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Pr^seitt^h to

of the

Ptttti^rsttg of

Dwitto

The Royal Ontario I'^seum

ELEMENTS

GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY.

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH OF

A)']VffLEGENDRE,

BY DAVID BREWSTER,

LL. D.

REVISED AND ADAPTED TO THE COURSE OF MATHEMATICAL lNt?TRrCTTON


IN

THE UNITED STATES,

BY CHARLES DAVIES,
A'JTHOU OF ARITHMETIC, ALGEBRA, PRACTICAL OEOMETRY, ELKMXNTS OF
!

ESCRIPTIVE AND OF ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY, ELEMENTS OF

DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS, AND SHADES SHADOWS, AND PKBSPECTIVK.

NEW YORK:
PUBLISHED BY
No.
51

A. S. BARNES & JOHN STREET.

CO.

1851.

^V 673 605301

DA VIES'

COURSE OF MATHEMATICS.
DAVIES' FIRST LESSONS IN

ARITHMETICFor Beginners.
use of Academies and Schools.

DAVIES

ARITHMETICDesigned for the


DAVIES ARITHMETIC.

KEY TO

DAVIES' UNIVERSITY

ARITHMETICEmbracing the Science of Num-

bers and their numerous Applications.

KEY TO
DAVIES'

DAVIES' UNIVERSITY ARITHMETIC.

ELEMENTARY ALGEBRABeing
DAVIES'

ence, and forming a connecting link between

an introduction to the Auithmetic and Algebra.

Sci-

KEY TO
DAVIES'
same time

ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA.
The reasoning
is

ELEMENTARY GEOMETRY.This
strictly rigorous.

mentaiy principles of Geometry.

work embraces the eleplain and concise, but at the

DAVIES'

ELEMENTS OF DRAWING AND MENSURATION ApMechanic Arts.

plied to the

DAVIES' BOURDON'S ALGEBRA Including Sturm's Theorem Being an abridgment of the Work of M. Bourdon, with the addition of practical example^. DAVIES' LEGENDRE'S
Sines.

GEOMETRY

and

TRIGONOMETRYBeing

an abridgment of the work of M. Legendre, with the addition of a Treatise on Mensuration OF Planes and Solids, and a Table of Logarithms and Logarithmic

DAVIES'

With a description and plates of the Theodolite, Compass, Plane-Table, and Level; also, Maps of the Topographical Signs idopted by the Engineer Department an explanation of the method of surveying ihe Public Lands, and an Elementary Treatise on Navigation.

SURVEYING

DAVIES' ANALYTICAL
IN of
;

GEOMETRY Embracing

the Point and Straight Line

of the Conic Sectionsof the Line and Plank


its

the

Equations of

Space also, the discussion of the General Equation of the second degree, and Surfaces of the second order.

DAVIES* DESCRIPTIVE
icAL Projections.

GEOMETRY With

application to Sphe-

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE. DAVIES' DIFFERENTIAL and INTEGRAL CALCULUS.


DAVIES'
and
Entered, according to Act of Congress, In the year 1834, by Charles Davies, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in and for the Southern District ol

SHADOWS

New York

'

PREFACE
TO THE AMERICAN EDITION.

to

The
form,

Editor, in offering to the public Dr. Brewster's

translation of Legendre's
is

Geometry under

its

present

fully

impressed with the responsibility he


alterations in a

assumes

in

making

work of such

de-

served celebrity. In the original work, as well as in the translations


proposiof Dr. Brewster and Professor Farrar, the but with tions are not enunciated in general terms,

reference to, and by the aid of, the particular diagrams

used for the demonstrations.

It is

believed that this

departure from the method of Euclid has been generally regretted.

The

propositions of

Geometry are

general truths, and as such, should be stated in general

terms, and without reference to particular figures.

The method of enunciating them by


lar

the aid of particu-

diagrams seems to have been adopted to avoid the

difficulty

which beginners experience


But
at

in

comprehend-

ing abstract propositions.


culty,

in avoiding this diffifirst,

and thus lessening,

the intellectual
it is

labour, the faculty of abstraction, which

one

o!

the

primary objects of the study of Geometry to

strengthen, remains, to a certain extent, unimproved.

PREFACE.
Besides the alterations in the enunciation of the

propositions, others of considerable importance have


also been
sition in

made

in the present edition.

The propo-

Book

V.,

which proves that a polygon and


to coincide so nearly, as to differ
less than

circle

may be made

from each other by

any assignable quantity,

has been taken from the Edinburgh Encyclopedia.


It is

proved in the corollaries that a polygon of an

infinite

number of
is

sides

becomes a

circle,

and

this

prmciple

made

the basis of several important de-

monstrations in

Book

VIII.

Book II.,on

Ratios and Proportions, has been partly

adopted from the Encyclopedia Metropolitana, and


will, it is believed,

supply a deficiency in the or

work.

Very considerable
in the

alterations

have also been made

manner of

treating the subjects of Plane and


It

Spherical Trigonometry.

has also been thought

best to publish with the present edition a table of

logarithms and logarithmic sines, and to apply the


principles of

geometry

to the mensuration of sur-

faces and solids.


Military Academy,

West Point, March, 1834.

CONTENTS
BOOK
The
principles,
1.

BOOK
Raiios and Proportions,

II.

**

BOOK
The
Circle and the

III.

Measurement of Angles,

...
-

41

Problems relating to the First and Third Books,

57

BOOK
The

IV.

Proportions of Figures and the Measurement of Areas,


to the

Problems relating

Fourth Book,

....

68

98

BOOK

V.
-

Regular Polygons and the Measurement of the Circle,

109

BOOK
Planes and Sohd Angles,

....-VII.
VIII.

VI.

l^*

BOOK
Polyedrons,

*'^'^

BOOK
The
three round bodies,

T>

BOOK
Of Spherical

IX.
.

Triangles and Spherical Polygons,

i^^

APPKNUIX.
llie regular Polvedrons,

205

CONTENTS.
PLANE TRIGOr^OMETRY.

Division of the Circumference,


(jreneral Ideas relating to the

207
-

Trigonometrical Lines,

208
Tan215

Theorems and Formulas


gents,

relating to the Sines, Cosines,


.

&c.

Construction and Description of the Tables,


Description of Table of Logarithms,

223 224

Description of Table of Logarithmic Sines,

228
231

Prmciples for the Solution of Rectilineal Triangles,


Solution of Rectilineal Triangles

by Logarithms,

Solution of Right angled Triangles, Solution of Triangles in general,

....

235

237

238

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
First principles,

Napier's Circular Parts,

Solution of Right angled Spherical Triangles

Quadrantal Triangles,

---.-------.-.
-

246

252
255
257

by Logarithms,

Solution of Oblique anghjd Triangles by Logarithms,

250

MENSURATION.
Mensuration of Surfaces,
Mensural! on of Solids
.

474

-285

AN INBEX
8H0WING THE PROPOSITIONS OF LEGENDRE WHICH CORRESPOND TO THE PRINCIPAL PROPOSITIONS OF THE FIRST SIX BOOKS OP EUCLID.

Euclid.

Legendre.

Euclid.

Legendre.

Euclid.

Legendre.
15

Book
jProp.

I.

Book
4 Prop. 5 5 Cor. of
6

I.

Cor. 2. of 33 Prop. 33 5

34

27 Prop. 30 28

26 Prop. 28 29
31
S

5 5
)

Book IV.
?1 12 10
1
1 35 1 36 37 Cor. 2 of 2 38 Cor. 2. of 2
}

Cor. of

Cor. 2.

iQ

&3.

r^
28 30

8 13 14
15 Cor.
1.

Book IV.
35 36

3 4
4

&2.

15 Sch. of ^^

4 47

2
11

Book

VI.
1
5
I

16 17 18 19

Cor.of25 25
13 13
7

Book

II.

4
12 13

8 13 12

Cor. 1. of 4 Cor. of 6

20
21
1

2
3

15

Book

III.

Book
Prop. Cor. of Cor. of Cor. of

III.

9 Prop. 24 25 9 6 26 27 Cor. 1. of 19 2. of 19 28 Cor.

3 10 11 12

6 7

4 5
6

18
19'

14 14

201

8
14 15
19
J

22
25|

29 30
Cor. 1. of 32

Cor. 2. 4. of 20

&

14 15 18

8 2
9 18 18

Cor. of

151

251
5

22 26

20
21 Cor. of

20

261

?l\

DEPAHiMENT
FP

li-

-jLOGY

.'TED

BY

Professor A.

COLL IAN
r
iOfii.
)

UNIVERSr.Y

ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY.
BOOK
THE
I.

PRINCIPLES.

Definitions.

1.

Geometry

is

the science

which has

for

its

ooject the

measurement of extension.
Extension has three dimensions, length, breadth, and height,
or thickness.
line is length without breadth, or thickness. extremities of a line are called points : a point, therefore, has neither length, breadth, nor thickness, but position only. straight line is the shortest distance from one point to 3. another. 4. Every line which is not straight, or composed of straight
2.

The

lines, is

a curved

line,

E
Thus,
broken
lines
;

is a straight line ; is a or one composed of straight and AEB is a curved line.

AB

ACDB

line,

A.

The word
Ime
5.
;

lin^^ when used alone, will designate a scraight and the word curve, a curved line. A surface is that which has length and breadth, without

height or thickness.
6.

plane

is

a surface, in which,

if

two

points be

assumed
lie

at pleasure,

and connected by a straight

line, that line will

wholly

in the surface.

7. Every surface, which is not a plane surface, or composed of plane surfaces, is a curved surface, solid or body is that which has length, breadth, and 8. thickness ; and therefore combines the three dimensions of extension

10
9.

GEOMETRY.
When
two
straight lines,

AB, AC, meet

each other, their incHnation or opening is called an angle, which is greater or less as the lines are more or less inclined or opened. The
point of intersection
angle,

is

the vertex of the

_^,

and the
angle

lines

AB, AC,

are

its

sides.

The

the vertex

the letter at

sometimes designated simply by the letter at sometimes by the three letters BAC, or CAB, the vertex being always placed in the middle.
is
;

Angles, like

all

other quantities, are susceptible of addition,

subtraction, multiplication,

and

division.

Thus the angle is the sum of and the anthe two angles DCB, gle is the diiTerence of the two angles DCE, BCE.

DCE

BCE

DCB

^
15

10.

When

a straight line

AB

meets another
the adjacent

straight line

CD,

so as to

make

angles BAC, BAD, equal to each other, each of these angles is called a right angle ; and the
line

AB is

said to be perpendicular to

CD.

11.

Every angle BAC,


is

less

than a^>
;

right angle,

an acute angle

and

every angle
angle,
is

DEF,

greater than a right


-F

an obtuse angle.

12. Two lines are said to be parallel, when being situated in the same plane, they cannot meet, how far soever, either way, both of them be produced.

13.
all

A plane figure is

a plane terminated on
ciarved.

sides

by lines, either straight or

is

If the lines are straight, the space they enclose called a rectilineal figure, or polygon, and the

lines themselves,

taken together, form the contour,

or perimeter of the polygon.


14.

The polygon
;

a triangle

of three sides, the simplest of all, is called that of four sides, a quadrilateral; that of five, a

pentagon; that of six, a hexagon; that of seven, a heptagon: that of eight, an octagon ; that of nine, a nonagon; that of ten, a decagon ; and that of twelve, a dodecagon.

BOOK

I.

11

15.

Xn
.
;

equa^ equal
16.

is one which has its three sides one which has two of its sides a scalene triangle, one which has its three sides unequal. A right-angled triangle is one which

equilateral triangle
isosceles

an

triangle,

The side opposite the has a right angle. is called the hypothenuse. Thus, in the triangle ABC, right-angled at A, the side BC is the hypothenuse. 17. Among the quadrilaterals, we distinguish
right angle

The

sqiuircy

which has

its

sides equal,

and

its

an

gles right-angles.

ThQ
gles,

rectangle^

which has
its

its

angles right an-

without having

sides equal.

The
has
its

parqllelogram, or rhomboid^ which opposite sides parallelT

The rhombus, or lozenge^ which has without having its angles right angles.

its

sides equal,

And

lastly,

the trapezoid^ only

are parallel.

