP. community
(. 4.24).
, 77% (. 4.25).
vCenter (. 4.26).
Alarm vSphere. 6.4.

SNMP

. 4.24. SNMP vCenter

219

220

, ,

. 4.25. SNMP trap, vCenter

. 4.26. SNMP trap, vCenter

SNMP

221

4.5.2. SNMP ESX(i)


SNMP ESX(i)
vMA. vMA .
, vMA ssh ESX(i).
vSphere CLI:
community
vicfg-snmp c < >
trap
vicfg-snmp <:, />
get set , SNMP
vicfg-snmp p <>
SNMP
vicfg-snmp --enable
trap
vicfg-snmp --test

, trap .
, SNMP-
ESX(i). ,
.
MIB http://communities.vmware.com/
community/developer/forums/managementapi http://link.vm4.ru/eveih.

5.
(), ,
,
.
, .
, .

5.1. .

. vSphere , ,
New Virtual Machine.
.
1. Configuration ,
. Custom .
,
Custom, .
2. Name and Location vCenter . ,
.
DNS
.
3. Resource Pool .
, DRS.
4. Datastore .
5. Virtual Machine Version (Custom) . 7 . 4 ,
ESX(i) 3.x. ,
ESX(i) 3.x . (
Typical) 7.
6. Guest Operating System . , ESX(i) VMware tools, , SCSI
.

7.
8.

9.

10.

11.

223

. VMware Toos , VMware Tools .


Memory (Custom) .
. , ESX(i).
Network (Custom) , .
.
. , . ,
e1000, , vmxnet2/3
( , ), VMware
Tools.
.
SCSI Controller (Custom) , SCSI . ,
. .
Select a Disk (Custom)
, ,
LUN Raw Device .
.
Create a disk
(. 5.1).

.
thin, . ,
- ( 20 ), .
,
Microsoft (MSCS/MFC) VMware Fault Tolerance.
, , ( , ),
.
. ,
. Custom
.
, . ,
. ,
. .

224

. 5.1.
Custom

12. Advanced Options (Custom) ,


IDE ( , SCSI), Independent ( , ,
. ).
13. Ready to Complete Edit the virtual machine settings before completion, - .
, .
. , . .
, , . CD-ROM ISO
. .
,
vSphere, . 5.2.

225

. 5.2.

, vSphere ( ) Console
. , . . . 5.3.

. 5.3.

. ,
( suspend), .
, ESX(i) 4
(Shutdown guest) (Restart Guest) . , VMware tools. , ,
,

226

Power Off Reset VMware tools , .


(Power OFF) (Reset) , . Edit Settings, Options,
VMware tools (. 5.4).

. 5.4.

, , VMware Tools. , VMware Tools , .


(Suspend) . ,
,
.

(Clone Template)

227

(snapshot).
CD/DVD-ROM FDD.
, CD/DVD (FDD)
CD/DVD (FDD) ,
(ISO Flp) .
.
(, ESX(i) ) .
VM VMware tools,
, , ,
Fault Tolerance.
VMware tools, ,
, . ( ), Ctrl+Alt.
Ctrl+Alt+Del, Ctrl+Alt+Ins,
: VM Guest Send Ctrl+Alt+Del.
C .
ESX(i), - ,
ESX(i).
- ESX ( ESXi) vCenter
(. 5.5). - , .

5.2.
(Clone Template)
,
. . , , .
, vCenter.

5.2.1.
, , Clone. .
1. Name and Location , Datacenter
() .
2. Host/Cluster , .
3. Resource pool .
4. Datastore .
Advanced .

228

. 5.5. - vCenter

5. Disk Format .
6. Guest Customization ,
. .
.
7. .
,
(, ).
.
, , . vCenter
, , , vSphere. .

.
vSphere ( :
, ).
, Storage VMotion. .

(Clone Template)

229

(snapshot).
, :
. .

5.2.2.
(template)
, , (Template) . , Templates Windows Deployment Services (WDS) Image Capture Wizard (WDSCapture), ImageX, Acronis Snap Deploy
Symantec Ghost. , , ,
? . , vCenter , .
Templates, Clone to Template Convert to Template. , , , .
. . ,
.
Host and Clusters vSphere,
, , Virtual Machines, , (. 5.6). .

. 5.6.

230

Home Inventory VMs and Templates,


. .
, , , - . , , Summary .
, , , , . , , . DPM,
DPM .
, :
1. vCenter, Remove from Inventory.
2. Home Inventory Datastores
, . , ,
. Browse Datastore.
3. .vmtx. Add to Inventory (. 5.7).

. 5.7.

.vmtx , ,
.vmx. -,
.
, ,
.
, . ,
Home Inventory VMs and Templates.
Deploy Virtual Machine from this Template, :

(Clone Template)

231

1. Name and Location , Datacenter


() .
2. Host / Cluster , .
3. Resource pool .
4. Datastore .
Advanced,
.
5. Disk Format .
6. Guest Customization ,
. .
.
7. .

5.2.3. , SysPrep
, - .
, vCenter . ,
IP- ( Windows SID
ID Windows Update) , .
, .

, IP, , . Windows .
. , ,
, . :
1. . , , .
2. ( , , . .). Microsoft , Windows System Preparation Tool (SysPrep).
3. .
4. , . .
( ) .
3 : .

232

. . ( ) - , , :
1) ;
2) (, . .);
3) ( ,
);
4) (, . .);
5) .
vCenter , .
: ,
vCenter.
( ),
.
.
1. . ,
, .
2. . : .
3. . .
4. 6 Guest Customization , . , , .
5. ,
vCenter. .
- (Mini-Setup). , .
- , .
, , , ,
, ,
.
Linux vCenter
:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 2 5 ( 64- );
Red Hat Application Server 2 5 ( 64- );
SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 8, 9, 10.
, , (http://pubs.vmware.com).

(Clone Template)

233

vCenter - .
.
*nix, VMware
, .
, .
Windows vCenter :
Windows 2000 Server, Advanced Server, Professional;
Windows XP Professional ( 64- );
Windows Server 2003, Web, Standard, Enterprise Editions (
64- );
Windows Vista ( 64- );
Windows Server 2008;
Windows 7.
Windows Vista, Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 vCenter
, . vCenter
, Windows Vista, sysprep vCenter. .
1. . deploy.cab,
(\SUPPORT\TOOLS\deploy.cab), Microsoft (
SysPrep , Service Pack ,
). VMware http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1005593.
2. Sysprep %AllUsersProfile%\VMware\VMware
VirtualCenter\sysprep\< Windows >.
Windows Server 2003.
0. Sysprep vCenter.
. 6
Customize using the Customization Wizard. ,
.
1. Registration Information .
2. Computer Name . Use the virtual machine name.
.
, . ,
FQDN (computer.
domain.com). ,
, - ,
Windows .
3. Windows License .
4. Administrator Password . :

234

Windows , Sysprep
.
5. Time zone .
6. Run once ,
. -
.
7. Network .
8. Workgroup or Domain .
9. Operating System Options ,
Generate New Security ID (SID).
10. Save Specification ,

. . , 0
, Customize using an existing customization
specification.
, vSphere Home
Management Customization Specification Manager. ,
, , . .
vCenter, . :
vCenter. , vCenter
.
vCenter :
vCenter ;
,
SCSI 0:0;
VMware tools;
Sysprep vCenter
( Windows , Windows Vista).
. - , , - ,
. ,
. VMware -
.

5.2.4.

Windows:
(disk alligment, ,
). ;

(Clone Template)

235

BIOS . , , ;

(*.vmx), . ,
vlance.noOprom = true
vmxnet.noOprom = true

pxe flexible vmxnet.


. *.vmx vSphere
Hardening Guide, Virtual Machines;
, ;
VMware tools;
SCSI- . VMware Paravirtual;
%systemroot%. $NTUnistallxxxxxx$ $NTServicePackUninstall$ ( Vista
compcln.exe);
;
- .
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE System CurrentControlSet Services Disk 60 ( FC/iSCSI) 125 (NFS);
,
, ;
. , Remote
Desktop, IIS, SNMP . .;
. , ;
(Description). (
. :
) ;
, ;

, ,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
;
,
.

236

, ,
.
, , , .
.
,
. VMware (LUN) ( iso-).
, , LUN .

5.3.
, .
, ,
. 5.8.

. 5.8.

237

PCI. 7 16, : PCI-


. :
;
SCSI- ( 4 );
( 10 );
PCI- VMI (
), ;
, VMware Workstation,
.

.

5.3.1. Memory
. .
. ,
, ,
. , , .
, ,
.
.

5.3.2. CPUs
.
: (vCPU) (!)
. , ,
. ,
( Enterprise Plus) .
vCPU 1 8, (
CPU ).
vCPU , vCPU
.
,
. - , - . Windows Server
2003 Standard Edition. 4 -

238

. 4 ,
4 24 . , .
:
1. . 2, 4 8 .
2. Options Advanced General
Configuration Parameters.
3. Add Row.
4. Name
cpuid.coresPerSocket

5. Value 2, 4 8.
5 .
8 ( 1)
vCPU 4 ( 5), 8 4 = 2 , 4
.
(
2 4 ), , . . ,
, Microsoft (, ),
.
.

5.3.3. IDE, PS2 controller, PCI controller,


SIO controller, Keyboard, Pointing device
, . : IDE ,
. , CD-ROM HDD IDE-
.

5.3.4. Video card


, , . ESX(i) SVGA-.
, (, AutoCad) .
( ) VDI-.

239

5.3.5. VMCI device, VM Communication


Interface
VMCI , , ,

. 2 5,5 /
. VMCI 10 /,
40 .
.
VMware VMCI Socket API .

5.3.6. Floppy drive


-.
, FDD. :
Client Device FDD , vSphere -;
Host Device FDD ;
Existing floppy image flp, -
/vmimages ESX(i);
New floppy image flp;
vSphere (
), FDD , vSphere.
Connected Connect at power on,
. Connected , . Client device Connected
.
, FDD
Connected.

5.3.7. CD/DVD Drive


ESX(i) 4 CD/DVD-ROM.
:
Client Device CD/DVD-ROM ,
vSphere -;
Host Device CD/DVD-ROM ;
Datastore ISO File iso, - ;
vSphere (
), DVD ,
vSphere.

240

Connected Connect at power on, DVD-ROM. Connected ,


. Client device Connected
.

5.3.8. Network Adapter


. , 7- 10 .
:
vlance AMD 79C970 PCnet32 LANCE, 10 / .
,
, ;
VMXNET
.
, VMware tools;
Flexible ESX(i) 4 , vlance vmxnet. , Flexible vlance,
vmxnet, , ;
E1000
Intel 82545EM Gigabit Ethernet.
, .
Intel
NIC Teaming VLAN .
, ;
VMXNET 2 (Enhanced)
VMXNET.
( VMware Tools).
VLAN, Jumbo Frames, TCP Segmentation offload.
, ;
VMXNET 3
. , ,
VMXNET 2, . , multiqueue ( Windows Receive Side Scaling), IPv6
offloads, VLAN off-loading, MSI/MSI-X interrupt delivery. ,
VMXNET 3 , .
VMware Fault Tolerance.

241

VMXNET 3 :
32 64- Microsoft Windows XP ;
32 64- Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0 ;
32 64- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 ;
32 64- Asianux 3 ;
32 64- Debian 4/Ubuntu 7.04 ;
32 64- Sun Solaris 10 U4 .
. 5.1.
5.1.
Flexible
IPv4 TSO

Enchanced
vmxnet (vmxnet2)

IPv6 TSO
Jumbo Frames
Large Ring Sizes
RSS
MSI-X
hardware

47

47

E1000

VMXNET 3

47

( Custom)
. , ,
(*.vmx).
:
ethernetX.virtualDev = "e1000" e1000;
ethernetX.virtualDev = "vmxnet" VMXNET
2 (Enhanced);
ethernetX.virtualDev = "vmxnet3" VMXNET 3.
ethernetX X .
,
.
IP , , ,
, , ,
.
IP Windows :
netsh interface ip dump > c:\ipconfig.txt

Windows, ,
Local Area Connection 2 . . .

242


netsh -c interface f c:\ipconfig.txt


(Device Manager), View Show
hidden devices. ,
set devmgr_show_nonpresent_devices=1

. 269155 (http://support.
microsoft.com/?kbid=269155).

TSO
TCP Segmentation Offloading ,
TSO .
, IP- . ( ) .
IP-, .
.

. 5.9. TSO Windows

243

TCP Segmentation Offloading ,


,
TSO.
(. 5.9).

Jumbo Frames
Jumbo Frames IP-. , . ,
.
IP- 1500 , Jumbo Frame 9000 .
Jumbo Frames end-to-end,
, .
Jumbo Frames 1 10 .
Jumbo Frames
VMkernel NFS, iSCSI VMotion. Jumbo
Frames vSwitch/dvSwitch, VMkernel.
Jumbo Frames ,
(. . 5.1).
Windows (. 5.10):
1. .
2. Jumbo Frames 9000.
Jumbo Frames:
1. ping
ping -f -l 8972 <IP >

2. - :
ping <IP > 8972(9000) bytes of data.
8980 bytes from <IP >: icmp_seq=1 ttl=128 time=3.36 ms

Large Ring Sizes


,
. Rx 150
VMXNET2 256 VMXNET3. VMXNET3
Ethernet
10- Ethernet.

RSS
Receive-Side Scaling
TCP/IP. . RSS Windows Server 2003 SP2, Windows Server 2008. .