"

two of whose

sides

18.

tices of

diagonal is a line which joins the vertwo angles not adjacent to each other.

Thus, AP, AE,

AD, AC, are

diagonals.

19.

An
;

equal
equal.
20.

equilateral polygon is one which has all its sides an equiangular polygon, one which has all its anglea

Two

their sides equal

polygons are mutually equilateral, when they have each to each, and placed in the same order

12
that
to say,

geomi:try.
is

following their perimeters in the same diis equal to the first side of the other, the second of the one to the second of the other, the third to the third, and so on. The phrase, mutually equiangular, has a corresponding signification, with respect to the
rection, the
first

when

side of the one

angles.

In both cases, the equal sides, or the equal angles, are named homologous sides or angles.

Definitions of terms employed in Geometry,

An axiom

is

a self-evident proposition.

theorem is a truth, which becomes evident by means of a train of reasoning called a demonstration, problem is a question proposed, which requires a solu-

lion,

lemma

is

a subsidiary truth, employed for the demonstra-

tion of a theorem, or the solution of a problem.

The common name, proposition, is applied indifferently, to . theorems, problems, and lemmas. A corollary is an obvious consequence, deduced from one or
several propositions. scholium is a remark on one or several preceding propositions, which tends to point out their connexion, their use, their restriction, or their extension. hypothesis is a supposition, made either in the enunciation of a proposition, or in the course of a demonstration.

Explanation of the symbols

to be

employed.

The

sign

is

the sign of , equality; thus, the expression

A=B, signifies that A is equal to B. To signify that A is smaller than


is

B, the expression

A<B

used.

To
is

signify that
;

used

is greater than B, the expression the smaller quantity being always at the vertex of Mie

A>B

angle.

The The

sign
sign

is

called plus
called

it
:

is

minus

it

indicates addition. indicates subtraction.

and B; represents the sum of the quantities represents their difference, or what remains after B is taken from B + C, or + C B, signifies that A and ; and C are to be added together, and that B is to be subtracted

A B

Thus,

A + B,

from their sum.

BOOK
The
sign

I.

13
thus,

indicates multiplication

A x B represents
,

and B. Instead of the sign x a point is sometimes employed thus, A.B is the same thing as A x B. The same product is also designated without any intermediate sign, by AB but this expression should not be employed, when there is any danger of confounding it with that of the line AB, which expresses the distance between the points A and B. The expression A X (B -f C D) represents the product oi A by the quantity B + C D. If A + B were to be multiplied by A B + C, the product would be indicated thus, (A-f B) x (A B + C), whatever is enclosed within the curved lines, being
the product of
; ;

considered as a single quantity. number placed before a line, or a quantity, serves as a thus, SAB signifies that multiplier to that line or quantity the line AB is taken three times ^ A signifies the half of the angle A. The square of the line AB is designated by AB^; its cube by AB\ What is meant by the square and cube of a line, will be explained in its proper place. The sign ^ indicates a root to be extracted ; thus s/%

means

the square-root of 2

\^

A x B means the square-root

oi

the product of

and B.
Axioms,

1. Things which are equal to the same thing, are equal to each other. 2. If c(|uals be added to equals, the wholes w'ill be equal. 3. If equals be taken from equals, the remainders will be

equal.
4.

If equals

be added

to unequals, the

wholes

will

be un-

equal.
5. If equals be taken from unequals, the remainders will be unequal. 6. Things which are double of the same thing, are equal to

each other. 7. Things which are halves of the same thing, are equal to each other. 8. The whole is greater than any of its parts. 9. The whole is equal to the sum of all its parts. 10. All right angles are equal to each other. 1 1 From one point to another only one straight line can be drawn. 12. Through the same point, only one straight line can be drawn which sha,ll be parallel to a given line. 13. Magnitudes, which being applied to each other, coincide (hroughout their whole extent, are equal.

J4

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
I.

THEOREM.
tlin

IJ

one straight line meet another straight line, the sum of two adjacent angles will he equal to two right angles.

Let the
line

straight line

DC

meet the

straight

AB

at C, then will the angle

ACD +

DCB, be equal to two right angles. At the point C, erect CE perpendicular to AB. The angle ACD is the sum of the an--^
the angle

therefore is + the three angles ACE, ECD, DCB: but .he first of these three angles is a right angle, and the other two make up the right angle hence, the sum of the two an; gles and DCB, is equal to two right angles.
gles
the

ACE, ECD:

ACD DCB

sum of

ECB

ACD
1.

Cor,

the other

If one of the angles ACD, must be a right angle also.

DCB,

is

a right angle

Cor. 2.
to

If the line

AB, reciprocally, lar to DE.

DE is perpendicular AB will be perpendicu-

For, since is perpendicular to AB, the J3 c angle must be equal to its adjacent angle DCB, and both of them must be right is a angles (Def. 10.). But since must also be a right angle right angle, its adjacent angle is equal to the angle ACE, (Cor. 1.). Hence the angle (Ax. 10.) therefore AB is perpendicular to DE. Cor. 3. The sum of all the successive

DE

ACD

ACD ACE ACD

angles,
is

BAC, CAD, DAE, EAF, formed


line

on the same side of the straight


;

BF,

is

equal to two right angles for their sum equal to that of the two adjacent an-

gles.

BAC, CAF.

PROPOSITION
7

II.

THEOREM.

straight lines, which have two points common, coincide with each other throughout their whole extent, and form one and
Vie

same straight

line

be the two common place it is evident tliat the two lines must coincide entirely oetween A and B, for otherwise there would be two straight lines between A and B, which is impossible (Ax. 11). Sup-

Let

and

points.

In the

first

KT'B

BOOKL
AC

15

pose, however, that on being produced, these lines begin to From separate at C, the one becoming CD, the other CE. the ight angle the point C draw the Hne CF, making with
will is a straigiit line, the angle since is a straight be a right angle (Prop. I. Cor. 1.); and since will likewise be a right angle. Hence, the lino, the angle (Ax. 10.); which can is equal to the angel angle and coincide thereonly be the case when the lines

ACF.

Now,

ACD

FCD

ACE

FCE

FCD

FCE CD CE

fore, the straight lines

which have two points A and B common, cannot separate at any point, when produced hence they form one and the same straight line.
;

PROPOSITION

III.

THEOREM.

If a straight line meet two other straight lines at a common point, making the sum of the two adjacent angles equal to tii>o right angles, the two straight lines which are met, will form one and the same straight line.

Let the straight

line

CD
their

meet the

two

lines

AC, CB,

at

common
eqjal to be the

point C,

making the sum of the two

adjacent angles two right angles prolongation of


will

DCA, DCB,
;

aT

then will AC, or

CB

AC

and

CB
line.

form one and the same straight

For, if CB is not the prolongation of AC, let CE be that probeing straight, the sum of the longation: then the line angles ACD, DCE, will be equal to two right angles (Prop. 1.). But by hypothesis, the sum of the angles ACD, DCB, is also must be equal equal to two right angles therefore, + from each, to + DCB; and taking away the angle equal to the angle DCB, which there remains the angle and CB coincide can only be the case when the lines

ACE

ACD

ACD DCE ACD


CE

DCE

hence,

AC, CB, form one and


PROPOSITION

the
IV.

same

straight line.

THEOREM.

When two

straight lines intersect each other, the opposite or vertical angles, which they form, are equal.

i6

GEOMETRY.
AB
and

Let
lines,

DE

be two straight^

intersecting each other at C ; then will the angle be equal to the angle ACD, and the angle to

ECB

ACE DE

'D B^ For, since the straight line is met by the straight line AC, the sum of the angles ACE, ACD, is equal to two right angles (Prop. L) and since the straight line AB, is met by the straight line EC, the sum of the angles and ECB, is equal to two right angles: hence the sum + is equal to the sum (Ax. 1.). Take away from both, the com+ mon angle ACE, there remains the angle ACD, equal to its opposite or vertical angle (Ax. 3.). Scholium, The four angles formed about a point by two straight lines, which intersect each other, are together equal to four right angles : for the sum of the two angles ACE, ECB, is equaj^ to two right angles ; and the sum of the other two, ACD, r^CB, is also equal to two right angles : therefore, ihe sum of the four is equal to four right angles. In general, if any number of straight lines CA, CB, CD, &:c. meet in a point C, the ^ sum of all the successive angns ACB,BCD, DCE, ECF, FCA, will be equal to four right angles for, if four right angles were lormed about the point C, by two lines perpendicular to each other, the same space would be occupied by the four right angles, as by the successive angles ACB, BCD, DCE, ECF, FCA.
the angle
;

DCB.

ACE ECB

ACE ACE ACD

ECB

PROPOSITION

V.

THEOREM.
^

[ftwo triangles have two sides and the included angle of ihe one., equal to two sides and the included angle of the other each tc each, the two triangles will he equal

Let the side


to the side to the side

ED be equal
;

BA, the side DF AC, and the an-

gle

will the triangle

D to the angle A then EDF be


BAC.
may be
so applied to each other, that thej

equal to the triangle

For, these triangles


the triangle

shall exactly coincide.

Let the triangle

EDF, be

placed upon

shall fall upon B, and the so that the point side on the equal side is equal ; then, since the angle to the angle A, the side will take the direction But

BAC,

ED

BA DF

AC

BOOK
AC

I.

therefore, the point F will fall on C, an<] ; I)F is equal to (Ax. 11.): the third side EF, will coincide with the third side is equal to the triangle frlierefore, the triangle

BC

EDF

BAG

(Ax. 13.). Cor. When two triangles have these three things equal, namely, the side ED=BA, the side DF=AC, and the angl D=A, the remaining three are also respectively equal, namely \he aide EF=BC, the angle E^^B, and the angle

F=C

PROPOSITION

VI.

THEOREM.

{ftwo triangles have two angles and the included side of the ona, equal to two angles and the included side of the other, each to
each, the two triangles will be equal.

Let the angle E be equal


angle B, the angle F C, and the included side EF to the included side BC ; then will be equal the triangle
10 the

to the angle

EDF

to the triangle

BAC.

^
let

^ ^

the side be placed For on its equal BC, the point E falling on B, and the point F on is equal to the angle B, the side C; then, since the angle will be found will take the direction BA; and hence the point somewhere in the line BA. In like manner, since the angle will take the direction F is equal to the angle C, the line will be found somewhere in the line CA. CA, and the j)oint Hence, the point D, falling at the same time in the two straight lines and CA, must fall at their intersection A: hence, the two triangles EDF, BAC, coincide with each other, and are therefore equal (Ax. 13.).
to apply the

one to the other,

EF

ED

FD

BA

namely, the angle

Cor. Whenever, in two triangles, these three things are equal, E=B, the angle F=C, and the included side EF equal to the included side BC, it may be inferred that the remaining three are also respectively equal, namely, the angle D=A, the side ED=BA, and the side DF=AC.

Scholium. Two triangles are said to be equal, when being applied to each other, they will exactly coincide (Ax. 13.). Hence, equal triangles have their like parts equal, each to each, since those parts must coincide with each other. The converse of this [)roposition is also true, namely, that two triangles which have all the parts of the one equal to the parts of the other, t^dck

18

GEOMETRV

to
I

eachy are equal ; for they may be applied to each other, and he equal parts will mutually coincide.

PROPOSITION
The sum of any two
Let

VII.

THEOREM.

sides of a triangle, is greater than the

third side.

ABC be

a triangle
its sides,

then will the

as greater than the third side

sum of two of
For the

AC, CB, be AB.


is

straight line

AB

the short-

est distance

between the points


;

and

(Def. 3.)

hence

AC + CB

is

greater

than

AB,
PROPOSITION
VIII.

THEOREM.

If from

to the

sum

triangle, two straight lines he draw7t extremities of either side, their sum will he less than the of the two other sides of the triangle.

amj point within a

gle
to

Let any point, as O, be taken within the trianBAC, and let the lines OB, OC, be drawn
the extremities of either side, as

willOB + OC<BA + AC.


Let

BC

then

BO

m D:

be produced then the line OC

OD + DC
Again,

(Prop. VIL): add (Ax. 4.), or

BO

meets the side shorter than OD-h to each, and we have


till it

is

DC<BA + AC.
BD + DC
;

BD<BA + AD:
it

BO + OC<BD + DC. add DC to each, and we have BD+ But has just been found that BO + OC<
still

AC DC ^ BO + OC<BO+

therefore,

more isBO + OC<BA + AC.


IX.

PROPOSITION

THEOREM.

[f two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of trie other, each to each, and the included angles unequal, the third sides will he unequal ; and the greater side will helong to the triangle which has the greater included angle.

l)e

Let BAC and EDF two triangles, having

ihe

sideAB=DE, AC -DF, and the angle


then will

A>D;
EF.

BC>

Make the angle CAQB

= D;

take

AG = DE,
The

and draw CG.

BOOK
triangle

I.

19

construction, they sides, (Prop. is equal to EF. Now, there may be three V.) therefore falls without cases in the proposition, according as the point
is

GAC

equal to

DEF,

since,

by

have an equal angle in each, contained by equal


;

CG

the triangle

ABC,

or upon

its

base BC, or within

it.

First Case.
line

The

straight line

AB<AI + IB;
same

therefore,
thing,

or, w^hich is the

GC + AB<AG + BC.
;

GC<GI + IC, and the straight GC + AB< GI + AI + IC + IB,


Take away
;

AB

from the one side, and its equal AG from the other and there remains GC<BC (Ax. 5.) but we have found GC=EF,

therefore,

BC>EF.

fall

Second Case. If the point G on the side BC, it is evident that GC, or its equal EF, will be

shorter than

BC

(Ax.

8.).

B
Lastly, Thij^d Case, fall within the triangle
if

G^

the point

BAC, we

shall

have, by the preceding theorem, + from + BC ; and, taking from the other, the one, and its equal

AG

GC<AB

AG

there will remain

AB GC<BCorBC>EF.B

Conversely, if two sides Scholium. BA, AC, of the triangle BAC, are equal to the two ED, DF,of the triangle EDF,

BC of greater than the third side EF of the second then will the angle BAC of the first triangle, be greater of the second. than the angle For, if not, the angle BAC must be equal to EDF, or less than it. In the first case, the side BC would be equal to EF, (Prop. V. Cor.) ; in the second, CB would be less than EF ; but either of these results contradicts the hypothesis: therefore, BAC is greater than EDF.
each to each, while the third side
the
first

triangle

is

EDF

PROPOSITION

X.

THEOREM.

triangles have the three sides of the one equal to the three [f two sides of the other, each to each, the three angles will also 'be equals each to each, and the triangles themselves will be equal.

GEOMETRY.
Let the side

ihe side

ED=BA, EF=BC, and the


;

side

DF=AC

the angle

E=B,

E C were greater than A, while the sides ED, DF, were equai to BA, AC, each to each, it would follow, by the last proposition, that the side EF must be greatei than BC and if the angle D were less than A, it would follow, that the side EF must be less than BC but EF is equal to BC, by hypothesis therefore, the angle D can neither be greater nor less than A therefore it must be equal to it. In the same manner it may be shown that the angle E is equal to B, and the angle F to C hence the two triangles are equal (Prop.
For,
if

= C.

then will angle and the angle F

D=A, the
the angle

TB

VI. Sch.). Scholium. It may be observed that the equal angles lie op posite the equal sides thus, the equal angles and A, lie op posite the equal sides EF and BC.
:

PROPOSITION
In an

XI.

THEOREM
equal sides

isosceles triangle, the angles opposite the

are equal.

be equal to the side AC ; then be equal to the angle B. For, jcn the vertex A, and D the middle point of the base BC. Then, the triangles BAD, DAC, will have all the sides of the one equal to those of the other, each to each for BA is equal to AC,^ by hypothesis ; AD is common, and BD is equal
I^et the side

BA

will the

angle

by construction therefore, by the last proposition, the angle B is equal to the angle C. Cor. An equilateral triangle is likewise equiangular, that is to say, has all its angles equal. Scholium. The equality of the triangles BAD, DAC, proves to ADC, also that the angle BAD, is equal to DAC, and hence the latter two are right angles therefore, the line drawn from the vertex of on isosceles triangle to the middle point of its hase, is peiyendicular to the base, and divides the angle at the
to
:

DC

BDA

vertex into two equal parts. In a triangle which is not isosceles,


indifferently as the

any

side

may be assumed

hase ; and the vertex is, in that case, the vertex of the opposite angle. In an isosceles triangle, however,

BOOK
that side
is

I.

31
is

generally assumed as the base, which

not equal

to either of the other two.

PROPOSITION

XII.

THEOREM.

Conversely, if two angles of a triangle are equal, the sides opjjc site them are also equal, and the triangle is isosceles.

Let the angle ABC be equal to the angle ACB then will the side AC be equal to the side AB. For, if these sides are not equal, suppose AB Then, take BD equal to AC, to be the greater.
and draw CD. Now, in the two triangles BDC, BAC, we have BD=AC, by construction the angle B equal to the angle ACB, by hypothesis ;;By and the side BC common therefore, the two triangles, BDC, BAC, have two sides and the included angle in the one, equal to two sides and the included angle in the other, each to each hence they are equal (Prop. V.). But the part cannot be equal to the whole (Ax. 8.) hence, there is no inequality between the sides BA, AC therefore, the triangle
;
:

BAC

is

isosceles.

PROPOSITION
The greater gle ; and

XIII.

THEOREM.

side of every triangle is opposite to the greater anconversely, the gt^eater angle is opposite to the

greater side.

Let the angle C be greater than the angle then will the side AB, opposite C, be greater than AC, opposite B. For, make the angle BCD=B. Then, in the triangle CDB, we shall haveCD=BD (Prop.XIL). Now, the side AC + CD; but +
First,

AD + DB=AB:

< AD

AD CD =

therefore Secondly, Suppose the side then will the angle C, opposite to AB, be greater than the angle B, opposite to AC. For, if the angle C<B, it follows, from what has just been

AC<AB. AB>AC;
is

proved, that

AB<AC;

which

contrary to the hypothesis.

If
is

the angle C=B, then the side also contrary to the supposition. the angle C must be greater than

AB=AC (Prop. XII.); which Therefore, when AB> AC,


B

22

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION

XIV.

THEOREM.

Fi'om a given point, without a straight line, only lar can be drawn to that line.

^^

perpendicu-

Let
fine.

be the point, and

DE

the given

Let us suppose that we can draw two Produce either perpendiculars, AB, AC. of them, as AB, till BF is equal to AB, antJf !>-

draw FC. Then, the two triangles CAB, CBF, will be equal: for, the angles CBA,

NF are right angles, the side CB is the side equal to BF, by coiAStiiiction ; therefore, the triangles are equal, and the angle (Prop. is a right angle, by hypothesis ; V. Cor.). But the angle therefore, BCF must likewise be a right angle. But if the adjacent angles BCA, BCF, are together equal to two right angles, must be a straight line (Prop. III.) from whence it follows, that between the same two points, A and F, two straight lines can be drawn, which is impossible (Ax. 11.): hence, two perpendiculars cannot be drawn from the same point to the
and

CBF

common, and

AB

ACB=BCF

ACB

ACF

same

straight line.
\

Scholium, At a given point C, in the line jj AB, it is equally impossible to erect two perpendiculars to that line. For, if CD, CE, were those two perpendiculars, the angles BCD, BCE, would both be right angles :^_ hence they would be equal (Ax. 10.); and would coincide with CE otherwise, a part would the line be equal to the whole, which is impossible (Ax. 8.).

CD

PROPOSITION XV. THEOREM.


If

fall on the line,


1st,

from a point without a straight and oblique lines


The perpendicular

line,

a perpendicular he
to different

let
:

be

drawn

points

will be shorter than

any oblique

line.

2d,

different sides of the perpendicular, cutting off equal distances on the other line, will be equal.

Any

two oblique

lines,

drawn on

Sd,

Of two

oblique

liices,

drawn

at pleasure, chat

which

is farther

from

the peipendicular will be the longer.

BOOK
Let

1.

23

the given be the given point, the perpendicular, and AD, AC, AE, the obhque hnes. till BF Produce the perpendicular
line,

DE

AB

AB

is

equal to
First.

AB, and draw FC, FD. The triangle BCF, is equal


for they

D^
to the

triangle

BCA,

have the right angle


the

CBF=CBA, the
side

side

CB common, and

^F

hence the third sides, CF and CA are equal (Prop. V. Cor.). But ABF, being a straight line, is shorter than ACF, which is a broken line (Def. 3.) therefore, AB, the half of ABF, is shorter than AC, the half of ACF; hence, the perpendicular is shorter than any oblique line.

BF=BA

Secondly. Let us suppose BC=BE; then will the triangle CAB be equal to the the triangle BAE for BC = BE,the side AB is common, and the angle CBA=ABE hence the sides AC and AE are equal (Prop. V. Cor.) therefore, two oblique,
;

lines,

equally distant from the perpendicular, are equal.

Thirdly. In the triangle DFA, the sum of the lines AC, CF, (Prop. VIIL) thereis less than the sum of the sides AD, fore, AC, the half of the line ACF, is shorter than AD, the half of the line therefore, the oblique line, which is farther : from the perpendicular, is longer than the one which is nearer.

DF

ADF

Cor. \. The perpendicular measures the shortest distance of a point from a line.

Cor.
Tjore,

2.

From

the

same point

to the

same
;

straight line, only

two equal

ame

there could be should have at least two equal oblique lines on the side of the perpendicular, which is impossible.
straight lines
for, if

can be drawn

we

PROPOSITION

XVI.

THEOREM.
line^

If from the middle point of a straight

a perpendicular

he

drawn to this line istf Every point of the petyendicular will he equally distant from the extremities of the line, 'id, Evejy point, without the perpendicular, will he unequally dis
tant

from those extremities.

24

GEOMETRY.

Let AB be the given straight line, C the middle point, and ECF the perpendicular. First Since AC==CB, the two oblique lines AD, DB, are equally distant from the perpendicular, and therefore equal (Prop. XV.). So,
J

likewise, are the


:\vo

two oblique lines AE, EB, thej\^ AF, FB, andso on. Therefore every point

in the perpendicular is equally distant from the extremities and B. Secondly, Let I be a point out of the perpendicular. If lA and IB be drawn, one of these lines will cut the perpendicular in from which, drawing DB, we shall ;

have

and every point out of the perpendicular, is unequally distant from the extremities A and B. Cor. If a straight line have two points D and F, equally distant from the extremities A and B, it will be perpendicular to AB at the middle point C.

D DB=DA. But the straight line IB is less than ID+DB, ID + DB=ID + DA^IA; therefore, IB<IA; therefore,

PROPOSITION

XVII.

THEOREM.

If two right angled triangles have the hypothenuse and a side oj the one, equal to the hypothenuse and a side of the other, each to each, the remaining parts will also he equal, each to each, and

the triangles themselves will he equal.

In the
triangles

two

right angled

BAG, EDF, let the hypothenuse AC=:DF, and the sideBA=ED: then will
the side

BC=EF, the angle 3 A=D, and the angle C=F. If the side BC is equal to EF,
triangles are equal (Prop. X.). these two sides to be unequal,

the like angles of the


if it

two

Now,

be possible, suppose
is

and that

BC

the greater.

On BC take BG=EF, and draw AG. Then, in the two triangles BAG, DEF, the angles B and E are equal, being right

BA=ED by hypothesis, and the side BG = EF by construction consequently, AG = DF (Prop. V. Cor.). But by hypothesis AC = DF; and therefore, (Ax. 1.) But the oblique line AC cannot be equal to AG, which lies nearer the perpendicular AB (Prop. XV.) therefore, BC and EF caj'not be unequal, and hence the angle A = D, and the angle C=F; and therefore, the triangles are equal (Prop. VI
angles, the side
.

AC=AG

Sch.).


BOOK
PROPOSITION
If
I.

25

XVIIl.

THEOREM.

two straight lines are perpendicular to a third line, they will be parallel to each other : in other words, they will never meet, how far soever either way, both of them be produced.

Let the two

lines

AC, BD,
;

be perpendicular to AB then will they be parallel. O For, if they could meet in a point O, on either side of "D AB, there would be two perpendiculars OA, OB, let fall from the same point on the same straight line; which is impossible (Prop. XIV.).

PROPOSITION

XIX.