244

. 5.10. Jumbo Frames Windows

MSI-X
Message Signaled Interrupts : ,
(local APIC) . , .
, Windows Vista.
, RSS.

:
VMXNET 3 , . VMXNET 2
, VMXNET 3. VMXNET 3 VMXNET 2 , E1000. , Flexible. Flexible E1000 ,
, VMware tools.
. ,
. (Device manager).

245

7-
USB-. , ,
USB- VMware tools (. 5.11).

. 5.11.

, .
(*.vmx)

devices.hotplug = "false"
isolation.device.connectable.disable = "true"
isolation.device.edit.disable = "true"

, , :
Edit Settings Options Advanced General Configuration Parameters Add Row.

, VMware
tools.

246

MAC-
. MAC-
. MAC-
MAC- (suspend). MAC-
.
:
MAC, MAC- - . : 1, MAC-.
1. 2 MAC- ( , ). 1
, . 1 MAC.
, .
256 MAC- ( )
. ,
MAC- .
vCenter.
vCenter, MAC- . MAC- :
00:50:56:vCenterID:xx:xx, vCenterID vSphere
Home VirtualCenter Management Server Configuration Runtime
Settings. , vCenter 65 535
MAC-. vCenter MAC- .
VMware MAC- . MAC- VMware 00:50:56. ,
MAC- ,
00:50:56:00:00:00-00:50:56:3F:FF:FF.
MAC-
, . MAC MAC- VMware.
MAC-, (*.vmx) . . -VMware
MAC-
.
MAC- .
- . , ESX(i) SSH
vi /vmfs/volumes/< >/< >/< .vmx>

247

. ESX vi, nano . ESXi .


, .


ethernet0.generatedAddress = "00:50:56:be:2c:21"
ethernet0.addressType = "vpx"

( ).

ethernet0.checkMACAddress = "false"
ethernet0.addressType = "static"
ethernet0.Address = "00:0C:29:B0:27:E1"

, MAC- .

5.3.9. SCSI controller


SCSI , - . .
Hardware SCSI-, Change Type (. 5.12).

. 5.12. SCSI-

248

:
BusLogic Parallel , , , . ;
LSI Logic Parallel , BusLogic;
LSI Logic SAS LSI Logic. ,
SCSI 3. ,
. Microsoft Failover Cluster;
VMware Paravirtual SCSI (PVSCSI) . . VMware
Fault Tolerance , ,
, :
Windows Server 2008 ( R2);
Windows Server 2003;
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 5.
, ,
, - .

.
. , VMware
Paravirtual. , LSI Logic Parallel. , BusLogic. - MFC
LSI Logic SAS.
Windows 2008. PVSCSI, LSI. ESX(i) ( Update 1) FDD PVSCSI.
, :
1. PVSCSI, flp
.
.
. ;
2. LSI Logic. , PVSCSI, . Windows PVSCSI. ,
(PVSCSI), LSI Logic PVSCSI.
,
;

249

, - . , FDD.
iso VMware tools.
PVSCSI (Windows 2003/2008) Bus Logic
(Windows XP) vmimages. , Floppy Drive Use existing floppy image in datastore vmimages\
floppies.
SCSI- Bus sharing SCSI-. , . , MSCS/MFC.
:
None . ;
Virtual , ,
. , cluster-in-a-box;
Physical , , , . ,
cluster-across-boxes physical-to-virtual.
. Add Hardware
, ,
. SCSI-. SCSI-, .
- Edit Settings
Hardware Add. Hard Drive.
. ,
SCSI node.
SCSI X:Y. SCSI-,
SCSI id. . , , SCSI 0:0,
. SCSI 1:0,
. SCSI 2:0,
. .

Microsoft Cluster Services Microsoft Failover Cluster.
, .

5.3.10. Hard Disk


vmdk LUN .

250

5.3.11. Parallel port


(LPT) . ESX ( 4.1 ESXi) LPT- .
, LPT-
(VMotion) , FT.
ESX, ESXi LPT .

5.3.12. Serial port


(COM) ESX(i). 4.1
.
ESX(i) ( ESXi 4.1) COM- . , COM- (VMotion) ,
FT.
(named pipe), COM- ESX(i).

. 5.13.
: VMware

251

, .
, Com-over-IP, , .
4.1
.
, ESX(i)
.
, ACS v6000 Virtual Advanced Console Server. (
telnet ssh)
vSphere.
, , IP-
. :
ESX(i), .
vMotion.

5.3.13. SCSI device


SCSI-,
(LUN). , . ,
Fibre Channel .
, VMware , .
SCSI device,
( , HBA-),
SAN, HP Command View.

5.3.14. USB controller USB device


4.1, USB- .
USB- USB-
USB-, USB device USB-, .
vMotion USB , -, , . , ,
2, USB- 1, . -

252

USB. , 15 USB, 15 .
USB .
. USB- , PCI-. USB .

, , ,
USB- USB-over-IP. ESX(i),
USB, USB-
.
ESX(i) 4.0,
USB- ESX(i) VMDirectPath. USB- ,
, USB. .

5.3.15. VMDirectPath
ESX(i) 4-
PCI(e)-.
Intel Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O
(VT-d) AMD IP Virtualization Technology (IOMMU), BIOS
.
-, 10 Ethernet FC HBA.

.
, USB . . VMware
. ,
:
Intel 82598 10 Gigabit Ethernet adapter;
Broadcom 57710 10 Gigabit Ethernet adapter;
QLogic QLA25xx 8Gb Fibre Channel;
LSI 3442e-R 3801e (1068 chipbased) 3Gb SAS adapter.
, ,
VMDirectPath.
http://www.vm4.ru/2010/12/whitebox.html.
, :

253

VMotion Storage VMotion;


Fault Tolerance;
(snapshot) (suspend) ;
.
- ,
. Configuration Advanced Settings Hardware Configure Passthrough (. 5.14).

. 5.14. VMDirectPath

(. 5.15).
. , .
, Hardware Add PCI Device
(. 5.16).
.
ESX(i)
.

254

. 5.15.

5.4.
, .
:
1. vmdk VMFS NFS.
2. LUN FC / iSCSI / .
Raw Device Mapping, RDM.
, .
.

5.4.1. vmdk
, .
vmdk.

255

. 5.16.

, Add
Hardware Hard Disk. Next .
1. Select a Disk , vmdk, ESX(i)
, RDM. .
2. Create a Disk :
Capacity .
. vmdk :
, VMFS, . VMFS,
, vmdk 256 ;
Disk Provisioning vmdk. , , vmdk zeroedthick. Thin Provisioning

256

vmdk thin. eagerzeroedthick.


;
Location .
3. Advanced Options :
Virtual Device Node ID
. SCSI (1:2) ,
SCSI ID SCSI-
1 ( ). , . 4 SCSI- 15 .
, IDE.
IDE- , ;
Mode Independent,
(snapshot).
Persistent
vmdk. Nonpersistent
,
. , , . , , .
.
vmdk , :
zeroedthick . vmdk VMFS.
vmdk .
50 , vmdk
50 , .
( ,
)
, .
;
eagerzeroedthick .
vmdk . , . - vmdk , vmdk .
Fault Tolerance ( FT
vmdk ).
vmdk
. , Support clustering features such as Fault Tolerance;
thin . vmdk
, . -

257

.
, Allocate and commit space on demand (Thin Provisioning).
. ;
2gbsparse 2 . vmdk
, ESX(i) . VMware.
ESX(i) VMware
ESX(i) . vmdk 2gbsparse
thin/thick vmkfstools;
rdm rdmp vmdk, LUN, Raw Device Mapping, RDM. vRDM virtual RDM, pRDM
physical RDM. RDM ;
monosparse monoflat VMware.
. thin disk (3Par, NetApp), thindisk thin- ESX(i).
thin provisioning thick- thin-
. thin provisioning
VMware.

ESX(i) 3.x thick . ESX(i) .


ESX(i) 4 vmdk .
thick zeroedthick.
thin
vmdk NFS. ,
NFS.
, vmdk
thin zeroedthick. ?
Thin- . - , (Shrink)
ESX(i) . thin- , - , . .
, - . ESX(i) ,
(, ) ,
.

258

(Windows, )
, . , Windows Server 2008 20 . vmdk
. 6 .
2 , , , :
1. 8 : 6 + 2 2 + 2 2 + 2.
2. , , vmdk
12 : 6 + 2 + 2 + 2.
: , ,
thin- .
thin-? . .
30 , . ,
50 .
- 15 . 50
, 25 . :
thick- 1500 = 50 30 .
50- vmdk ( , );
thin- 450 = 15 30 .
1000 = 25 30 , 300
, 25 - . !
.

.
, ,
(!) .
99%, ESX(i)
(suspend).
: thin provisioning ,
.
VMware,
thin- thick.
thin, zeroedthick , eagerzeroedthick,
.
, eagerzeroedthick-. , , thin,
thick-.

259

. .
Storage VMotion Clone , , (zeroedthick thin).
vmdk
vmkfstools.



Summary. Resources
(. 5.17).
Provisioned Storage , .
.
. (*.vswp),
, vmdk .
(snapshot) , ,
Provisioned Storage
/;
Not-shared Storage
, ;
Used Storage - .

. 5.17.

Not-shared Storage Used Storage, :


Linked Clone. vSphere , VMware Lab Manager VMware View;
RDM (,
MSCS/MFC). RDM ,
. Not-shared Storage , , RDM.

260


. Provisioned Storage vmdk.
.
, thin- (
), . .

5.4.2.

.


-, , , , .
. , ,
.
(. 5.18).
.

. 5.18.

261

thick thick-
,
, ,
. :
VMware Converter.
ESX,
;
, ,
Ghost Acronis.
, , , . , LiveCD;
- , ESX(i). , - , ,
, - ;
, vmdk.
.
VMware Converter. , VMware Converter Enterprise VMware vCenter 4, VMware Converter Standalone
. .
, . Enterprise, , vSphere,
Import Machine. .
, , vSphere Virtual Machine,
vCenter. , Source Data,
(. 5.19).
,
.
, , Physical Machine.
,
, .
. , .
. , .
, . (snapshot) .
, ,
. . , Windows Server 2008
(. 5.20).

262

. 5.19. ,


vmdk. , vmdk, :
1. disk2.vmdk .
2. disk2-flat.vmdk .
*.vmdk . ESX
vi nano, ,
. ESXi vi.
FastSCP WinSCP, ESX.
vmdk - :
# Extent description
RW 52428800 VMFS "foo-flat.vmdk"

RW 512 :
52428800 512 = 26 843 545 600 (25.6 ).
, 12 . disk.vmdk:
# Extent description
RW 12582912 VMFS "foo-flat.vmdk"

263

. 5.20.

( ) ,
(. 5.21).
vCenter, , :
# vmkfstools -i disk.vmdk disk_new_small.vmdk
. Storage VMotion,
. , .

thin-
, vmdk, ?
vmdk thick, -

264

. 5.21.

thin. thin-vmdk,
.
1. , . Windows sdelete Sysinternals.
, :
sdelete - E:

E:\.
2. Storage VMotion
Change to Thin Provisioned Disk.
Storage VMotion,
(Migration
Change Datastore) (Clone) .
.
.

265

. , HDD,
(thick thin) Type.


, Remove, ,
(. 5.22).

. 5.22.

,
, Remove from virtual machine.
Remove from virtual machine ,
-,
. Remove from virtual machine and delete files from disk.

266

, , -, , .
RVTools (http://www.robware.net).

5.4.3. (alligment)
, . , -
( ). .
() , . , x86
master boot record (MBR), 63 .
,
, ,
.
:
, VMFS
vmdk.
. 5.23 , .
Chunk, Block
Cluster , SAN, VMFS
(NTFS Windows).
,
, 10%.

.
, , .

VMFS
VMFS.
LUN ( VMware).
LUN VMFS. VMFS, , 128 , ESX(i) 4.
, VMFS,
fdisk lu

, -
Device boot Start End
Blocks
Id System
/dev/sdj1
128
167766794 83883333+ fb Unknown

267

. 5.23.
: VMware

Id fb ,
VMFS. start 128 ,
128. 128 .
( 63) , . VMFS vSphere 128. , VMFS
:
1) VMFS ;
2) .
,
. ESX
VMFS , esxconsole.vmdk,
Service Console.

268

.
GUI, :
1.
fdisk /dev/sd<x>

<x> LUN. ,
fdisk -l

2. p. LUN VMFS,
ID fb.
d .
: . -
, LUN .
3. n .
4. p , primary.
5. 1 1.
6. , LUN .
7. t system ID .
8. fb , VMware VMFS volume.
9. x .
10. b .
11. 1 1.
12. 128 (128- 64- ).
13. w .
: fdisk , VMFS.
:
1.
ls l /vmfs/volumes/devices/disk

LUN, ,
eui.6a07eb73337ba5c1

vml.010000000036413037454237333333374241354331494d41474546

mpx.vmhba35:C0:T0:L0.

2.
vmkfstools -C vmfs3 -b 1m -S myVMFS /vmfs/volumes/devices/disk/mpx.
vmhba35:C0:T0:L0:1

b 1m VMFS , 1 .
VMFS , -

269

.
-S myVMFS myVMFS. LUN, eui.6a07eb73337ba5c1,
:1.
, VMFS .


vmdk.
Windows.
,
, .
, Windows,
.
, , Windows.
, . .
- Windows, .
, , Add Hardware, Hard
Disk . diskpart.exe (
Windows Server 2003 2008). :
1. :
List disk

Disk 1.
2. :
Select disk 1

3. :
Create partition primary align=64

4. :
select partition 1
remove noerr
assign letter=E noerr

5. diskpart:
Exit

6. NTFS, 32 :
Format E: /FS:NTFS /A:32K

, ,
:

270

1. : Start Run msinfo32.