THEOREM.

If two straight lines meet a third line, making the sum of tne interior angles on the same side of the line met, equal to two

right angles, the two lines will be paralleL

Let the two


the third line
gles

lines EC, BD, meet BA, making the an-

BAC, ABD,

together equal to
lines

two right angles: then the EC, BD, will be parallel.

From G,

the middle

point of

^ j^ perpendicular to EC. It will also be perpendicular to BD. For, the sum BAC + is equal to two right angles, by hypothesis ; the sum BAC + BAE js likewise equal to two right angles (Prop. I.) and taking away BAC from both, there will remain the angle BAE. Again, the angles EGA, BGF, are equal (Prop. IV.) therefore, the triangles and BGF, have each a side and two adjacent angles equal therefore, they are themselves equal, and the angle is equal to the angle GFB (Prop. VI. Cor.) but is a right angle by construction therefore, GFB is a right angle hence the two lines EC, BD, are perpendicular to
-.j^^^-

BA, draw the

straight line

EGF,

ABD

ABD =

EGA
;

GEA

GEA

the

same

straight line,

and are therefore

parallel (Prop.

XVIIL).

2Q
Scholium.
straight lines

GEOiMETRY.

When two
AB, CD,

parallel

are met by a third line FE, the angles which are formed take particular names. Interior angles on the same side, are those which lie within the parallels, pand on the same side of the secant ]me : thus, 0GB, GOD, are interior angles on the same side ; and so also are the the angles OGA, GOC. Alternate angles lie within the parallels, and on different sides of the secant line AGO, DOG, are alternate angles and so also are the angles COG, BGO. Alternate exterior angles lie without the parallels, and on different sides of the secant line EGB, COP, are alternate exterior angles so also, are the angles AGE, FOD. Opposite exterior and interior angles lie on the same side of the secant line, the one without and the other within the parallels, but not adjacent thus, EGB, GOD, are opposite exterior and interior angles and so also, are the angles AGE, GOC. Cor. 1. If a straight line EF, meet two straight lines CD, AB, making the alternate angles AGO, GOD, equal to each other, the two lines will be parallel. For, to each add the angle 0GB; we shall then have, + + but is equal to two right angles (Prop. I.) ; hence + 4is equal to two right angles : therefore, CD, AB, are parallel. Cor. 2. If a straight line EF, meet two straight lines CD, AB, making the exterior angle equal to the interior and opposite angle GOD, the two lines will be parallel. For, to each add the angle 0GB: we shall then have + but hence, is equal to two right angles +
: : ; : ;

AGO 0GB GOD 0GB

AGO 0GB = GOD 0GB

EGB

EGB 0GB = GOD


;

+ OGB

EGB 0GB
is

GOD + 0GB

equal to two

rigljt

angles; therefore,

CD, AB,

are parallel.

PROPOSITION XX. THEOREM. If a straight line meet two parallel straight lines, the sum of the interior angles on the same side will be equalto two right angles.
Let the parallels AB, CD, be met by the secant line FE then
:

will
gles.

0GB + GOD,

or

OGA +
right an-

GOC,be equal to two

For, if be not + equal to two right angles, let

0GB GOD
equal

IGH be drawn, making the sum

OGH-fGOD

to

two

BOOK
;

1.

27

nght angles then IH and CD will be parallel (Prop. XIX.), and hence we shall have two lines GB, GH, drawn through the same point G and parallel to CD, which is impossible (Ax. 12.): hence, GB and GH should coincide, and 0GB + GOD is equal to two right angles. In the same manner it may be proved that OGA + GOC is equal to two right angles. Cor. 1. If 0GB is a right angle, GOD will be a right angle
also: therefore, every straight
li7ie

perpendicular

to

one of two

parallels, is perpendicular to the other.

Cor.

2.

If a straight line

meet two

parallel lines, the alternate angles will

be equal. Let AB, CD, be the

parallels,

and

FE
the

the secant Hne.


is

The sum

0GB
/

equal to two right angles. But^ is also equal to + two right angles (Prop. I.). Taking from each, the angle 0GB, and there remanis In the same manner

GOD

sum

OGB OGA

OGA=GOD.

we may prove

that

GOC=:OGB.
Cor.
site

3. If a straight line meet two parallel lines, the oppoexterior and interior angles will be equal. For, the sum

0GB + GOD is equal to two right angles. But the sum 0GB -f EGB is also equal to two right angles. Taking from each the angle 0GB, and there remains GOD=EGB. In the same manner we may prove that AGE = GOC.
see that of the eight angles formed by a line lines obliquely, the four acute angles are equal to each other, and so also are the four obtuse angles.

Cor. 4.

We

cutting

two

parallel

PROPOSITION XXI. THEOREM.


If a straight line meet two other straight lines, making the sum of the interior angles on the same side less than two right angles, the two lines will meet if sufficiently produced.

lines

Let the line EFmeet the two CD, IH, making the sum

of the interior angles OGH, GOD, less than two right angles then will IH and CD meet if sufficiently produced. For, if they do not meet they are parallel (Def. 12.). But they are not parallel, for if they were, the sum of the interior angles OGH, GOD, would be equal to two rignt angles (Prop. XX.), whereas it is less Dy hypothesis hence, the lines IH, CD, are not parallel, and will therefore rneet if sufficiently produced.
:

28
Co7\
that
It is

GEOMETRY.
side of
is

GOD,

evident that the two lines IH, CD, will meet on on which the sum of the two angles OGH, less than two right angles

EF

PROPOSITION

XXII.

THEOREM.

Two

straight lines which are parallel to a third line^ areparalht


to

each other.

Let and be parallel to the third line they parallel to each other. Draw perpendicular to EF, and cutting AB, CD. Since AB is parallel to__ EF, PR will be perpendicular to AB (Prop.E E XX. Cor. 1.) and since is parallel to EF, PR will for a like reason be perpen- C

CD

AB

EF

then are

PQR
;

l\

3?

CD

Q
1?

T>

dicular to

CD.

Hence

AB

and

CD

are.

J?L perpendicular to the same straight line ; hence they are parallel (Prop. XVIII.).

PROPOSITION

XXIII.

THEOREM.

Two parallels

are every where equally distant.

Two

parallels

AB, CD, being c


two
points

given, if through

and F, assumed
straight lines
lines will at

at pleasure, the

EG, FH, be drawn

perpendicular to AB,these straight the same time be perpendicular to (Prop. XX. Cor. 1.) and we are now to show that they will be equal to each oth^*. If GF be drawn, the angles GFE, FGH, considered in refer-

CD

ence to the parallels AB, CD, will be alternate angles, and Also, the therefore equal to each other (Prop. XX. Cor. 2.). straight lines EG, FH, being perpendicular to the same straight line AB, are parallel (Prop. XVIII.) and the angles EGF, GFH, considered in reference to the parallels EG, FH, will be alternate angles, and therefore equal. Hence the two triangles EFG, FGH, have a common side, and two adjacent angles in each equal ; hence these triangles are equal (Prop. VI.) ; therefore, the side EG, which measures the distance of the parallels AB and CD at the point E, is equal to the side FH, which measures the distance of the same parallels at the
;

point F.

BOOK
PROPOSITION XXIV.

I.

29

THEOREM.

If two angles have their sides parallel and lying rection, the two angles will he equal.

m the same di-

Let BAG and DEF be the two angles, having AB parallel to ED, and AC to EF; then will the angles be equal. For, produce DE, if necessary, till it meets AC in G. Then, since EF is parallel to GG, the angle DEF is equal to ^^ (Prop. XX. Cor. 3.); and since is parallel to AB, the angle DGG is equal to the angle DEF is equal to BAG (Ax. 1.).

DGG DG

BAG

hence

Scholium.

The

restriction of this proposition to the case

where the side EF lies in the same direction with AC, and ED in the same direction with AB, is necessary, because if FE were produced towards H, the angle DEH would have its sides parallel to those of the angle BAG, but would not be equal to it. In that case, DEH and BAG would be together equal to two right angles. For, DEH + DEF is equal to two right angles
is equal to (Prop. I.) but equal to two right angles.
;

DEF

BAG

hence,

DEH + BAG

is

PROPOSITION XXV.
In every triangle the

THEOREM.
equal
to

sum of

the three angles is

two

right angles.

gle

be any triangle then will the anbe equal to two right angles. For, produce the side CA towards D, and at the point A, draw AE parallel to BC. Then, smce AE, CB, are parallel, and GAD cuts them, the exterior angle DAE will be equal to its inte- C rior opposite one ACB (Prop. XX. Cor. 3.) in like manner, since AE, CB, are parallel, and AB cuts them, the alternate angles ABC, BAE, will be equal hence the three angles of the triangle ABC make up the same sum as the three angles (]JAB, BAE, EAD hence, the sum of tlie three angles is equal
:

Let

ABC

G+A+B

AD

to

two
Cor.

right angles (Prop. L).

their

L Two angles of a triangle being given, or merely sum, the third will be found by subtracting that sum from

two

right angles.

30

GEOMETRY.

Cor. 2. If two angles of one triangle a re respectively equal two angles of another, the third angles will also be equai, and the two triangles will be mutually equiangular.
to

Cor,
less,

for if there

In any triangle there can be but one right angle were two, the third angle must be nothing. Still can a triangle have more than one obtuse angle.
3.

Cor. 4. In every right angled triangle, the acute angles is equal to one right angle.

sum of

the

two

Since every equilateral triangle is also equiangular each of its angles will be equal to the third two right angles so that, if the right angle is expressed by unity, the angle of an equilateral triangle will be expressed byf.
Cor. (Prop. part of
5.

XL

Cor.),

Cor. 6. In every triangle ABC, the exterior angle is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles B and C. For, being parallel to BC, the part BAE is equal to the angle B, and the other part is equal to the angle C.

BAD

AE

DAE

^
TJie

PROPOSITION XXVI.

THEOREM.

sum of all the interior angles of a polygon, is equal to two right angles, taken as many times less two, as the figure has

sides.

Let ABCDEFG be the pioposed polygon. from the vertex of any one angle A, diagonals p^ AC, AD, AE, AF, be drawn to the vertices of
If

the opposite angles, it is plain that the poly-^^ will be divided into five triangles, if it has seven sides ; into six triangles, if it has eight; and, in general, into as many triangles, less two, as the polygon has sides ; for, these triangles may be considered for a common vertex, and for bases, the as having the point
all

gon

several sides of the polygon, excepting the two sides which form It is evident, also, that the sum of all the angles the angle A. in these triangles does not differ from the sum of all the angles in the polygon : hence the sum of all the angles of the polygon IS equal to two right angles, taken as many times as there are triangles in the figure ; in other words, as there are units in the number of sides diminished by two.

Cor.
to

I.

The sum of

the angles in a quadrilateral

two

right angles multiplied

by 4

is

equal

2,

which amounts

to foui

BOOK
right angles
:

I.

31

the angles of a quadrilateral are ; a conclusion which sanctions the seventeenth Definition, where the four angles of a quadrilateral are asserted to be right angles, in the case of the rectangle and the square. The sum of the angles of a pentagon is equal to Cor. 2. two right angles multiplied by 5 2, which amounts to six right angles hence, when a pentagon is equiangular, each angle is equal to the fifth part of six right angles, or to | of one right

hence,

if all

equal, each of

them

will

be a right angle

angle.

The sum of the angles of a hexagon is equal to Cor. 3. 2 X (0 2,) or eight right angles hence in the equiangular hexagon, each angle is the sixth part of eight right angles, or ^ of one. Scholium. When this proposition is applied to polygons which have re-entrant angles, each reentrant angle must be regarded as greater than two right angles. But to avoid all ambiguity, we shall henceforth limit our reasoning to polygons with salient angles, which might otherwise be named convex Every convex polygon is such that a straight line, polygons. drawn at pleasure, cannot meet the contour of the polygon in more than two points.

PROPOSITION XXVII. THEOREM.


If the sides of any polygon be produced out, in the same direction, the sum of the exterior angles will he equal to four rigJU angles.

Let the sides of the polygon

ABCD;

FG, be produced, in the same direction then will the sum of the exterior angles
a + b-\-c + d +/+ g, be equal
angles.
to four right

For, each interior angle, plus its ex+ a, is equal to two right angles (Prop. I.). But there are as many exterior as interior angles, and as many of each as there are sides of the polygon hence, the sum of all the interior and exterior angles is equal to twice as many right angles as the polygon has sides. Again, the sum of all the interior angles is equal to two right angles, taken as many times, less two, as the polygon has sides (Prop. XXVI.) ; that is, equal to twice as many right angles as the figure has sides, wanting Hence, the interior angles plus four right four right angles.
terior angle, as

82

GEOMETRY.

angles, is equal to twice as many right angles as the polygon has sides, and consequently, equal to the sum of the interior

angles plus the exterior angles. Taking from each the sum ol the interior angles, and there remains the exterior angles, equal to four right angles.

PROPOSITION XXVIII.

THEOREM.

In every parallelogram^ the opposite sides and angles are equal

Let
For,

ABCD be
draw

a parallelogram

then will
triangles
;

AB=DC, AD=BC, A=C, and ADC=ABC.


the diagonal

/\^

BD. The

ABD, DBC, have a common side BD and since AD, BC, are parallel, they have also the

\^ / ^3

angle (Prop. XX. Cor. 2.) and since AB, CD, are parallel, the angle hence the two triangles are equal (Prop. VI.) therefore the side AB, opposite the angle ADB, is equal to the side DC, opposite the equal angle and the third sides AD, BC, are equal: hence the op; posite sides of a parallelogram are equal. Again, since the triangles are equal, it follows that the angle is equal to the angle C ; and also that the angle composed of the two ADB, BDC, is equal to ABC, composed of hence the opposite angles the two equal angles DBC, : of a parallelogram are also equal. Cor, Two parallels AB, CD, included between two other divides the parallels AD, BC, are equal ; and the diagonal
;

ADB=DBC,

ABD=BDC

DBC

ADC

ABD

DB

parallelogram into two equal triangles.

PROPOSITION XXIX. THEOREM.


If the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equals each to eachj the equal sides will be parallel, and the figure will he a parallelogram.

be a quadrilateral, having opposite sides respectively equal, viz. BC ; then will these AB=DC, and Bides be parallel, and the figure be a parallelogram. For, having drawn the diagonal BD, the triangles ABD, BDC, have all the sides of the one equal to

Let

ABCD

its

AD =

BOOK
and the angle

I.

83

; therefore they are equal, opposite the side AB, is equal to DBC, (Prop. X.) ; therefore, the side is parallel to opposite is parallel to BC (Prop. XIX. Cor. 1.). For a like reason therefore the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

the corresponding sides of the other

ADB,

CD

AD

AB

CD

ABCD

PROPOSITION XXX. THEOREM.


If two opposite sides of a quadrilateral ai'e equal and parallel, the remaining sides will also he equal and parallele and tlie

figure will he a parallelogram.

Let
the

ABCD

be a quadrilateral, having
parallel

sides

AB, CD, equal and

then will the figure be a parallelogram. For, draw the diagonal DB, dividing
the quadrilateral into
since

two

triangles.

Then,

AB

is

parallel to

DC,

the alternate

angles

ABD, BDC,

are equal (Prop.

XX.

Cor.

2.)
;

moreover,
;

DB is common, and the side AB=DC hence the triangle ABD is equal to the triangle DBC (Prop. V.) therefore, the side AD is equal to BC, the angle ADB = DBC, and consequently AD is parallel to BC hence the figure ABCD is a
the side
;

parallelogram.

PROPOSITION XXXI. THEOREM.


The two diagonals of a parallelogram divide each otiier into equal
partSf or mutually bisect each other.

Let ABCD be a parallelogram, AC and 3 DB its diagonals, intersecting at E, then will ~ AE=EC, and DE=EB.

Comparing
find

the triangles

ADE, CEB, we
XXVIIL),
and

the

the side angle

AD=CB
;

(Prop.

DAE=ECB
equal

the angle (Prop, XX. Cor. 2.); hence those triangles are (Prop. VI.) hence, AE, the side opposite the angle

ADE=CBE,
EC,

ADE,
to

is

equal to

opposite

EBC

hence also

DE

is

equal

EB.

In the case of the rhombus, the sides AB, BC Scholium. being equal, the triangles AEB, EBC, have all the sides of the one equal to the corresponding sides of the other, and are therefore equal whence it follows that the angles AEB, BEC,
:

are equal, and therefore, that the cut each other at right angles.

two diagonals of a rhombui

S4

GEOMETRY.

BOOK

II.

OF RATIOS AND PROPORTIONS.


Definitions.

1.

Ratio

is

the quotient arising from dividing one quantity

by another quantity of the same kind. Thus, if A and B repr(;sent quantities of the same kind, the ratio of A to B is expressed by

magnitudes

The

ratios of

may

be expressed by numbers,

either exactly or approximatively;

and

in the latter case, the

approximation

may be

brought nearer to the true ratio than

any assignable difference. Thus, of two magnitudes, one of them may be considered to be divided into some number of equal parts, each of the same kind as the whole, and one of those parts being considered as an unit of measure, the magnitude may be expressed by the number of units it contains. If the other magnitude contain a certain number of those units, it also may be expressed by the number of its units, and the two quantities are then said to be commensurable. If the second magnitude do not contain the measuring unit an exact number of times, there may perhaps be a smaller unit which will be contained an exact number of times in each of the magnitudes. But if there is no unit of an assignable value, which shall be contained an exact number of times in each of the magnitudes, the magnitudes are said to be incommensurable. It is plain, however, that the unit of measure, repeated as many times as it is contained in the second ma^-nitude, would always differ from the second magnitude by a quantity less than the unit of measure, since the remainder is always less than the divisor. Now, since the unit of measure may be made as small as we please, it follows, that magnitudes may be represented by numbers to any degree of exactness, or they will differ from their numerical representatives by less than any
assignable quantity.

Therefore, of two magnitudes, A and B, we may conceive to be divided into number of units, each equal <o A' then A X A': let B be divided into N number of equal units, each equal to A'; then B = x A'; and N being integral numbers. Now the ratio of A to B, will be the same as the ratio of X A' to X A'; that is the same as the ratio of to N, since A' is a common unit.

=M

BOOK
C

II.

35

In the same manner, the ratio of any other two magniludeg to being and may be expressed by P x x C, P and also integral numbers, and their ratio will be the same as that

C Q

ofPtoQ.
2.

If there be four magnitudes


T>

A, B, C, and D, having such


said to

1\
,

values that
to B, that

is equal to then A is

have the same ratio

C/

to B is equal to the ratio four quantities have this relation to each other, they are said to be in proportion. To indicate that the ratio of to B is equal to the ratio of C to D, the quantities are usually written thus, B C D, and read, is to B as C is to D. The quantities which are compared together are called the terms of the proportion. The first and last terms are called the two extremes^ and the second and third terms, the two /neans. 3. Of four proportional quuiuities, the first and third are called the antecedents, and tiic ^econd and fourth the consequents ; and the last is said to be a fourth proportional to the other three taken in order. 4. Three quantities are in proportion, when the first has the same ratio to the second, that the second has to the third ; and then the middle term is said to be a mean proportional between the other two.

has to D, or the ratio of

of

to

D.

When

to be in proportion by inversion, or the consequents are taken as antecedents, and the antecedents as consequents. 6. Magnitudes are in proportion by alternation, or alternately
5.

Magnitudes are said

inversely,

when

when antecedent with consequent.

is

compared

witli

antecedent, and consequent

7. Magnitudes are in proportion by composition, when the sum of the antecedent and consequent is compared either with

antecedent or consequent.
8. Magnitudes are said to be in proportion by division, when the difference of the antecedent and consequent is compared either with antecedent or consequent.

Equimultiples of two quantities are the products which from multiplying the quantities by the same number thus, X A, X B, are equimultiples of and B, the common multiplier being m.
9.

arise

10. Two quantities and B are said to be reciprocally proportional, or inversely proportional, when one increases in the same ratio as the other diminishes. In such case, either of them is equal to a constant quantity divided by the other, and their product is constant.

86

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION

I.

THEOREM.

When four

quantities are in proportion^ the product of tne


is

two extremes

equal

to the

product of the two means

Let A, B, C, D, be four quantities in proportion, and P Q be their numerical representatives then will x
: ;

NxP; for since the quantities are in O fore N==Mxp:,orNxP=MxQ.

proportion

N O =_

M N M Q=
:

MP

there-

Cor. If there are three proportional quantities (Def. 4.), the product of the extremes will be equal to the square of the

mean.

PROPOSITION

II.

THEOREM.

If the product of two quantities be equal to the product of two other quantities, two of them will be the extremes and the other two the means of a proportion.

then will M: :: P Q. the ratio which not to has to N, let P have to Q', a number greater or less than Q, the same ratio that : : P Q' ; then MxQ'=has to N; that is, let

Let

Mx Q=NxP
if

For,

P have

M N

NxP
is,
:

(Prop. L)
^

hence, Q'=:

'

Z^
III.

sequently,

M N

Q=rQ' and
:

the four quantities are proportional ; that

MM
: : ;

but

Q=:Z^

con-

Q.

PROPOSITION

THEOREM.

If four quantities are in proportion, they will be in proportion

when taken

alternately.

Let M, N, P, Q, be the numerical representatives of four quanties in proportion ; so that : P : : Q. : P : Q, then will
Since
fore,

M N M N P
:

and

Q may

x Q, by supposition, be made the extremes, and


;
:

means of a proportion (Prop. IL)

M Q=N x P thereN and P the N Q. hence, M P


; : :

BOOK
PROPOSITION
[f there he four tional quantities,
IV.

II.

37

THEOREM.

proportional quantities, and four other propor-

having the antecedents the same in both, the consequents will he proportional,

Let and
then will
For,

N Q
:

M N M R
:

: :
:

P Q P S
:
:

by
^

alternation

M:P::N:Q,or

P O ^=^ M N

and
hence

M:P::R;S, or
S j^=p-;

Tyi^o"
: :

or

N Q: R
:

S.

Cor. If there be two sets of proportionals, having an ante cedent and consequent of the first, equal to an antecedent and consequent of the second, the remaining terms will be proportional.

PROPOSITION

V.

THEOREM.

If four quantities he in proportion,they will he in proportion when taken inversely.

Let
For, from the
first

M N P Q N M Q P.
: :

then will

proportion

we

have

NxP=MxQ.
N

M x Q=N x P, or

But the products are the products of the x P and x extremes and means of the four quantities N, M, Q, P, and these products being equal,

M Q

N:M;:Q:P(Prop.II.).
PROPOSITION

VI.

THEOREM.

If four quantities are in proportion, they will he in proportion by composition, or division.

38
Let, as before,

GEOMETRY.
M, N,
:

P, Q, be the numerical representatives


: :
.

of the four quantities, so that

M N P Q then will MN:M::PQ:P.


;

For, from the

first

proportion, we' have


last

MxQ=Nx.P, orNxP=MxQ;
it

Add each of the members of the from M.P, and we shall have,
But

equation
or

to,

or subtract

M.PN.P=M.PM.Q;

(MN)xP-(PQ)xM.

PQ and M, the

MrbN

and P, maybe considered the two extremes, and two means of a proportion hence,
:

MN M FtQ
: : :

P.

PROPOSITION

VII.

THEOREM.

Equimultiples of any two quantities, have the same ratio as the


quantities Quantities themselves.

Let

M and N be
;

any two
:
:

quantities,

and

any

integral

number then

will

m.

m.Mim. N M N. M X N=m. N X M,
:
;

For
since the, quantities

each member are the same


portional CProp. II.)
;

therefore, the quantities are pro-

or
;

m.

m.

N.

PROPOSITION

VIII.

THEOREM.

Of four
tiples

proportional quantities, if there be taken any equimulof the two antecedents, and any equimultiples of the two

consequents, the four resulting quantities will be proportional.

Let M, N, P, Q, be the numerical representatives of four quantities in proportion ; and let and n be any numbers

whatever, then will m.


For, since
:

x P ; hence, m. X 71. Q=7i. N x m. P, by multiplying both members of the equation by mxn. But m. and n. Q, inay be regarded as the two extremes, and n. N and m. P, as the means of a proportion hence, m. m. T n. Q. : n. ISi
:

M
;

M N
M

M
:

N m. P n. Q. P Q, we have M x
:

71.
:

Q=N

BOOK
PROPOSITION
IX.