2. Components Storage Disks.
Windows
.
3. Partition Starting Offset ( ). (,
NTFS 4096).
929 491 (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/929491).
, LUN RDM LUN (LUN Protocol Type) .

5.4.4. Raw Device Mapping, RDM


Raw Device Mapping (RDM) LUN SAN (Fibre
Channel iSCSI) DAS.
LUN,
vmdk VMFS, LUN.
- LUN, SAN. LUN ESX(i),
. LUN VMFS. LUN .
, Add Hardware Hard Disk. Next :
1. Select a Disk , vmdk, ESX(i)
RDM. .
2. Select Target LUN LUN, RDM.
3. Select Datastore , vmdk,
RDM. , LUN,
. RDM, . . 5.24.
4. Compatibility Mode . :
Physical
SCSI LUN ( : REPORT).
.
- , . SAN;

271

. 5.24. RDM

Virtual SCSI , LUN


ESX(i), (snapshot)
.
5. Advanced Options :
Virtual Device Node ID
. SCSI (1:2) ,
SCSI ID SCSI 1 ( ). : ;
Mode virtual RDM.
Independent, (snapshot). Persistent vmdk.
Nonpersistent
, . , , .
, , .
.
RDM :
-
-;

272


vmdk ;
, ,
. LUN
RDM. vmdk
Storage VMotion;
RDM LUN . (,
(snapshot) );
NPIV. WWN ,
RDM.
RDM LUN . RAID- RDM
vSphere. , .
RDM
:
1. . .
2. putty.
3.
fdisk l

( ) , RDM;
4. naa.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

esxcfg-scsidevs c

5.
vmkfstools -i [ vmdk ] d rdm:/vmfs/devices/disks/naa.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx [vmdk-]

:
[root@esx1.vm4.ru]# vmkfstools i /vmfs/volumes/SCSI_LUN_1/SQL_Server/ SQL_
Server.vmdk -d rdm:/vmfs/devices/disks/naa.60043560bd135e00123823443a44ag56
Local_RDM.vmdk

6. vmdk, LUN, RDM-. vmdk


vmdk.

5.5.
, : Hardware, Options
Resources. , Options
(. 5.25).

273

. 5.25. Options

General Options
. :
. , .
, .
. - (snapshot),
vmdk .
, .
VMware tools,
Install/Upgrade VMware tools .
ESX(i)
(, PVSCSI vmxnet3).

vApp Options
. vApp.

274

VMware tools
, . ESX(i) 4 Shutdown
guest Restart Guest,
. , VMware tools (, ,
), VMware tools . ,
Power Off Reset.
.
VMware tools ,
suspend, suspend,
. , . .
VMware tools
. , VMware tools, .
, ESX(i) VMware tools.
NTP, . , (, ).

Advanced General
(acceleration) .
Intel VT. - .
Debugging and Statistics VMware.
Configuration Parameters .
-
(*.vmx), .
, .

Advanced CPUID Mask


. NX/XD (Intel No eXecute AMD eXecute
Disable).
, , .
Advanced ,
. Legend. , , VMotion
.

275

Advanced Boot Options


POST
BIOS . WAN,
F2, F12 Esc BIOS.
, -
.
4.1 Failed Boot
Recovery, ,
. ,
PXE.

Advanced Paravirtualization

. , .
, , ,
, . . VMware,
10%.

ESX(i) ( ), (. ). ESX(i),
, .
ESX(i) VMI. VMware
API, VMI. Linux 2.6.21,
SLES10 SP2.
PCI- , .
VMI 32- , 64-.

Advanced Fibre Channel NPIV


, , , NPIV
.
WWN
. , FC HBA FC
NPIV
.
, NPIV RDM.
WWN . LUN WWN.

276

CPU/MMU Virtualization

:
. Intel VT / AMD V;
. AMD NPT(Nested Page Tables) / Intel EPT (Extended Page Tables).
HAP (Hardware
Assisted Paging), NPT (Nested Page Tables), EPT (Extended Page Tables)
RVI (Rapid Virtualization Indexing). .
. ,
. , Automatic.

Swapfile Location
, , . :
Default , DRS-.
Configuration Virtual Machine
Swapfile Location. - ,
, ,
, .
;
Always store with the virtual machine , , , vmx.
Options General;
Store in the hosts swapfile datastore , .

5.6. ,

. . 5.26.
SQL_Server :
SQL_Server.vmx ;
SQL_Server.vmxf ;
SQL_Server.vmdk SQL_Server-flat.vmdk ;
SQL_Server-xxxxxx.vswp . , . VMkernel Swap (. 6);
SQL_Server.nvram BIOS ;
SQL_Server.vmsd (snapshot)
. ;

277

. 5.26.

SQL_Server-000001.vmdk SQL_Server-000001-delta.vmdk ;
SQL_Server-Snapshot1.vmsn , ;
(*.log).
.

VMX
vmx . : ,
MAC-, , SCSI-
, (-vmdk), , BIOS, (Display Name) , , .
. ESX(i) - , Browse
Datastore, (*.vmx). - (, ), , ,
.
- .
vSphere , Options General Configuration Parameters. .
nano vi , WinSCP /
FastsCP.
(*.vmx), :

278

isolation.device.connectable.disable = "true"
isolation.device.edit.disable = "true"

,
usb safely remove Devices VMware Tools.
VMware . .

NVRAM
.nvram BIOS . . , , .

VSWP
.
memory reservation. . ,
,
.
.
ESX(i) , , . ,

, , .
,
- LUN,
.
Swapfile Location (. 5.27).
Configuration Virtual Machine Swapfile Location Edit
(. 5.28).
, , Options Swapfile Location (. 5.29).

VMDK
vmdk,
VMFS NFS. , (. 5.30), (. 5.31).
< >.vmdk < >-flat.vmdk. , -flat-. .
, vSphere
, , < >.vmdk (. 5.32).

. 5.27.

. 5.28.
ESX(i)

279

280

. 5.29.

, - .
: 10 .
Thin. , vmdk
. , 6 . WinSCP . 5.31 -flat.vmdk 10 .
, 6 .
. (-, )
du. -h ,
.
a
. ,
:

du -h -a /vmfs/volumes/iSCSI_LUN_1/SQL_Server/

, . 5.33.

. 5.30. HDD

. 5.31. vmdk,

281

282

. 5.32.

. 5.33.

, vmdk . , .

283

: vmx vmdk ( -flat.vmdk).


vmdk -flat.vmdk. ,
(snapshot). ,
, . ,
. .
. , . .

, VM-b3ab8ade.vmss (suspended) .
suspended- ( ) .
. .
.
SVmotion, ,
(.vmx) . , , .
SVmotion vmware-vmx-zdump.000. coredump
, ,
. .


, vCenter
Migrate.
, Migrate (. 5.34).
Change host , .
.
Change datastore ( ) , , .
. Storage VMotion.
Change both host and datastore , . , ,
. .

, vmdk , .

284

. 5.34.

.
Home Inventory Datastores Virtual Machines ,
. ,
.
vCenter, , :
1. Remove From Inventory.
2. , ,
.
3.
vmx Register Virtual Machine. vSphere.

5.7. (Snapshot)
ESX .
. . 5.35
(Snapshot Manager) .

285

(Snapshot)

. 5.35.

Snapshot1_before_VMware_
tools. ,
, . .
. Snapshot Take Snapshot.
(. 5.36) .

. 5.36.

286

, :
, . ;
VMware Tools, . Quiesce ,
,
.

, .
VMotion ( Storage VMotion), . ,
, - ,
.
,
(. 5.37).

. 5.37.

- , You are
here, .
, .

(Snapshot)

287


- , .
,
.
Delete .
, - ,
. . 5.36:
(Snap4 Snap3.2), - ;
,
- - .
, () Snap3 Snap4 Snap3, Snap2.2, . . , Snap3
Snap4 . - Snap3 ,
- Snap4.
(Snapshot1_before_VMware_tools), -
.
.
, . 5.35,
WinSCP . 5.38.
, ,
SQL_Server.vmdk SQL_Server-flat.vmdk. , , *.vmdk, vmsn vmsd. .

. 5.38. ,

288

VMSD
,
. :
.encoding = "UTF-8"
snapshot.lastUID = "2"
snapshot.numSnapshots = "2"
snapshot.current = "2"

; .
; .
; ,
;
;You are here".
snapshot0.uid = "1"
; .
snapshot0.filename = "SQL_Server-Snapshot1.vmsn" ; vmsn
;
; .
snapshot0.displayName = "Snapshot1_before_VMware_tools"
snapshot0.description = ""
snapshot0.type = "1"
snapshot0.createTimeHigh = "290757"
snapshot0.createTimeLow = "-728460977"
snapshot0.numDisks = "1"
snapshot0.disk0.fileName = "SQL_Server.vmdk"
; vmdk
;
; .
snapshot0.disk0.node = "scsi0:0"
snapshot1.uid = "2"
;
; ( )
; .
snapshot1.filename = "SQL_Server-Snapshot2.vmsn"
snapshot1.parent = "1"
snapshot1.displayName = "Snapshot2_Before_App_Upgrade"
snapshot1.description = ""
snapshot1.createTimeHigh = "291622"
snapshot1.createTimeLow = "-717423872"
snapshot1.numDisks = "1"
snapshot1.disk0.fileName = "SQL_Server-000001.vmdk"
snapshot1.disk0.node = "scsi0:0"

vmsn
.
, , .

-delta.vmdk
. 5.37 :
SQL_Server-000001.vmdk SQL_Server-000001-delta.vmdk;
SQL_Server-000002.vmdk SQL_Server-000002-delta.vmdk.

(Snapshot)

289

.vmdk = SQL_Server.vmdk.
.vmdk, 1- = SQL_Server -000001.vmdk.
.vmdk, 2- = SQL_Server -000002.vmdk.
00000#.vmdk . :
# Disk DescriptorFile
version=1
encoding="UTF-8"
CID=26a39a09
parentCID=411fd5ab
createType="vmfsSparse"
parentFileNameHint="SQL_Server.vmdk"
# Extent description
RW 6291456 VMFSSPARSE "SQL_Server-000001-delta.vmdk"
# The Disk Data Base
#DDB
ddb.longContentID = "8d7a5c7af10ea8cd742dd10a26a39a09"
ddb.deletable = "true"

.vmdk-:
CID;
parentCID;
parentNameHint.
. .vmdk parentNameHint,
parentCID ffffffff.

,
. - , . .
00000#.vmdk .
CID .
CID . .
. 5.39.
,
vmdk. ,
.
. 00001.vmdk
00001-delta.vmdk . 2. 00002.vmdk
00002-delta.vmdk. , 00001-delta.vmdk
-flat.vmdk .

290

. 5.39. vmdk

: -delta.vmdk
. , .
-delta.vmdk . delta.vmdk VMFS
. , VMFS
, 1 ( )
8 .
, .
, . , , VMFS 1 . ,
VMFS 256 . , , , 400 .
, .
, -delta.vmdk
, . -delta.vmdk .
400 VMFS
1 .

VMFS, . , -delta.vmkd
2 - . , 2 ,
VMFS, .

(Snapshot)

291

. , , . ,
, ESX(i). ,
, -
. ,
. , CD-ROM iso
, , .
. , .


. ,
, .
. , - -
.

.
, :
thick-,
. ,
.
,
. , , ,
,
.
;
Storage VMotion;
VMotion ,
. , .
, DRS
. ,
- . ,
. DRS ;
- - . ;

( Active
Directory). , , ( ),

292

( Active Directory
. USN Rollback). 100%-
,
( , )
Active Directory;
,
-
, , vmdk ;
.
:
, .
. (snapshot) (snapshot) VMware. ,
.
- , - .

5.8. VMware tools


VMware tools
.
VMware tools, .
VMware tools . ,
(pvscsi, vmxnet#), VMware tools .
, VMware tools , ,
( VMware
tools).
Windows.
Linux ,
, - . (, Solaris, Netware) -
. Windows .
. VMware tools Linux
--default. :
[root@linuxServer ~]# vmware-config-tools.pl --default.

293

VMware tools

( ) VMware tools
Guest Install\Upgrade VMware tools.
, , (. 5.40).

. 5.40. VMware tools

, CD-ROM iso VMware tools.


, , .
. CD/DVD-ROM,
- VMware Tools , VMware Tools
. .

,
Windows , .
. vSphere Basic
System Administration.
, VMware tools . Windows
msi VMware tools. , .
: VMware tools . .
CD-ROM, / VMware
tools .
VMware
tools . .

294

(, Windows Server 2008) . ,



(. 5.41). VMware tools, .

. 5.41.

VMware tools Windows . VMware tools


.
Options :
VMware tools.
, NTP . ,

VMware tools

295

VMware tools.
Options VMware tools;
VMware tools ;
VMware
tools. VMware VMware tools.
ESX(i) VMware
tools, , VMware
tools . VMware Tools
ESX(i).
VMware tools :
, VMware tools Options Upgrade;
Options VMware tools
VMware tools
;
, , , VMware tools: Guest
Install/Upgrade VMware tools. , . ,
. vSphere Home
Inventory Hosts and Clusters Datacenter
Virtual Machines Ctrl Shift , Guest Install/Upgrade
VMware tools;
, VMware tools
VMware Update Manager. . .
, . , .
Devices -
(. . 5.42).
,
. ,
devices.hotplug = "false"
isolation.device.connectable.disable = "true"
isolation.device.edit.disable = "true"


( USB), VMware tools.
Scripts , VMware tools .