11.

39

THEOREM.

Of four

proportional quantities^ if the two consequents he either


the

augmented or diminished by quantities which have


ratio as the antecedents^ the resulting quantities

same

and

the avir.

cedents will he proportional.

Let

For, since

And

since
or.

M N M P M P M N M P
:
:

P
7W

Q, and
71,
:

let also

then will

NdtTTi
:

Q72.

Q,
71,

MxQ=NxP.
Mx7i=Px7/i
Q7i

Therefore,

MxQdbMx7i=NxPPxm
Mx(Q7i)=Px(Nm):

hence

Nm
X.

(Prop.

II.),

PROPOSITION
If

THEOREM.
antece-

any number of quantities are proportionals^ any one


dent will he to
to the

sum

consequent, as the of the consequents.


its

sum of all

the antecedents

Let
For, since

And since Add and we have,


or
therefore,

M M M M

N N N N

Q
:

R
:

S,

&c. then

wijl

M + P + R N + Q+S P Q, we have MxQ=NxP R S, we have MxS=NxR


:

MxN=MxN

M.N4-M.Q + M.S=M.N + N.P + N.R M x (N + Q+S)=N x (M + P + R) M N M + P + R N + Q+S.


: :

PROPOSITION

XI.

THEOREM.

If two magnitudes he each increased or diminished by like parts of each, the resulting quantities will have the same ratio as the

magnitude's themselves.

40

GEOMETRY.

Let

M and N be any two magnitudes, and m


:

and be

like

parts of each

then will

M N
:

MM m

i^ m
since

For,

it

is

obvious that

Mx(Ndb^\ ^NxCMdb^'j m/ m/
m

each
titles

is

equal to

M.Nrt!

II.).

Consequently, the four quan-

are proportional (Prop.

PROPOSITION

XII.

THEOREM.

If four quantities are proportional^ their squares or cubes will also he proportional.

Let
then will

M N
:

P
:
:

and
For,
or,

MxQ=NxP, since M
M^ X Q^=N^ X P^ by M^ X Q^=N^ X P^ by ps Q2 M^ N^

M^ M3

N^ N3

Q, Qs P^ Q3 P3
: : :

and
therefore,

squaring both members, cubing both members

and

W :W
:

:'
it

Q^
that like

Cor. In the same

way

may be shown

powers or

roots of proportional quantities are proportionals.

PROPOSITION
i/ there be

XIII.

THEOREM.

two sets of proportional quantities, the p^'oducts of the corresponding terms will be proportional

Let and
Chen will

For since and


or
herefore,

M N P Q T V R S MxR NxS PxT QxV MxQ=NxP R X V = S X T, we shall have MxQ RxV = NxP X SxT
: : :

MxRx QxV ^N xSxP xf MxR NxS PxT QxV.


:

BOOK

III.

41

BOOK
THE
CIRCLE,

III.

AND THE MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES.


Definitions.

circumference of a circle is a points of which are equally distant from a point within, called the centre. The circle is the space terminated by A|
1.

The

curved

line, all the

this 2.

curved

line.*

Every drawn from


ference,
eter;
is

straight line,

CA, CE, CD,


^-

is

the centre to the circumcalled a radius or semidiam-

every line which, like AB, passes through the centre, and terminated on both sides by the circumference, is called a

diameter.

From the definition of a circle, it follows that all the radii are equal ; that all the diameters are equal also, and each double of the radius. 3. portion of the circumference, such as FHG, is called

an arc.
joins its
4.

The chord, or subtense of an two extremities.f

arc, is the straight line

FG, which

A
A A

segment
sector
is

is

the surface or portion of a circle, included


its

between an arc and


5.

chord.

arc DE, of the arc. 6. straight line is said to be inscribed in a circle, when its extremities are in the cir-

the part of the circle included between an and the two radii CD, CE, drawn to the extremities

cumference, as AB. An inscribed angle is one which, like BAC, has its vertex in the circumference, and is

formed by two chords.

* Note. In common language, the circle is sometimes confounded with its circumference but the correct expression may always be easily recurred to if we bear in mind that the circle is a surface which has length and breadth, while the circumference is but a line.
:

In all cases, the same chord FG belongs to two arcs, FGH, FE(; t Note. and consequently also to two segments but the smaller one is always meant,
:

unless the contrary

is

expressed.

42

GEOMETRY.
BAG,
has
its

An inscribed triangle is one which, Hkc angular points in the circumference.

three

And. generally, an inscribed figure is one, of which all the angles have their vertices in the circumference. The circle is then said to circumscribe such a figure. 7. A secant is a line which meets the circum^^ \ti ^^^ ferencc in two points, and lies partly within =^^ and partly without the circle. AB is a secant. 8. tangent is a line which has but one point in common with the circumference. is a tangent. ^ The point M, where tlie tangent touches the c circumference, is called the foint of contact.

CD

In like manner, two circumferences touch each other when they have but one point in

common.

9.

A
is

polygon
all

is

circle,

when

its

circumscribed about a sides are tangents to

the circumference
circle

: in the same case, the said to be inscribed in the po-

lygon.

PROPOSITION

I.

THEOREM.
and
its

Every diameter

divides the circle

circumference into iwo

equal parts.
a circle, and AB a diameter. be applied to AFB, their common base AB retaining its position, the curve line must fall exactly on the curve line AFB, otherwise there would, in the one or the other, be points unequally distant from the centre, which is contrary to tlie definition of a circle.

Let

AEDF be

Now,

if

the figure

AEB

AEB

BOOK
PROPOSITION
Every chord is
less
II

III.

43

THEOREM.

than the diameter.

Let
have
or

AD be
to
its

any chord.
extremities.

Draw

CA, CD,

We
I.

AD<AC + CD (Book

the radii then Prop. VII.*);


shall

AD<AB.
Cor,

Hence

circle

is its

the greatest line which can be inscribed in a diameter.

PROPOSITION

III.

THEOREM.
circle in

A straight line cannot meet the circumference of a


than two points.

more

For, if it could meet it in three, those three points would be equally distant from the centre ; and hence, there would be three equal straight lines drawn from the same point to the same straight line, which is impossible (Book I. Prop. XV.

Cor.

2.).

PROPOSITION

IV.

THEOREM.

In the same circle, or in equal circles, equal arcs are subtended by equal chords ; and, conversely, equal chords subtend equal arcs.

Note. When reference is made from one proposition to another, in the 8ame Book, the number of the proposition referred to is alone given but when the proposition is found in a different Book, the number of the Book is also
;

given.

41

GEOMETR\

If the radii AC, EO, are equal, and also the arcs then the chord

AMD, ENG;
will

AD

be equal

to

the

chord

EG.

For, since the diameters equal, the semimaybe applied circle exactly to the semicircle ENGF, and the curve line will coincide entirely with the curve line ENGF. But the part is equal to the part ENG, by hypothesis ; hence, the will fall on point is equal to the ; therefore, the chord

AB, EF, are

AMDB

AMDB

AMD
D

AD

chord EG. Conversely, supposing again the radii AC, EO, to be equal, if the chord is equal to the chord EG, the arcs AMD, will also be equal. For, if the radii CD, OG, be drawn, the triangles ACD, EOG, will have all their sides equal, each to each, namely, EO, CD = OG, and hence the triangles are themselves equal ; and, consequently, the angle ACD is equal EOG (Book I. Prop. X.). Now, placing the semicircle ADB on its equal EGF, since the angles ACD, EOG, are equal, it is plain that the radius CD will fall on the radius OG, and the point D on the point G therefore the arc is equal to the

AD

ENG

AC

AD=EG

arc

ENG
PROPOSITION
V.

AMD

THEOREM.

In the

same circle^ or in equal circles^ a greater arc is subtended by a greater chords and conversely, the greater chord subtends the greater arc.

Let the arc be greater than the arc then will the chord ; be greater than the chord AD. For, draw the radii CD, CH. The two sides AC, CH, of the triangle are equal to the two AC, CD, of the triangle ACD, and the angle is greater than ACD; hence, the third side is greater than the third side (Book I. Prop. IX.) ; thereic fore the chord, which subtends the greater arc, is the greater Conversely, if the chord is greater than AD, it will follow it on comparing the same triangles, that the angle

AH

AD

AH

ACH ACH

AH

AD

AH

ACH

BOOK
ACD

III.

45

(Bk. I. Prop. IX. Sch.) ; and hence that greater than ; since the whole is greater is greater than the arc than its part. The arcs here treated of are each less than the Scholium. semicircumference. If they were greater, the reverse property would have place ; for, as the arcs increase, the chords Thus, the arc is would diminish, and conversely. greater than AICBH, and the chord AD, of the first, is less of the second. than the chord

AH

AD

AKBD

AH

PROPOSITION
Tlie radius

VI.

THEOREM.
to

which

is

perpendicular

a chord,

bisects the chords

and bisects
Let

also the subtended arc of the chord.

AB

dius perpendicular to

be a chord, and CG the rait then will


:

AD =

DB, and the arc AG-=GB. Then For, draw the radii CA, CB. the two right angled triangles ADC, CDB, will have AC = CB, and CD comhence, is equal to DB (Book Prop. XVII.). Again, since AD, DB, are equal, is a perpendicular erected from the middle of AB ; hence every point of this perpendicular must be equally distant from its two extremities A and B (Book I. Prop. X.VI.). Now, G is one of these points therefore AG, BG, are equal. is equal to the chord GB, the arc But if the chord A.G will be equal to the arc GB (Prop. IV.) hence, the radius CG, at right angles to the chord AB, divides the arc subtended Dy that chord into two equal parts at the point G. Scholium. The centre C, the middle point D, of the chord AB, and the middle point G, of the arc subtended by this chord, are three points of the same line perpendicular to the chord. But two points are sufficient to determine the position of a straight line hence every straight line which passes through two of the points just mentioned, will necessarily pass through the third, and be perpendicular to the chord. It follows, likewise, that the perpendicular liaised from the middle of a chord passes through the centre of the circle, and through the middle of the arc subtended by that chord. For, this perpendicular is the same as the one let fall from the centre on the same chord, since both of them pass through the centre and middle of the chord.

mon
I.

AD

CG

AG

46

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
VII.

THEOREM.

Through

three given points not in the same straight line^ one cvi cumference may always he made to pass, and hut one^

Let A, B, and C, be the given


points.

Draw AB, BC, and


straight hnes

bisect these

by

the perpendiculars

say first, that DE and meet in some point O. For, they must necessarily cut each other, if they are not parallel. Now, if they were parallel, the line AB, which is perpendicular to DE, would also be perpendicular to FG, and the angle K would be a right angle (Book I. Prop. XX. Cor. 1.). But BK, the prolongation of BD, is a different line from BF, because the three points A, B, C, are not in the same straight line hence there would be two perpendiculars, BF, BK, let fall from the same point B, on the same straight hne, which is impossible hence DE, FG, will always meet in (Book I. Prop. XIV.) some point O.

DE,
FG,

FG we
:

will

And moreover, this point O, since it lies in the perpendicular DE, is equally distant from the two points, A and B (Book 1.
Prop. XVI.)
dicular
;

FG,

it is

and since the same point O lies in the perpenalso equally distant from the two points B and
;

fore the circumference described

hence the three distances OA, OB, 00, are equal therefrom the centre O, with the radius OB, will pass through the three given points A, B, C. We have now shown that one circumference can always be
:

made

to pass through three given points, not


:

in

the

same

straight line

we

say farther, that but one can be described

through them. For, if there were a second circumference passing through the three given points A, B, C, its centre could not be out of the hne DE, for then it would be unequally distant from A and B (Book I. Prop. XVI.); neither could it be out of the line FG, for a like reason therefore, it would be in both the lines DE, FG. But two straight lines cannot cut each other in more than one point hence there is but one circumference which can pass through three given points.
; ;

circumferences cannot meet in more than two they have three common points, there would be two circumferences passing through the same three points which has been shown by the proposition to be impossible.
Cor.

Two

points

for, if

BOOK
PROPOSITION

III.

47

VIII.

THEOREM.

Two equal chords are


unequal chords
centre.
^

the

equally distant from the centre ; and of two less is at the greater distance from tlie

Suppose the chord Bisect these chords by the perpendiculars CF, CG, and draw the
First.

AB =

DE.

radii

CA, CD.

In the right angled triangles CAF, DCG, the hypothenuses CA, CD, are equal ; and the side AF, the half of AB, is equal to the side DG, the half hence the triangles are equal, of and CF is equal toCG (Book I. Prop. XVII.) ; hence, the two equal chords AB, DE, are equally distant from the centre. Secondly Let the chord be greater than DE. The will be greater than arc (Prop. V.) cut off from the former, a part ANB, equal to draw the chord AB, and let fall CF perpendicular to this chord, and CI perpendicular to AH. It is evident that CF is greater than CO, and* than CI (Book I. Prop. XV.) therefore, CF is still greater than CI. But CF is equal to CG, becauso the chords AB, In nee of two unequal DE, are equal hence we have chords, the less is the farther from the centre.

DE

AKH

AH DME DME
;

CO

CG>C1

PROPOSITION

IX.

THEOREM.
^ ,

A straight line
Let
radius
will
it

perpendicular to a radius at its extremity tangent to the circumference.


to the

is

BD
CA,

be perpendicular
at its

extremity A ; then be tangent to the circumfe-

rence.

For every oblique line CE, is longer than the perpendicular (Book I. Prop. XV.); hence the point E is without the circle ; therefore,

CA

A common

to

it

and the circumference

BD has no point but consequently BD is a

tangent (Def.

8.).

4b

GEOMETRY.
;

Scholium. At a given point A, only one tangent AD can be drawn to the circumference for, if another could be drawn, it would not be perpendicular to the radius CA (Book I. Prop. XIV. Sch.) hence in reference to this new tangent, the radius AC w^ould be an oblique line, and the perpendicular let fall from the centre upon this tangent would be shorter than CA hence this supposed tangent would enter the circle, and be a
;

secant.

PROPOSITION

X.

THEOREM.

Two parallels

intercept equal arcs on the circumference.

There may be three


First.

cases.
parallels are se-

If the

two

CH perpendicuchord MP. It will, at the same time be perpendicular to (Book I.Prop.XX.Cor. 1 .) therefore, the point will be at once the middle of the arc MHP, and of the arc (Prop. VI.); therefore, we shall have
cants,
lar

draw

the radius

to the

NQ

NHQ

the arc

MH-^HP,

and the arc

HQ; and MN=PQ.


Second.
lels

therefore

MHNH= HPHQ

NH =

in other

words,

When, of the two paralAB, DE, one is a secant, the other a tangent, draw the radius CH
of contact it will be perpendicular to the tangent (Prop. IX.), and also to its parallel MP. But, since is perpendicular to the chord MP, the point must be (Prop. the middle of the arc VI.) therefore the arcs MH, HP, included between the parallels AB, DE, are equal.
to the point
;

DE

CH

H MHP

If the two parallels DE, IL, are tangents, the one Third. H, the other at K, draw the parallel secant AB and, from what has just been shown, we shall have MH=HP, MK=KP; and hence the whole arc HMK=HPK. It is farther evident that each of these arcs is a semicircumference
at
;

BOOK
PROPOSITION
XI.

III.

49

THEOREM.

IJ two circles cut each other in two points^ the line which passes through their centres, will he perpendicular to the chord which joins the points of intersection, and will divide it into tw

equal parts.
For, let the line

AB

join the points of intersection.


circles.

It will

be a

common

chord to the two

Now if a perpendicular

be erected from the middle of this chord, it will pass through each of the two centres C and D (Prop. VI. Sch.). But no more than one straight line can be drawn through two points ; hence the straight line, which passes through the centres, will bisect the chord at right angles.

PROPOSITION

XII.

THEOREM.

If the distance between the centres of two circles is less than tke sum of the radii, the greater radius being at the same tim^ less than the sum of the smaller and the distance between the centres, the two circumferences will cut each other.
For, to

make an

intersection

CAD must be possible. Hence, not only must we have + AD,


possible, the triangle

CD<AC

but also the greater radius AI)< AC-i-CD (Book I. Prop. VII.).

And, whenever the triangle CAD can be constructed, it is plain that the circles described from the centres each other in A and B.
I)

and D,

will cut

50

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION

XIII.

THEOREM.

If the distance between the centres of two circles is equal to th^ sum of their radii, the two circles will touch each other e-* *
nally.

Let

and

distance from + AI).

be the centres at a each other equal to

CA

The circles will evidently have the point common, and they will have no other; because, if they had two points common, the distance between their centres must be less than the sum of their radii.

PROPOSITION

XIV.

THEOREM.

If the distance between the centres of two circles is equal to the difference of their radiU the two circles will touch each other
internally.

Let C and be the centres at a distance from each other equal to CA. It is evident, as before, that they will have the point common : they can have no other; because, if they had, the greater radius must be less than the sum of

AD

AD

the radius and the distanceCD between the centres (Prop. XIL); which is contrary to the supposition.

AC

Cor, Hence, if two circles touch each other, either externally or internally, their centres and the point of contact will bo in the same right line.
All circles which have their centres on the right pass through the point A, are tangent to each other. For, they have only the point common, and it through the point A, be drawn perpendicular to AD, the straight line will be a common tangent to all the circles.

Scholium.

line

AD. and which

AE

AE

BOOK
PROPOSITION XV
In the

III.

51

THEOREM.

vertices at the centre, intercept equal arcs

or in equal circles, equal angles having their on the circumference: and conversely, if the arcs intercepted are equal, the angles contained by the radii will also be equal.

same

circle^

Let

and

be the centres of equal

circles,

and the angle

ACB=DCE.
Since the angles ACB, are equal, they may be placed upon each other ; and since their sides are equal, the will evidently fall on D, point and the point B on E. But, in must also that case, the arc fall on the arc for if the arcs did not exacdy coincide, there would, in the one or the other, be points unequally distant from is equal the centre ; which is impossible : hence the arc
First.

DCE,

AB

DE

AB

to

DE.

Secondly. If equal to DCE.

will be suppose the angle For, if these angles are not equal, suppose to be the greater, and let ACI be taken equal to DCE. From what has just been shown, we shall have AI : but, by hypothesis, is equal to ; hence AI must be equal to AB, or a part to the whole, which is absurd (Ax. 8.) : hence, the angle is equal to DCE.

we

AB=DE,

ACB

ACB

= DE

AB

DE

ACB

PROPOSITION XVI. THEOREM.


In
tile same circle, or in equal circles, if two angles at the centre are to each other in the proportion of two whole numbers, the intercepted arcs will be to each other in the proportion of the same numbers, and we shall have the angle to the angle, as the

corresponding arc

to tlie

corresponding arc.

pt

GEOMETRY.
;

Suppose, lor example, that the angles ACB, DCE, are to each other as 7 is to 4 or, which is the same thing, suppose that the angle M, which may serve as a common measure, is contained 7 times in the angle ACB, and 4 times in DCE

partial angles ACm, mC/i, nCp^ &c., into whioh divided, being each equal to any of the four partial angles into which is divided ; each of the partial arcs Am, mn, np, (fee, will be equal to each of the partial arcs Da:, xy, &c. (Prop. XV.). Therefore the whole arc will be to the whole arc DE, as 7 is to 4. But the same reasoning would evidently apply, if in place of 7 and 4 any numbers whatever

The seven

ACB

is

DCE

AB

were employed hence, if the ratio of the angles ACB, DCE, can be expressed in whole numbers, the arcs AB, DE, will be to each other as the angles ACB, DCE. Scholium, Conversely, if the arcs, AB, DE, are to each other as two whole numbers, the angles ACB, DCE will be to each other as the same whole numbers, and we shall have ACB DCE AB DE. For the partial arcs. Am, mw, &c and Do:, xy, &c., being equal, the partial angles ACwi, mCw, (fee. and DCa;, xQy, &c. will also be equal.
;

K
Whatever
radii.

PROPOSITION

XVII.

THEOREM.

he the ratio of two angles, they will always be toxach other as the arcs intercepted between their sides ; the arcs being described from the vertices of the angles as centres with equal

be the greater and the less angle. Let the less angle be placed on the greater. If the propo-

Let

ACB

iACD

not true, the angle be to the angle as the arc AB is to an arc greater or less than AD. Suppose this arc to be greater, and let it be represented by we shall thus have, the angle ; ACB angle : arc AB arc AO. Next conceive the arc
is

sition

ACB

will

ACD AO

^i

ACD

BOOK
AB
to
;

III.

53

be divided into equal parts, each of which is less than there will be at least one point of division between and O ; let I be that point ; and draw CI. The arcs AB, AI, will be to each other as two whole numbers, and by the preceding angle ACI arc AB theorem, we shall have, the angle Comparing these two proportions with each other, : arc AI. we see that the antecedents are the same hence, the consequents are proportional (Book II. Prop. IV.) ; and thus we find arc AI. : angle ACI : : arc But the arc the angle is greater than the arc AI ; hence, if this proportion is true, must be greater than the angle ACI on the the angle cannot be contrary, however, it is less ; hence the angle as the arc AB is to an arc greater than AD. to the angle By a process of reasoning entirely similar, it may be shown that the fourth term of the proportion cannot be less than ; itself ; therefore we have hence it is

DO

ACB

ACD

AO

AO

ACD

ACB

ACD

AD

AD

Angle

ACB

angle

ACD

arc

AB

arc

AD.

Cor, Since the angle at the centre of a circle, and the arc intercepted by its sides, have such a connexion, that if the one be augmented or diminished in any ratio, the other will be augmented or diminished in the same ratio, we are authorized to establish the one of those magnitudes as the measure of the as the meaother ; and we shall henceforth assume the arc sure of the angle ACB. It is only necessary that, in the comparison of angles with each other, the arcs which serve to measure them, be described with equal radii, as is implied in

AB

all

the foregoing propositions.

Scholium 1. It appears most natural to measure a quantity by a quantity of the same species and upon this principle it would be convenient to refer all angles to the right angle which, being made the unit of measure, an acute angle would be expressed by some number between and 1 an obtuse angle by some number between 1 and 2. This mode of expressing angles would not, however, be the most convenient in practice. It has been found more simple to measure them by arcs of a circle, on account of the facility with which arcs can be made equal to given arcs, and for various other reasons. At all events, if the measurement of angles by arcs of a circle is in any degree indirect, it is still equally easy to obtain the since, on direct and absolute measure by this method comparing the arc which serves as a measure to any an;

gle,

with the fourth part of the circumference,

ratio of the given angle to a right angle,

which

is

we find the the absolute

measure.

54

GEOMETRY.

Scholium 2. All that has been demonstrated in the last three propositions, concerning the comparison of angles with arcs, holds true equally, if applied to the comparison of sectors with arcs ; for sectors are not only equal when their angles are so,
respects proportional to their angles ; hence, two taken in the same circle, or in equal circles, are to each other as the arcs AB, AD, the bases of those sectors. h is hence evident that the arcs of the circle, which serve as a measure of the different angles, are proportional to the different sectors, in the same circle, or in equal circles.
but are in
all

sectors

ACB, ACD,

PROPOSITION

XVIII.

THEOREM.

An

inscribed angle is

measured by half the arc included between


its sides.

Let
us
first

BAD

be an inscribed angle, and let suppose that the centre of the cir-

cle lies within the angle

BAD.

Draw

the

diameter AE, and the radii CB, CD. The angle BCE, being exterior to the triangle ABC, is equal to the sum of the two interior angles CAB, ABC (Book I. Prop. XXV. Cor. 6.) but the triangle BAC being isosceles, the angle CAB is equal to ABC hence the angle BCE is double of BAC. Since BCE lies at the centre, it is measured by the arc BE hence BAC will be measured by the half of BE. For a like reason, the angle CAD will be measured by the half of ED; hence BAC + CAD, or BAD will be measured by half of BE + ED, or of BED.
: ;
;

Suppose,
centre
will

in the

sec6nd place, that the

C lies without the angle BAD. Then


;

drawing the diameter AE, the angle BAE be measured by the half of BE the angle DAE by the half of DE hence their difference BAD will be measured by the half of BE minus the half of ED, or by the
:

half of

is measured bv half of the arc included between its sides.