296

. 5.42.

Shared Folders Shrink ESX(i),


VMware Workstation VMware tools
( ).
. VMware tools C:\Program Files\
VMware\VMware Tools VMware . , .

5.9. vAPP
vApp , (. 5.43).
DRS- New vApp.
vApp.
, , vApp , . . .

297

vAPP

. 5.43. vApp
: VMware

vApp Options:
Resources . .
;
Properties . Advanced Properties;
IP Allocation Policy vApp
:
Fixed ;
Transient IP IP ( , ). IP ;
DHCP.
Transient DHCP, :
Advanced IP Allocation;
Advanced vApp:
Properties , Properties, ;
IP Allocation Transient
DHCP IP vApp.
Start Order vApp. ,
Power On vApp, .
IP- ( vCenter) IP Pools. Add, -

298

, vApp
-. IP Pool ( ). , vApp vApp Transient, , IP Pool
. ,
IP-, , , vApp (
xml iso).
. http://link.vm4.ru/sepof http://blogs.vmware.
com/vapp/.
vApp File Export Export OVF
Template. , ovf
vApp .

vApp Virtual Appliance , . vSphere vApp


. ,
vApp .
,
, vApp.
:
;
, ;
IP- , vCenter,
DHCP.
. ESX(i) vApp,
DRS, vApp
. vApp DRS.

6. .
.
. DRS
ESX(i).
, . ESX(i) , . ,
vMotion DRS. , , .
, .
.

6.1.
.
, ,
.

6.1.1. limit, reservation shares




limit, reservation shares. - , . . .

Limit, reservation shares


Resources,
. (. 6.1).
Reservation
. : . , , (. 6.2).

300

. 6.1.

. 6.2.

301

Limit. ,
.
Unlimited , , . , .
, .
, ,
.
.
.
Shares. ,
, ( )?
Shares (). shares shares
. Shares , .
: . Shares
, 1000. 3000 = 1000 3, ,
. , .
: shares , :
;
;
.
- shares , .
shares Low, Normal
High, 500, 1000 2000 shares. ustom
.
, .
: .
.
, .

. .
. . 6.1.3 Limit, Reservation Shares.

Limit, reservation shares


Resources,
. (. 6.3).
, , , .

302

. 6.3.

Reservation . :
. , ,
.
Limit ,
. Unlimited?
Hardware (. 6.4)?

. 6.4. Hardware

303

Reservation, ?
.
, , ,
Hardware. hardware memory, . , ,
Limit, Hardware.
Reservation . , ,
.
Limit
. hardware memory
,
.
, Limit .
Hardware memory. ,
Limit, . , ,
, ,
, ( ).
ESX(i) , hardware memory X .
Limit .
, , - ,
. Hardware memory
( , ), Limit .
Shares. ,
, ( )? Shares (). shares
shares
. Shares , . : Low, Normal High
500, 1000 2000 shares , .
Low, Normal High 5, 10 20 shares .
: . 500 ,
1000 . Shares , Normal, 10 .
. . 6.5.
shares 20 000.
. , shares. ,
.

304

. 6.5.

shares , :
;
;
.
- shares, , .
: ESX(i)
. Summary (. 6.6).

. 6.6.

Memory = 1 . ,
Hardware memory. Active Guest Memory
. Consumed Host Memory ,
ESX(i) .
, ESX(i) Consumed Memory
Active Memory , .
, vApp, , - Virtual Machines,
(. 6.7).

305

. 6.7.

. View Column.
Memory Size hardware memory. Guest Mem %
.
,
.
.
VMkernel, .
, .vswp.
ESX(i) ,
. ?
hardware memory. : hardware memory
reservation. , reservation ,
. :
(
)
;
- VMFS,
reservation :
, .vswp,
VMkernel ( VMkernel ).

306



:
, 16 . ESX(i) ,
;
. 10 (hardware memory):
shares = normal, reservation = 0;
shares = normal, reservation = 5 ;
shares = high, reservation = 0.
1 . 6.8. , 16 .
3 ,
6 . , reservation shares
.

. 6.8. . 1

10 , .
2 . 6.9. ,
. ESX(i) .
3 . 6.10. reservation
shares. Shares 4
, 8 .
5 , reservation .
11 shares.
.

. 6.9.
. 2

307

. 6.10.
. 3

. . 6.1.3 Limit, Reservation Shares.

6.1.2.
Limit, Reservation Shares . , . ?
? ? ?
- . - , - , - .
.
. .
: Home
Inventory Hosts and Clusters DRS-
New Resource pool. (. 6.11).
, ,
. Limit, Reservation Shares . Expandable Reservation.
, reservation
. :
Main, , Child 1 Child 2.
- , reservation. , ,
, , reservation (. 6.12).

308

. 6.11.

Child 2 VM7 500 .


800 reservation Main
.
Expandable Reservation Child 2 Main.
Child 2 Main.
Child 1, Main .
, , Expandable Reservation . reservation :
.
DRS-.
. vApp
. . . 6.13.
, . , VMware Data Recovery

. 6.12. Expandable Reservation


: VMware

. 6.13. DRS

309

310

, . , .
, ,
(. 6.14).

. 6.14.
: VMware

, .
. ,
, . , , , .
, .
Resource Allocation , . 6.15.
limit, reservation, shares , .
Shares Value
. Production_
Critical, vApp Mail ,
Production. ,
- . Reservation, Limit Shares ,
.
Storage 4.1
Storage IO Control. , .

311

. 6.15. Resource Allocation

. .

6.1.3. Limit,
Reservation Shares
: ,
, . .
. 6.16.
, ( )
( ).
( ). ,
, . , , (. 6.17).
Limit, Reservation Shares
,
/ ESX(i).

312

. 6.16.

. 6.17.

, , . ,
.

. VMware High Availability
.
, ,
.
:
. , .


- , :
limit
(, ) ,
c ;
/,
, ,
limit . ,
,
, - ,
limit, ;

313

reservation
, ESX(i) ;

- ,
,
(limit) (reservation) . ,
,
, , .


:
. ,
,
. ,
, .
shares reservation/limit?
shares, . , reservation, . shares .
Reservation , .
. Active Memory , .
Active Memory
. , .
reservation, ,
- reservation.
reservation HA, . .
, ,
.
, (,
), .
- (
)
.
, :
1. , . ,

314

. , .
2. .
3. shares: High
, Low . Normal .
, , , limit,
.
4. - reservation. reservation ,
.
reservation . . 6.14
reservation , reservation , .

6.1.4. Storage IO Control, SIOC,



4.1 ESX(i) -
.
limit shares, .
Limit - ,
. limit
. Limit - .
/, , /
- ( ),
IOPS. , 10 / , 64 , limit,
160 IOps.
. Limit, . , .

Shares , ,
IOps.
VMFS. , (Latency).
, Limit Shares .
, .

315

.
SIOC . ,
vSphere .
Latency 30 . Latency , VMFS.
SIOC vCenter. SIOC vCenter . , Latency Limit/Shares . ,
ESX(i). PARDA Control Algorithm,
latency estimation window size computation.
Latency ( 30 ),
. ?
,
IOps . . 6.18 6.19.
SIOC , -
.
IOps .

. 6.18. -
SIOC

316

. 6.19 , SIOC.

. 6.19. -
SIOC

, ESX(i) 2 (
16), (
) - LUN.
ESX(i) , - VMFS (LUN)
Shares. 4.
. NFS . VMFS extend
. RDM SIOC .
SIOC , ,
.

SIOC VMFS.
: , VMFS Configuration Storage
VMFS Properties. Storage I/O Control.
Advanced Latency,
SIOC - . Storage I/O Control Technical
Overview and Considerations for Deployment (http://www.vmware.com/resources/
techresources/10118) VMware Latency . , SSD Latency = 1015 .

317

VMware SIOC. , -
LUN
.
, SIOC
(. 6.20 6.21).

. 6.20. resource allocation disk

. 6.21. Virtual Machines Datastores

6.1.5. Network IO Control, NIOC


traffic shaping
ESX(i)
: (NIC Teaming), traffic shaping 4.1 Network IO Control.

318


,
. ,
- (
).
2.
, , traffic
shaping.

.
VMware
, .
, , . ,

. 2.
Network IO Control .
4.1 ESX(i) Network IO Control, NIOC.
, ESX(i) 10- ( NIOC, ,
). , () ()
iSCSI. NIOC .
, Limit Shares
. ,
.
:
;
Fault Tolerance;
iSCSI;
NFS;
Management;
vMotion.
Limit, /,
, ESX(i).
ESX(i) .
Shares ,
. . (shares)
.

ESX(i)

319

Home Inventory Networking


Resource Allocation.
Properties NIOC,
Limit Shares (. 6.22).

. 6.22. NIOC

ESX(i)
, (
).
VMware :
Shares, Limit, Shares
;
LBT, Load Based Teaming;
Traffic Shaping, , .
Network IO Control
http://www.vmware.com/resources/techresources/10119.

6.2.
ESX(i)
Limit, shares, reservation , , . , ESX(i)

.

320

6.2.1. CPU
ESX(i) :
(physical, PCPU). , . ESX(i) ;
(logical, LCPU). .
, hypertreading, . LCPU
;
(virtual, VCPU). vCPU . ,
.
, :
vCPU LCPU. .
,
, ;
vCPU,
ESX(i) ;
vCPU
(. 6.23).

. 6.23.
: VMware

, .
, 20 vCPU LCPU . Service
Console CPU0, .

ESX(i)

321

. NUMA,
vCPU . vCPU, , NUMA.
vCPU , .
,
.
, , esxtop, NUMA.

, . . , , , . ,
() . - , ,
(
, - , -
). ,
, BSOD
Kernel panic.
,
, , -
vCPU , - . ( ), vCPU
vCPU . ,
vCPU . ESX 2.
ESX(i), 3,
Relaxed coscheduling. ,
vCPU , , . - ,
.
,
vCPU,
.
. esxtop (resxtop vCLI)
%CSTP. ,
.

Resources Advanced CPU


(. 6.24).
Hyperthreaded Core Sharing CPU Affinity.

322

. 6.24. Advanced CPU

Hyperthreaded Core Sharing , ,


. ,
,
.
:
Any - ,

vCPU ;
Internal
. vCPU,
. c
None;

ESX(i)

323

None vCPU - , . . vCPU .


:
(Any), DRS- . . , ESX(i)
.
. ESX(i). , .
.

Scheduling Affinity , vCPU . ,


.
, , .

6.2.2. Memory
ESX(i), . - ( ),
- . - ( ), -
( ). ?


:
, . ESXi RAM
. ESX 300800 Service Console. , iSCSI-
;
. ,
. Overhead,
.
1 , 100% .
100150
. 100150
.
64 , 1,52 ;

324

VMware HA -
.
, Hardware. .
, .
,
. , , , 400 ,
. , .
. , ,
. Consumed.

Memory Overcommitment

Memory Overcommitment. . ,
( Memory Size)
, ( Capacity) (. 6.25).
. 6.25 MO esx1.vm4.ru 2099 , 4096 .
, ,
( ), , (

. 6.25. Memory Overcommitment

ESX(i)

325

). Host Memory Usage


. , 4096
553 , 2099 . memory overcommitment.
Memory Overcommitment ESX(i) . :
;
, transparent memory page sharing;
, balloon driver vmmemctl;
, memory compression ( 4.1);
, VMkernel swap.
? ? ? ? .
.
, .
( ,
) 100%. ?
? , , ?
, .
1. ,
100% . , , . ,
- (, ) , , .
2. /
-.
, , <
>.
.
3. ,
. :
. , ;
( );

.
.
, , - . . ,
.

326

(
) ?
48, . , .
, (, ,
).
DNS, DC . .
. , , , .
, ,
, . , -
,
( - ,
).
.


.
, 10 () ,
7. .
ESX(i) , , . ,
. ,
, .
() 2 .
. ?
1 . ,
. - , -
.
. , . , 1
, .
2 , , . 100% , . 1. , 1200
2000. 800
. - . ( balloon). , ,
. : 1200 ,
, . . ,

.
, , , . , , , -

ESX(i)

327

. ,
.
,
100% . ,
, .

.
100% .
.
.
, , .
, .

transparent memory page sharing


ESX(i) .
. . ,
: ,
, , dll. , .
ESX(i)
. (,
).
. ( ) .
- (. 6.26).

,
.
, , . ,
. , , ,
, .
?
. Large Pages. Windows 7/2008 + Nehalem
2 , , page sharing .
:
ESX(i) 2 4 , ,
page sharing, .
, ,

328

. 6.26. Page Sharing


: VMware

- , sharing
4 .

.
. ESX(i) , NUMA,
, NUMA ,
,
.
: - ,
Copy-on-write , .
, .
, .
Page Sharing (. 6.27).
.

, page sharing .
page sharing, .
page sharing,
.
page sharing. ,
page sharing
, . ,
memory footprint
. , -

ESX(i)

329

. 6.27.
Page Sharing

. ,
.
Summary
(. 6.28).

. 6.28.

330

. 1 . 5
3,5 page
sharing.
Resource Allocation
(. 6.29).

. 6.29.

,
.
Shared Performance,
(. 6.30).
shared common shared :
, shared common , shared total .
Home Configuration
Advanced Settings . :
Mem.ShareScanTime ;
Mem.ShareScanGHz ( 0,
).
(*.vmx)
sched.mem.pshare.enable = false


, .

ESX(i)

331

. 6.30. Shared Shared Common

. Balloon driver,
memory compression vmkernel swap

, . , . , ESX(i)
, .
limit, reservation shares , . , , . ,
. vmmemctl (balloon driver),
memory compression vmkernel swap .

Balloon Driver
VMware tools vmmemctl.
ESX(i) ,
. , ( ) .
? .
: , , .
. , , ,
, .

332

. 6.31 ,
, . ,
, .

. 6.31. ,
Balloon

, , 2 , 1 . . -
.
, .
, / .
, ( ),
.
balloon driver .
, .
? , , , .
, memory
compression vmkernel swap.
:
VMware tools. vmmemctl VMware
tools;
vmmemctl . , , ;
vmmemctl ;
65% . , ,

ESX(i)

333

sched.mem.maxmemctl = < >

, balloon, : esxtop, Memory m,


f MCTL. Enter. N
- , vmmemctl .
, . ,
( ). ,
,
. , balloon
.

Memory compression
, . , , , ,

(. 6.32).

. 6.32. Memory Compression

.
b , .
.
.
, , ,
, , .
,
. ,
, .
- Advanced
Options ESX(i).

334

VMkernel swap
vmmemctl(balloon)
/ .
memory compression,
.

.
.vswp
vmkernel .
,
. .
balloon vmkernel
swap, . 6.33.

. 6.33.

.
, Application memory, , . (
) .

ESX(i)

335

, Guest memory, , .
. ,
hardware memory reservation.
, , . ? , . ,
, ,
.
- , ,
.
, balloon
, vmkernel swap
,
.
VMkernel swap .


?
balloon , , . . .
, , .
.
.
, , ,
? .
memory overcommitment
, 100% . , ,
memory overcommitment . , memory overcommitment, ,
, .
HA. , 10 , (, ) 70.
,
100% HA
, .
. DRS,
, .
DRS , ( -

336

). .
, :
,
. ;
DRS, .
, , , , 100%.
: .
,
, , . , -

( reservation
shares).
,
.
: Balloon driver, memory compression vmkernel swap
, .
, , , .


?
ESX(i) .
. , :
>6% = high. ;
>4% = soft. , ,
;
>2% = hard. ;
>1% = low. , .
, , :
High = 64% ;
Soft = 64% 32%;
Hard = 32% 16%;
Low = 16%.
ESX(i) :
High. page sharing;

ESX(i)

337

Soft. , . balloon;
Hard. . compression
vmk swap;
Low.
, .
. -
Balloon driver VMkernel swap,
reservation Hardware memory
.

Balloon, memory compression vmkernel swap .


balloon ,
. ,
. 6.34.

. 6.34.
balloon vmkernel swap

.
,
vmkernel swap. , 512 128,
balloon
.
, , , . , balloon
, , . vmkernel swap , -.

338

Oracle,
(. 6.35).

. 6.35. Oracle
balloon vmkernel swap

: balloon 1792 3840, . ,


.
- (. 6.36).

. 6.36. SPECjbb
balloon vmkernel swap

ESX(i)

339

vmkernel swap
. , ,
, , . SPECjbb
, Java.
Exchange (. 6.37).

. 6.37. Exchange
balloon vmkernel swap

9 12 , latency, 2 12 vmkernel swap (!).


Exchange
.
, , balloon . , , balloon - .
, balloon , , vmkernel swap.
compression.
, balloon
8 32 , memory compression 2 .
, compression , ,
compression , (, vmkernel swap
balloon, ). 12%,
.
Understanding Memory
Resource Management in VMware ESX 4.1 (http://www.vmware.com/resources/
techresources/10129).

340

. 6.38. SharePoint
memory compression vmkernel swap

6.2.3. Disk
ESX(i)
Multipathing.
3.
4.1 Storage IO Control
6.1.4.

6.2.4. Net
ESX(i) (NIC Teaming) (traffic shaping). 2.
, 4.1 Network IO Control, 6.1.5.

6.3.

,
. ,
, , , . ?
? .

341

, , - . , : . :
1. .
2. .
3. .
.

6.3.1.
,
, . , . ,
.
, ,
.
.
:
vSphere, Performance;
esxtop , resxtop vSphere CLI.
. esxtop ,
;
Windows , Perfmon;
. , .

Performance
vSphere
Performance ,
. : vSphere Perfomance Overview.
. Time Range .
View .
Performance Advanced Chart Options,
.
(. 6.39). CPU .
, .
File_Server_Win2008 (
), 0 ( )
. .

342

. 6.39.

. ,
.
.

(. 6.40).
Performance :
. ;
. .
System
ESX(i), vCenter (vpxa), ;

343

. 6.40.

vApp.
, vApp;
. , (, Current failover level)
. , , , ,
. ;
datacenter.
;
(Home Inventory Datastores).
,
(snapshot), .
Performance,
.

. .


Summary
Virtual machines. .
Summary, . 6.41.
:
Consumed ;

344

. 6.41. Summary

Active ,
. limit , Active
limit;
Resource Settings limit, reservation shares
. Worst case allocation , , ,
. limit, reservation shares
,
.
:
Private
, ;
Shared , , . Transparent Memory Page
sharing. : 10 ,
shared 30 ,
10 ;

345

Swapped VMkernel swap;


Ballooned ;
Unaccessed ,
;
Active ;
Resource Settings limit, reservation shares
. Worst case allocation , , ,
. limit, reservation shares
,
.
: DRS-,
,
.
Virtual Machines, . 6.42.

View Column .

. 6.42. Virtual Machines

346

Host CPU, Host Mem Guest


Mem:
Host CPU ;
Host Mem .
Summary Memory Overhead;
Guest Mem . .

, Storage Views
vCenter Storage Views
(. 6.43).

. 6.43. Storage Views


(. 6.44).

. View Columns
(. 6.45).
, Maps Storage Views (. 6.46).

.

347

. 6.44. Storage Views

. 6.45. Storage Views

esxtop resxtop
;
esxtop resxtop.
esxtop ESX(i),
SSH.
resxtop vSphere CLI Linux, . vSphere vMA,

348

. 6.46. Maps Storage Views

vSphere CLI . vMA SSH resxtop --server < ESX (i)>.


, esxtop resxtop,
.
(. 6.47).

. 6.47. esxtop

349

, . .
. , :
m ;
n ;
d , ;
u , (LUN);
v , ;
c , .
, , . , . , e
( ID);
2 8 ,
. 4 . 6
;
l GID;
f () ;
o ;
W esxtop;
# ;
s .
5 ;
? .
,
Shift+v.
, . . .
esxtop . () %USED
esxtop? %USED = ( CPU used CPU used ) ( ).
,
. :
, man esxtop;
http://communities.vmware.com/docs/DOC-7390;
http://communities.vmware.com/docs/DOC-3930;
http://communities.vmware.com/docs/DOC-11812.

(r)esxtop
(r)esxtop .
? :
esxtop -a -b -d 10 -n 1080 > /tmp/esxtopout_esxi2.csv

350

:
a ( ,
);
b ;
d , d ;
n .
,
d n , .
csv perfmon
esxplot . WinSCP.
perfmon: perfmon.
Windows Server 2003
Windows XP.

(View Log Data), (Source), (Log files) (Add) csv-.

. 6.48. esxtop Perfmon

351

(Data) (Add) (Performance Object)


, ,
(Add).
. . 6.48 Perfmon CPU ready File_Server_
Win2008.
perfmon esxplot, VMware. http://labs.vmware.com/.
, File Import Dataset
csv- esxtop.
. (. 6.49).

. 6.49. esxtop esxplot

352

Perfmon
VMware tools Windows dll, .
perfmon, .
VM Processor VM Memory (. 6.50).

. 6.50. perfmon

6.3.2.

, (. 6.1). .
,
() .

353


6.1.

CPU

%RDY

10*
.
-
vCPU

CPU

%CSTP

. vCPU
, vCPU

CPU

%MLMTD

0, Limit

CPU

%SWPWT

. ,

MEM

MCTLSZ (I)

0, Balloon

MEM

SWCUR (J)

0, VMkernel

MEM

CACHEUSD

0, memory
compression

MEM

ZIP/s

0, memory
compression

MEM

UNZIP/s

0, memory
compression

MEM

SWR/s (J)

. 0,

MEM

SWW/s (J)

-. 0, -

DISK

GAVG (H)

25

. DAVG
KAVG

DISK

DAVG (H)

25

DISK

KAVG (H)

DISK

ABRTS/s

() , . Windows 60 , .
LUN,
multipathing

DISK

QUED (F)

DISK

RESETS/s (K) 1

SCSI

DISK

CONS/s

SCSI reservation .
,
LUN ,

NET

%DRPTX

. ,

NET

%DRPRX

. ,

20

CPU
, .
? ,
Task Manager (. 6.51).
100%- ?
: ,
idle ( ).
, .

354

. 6.51.

. ,
.
, 100%- , . , , , ,
, .
,
, -.
Perfomance vSphere esxtop
(resxtop vSphere CLI).
?
. . :
usage .
. , . , . , ( LCPU) ( );
wait /;
ready . ,
.

355

- .
, CPU usage CPU ready. CPU ready , , , .
, CPU ready
.
. 6.40.
, 0 :
Usage 4351 c;
Wait 14 873 c wait,
/. :
.
. swap wait time.
VMkernel.
wait;
Ready , 930 .
.
. CPU Ready
. CPU Ready = 20 CPU Ready = 5 , . , -
. , .

, CPU ready ? , , .
-, , . - reservation shares, .
. :
;
;
reservation shares;
reservation shares .
, , .
:
, ;
;
.
,
, . ,
vCPU , LCPU. , -

356

.
. . , , , ,
, CPU ready.
.
:
vCPU, ESX(i) Enterprise Plus . , , ;
, vCPU;
. ,
ESX(i) 8 ()
, -
. (*.vmx) :
cpuid.coresPerSocket = X

X . ,
X = 2 = 8, 8 , 4 ;
, ,
, limit . limit.

. , , ( . .)
. , .
, vCPU .
.
,
timer interrupt . ,
, . . , Performance Troubleshooting for VMware vSphere 4 (http://communities.
vmware.com/docs/DOC-10352).

MEMORY
. , VMkernel Swap, memory compression

357

balloon . , .
Perfomance Chart Options. Memory . :
Consumed ;
Granted .
, .
vmmemctl VMkernel swap;
Active . ,
;
Balloon balloon;
Zipped memory , memory compression;
Swapped VMkernel swap;
Swap in rate Swap out rate .
balloon swapped

, .
, ESX(i) , .
, balloon, zipped swapped Swap in
rate Swap out rate.

DISK

, .
,
:
1. SCSI ().
2. SCSI-.
3. , .
HBA, NFS, iSCSI.
4. , HBA NIC.
5. .
4 5. -
. -

358

/,
.
, :
GAVG ;
KAVG ;
DAVG .

vSphere, esxtop vscsiStats.
.
http://communities.vmware.com/docs/DOC-10095.
. .

ESX(i) - .

.

Network
.
droppedRx droppedTx , %DRPTX
%DRPRX esxtop.
.
ESX(i) .

6.3.3.
VMware tools. , vmmemctl .
, VMware tools . VMware Update Manager .
Linux Windows
Timer-Interrupt; . VMware http://
kb.vmware.com/kb/1006427 Linux . VMware , Java . Java in Virtual Machines on
VMware ESX: Best Practices.
http://www.vmware.com/resources/techresources/.
ESX(i) NUMA. , , ,
. AMD Op-

359

Alarm

teron Intel Xeon.


vCPU ,
, ESX(i)
, NUMA-
.
, NUMA-, vSphere Resource Management Guide.
Large Page, .
. .
http://www.vmware.com/resources/techresources/1039.

6.4. Alarm
ESX(i) . , , (heartbeat) VMware tools
, (events) .
, .
vCenter Alarms
-, , , , (. 6.52).

. 6.52. alarm

alarm ,
. Alarm , , , . (,
), ( , ).
, alarm (event) .

360

Alarm . ,
alarm , Datacenter , . , , vApp
.
Alarms Definitions. alarm. Defined In , . New Alarm
, alarm.
alarm (. 6.53).

. 6.53. alarm

, , . ,
, - , , .
Triggers alarm.
, alarm ,
. , ,
alarm Warning () Error ().
Reporting alarm.
Range , alarm . = alarm. ,

Alarm

361

alarm 70%- , range = 5,


alarm 75% (= 70 + 5) 65% (= 70 5).
Trigger Frequency
alarm .
, . , .
, .
( ):
.
. vCenter, Home vCenter
Server Settings Mail ;
SNMP. . Trap vCenter, Home vCenter
Server Settings SNMP
community;
. . Configuration
. :
c:\windows\system32\cmd.exe /c c:\tools\cmd.bat

alarm. :
c:\tools\sendsms.exe AlarmName targetName

. vSphere Basic System Administration.


vCenter
vCenter ;
, , , , ;
, , vCenter, , .
, -
vCenter, . ,
, Datacenter, .
.
:
vCenter Alarm Disable Alarms Actions (. 6.54).
( ) alarm
. , - , -

362

. 6.54. alarm

alarm. alarm ,
, .
alarms
. , , ,
, vCenter Alarms Definitions
(. 6.55).
alarm. acknowledge (. 6.40) alarm, . , alarm - , .
Alarms,
alarm (. 6.56).
. , , . , ,
, . ,
. vSphere Home Inventory
Hosts and Clusters , , Datacenter ,
.
Alarms Definitions. New Alarm. ( Monitor),
(Monitor for specific events).
Triggers Hardware Health Changed. Actions Enter maintenance mode. SNMP e-mail.
, , vCenter
Maintenance-, .

( suspend)

363

. 6.55. alarms

alarm http://communities.vmware.com/docs/DOC-12145.

6.5.
( suspend)
(suspend), , ,
.

, Migrate . ,
.
vCenter, Migrate
. :
1. (suspend).

364

. 6.56. alarms

2. ESX(i) Remove from Inventory


.
3. , .

.
4. .
Add to inventory (*.vmx).
, vMotion/Storage vMotion ,
:
1. (snapshot).
2. , ,
.
3. (suspend).
4. ( ).

Storage vMotion

365

5.
Add to inventory
(*.vmx). , Remove from inventory,
.
6. , , .

6.6. Storage vMotion




Storage vMotion, SvMotion
. , . ,
vmdk.
, Storage vMotion :
thin thick;
thin-.
- , thin-
. ,
(, Sysinternals SDelete), Storage vMotion . ;
vRDM vmdk. .
:
1. Storage vMotion,
change block tracking. ESX(i)
, vmdk .
2. ( vmdk) . , (
) .
3. vmdk ,
, change block tracking . , . ,
, .
4. .
.

366

Migrate
Change Datastore .
Home Datastore Virtual
Machines .
:
1. Select Datastore , .
Advanced, ;
2. Disk Format .
Thick, Thin , . RDM-,
Same format as source , vmdk- RDM. thin thick
RDM LUN vmdk . virtual RDM, physical RDM
vmdk .
, DAS.
, Storage vMotion .
:
(snapshot);
independent.
, -, Storage
vMotion.
. SVMotion .
,
.
- 100 .
fsr.maxSwitchoverSeconds .

6.7. vMotion

vMotion . .
:
. ;
.
.
, vCenter
, . .

vMotion

367


ESX(i).
, . .
, .
, ESX(i)
VMkernel, vMotion.
, ESX(i) .
, , . .
, , ESX(i) .
, ,
, .
, ESX. , ,
MAC- . .
- , - vMotion .
-
, .
vMotion, ,
vMotion. ,
, ( )
, . ,
, -, . , SSE 3,
SSE 4.1, NX/XD . , - , ,
, .
, vCenter vMotion . , , BIOS,
, BIOS
. .
vMotion (
VMware). , , :
CPUID Mask ( Options
CPUID Mask). ,
, . VMware (http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1993);

368

, , vCenter. , . , , ,
,
.

<migrate>
<test>
<CpuCompatible>false</CpuCompatible>
</test>
</migrate>

%AllUsersProfile%\Application Data\VMware\VMware VirtualCenter\vpxd.cfg vCenter;


Enhanced vMotion Compatibility, EVC. , , DRS.
EVC , DRS .
, - vMotion.
, , . :
, . vmx, vmdk (
vswp).
. FC, iSCSI NFS, .
RDM , LUN, RDM,
;
SCSI- SCSI Bus Sharing
, None. ,
- vMotion;
CD-ROM Floppy.
;
CD-ROM ,
Host Device CD-ROM.
FDD;
COM LPT ;
CPU Affinity ,
;
, ,
. , ;
.
.
<migrate>
<test>

vMotion

369

<CompatibleNetworks>
<VMOnVirtualIntranet>false</VMOnVirtualIntranet>
</CompatibleNetworks>
</test>
</migrate>

%AllUsersProfile%\Application Data\VMware\VMware VirtualCenter\vpxd.cfg vCenter;


vMotion
. VMkernel,
. ,
VMkernel NFS,
iSCSI, Fault Tolerance, (
ESXi). vMotion , , VMkernel. VMkernel, vMotion, Use this port
group for vMotion.
. vCenter VMkernel Use this port group for vMotion ,
. ,
, vmkping <IP vMotion-
VMkernel >.


Maps (. 6.57).
vMotion . File_Server_
Win2008 esx1.vm4.ru. , , vMotion :
External_VM_Network ,
esxi2.vm4.ru .
esxi2. ;
iSCSI_LUN_1_main Local_esx1. esxi2. Local_esx1 ( ),
, Local_esx1, , ;
vMotion is disabled esxi2 ,
VMkernel, vMotion.
.
,
, Home Maps. . 6.58 .
, vMotion
, . 6.59.

370

. 6.57. Maps ,

. 6.58.

vMotion

371

. 6.59. Maps ,

, Maps RDM . RDM vMotion , RDM LUN


. Maps . ,
RDM LUN, ,
vMotion.
, ,
(VMkernel swap). ,
, , .
, ,
, vMotion .
, Migrate
, Change host .
ESX(i) vMotion . :
Select Resource Pool - ,
, ;
vMotion Priority
( ). . ,
.
4 (8
10 ) . -

372

, vMotion, ,
, .
. vMotion, Storage vMotion .

6.8. DRS. DPM


.
:
;
, .
, .
-
.
VMware DRS.
DRS:
( ) ;
vMotion (maintenance mode). VMware Update Manager , .
DRS :
vMotion , , ;
, ( Initial Placement).
DRS- Cluster
vCenter. Datacenter Add new Cluster,
DRS ( , HA). .
, vCenter . :
1. DRS-.
2. ESX(i).
, DRS .
DRS, , . 6.60.
.
VMware DRS. . , DRS vMotion , . , , . :

373

DRS. DPM

. 6.60. DRS

Manual () , , vMotion ;
Partially automated () , , DRS
, vMotion ;
Fully automated ( ) , ,
vMotion DRS .
Migration Threshold DRS. Conservative,
DRS.
Aggressive, .
. DRS (Manual) , ( ,
Virtual Machine User)
(. 6.66), .

DRS :

374

, reservation ;
, reservation ;
reservation ;
affinity anti-affinity ( DRS, CPU affinity );
, maintenance
standby;
Distributed Power Management,
.
DRS Host CPU: Active ( run ready) Host
Memory: Active. DRS , . Run DRS DRS
.
1 5, 5 . :
. . 6.61.

. 6.61. DRS-

:
Migration Threshold , ,
. Target host load standard deviation. ,
, ;
Target host load standard deviation ,
;
Current host load standard deviation
.

DRS. DPM

375


:
sum( ) / ( )

:
6 - ceil(Current host load standard deviation / 0.1 sqrt( ))

ceil(x) , x.
, vSphere.
, affinity
anti-affinity, . , Maintenance, DRS ,
.
, , affinity anti-affinity
. .
.
, , DRS

,
. . .
4.1, DRS , . ,
20 ,
2 . .
4.1, DRS 32 3000 . 320 .
(HA/DRS/)
( ).
DRS Groups Manager 4.1.
, DRS-
, .
"test"
"new_servers" "CPU Intensive"
"Servers_with_new_CPU" (. 6.62).
:
. transparent page sharing ;

376

. 6.62. DRS

(
);
,
, . ,
;
(, -),
( DNS )
. , DNS ,
;
HA ,
, ESX(i).

377

DRS. DPM

Rules affinity antiaffinity,


.
anti-affinity , DRS . :
anti-affinity . ,
DNS . , , .
affinity , DRS
. ,
, . ,
. - , , , (
). ,
Details (. 6.63).

. 6.63. DRS

378

- ,
Faults DRS .
4.1 .
(. 6.64):
Must run on hosts in group
.
;
Should run on hosts in group
. -
;
Must Not run on hosts in group
;
Should Not run on hosts in group
.

. 6.64.
ESX(i)

DRS, HA DPM.
:
.
, , ;
, , ;
Must
run.. Must Not run..,
,
. , DRS, DPM HA ,
. :
DRS , ;
DRS
;
HA , ;

DRS. DPM

379

DPM , - ;
Should.., ,
;
Should.., , DRS . , . DRS
,
, .
. alarm, . alarm
Event based Trigger VM is violating
VM-Host Affinity Rule.

Virtual Machine Options DRS.


. , DRS.
.
. DRS- vCenter DRS
(, ). vCenter ,
.

Power Management Host Options DPM.


.
VMware EVC Enhanced vMotion Compatibility DRS
vMotion ,
DRS- vMotion. .
EVC.
, DRS- EVC ,
, .
EVC , . EVC (. 6.65) VMware ( 1003212
1005764).
EVC . EVC
, :
1. DRS ( HA,
).
2. EVC.

380

. 6.65. EVC DRS

3. .
4. .
DRS- , EVC :
1. , , EVC, . .
2. VC.
3. , 1.
Swapfile location vmkernel swap
. , . , , vMotion.

DRS. DPM

381

, vCenter. , ,
, .
DRS / HA. EVC Swapfile location
, DRS, HA . , , HA DRS .
DRS . 6.66.

. 6.66. DRS ,

. Manual DRS- . ,
,
. Priority
, ( DRS) .
, Summary
. DRS Recommendations (. 6.67).
, DRS. Recommendations , . 6.68.
DRS. File_Server_Win2008 esx1.vm4.ru.
, Apply Recommendation.
DRS , Override DRS recommendations
Apply ,
Apply Recommendation.
History DRS
. vSphere.

382

. 6.67. Summary DRS

. 6.68. vMotion DRS

383

DRS. DPM

Faults DRS . , ( Manual)


( Automatic) .
DRS
, Hosts (. 6.69).

. 6.69. DRS-

. 6.54. Summary DRS . ,


6 4,62 . , 4,62
, .
:
6 4,62 .
. , , .

VMware Distributed Power Management


DPM DRS. ,
DRS ,
, .
standby-. , , , DPM .
DPM , DRS. DRS
, , DRS
. DPM
40- .
DPM 6318%.
81%, . 45%, DPM . Advanced Settings DRS-,
.

384

, , . , .
DPM : BMC/
IPMI Wake-On-LAN (WOL). BMC/IPMI
BMC (Baseboard
Management Controller). BMC , IPMI, HP iLO, Fujitsu iRMC, IBM RSA, Dell DRAC (. 6.70).

. 6.70. IPMI/iLo ESX(i) 4

, BMC
, , IP- BMC/IPMI
vCenter. .
BMC/IPMI , ,
, , .
.
. , ,
BMC/IPMI , , , . DPM.
BMC/IPMI, vCenter Wake-On-Lan. ,
WOL ,
vMotion VMkernel.

DRS. DPM

385

vCenter, ESX(i) vCenter.


, :
VMkernel
vMotion ;
, ;
,
vMotion , WOL. ,
Configuration Network Adapters . Wake
On LAN Supported Yes.
, WOL
. 100 10 /. ,
, .
(auto negotiate) , , , WOL .
DPM . Enter Standby Mode, Power on.
IPMI/iLO , Power
Management . IPMI/iLO , DPM
WOL.
DPM DRS,
Power Management. :
Off DPM ;
Manual DPM , . DRS
;
Automatic ,
. ,
.
1 () 5 ().
, . Host Options. -
IPMI/iLO/WOL,
DPM .
DRS DPM .
DRS DPM .
DRS, DPM vCenter alarms.
vCenter alarm, (events). ,
DPM :

386

DrsEnteringStandbyModeEvent ;
DrsEnteredStandbyModeEvent ;
DrsExitingStandbyModeEvent ;
DrsExitedStandbyModeEvent ;
DrsExitStandbyModeFailedEvent .
- , BMC Performance Manager,
HP System Insight Manager, CA Virtual Performance Management, Microsoft
System Center Operations Manager, IBM Tivoli.
, DPM.
,
.
,
, .
4.1, . vCenter (Home Scheduled Tasks New)
Change Cluster Power Settings.
. vCenter - ,
. DPM ,
, . , ,
DPM. , vCenter
( Remove from Inventory ) ( Browse Datastore
, ).

DRS
DRS- DRS
, . , affinity, anti-affinity .
, DRS,
Manual , Manual-.

Advanced Settings
. 6.71.
DRS DPM.
75 DemandCapacityRatioTarget
, DPM 6318%,
7518%.
http://www.vmware.
com/resources/techresources/1080.

387

DRS. DPM

. 6.71. DRS Advanced Settings

7.

,
VMware (HA, FT). ,
(, , Microsoft Failover Cluster),
, .
Setup for Failover Clustering and Microsoft Cluster Service, http://
pubs.vmware.com.

VMware (Data Recovery VCB / vStorage API
for Data Protection). ESX(i), VMware Update Manager.
.

7.1.


.
.
,
. 3 ,
99%.
, 99,99% . .
,
, (
). , -
, ,
.
, , (, Microsoft Failover Cluster). VMware Fault Tolerance, , (
). VMware High Availability, , ,

389

.
.

7.1.1. VMware High Availability, HA


VMware High Availability, VMware, VMware. C .
VMware HA :
ESX(i), . (heartbeat) . -
;
,
(heartbeat) VMware tools. .
Virtual Machine Monitoring. .
Virtual Machine Monitoring , Symantec ApplicationHA VMware tools,
.
HA Cluster
vCenter. Datacenter Add new Cluster, HA ( , DRS). .
, vCenter . :
1. HA .
2. ESX(i).
, HA .
, HA
HA Recent Tasks
Configuring HA. ,
. , . , VMware 1001596
(http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1001596).

HA
HA . :
,
;
, ;

390

COM/LPT-, FDD CD-ROM


, iso flp , . VMDirectPath.
, HA VMotion ( ), .
, HA , . , .
. vSphere
4.1, :
HA 8 , 160 ;
HA 9 ( 32),
40 .
, .
4.1 :
- 32;

320;
3000 .
( )
HA DRS.
. 320 . , HA
.

HA
VMware HA . 7.1.
Host Monitoring Status Enable Host Monitoring , HA
. , -
, HA , . VMware HA (Cluster Features), HA
. , HA . VMware HA
Enable Host Monitoring, .
Admission Control .
Allow VMs to be powered on... - ,
HA .
HA - .

391

. 7.1. HA


Admission Control Policy.
, ,
HA . ,
( )
.
Admission Control Policy HA . HA
Admission Control = Prevent VMs from being powered on...,
:
Host failures cluster tolerates . HA
,
. HA . , HA, ;

392

Percentage of cluster resources HA .


reservation , 256
256 , . , 100%
, root resource pool, ;
Specify a failover host .
HA
. VMotion, DRS
. (, ), HA
.
. 7.2.

. 7.2. Summary HA

Summary HA. Admission Control. Configures failover capacity ,

393

. ,
:

Current failover capacity. Advanced Runtime Info
;
25% , 88%
47% ;
esxi2.vm4.ru. , .
, , . , HA .
?
Admission Control, .
Admission Control ,
, 80.
, ,
80% (-),
- HA .
,
. ,
HA . .
, , reservation.
HA 25% , ,
100%, 75% reservation .
, reservation , .
, .
, : , . ,
HA ( ), . . , .
Virtual Machine Options. HA (. 7.3).
:
VM restart priority , . ,
, . ,
, . , ,

394

. 7.3. Virtual Machine Options

.
, . , ;
Host Isolation response
, (isolation). , .
;
Virtual Machine Settings
.


HA Admission Control = Prevent
VMs from being powered on, HA . , , Host failures cluster tolerates
( Admission Control Policy Host failures cluster tolerates).

395

. 7.4.

. 7.4.
HA

:
Slot size ;
Total slot in cluster (good hosts, .
);
Used slots ;
Available slots , ;
Total powered on VMs in cluster ;
Total hosts in cluster ;
Total good hosts in cluster . : ,
HA.
, , 2,
2. 2. 36, 2,
16. 1 vCPU, 256 , 385 .
? 34 (= 36 2) 16?
. , :
1. reservation .
2. , .
3. . reservation
(memory overhead,
Summary ).

396

4. reservation ,
256 overhead .
5. . 3 4
, .
. .
, , 50 reservation reservation (, 1000
). HA 1000 51, .
51 ,
Host failures cluster tolerates . HA .
. HA , 36 . HA , ,
16 .
, das.
slotCpuInMHz das.slotMemInMB Advanced Options HA . (Advanced
Settings) HA .
,
. ,
, , , .

HA.
, HA , vCenter
HA. ,
Primary. Secondary. HA Primary-.
Primary- active primary, . . ,
Primary-.
(heartbeat)
. .
15-
(heartbeat) , .
Active Primary .
HA , .

397

HA 5 ( das.maxvmrestartcount).
(15
).
2 .
4 .
8 .
Primary- ,
.
, Primary-
. Primary 5, HA
.
Primary HA .
, , HA - . , , Primary . -
.
,
, Primary-. , Primary-
Secondary- , , :

cat /var/log/vmware/aam/aam_config_util_listnodes.log


/opt/vmware/aam/bin/Cli


ln

- ( ) :
~ # /opt/vmware/aam/bin/Cli
Welcome to VMware AAM
Version 5.1.2
Copyright VMware, Inc. 2006
AAM> ln
Node Type State
----------------------- ------------ -------------esx1 Primary Agent Running
esxi2 Primary Agent Running

398

, :
Reconfigure for VMware HA .
Primary- Secondary- ;
Primary- Maintenance-, (disconnect) vCenter ;

/opt/vmware/aam/bin/Cli


promotenode < >

demotenode < >

Primary Secondary (promote) (demote). , promotenode Primary- 6 .


VMware. Primary 7- HA.
4.1 Summary HA
Cluster Operational Status. ( ) (. 7.5).

. 7.5. HA

HA (heartbeat) .

399

, , , .
, , . , ESX(i)
, , . .
ESX(i) . (heartbeat) , 12
IP-. , .
( ESX Service Console), (Advanced Settings).
,
IP-,
. ( ,
, .)
, , , . 7.6.

. 7.6.

400

, :
Leave powered on , ;
Power off , ;
Shutdown .
VMware tools. 300 ( ) ,
.
( ) .
?
, (
Service Console ESX VMkernel management ESXi).
, ESX(i) , . , , -
VMFS. HA ,
. . , 5.

? . 7.7.
, , . vmnic0 , . , , vmnic0 vmnic1,3,4

. 7.7.

401

, . , , ; -
ESX(i), HA .
:
(

), .
HA ;
( ),
. ,
, ,
, .
Leave powered on, ;

HA
;
NFS- iSCSI-,
.
VMware .
, - IP-
, .
,
, split brain.
, HA .
:
;
;
IP- 24/7. ,
. , (Advanced
Settings), HA , IP.
(. 7.8).
(Service Console ESX),
.
.
.
, (heartbeat)
.
, ,
Warning, Summary
(. 7.9).
, .

402

. 7.8.
: VMware

. 7.9.

VM Monitoring
VM Monitoring, . 7.10.
HA , (heartbeat) VMware tools. ,
VMware tools .
(heartbeat) Failure interval , Minimum uptime ,
. Maximum per-VM resets
Maximum resets time window.
, , watchdog-,
BIOS .
:
VM monitoring status ,
;
Default Cluster settings . Custom. ,
;
Virtual Machine Settings
.
, (heartbeat) VMware tools
, . , VM Monitoring -
. (heartbeat)

403

. 7.10. VM Monitoring

Failure interval ,
120 . , .
,
.
VM Monitoring .
, 4.1 VMware API Application Monitoring.
, , ,
vCenter HA
. , Application Monitoring VMware HA, Symantec
ApplicationHA.
, .

404

Advanced Options
HA .
. . 7.1.
7.1. (Advanced Settings) HA

das.isolationaddress[...]

das.usedefaultisolationaddress

das.failuredetectiontime

das.failuredetectioninterval

das.defaultfailoverhost

das.isolationShutdownTimeout

das.slotMemInMB

das.slotCpuInMHz

IP-. IP-
IP.
das.isolationaddress1, das.isolationaddress2..das.
isolationaddress10
. , .
,
.
,
.
HA
true\false. . HA
. HA 15 000 ,
.
.
20 000
60 000 . HA

. (heartbeat). 1000 .
HA
.
. , Admissions control = failover level cluster resource percentage.
Admissions control = failover host,
.

. ,
,
.
. 300 .
HA
. , .
reservation + overhead
.
.
.
, .
reservation
.

405

7.1. (Advanced Settings)


HA ()

das.vmMemoryMinMB

das.vmCpuMinMHz

das.iostatsInterval

. ,
, reservation
. 0
. , , reservation
. 256
. , - ,
(heartbeat) VMware tools. 120

, VMware .
. das ,
, HA.

, HA
Advanced Settings (. 7.11).

. 7.11. HA

406

HA DRS
, HA
, reservation. ,
.
HA DRS, .
4.1, HA DRS - ,

.
HA admission control, DRS
, HA .
Admission Control.
admission control , HA .
DRS stand-by,
.

7.1.2. VMware Fault Tolerance, FT


VMware HA
- ( VM Monitoring
- ). VMware Fault Tolerance - (
ESX(i)). , .
: FT .
.
FT , . . , ,
, .
. ,
. HA.
, , FT , HA.

VMware FT
VMware FT .
:
HA. FT .
HA , FT ;

407

, FT, ( );
VMkernel,
VMotion, VMkernel, FT Logging ( , VMkernel). VMware ,
, ;
;
4.1 ESX(i)
. vSphere
, Fault Tolerance.
, , FT ESX(i), FT- ;
FT ,
.
:
VMware Fault
Tolerance. 1008027. ,
300 ;
BIOS .
. , FT :
(snapshot)
FT, FT.

( , 4.1);
VMware FT
. 1008027;
Storage VMotion FT ( , 4.1);
DRS FT 4.1. Primary Secondary , ;
vCPU.
, vCPU ;
physical RDM;
CD-ROM FDD - . -

408

Primary , , Primary
;
SCSI-,
PVSCSI;
;
USB- ;
NPIV ;
VMDirectPath I/O ;
FT ;
Extended Page Tables/Rapid Virtualization Indexing
(EPT/RVI);
. ;
virtual RDM vmdk eagerzeroedthick.
vmdk Cluster Options (. 7.12).

. 7.12. vmdk

409

, . :
Storage VMotion Thick ,
vmx Set cbtmotion.forceEagerZeroedThick = true;
Inflate vmdk,
;
vmkfstools --diskformat eagerzeroedthick;
, FT . : ESX(i) thin- FT ,
FT .

FT
, Fault Tolerance
:
1. .
2. .
3. HA, .
Administration vCenter Settings SSL Settings Check host certificates.
:
VMkernel, VMotion,
Fault Tolerance. ,
,
.
, VMkernel, (. 7.13 7.14).
. , VMotion FT VMkernel .

. 7.13. VMkernel FT

410

. 7.14. FT

, .

HA.
.
, Summary ,
VMotion Fault Tolerance
(. 7.15).
Profile Compliance Check Compliance
Now.
(. 7.16).
. 7.15. Summary

411

. 7.16. FT

VMware VMware SiteSurvey


(http://www.vmware.com/support/sitesurvey). , FT.
, .
, FT.
Fault Tolerance Turn On (. 7.17).

. 7.17. FT

412

,
-, FT,
Fault Tolerance .
, ,
Virtual Machines Secondary (. 7.18).

. 7.18. Primary Secondary vSphere

FT , Summary (. 7.19).

. 7.19. FT

:
Fault Tolerance Status . Protected Not Protected. :
Starting FT Secondary ;
Need Secondary VM Primary Secondary.
, FT , Secondary.
, , Primary.
, , (disable) FT ;
Disabled FT;
VM not Running Primary ;
Secondary location Secondary ;

413

Total Secondary CPU Secondary ;


Total Secondary Memory Secondary
;
vLockstep Interval Secondary Primary.
, 1 .
Secondary 8 ;
Log Bandwidth ,
FT .
FT (. 7.20):
Turn Off Fault Tolerance FT ;
Disable Fault Tolerance FT , , Secondary . FT ;
Migrate Secondary Secondary ;
Test Failover Secondary Primary Secondary. Primary ;
Test Restart Secondary Secondary .

. 7.20. , FT

VMware FT
FT , vCenter VMotion ( ) . VMotion , , .
FT , ,
.

414

Secondary DRS ( ). Primary, Secondary VMotion, DRS


( DRS
).
, . Primary, Secondary.
Primary Secondary, .
virtual lockstep, vLockstep. , Secondary
, Primary, .
vmx Secondary ,
, Primary.
Primary, Secondary . , Secondary ESX Secondary
. Primary . , ,
Primary . ,
, Secondary .
Secondary , .
Primary Secondary (heartbeat).
Secondary Primary. Secondary , VMware FT.
Secondary HA.
, Secondary
heartbeat-. Primary
. - , . Primary
Secondary, heartbeat-.
Primary , Secondary . Primary (suspend), Secondary .
Primary Secondary ,
Fault Tolerance. .
,
Primary, Secondary, . HA Primary,
FT Secondary.
, BSOD, Secondary . FT .
HA VM Monitoring,
.
Secondary , . FT -
. . HA Secondary . ,

415

Secondary .
, Primary, Primary !
, .
, Primary Secondary , ( 300 ), FT Secondary - .
, BIOS ,
. HyperThreading FT.
FT- Primary- Secondary- , Primary, .
,
FT- . Jumbo frames,
10 Ethernet.
, Primary , Secondary
FT-. , , .
, FT- .
FT- Secondary .
VMware, . :
vmx
replay.logReadData = checksum

. . VMware, 1011965.
FT
, FT.
FT ,
. FT (
FT ) VMkernel,
MAC-.
FT ,
IP- (Route based on IP hash). IP- IP- . FT- IP- IP,
. ,
IP- etherchannel (802.3ad Link aggregation) .
, FT . , , FT-

416

, FT, , FT.
, .
vCenter alarm, FT
(. 7.21).

. 7.21. Alarm FT

Performance Primary (. 7.22).

. 7.22. Performance FT-

417

7.2.
,
VMware Update Manager
ESX ESXi 4.
, vCenter
VMware Update Manager.

7.2.1. esxupdate vSphere CLI vihostupdate


ESX, ESXi, esxupdate. :
;
;
, ESX ;
;
.
, ,
.
:
esxupdate -m http://downloads.vmware.com/vi4/update1-metadata.zip scan

. ESX 4
Patch Management Guide.
https://www.vmware.
com/mysupport/download/.
vihostupdate , esxupdate,
ESX, ESXi. vSphere CLI.
. ESX and vCenter Server Installation Guide.
: ESX 4
. .
.
ESX, ESXi .
( Windows vSphere CLI) vMA.

7.2.2. vSphere Host Update Utility


. vSphere 4.1 vSphere Host Update Utility. , 4.1
.
4.0.

418

ESXi , vSphere. .
ESX,
ESXi, ESXi 4.
, ,
. -
. 7.23.

. 7.23. vSphere Host Update Utility ESXi

Patch Host, (. 7.24).

. 7.24.

419

Install . : Host Update Utility .


, , , , .
, . (. 7.25).

. 7.25. Host Update Utility ESXi

7.2.4. VMware Update Manager


vCenter 4 VMware Update Manager 4 (VUM).
, . VUM :
ESX 4 ESXi 4, ESX(i) 3.x;
ESX(i), multipathing EMC PowerPath
Cisco Nexus 1000V;
Windows;
Windows, WinZip, Firefox,
Adobe Acrobat Reader;
Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 3 4,
;
VMware tools;
;
Virtual Appliance Virtual Appliance, ++.
, , - , Microsoft WSUS. VUM

420

, ESX(i)
. WSUS VMware Update Manager.

VUM
, . , vCenter,
(). VUM . Microsoft SQL Server Oracle, SQL 2005 Express, vCenter. 5 50 , VMware
SQL Express. Oracle MS SQL Server
VUM . vCenter Update Manager Administration Guide.
VMware VUM 2 ( ) ESX(i).
VUM vCenter:
VUM vCenter ;
VUM vCenter , .
VMware 300 30 ;
VUM vCenter . VMware 1000 100 .
, vCenter VUM
,
. ,
vCenter VUM, . vCenter Update
Manager Virtual Machines and Templates, . .
FQDN vCenter,
vCenter (,
) (
SQL 2005 Express).
VUM
.
. VMware Sizing Estimator for vCenter Update Manager 4.0 and later.
Update Manager http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs/
vum_pubs.html. VMware 20
.

421

Update Manager
vCenter, vSphere . Plug-ins (. 7.26).

. 7.26. VUM


vSphere: Update Manager Home, Update
Manager .

VUM
VUM, , :
1. .
2. .
3. .
.
,
Home Update Manager, VUM.
Configuration Patch Download Settings , (. 7.27).
, ESX(i) vmware.com, Windows Linux http://shavlik.com.
,
VMware.
VUM
(ESX(i), Windows, Linux).
, , .

422

. 7.27. VUM

Add Patch Source .


, , -
Virtual Appliance ESX(i) VUM.
, VUM, , . , -.
VUM ,
VUM. Use a shared repository.
Update Manager Download Service (umds), . vCenter Update Manager Administration Guide.
,
VUM ,
.
, ,
(/).
VUM baseline.
Home Update Manager Baselines and Groups.

423

, baseline,
.
(. 7.28):
1. Hosts / VMs , baseline ,
, .
2. Create baseline.
3. Create baseline. baseline,
.

. 7.28. baseline

baseline baseline VMware tools Virtual Hardware.


baseline :
Baseline Name and Type ,
. , baseline (. 7.29);
Patch Options , . baseline
, , , ;
Criteria baseline. , , , (. 7.30).
baseline Critical VMware
ESXi. Add or Remove..
baseline - .

424

. 7.29. baseline, 1

baseline , .
( Datacenter).
baseline Home Hosts and Clusters.
baseline Home Virtual Machines and Templates.
, , baseline.
baseline . baseline .
. Datacenter
-.
Update Manager. Attach. baseline (. 7.31).
,
baseline .
Scan (. 7.32).
, . :
All Applicable ( ) , baseline;

. 7.30.

. 7.31. baseline

425

426

. 7.32.

Non-compliant baseline.
baseline ;
Incompatible baseline;
Unknown . ,
baseline;
ompliant baseline
.
,
.
,
.
,
, vCenter.
VUM DRS, DPM (Distributed Power Management).

427

stand-by, VUM
.
VUM HA, HA Admissions Control.
VUM
HA Admissions Control DPM.

, , . Remediate Update Manager, .
, . Stage ESX(i) VUM, Remediate. , .
Remediate, :
1. Remediation Selection , baseline
baseline .
2. Patches - ,
.
3. Host Remediation Options .
, . ,
.
,
. - . ,
.
Datacenter, , , .
DRS
, Maintenance. DRS - ,
. , VUM
. , DPM, HA FT (. 7.33).
DPM / HA, Update manager DPM Admissions Control ( ) HA, . Remediate VUM
.
Remediation , vCenter.

428

. 7.33.

vCenter , . , , -
. , ,
.
, ESXi . . ,
USB- ESXi . VUM ESXi .
, . , ESXi
,
.
VUM
Update Manager
, . , .

429

VUM
. .
iso-
CD-ROM . , VUM:
C:\Program Files\VMware\Infrastructure\Update Manager\docroot\vci\guestAgent\

VUM , ,
. , .
VUM , Suspend ()
. VUM
( ESX(i)),
. , VUM ,
. VUM
,
, .
\Device\vstor*.
, iso . VUM, .
Remediate
. , ,
, . ,
, , ,

. , -, , -, ,
Storage VMotion. ,
DRS. Home Update Manager Configuration Virtual Machine Settings, . Remediate , .
VUM , , . :
, , .
.
, , , .
(, sysprep) - , .

(. 7.2).

430

7.2. Update
Manager

Remediation
Windows
Windows
Linux
ESX(i)
Remediation ESX(i)
VMware tools

VMware tools

ESX(i)



5
5
5
2
1
1
24
24


Update Manager
48
17
10
8
70
8
75
75

24
24

75
75

44

. , Windows
6 .
, , . , , 60 . ,
.
, VMware Updat Manager ( );
VMware tools ( VMware tools
vSphere). . 1.5.3.

(, 99% ), , ,
VUM, ,
( , , ). , Microsoft
WSUS ( ) ConfigMgr ( , ).
, ESX(i) VUM .
, baseline
. , (Home Inventory Hosts and Clusters)
(Home Inventory Virtual Machine and Templates).
baseline -

431

. .
, VMware vCenter Server (VUM, VMware Converter ).
VUM (events), alarms,
, Update Manager. Home Update Manager Configuration Patch Download Schedule
e-mail .

7.3.


vSphere, , , .
:
ESX;
ESXi;
vCenter;
.

7.3.1. ESX(i)
vCenter
.

vCenter
vCenter .
vCenter DRS-,
.
vCenter .
, vpxd.conf.

ESX
.
, , . Host Profiles,

432

.
.
ESX , :
;
. ESX /etc.
, Service Console ESX ( VMware).

ESXi
ESXi,
vSphere CLI:
vicfg-cfgbackup.pl --server esxi2.vm4.ru --username root --password secretpass -s r:\
esxi2.cfg


vicfg-cfgbackup.pl --server esxi2.vm4.ru --username root --password secretpass -l r:\
esxi2.cfg

, ESXi
. ESXi ,
. ESXi ( Loading VMware Hypervisor)
Shift+R.

7.3.2.

. .
, ,
.



.
.
vmdk, . image level backup ( ,
, Ghost Acronis).
:
, .

433

:
;
.
. . file level backup.
:
, ;
.
:
, Windows.
, .
, VMware Data Recovery,
vmdk-, vmdk.
, ( ,
). , :
1. (snapshot).
2. , vmdk , delta.vmdk.
3. vmdk , .
4. , vmdk
, , .
vmdk,
. , , ,
,
, .
, .
VMware tools
Volume Shadow Copy Services, VSS. VSS ( VSS) ,
. (snapshot),
.
, -

434

.
, , . , VSS .
, VSS , VMware
Sync driver, ,
.
, . Sync driver .
VMware tools . , , sync driver,
.
Windows :\Program
Files\VMware\VMware Tools\backupScripts.d. .
freeze.
, ,
.
thaw
freezeFail, , .
MySQL:
IF "%1%" == "freeze" goto doFreeze
goto postThaw
:postThaw
IF "%1%" == "thaw goto doThaw
goto fail
:doFreeze
net stop mysql
goto EOF
:doThaw
net start mysql
goto EOF
:fail
echo "$ERRORLEVEL% >> vcbError.txt
:EOF

. , , .
Virtual Machine Backup Guide.

435


. , , .
. 7.3.
7.3.


VCB /
vStorage API for Data Protection
VCB /
vStorage API for Data Protection

+
-

, .
,
. . ,

, .
VCB/vStorage API , , -
file-level,
image-level. , VMware Data Recovery image,
.


,
,
.
:

;
, ;
, ,
.
:

, vSphere;
.

436


, , VCB vStorage API for Data Protection.
Veeam FastSCP.
, : http://communities.vmware.com/docs/DOC-10780.
:
.
:
, Service console, ESX.
ESXi ;
;
, . .
, ,
vmdk .

, VCB vStorage API


for Data Protection
. vSphere, VMware VMware Data Recovery , VMware
,
vSphere.
VMware,
vSphere. VMware . , ,
vSphere: Veeam Backup & Replication.
:
;
;
.
:
,
;
;
.
, ,
.

437


, .
VMware.
VMware Data Recovery. Virtual Appliance, .
:
;
;
,
vSphere;
vmdk, ,
;
Windows Linux
;
VDR ;
DR vSphere.
:
;
.
.
.
VCB / vStorage API for Data Protection
. VCB
vStorage API for Data Protection. , VCB
Windows-,
. vStorage API for Data Protection , .
vStorage API ESX(i)
.
,
vStorage API for Data Protection
.
vStorage API for Data Protection, -
. ,
,
,
, - .
. ,

438

VCB, .
VCB.
(VCB Proxy) Windows ( VCB
Windows). VCB
. , , VCB, VCB Windows. ,
Windows, .
VCB (vStorage API) , , ,

. ,
CA BrightStor ARCServe, Commvault Galaxy, EMC Avamar, EMC Networker, HP
Data Protector, Symantec Backup Exec, Tivoli Storage Manager, Symantec Netbackup
.
bat-, VCB.
:
SAN-.
;
( ) ;
;
image level,
( ).
:
-
( , );
Windows. , - vStorage API.

7.3.3. VMware Data Recovery


VDR Virtual Appliance. VMware Data Recovery
Linux (plugin) vSphere. ,
:

439

1. ,
VMware. IP,
.
2. (plugin) Data Recovery vSphere.
, .
3. :
;
.
VDR .



vSphere (. 7.34).
, Data Recovery. ,
, IP- Data Recovery.
. IP-
Summary . VMware Data Recovery .

. 7.34. Data Recovery vSphere

440

, VDR , ,
Data recovery. ,
Data Recovery 100 VDR , . VDR , .
. VDR
( vmdk RDM), (SMB).
Home Solutions and Applications VMware Data Recovery Configuration Destinations.
Add Network Share ( SMB).
.
,
VDR, ,
VDR (. 7.35).

. 7.35.

Physical disk.
VMware Data Recovery RDM LUN.
Unmounted. ( Format).
(. 7.36).


Data Recovery ,
. . Home

441

. 7.36.

Solutions and Applications VMware Data Recovery Configuration Backup. New, .


(. 7.37).

. 7.37. VMware Data Recovery

442

Destination , .
Backup Windows
, VDR .
Retention Policy.
(. 7.38).

. 7.38.

, 7 ,
4 , 2 .
.
, 23.59 .
, 23.59 , . .


VMware Data Recovery

Home Solutions and Applications VMware Data Recovery Configuration Restore. , -

443

(. 7.39).
( Restore).

. 7.39.


VMware Data Recovery
,
, VDR
Windows Linux. VMware File Level Restore
(FLR).
VMware Data Recovery ( Windows):
1. VMware File Level Restore (VMwareRestoreClient.exe) Windows , .
2. VMwareRestoreClient.exe IP- VMware Data Recovery.
3. (restore
points) Mount.

. . .
(. 7.40).
FLR:
Windows XP . Linux Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 5.4/CentOS 5.4, Red Hat 4.8/
CentOS 4.8, Ubuntu 8.04, Ubuntu 8.10, Ubuntu 9.04;
Windows FLR - ;

444

. 7.40. VMware Data Recovery

FLR , GUID (GPT).


VDR:
. , ,
VDR. , , FT;
Data Recovery
, . Data Recovery Data Recovery;
VDR
. ;
SMB ,
VDR- (vmdk
RDM);
(
, );

445

VDR
100 ;
,
8 ;
VDR , 1 . .
, ,
. VMware ,
50 , ;
, image level backup;
vdrFileRestore.

7.3.4. VMware Consolidated


Backup vStorage API for Data Protection
vStorage API
for Data Protection, . ,
,
VMware,
vCenter ESX(i), .
ESX(i) API .
vStorage API for Data Protection, VCB. ,
VCB -
VCB
bat-.
VCB Windows ( -). .
,
ESX(i) ,
FC-, , .

VMware Consolidated Backup


.
VMware Consolidated Backup. , Windows.

446

%ProgramFiles% \VMware\VMware Consolidated Backup Framework>vcbmounter -h < vCenter> -u <> -p <> -a name:< > -r c:\backup\< > -t file

c:\backup\< >
(. 7.41).

. 7.41.

, , , , ,
.

VCB . -,
,
.
, VCB . , ,
Windows.

447


vcbmounter -h < vCenter> -u < vcb> -p < >
-a name:< > -r <, VCB Proxy d:\vcb\<
> -t fullvm m "san"

d:\vcb\< >
, d:\.
, vmdk 2 .
, , , .
VMFS, ESX(i).
VMware Converter.
, VCB
.
vmdk
-. VCB ,
VMware tools , , . , VMware tools Microsoft VSS.
VSS,
, , VMware Tools.

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