BD. Hence every inscribed angle

BOOK

III.

55

Cor.
;

1.

BEC, inscribed

All the angles BAC, BDC, in the same segment are

equal because they are all measured by the half of the same arc BOC.

Cor, 2. semicircle

is

Every angle BAD, inscribed in a aright angle because it is mea;

sured by half the semicircumference BOD, that is, by the fourth part of the whole circumference.

Cor. 3.

Every angle BAC,

inscribed in a

segment greater than a semicircle, is an acute angle for it is measured by half of the arc
;

in a an obtuse angle for it is measured by half of the arc BAC, greater than a semicircumference.

BOC, less than a semicircumference. And every angle BOC, inscribed


segment
;

less

than a semicircle,

is

Cor.

4.

The

opposite angles

A
:

and C, of

are together equal to two right angles for the anis measured by half the arc BCD, gle is measured by half the arc the angle hence the two angles BAD, BCD, taken together, are measured by the half of the circumference hence their sum is equal to two right angles.

an inscribed quadrilateral

ABCD,

BAD
;

BCD

BAD

PROPOSITION XIX. THEOREM.


The angle formed by two chords^ which intersect each other, is measured by half the sum of the arcs included between its sides

56

GEOMETRY.
:

Let AB, CD, be two chords intersecting each other at E then will the angle AEC, or DEB, be measured by half of

AC+DB. Draw AF parallel to DC then will ihe arc DF be equal to AC (Prop. X.) and the angle FAB equal to the angle DEB (Book I. Prop. XX. Cor. 3.). But the angle FAB is measured by half the arc FDB (Prop. XVIIL); therefore, DEB is measured by half of FDB that is, by half of DB + DF, oi half of DB + AC. In the same manner might be proved tha the angle AED is measured by half of AFD + BC.
:

it

PROPOSITION XX. THEOREM.


The angle formed hy two
secants^ is

measured by half
its sides.

the diffe

rence of the arcs included between

will the angle

Let AB, AC, be two secants then BAC be measured by


:

half the difference of the arcs

BEC

and DF.

DE parallel to AC then will EC be equal to DF, and the angle BDE equal to the angle BAC. But BDE is measured by half the arc BE hence, BAC is also measured by half the arc BE that is, by half the difference of BEC and EC, or half the difference of BEC and DF.
Draw
:

the arc

PROPOSITION XXI. THEOREM.


TTie angle

formed by a tangent and a chord,


of the arc included between

is

measured by hnlj

its sides.

BOOK
Let

III.

57

BE be

the tangent, and

AC

the chord.

From A, the point of contact, draw the diameter AD. The angle BAD is a right
angle (Prop. IX.), and is measured bythe ; half the semicircumference is measured by the half of angle + DAC, or BAC, is DC: hence, plus the measured by the half of half of DC, or by half the whole arc

AMD

DAC

BAD

AMD

AMDC.
It

might be shown, by taking the difference between the an-

gles

DAE, DAC,
AC,

that the angle


its

CAE

is

measured by

half the

arc

included between

sides.

PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE FIRST AND THIRD BOOKS.

PROBLEM
To
Let
divide a

I.

ghen

straight line into two equal parts.

be the given straight line. and B as centres, with the points a radius greater than the half of AB, describe two arcs cutting each other in the point ; will be equally distant from and B. Find,

AB

From

manner, above or beneath the line AB, -iC a second point E, equally distant from the points and B ; through the two points and E, draw the line it will bisect the X<^ hne AB in C. For, the two points and E, being each equally distant from the extremities and B, must both lie in the perpendicular raised from the middle of AB (Book I. Prop. XVI. Cor.). But only one straight line can pass through two given points hence the line must itself be that perpendicular, which divides AB into two equal parts at the point C.
in like
''

DE

DE

58

GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
II.

At a given point,

in a given straight line, to erect a perpendicular to this line.

Let

A be

the given point, and

BC

the

'^

given Hne.

B and C at equal disthen from the points B and C as centres, with a radius greater than t A. BA, describe two arcs intersecting each other in draw it will be the perpendicular required. For, the point D, being equally distant from B and C, must be in the perpendicular raised from the middle of BC (Book I. Prop. XVI.) and since two points determine aline, is that perpendicular.
Take
the points

tances from

AD

AD

Scholium. The same construction serves for making a right angle BAD, at a given point A, on a given straight line BC.

PROBLEM
From a given point,
Let A be the
line.

III.

without a straight line, dicular on this line.

to let fall

a perpen-

point,

and

BD the straight
an

From the
a radius

point

A as a centre, and with


BD

sufficiently great, describe

arc cutting the line in the two points B and ; then mark a point E, equally distant from the points B and D, and draw it will be the perpendicular required. For, the two points and E are each equally distant from the points B and hence the line is a perpendiculai ; passing through the middle of (Book L Prop. Cor.)

AE

AE

BD

XVL

PROBLEM
At a point in a given
line, to

IV.

make an angle equal

to

a givert

angle.

BOOK
Let

111.

60

A be

the given point,

AB

the given line, and

IKL

the

given angle.
the vertex K, as a cenwith any radius, describe the arc IL, germinating in the tv^o From the ^ sides of the angle. B I point A as a centre, with a disthen tance AB, equal to Kl, describe the indefinite arc BO take a radius equal to the chord LI, with which, from the point B as a centre, describe an arc cutting the indefinite arc BO, in be equal to the given ; and the angle DAB will ; draw angle K. For, the two arcs BD, LI, have equal radii, and equal chords; hence they are equal (Prop. IV.) therefore the angles IKL, measured by them, are equal.
tre,

From

AD

BAD

PROBLEM
To divide a given
First.
arc, or

V.

a given angle, into two equal parts.


to divide the

Let

it

be required

arc points
in

AEB into two equal parts. From the A and B, as centres, with the same
;

radius, describe

through the point

two arcs cutting each other D and the centre

C, draw

in it will bisect the arc the point E. For, the two points C and are each equally distant from the extremities and
:

CD

AB

of the chord
it

AB

hence the

line

A CD

bi-

sects the chord at right

hence,

angles (Book I. Prop. XVI. Cor.) ~ in the point bisects the arc (Prop. VL).

AB

Secondly.

Let

it

be required to divide the angle

ACB

into

two equal

parts.

We begin
AEB CD
;

as a centre, the arc is plain that the line

by describing, from the vertex C which is then bisected as above. It will divide the angle ACB into two

equal parts.
the same construction, each of the halves divided into two equal parts ; and thus, by successive subdivisions, a given angle, or a given arc may be divided into four equal parts, into eight, into sixteen, and so on.

Scholium.

By

AE, EB, may be

60

GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
VI.

Through a given point,


Let

to

draw a
line.

parallel to

a given straight

A be

the given point, and

BC

as a centre, with a radius greater than the shortest disto BC, describe the intance from definite arc ; from the point E as a centre, with the same radius, describe the arc

the given hne. From the point

A EO

l^^
o

V.

AF

make

and draw AD this will be the parallel required. For, drawing AE, the alternate angles AEF, EAD, are evidently equal therefore, the lines AD, EF, are parallel (Book 1.

ED=AF,
Prop.

XIX. Cor.

1.).

PROBLEM VIL
Two
angles of a triangle being given,
to

find the third.

Draw the indefinite line DEF;


at

any point as E, make the an-

DEC equal to one of the given angles, and the angle equal to the other the remaining angle HEF will be the third angle required because those three angles are together equal to two right angles (Book
gle

CEH

I.

Prop. I

and

XXV).

PROBLEM

VIII.

T\iw sides of a triangle, and the angle which they contain, being given, to describe the triangle.

Let the
gle.

lines

the given sides,

B and C be equal to and A the given anthe indefinite line

Having drawn

DE,

at the point

D, make the angle

EDF

equal to the given angle then take DG=B, and draw triangle required (Book L Prop. V.).
;

II

DH=C,

GH DGH

will

be

BOOK

III.

ei

PROBLEM
A
side

IX.

and two angles of a

triangle being given, to describe the


triangle.

The two angles will either be both adjacent to the given side, or the one adjacent, and the other opposite ; in the latter case, find the third angle (Prob. VII.) ; and the two adjacent angles will thus be known : draw the straight line DE equal to the given side at the point D, make EDF equal to one of the adjacent angles, and at E, equal to the other ; the two lines DF, EG, will will be the triangle required and other in ;

^
an angle an angle cut each (Book I.

DEG

DEH

Prop. VI.).

PROBLEM

X.

The three sides of a triangle being given,

to describe the

triangle

Let A, B, and C, be the

sides.

equal to the side from the point E as a centre, with a radius equal to the second side B, as a cendescribe an arc from tre, with a radius equal to the third Side C, describe another arc inter;

Draw DE

D
;

secting the former in

F draw DF,

EF

and

DEF will
I.

be the triangle

required (Book

Prop. X.).

Scholium. If one of the sides were greater hanthe sum of the other two, the arcs would not intersect eich other : but the solution will always be possible, when the sum of two sides, any

how

taken,

is

greater than the third.

62

GEOMETRY.
PROBI.EM
XI.

Two sides

of a triangle, and the angle opposite one ofthem^ being


given, to describe the triangle.

Let A and There are two


First,

B
it

be the given
is

sides,

and

the giveii angle.

cases.

When the angle C


when
is

a right

angle, or
the angle

obt" ^se,

make

take ; from the as a centre, with a radius equal to the given side B, describe an arc cutting
in

EDF=C; point E
EF
:

DE=A

DF ^
be

F; draw

then

DEF will

the triangle required. In this first case, the side B must be greater than ; for the angle C, being a right angle, or an obtuse angle, is the greatest angle of the triangle, and the side opposite to it must, therefore, also be the greatest (Book I. Prop. XIII.).

A)
If the angle C is greater than A, the same construction will again ap-

Bh

Secondly.

acute,
ply,

and

and

DEF will

be the triangle

required.

But if the angle C is acute, and the side B less than A, then the arc described from the centre E, with the radius EF=B, will cut in two points F and the side G, lying on the same side of hence there will be two triangles

DF

DEF, DEG,
blem.

either of

which wiU

satisfy the conditions of the pro-

Scholivm. If the arc described with E as a centre, should be tangent to the line DG, the triangle would be right angled, and there would be but one solution. The problem would be
impossible in all cases, if the side dicular let fall from E on the line

B were
DF.

less

than the perpen-

BOOK
PROBLEM

III.

63

XII.

The adjacent sides of a parallelogram, with the angle which the^ contain, being given, to describe the parallelogram

Let

A and B

be the given
;

sides,

and

the given angle.

Draw the hne DE = A


point D,
;

at the

make the angle take ; describe two arcs, the one from F as a centre, with a radius FG=DE, the other from E as a centre, with to the point a radius Ct -wrhprp fhpcA nrrc intprsprt G, where these arcs intersect

EDF

DF=B

^
Ai
1 bh
i

'

EG=DF;

h
_

/
Zil_

each other, draw FG, EG DEGF will be the parallelogram required.

by construction (Book I. Prop. XXIX.) formed with the given sides and the given angle.
For, the opposite sides are equal,
figure is a parallelogram

;
:

hence the and it is

Cor, If the given angle is a right angle, the figure will be a rectangle ; if, in addition to this, the sides are equal, it will be a square.

PROBLEM
To find
the centre

XIII.

of a given circle or arc.

Take three points, A, B, C, any wnere in the circumference, or the arc draw AB, BC, or suppose them to be drawn bisect those two lines
; ;

by

the perpendiculars DE, the point O, where these perpendiculars meet, will be the centre

FG

sought (Prop. VI. Sch.).


Scholium.

The same

construc-

tion serves for

making a circum;

ference pass through three given points A, B, C and also for describing a circumference, in which, a given triangle

ABC

shall

be inscribed.

04

GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
Through a given point,
to

XIV.
to

draw a tangent

a given

circle.

AD

lies in the circumIf the given point erence, draw the radius CA, and erect perpendicular to it : will be the tangent required (Prop. IX.).
'

AD

If the point
join
line

lies

without the
;

circle,

A and the centre, by the straight CA bisect CA in O from O as a


:

centre, with the radius OC, describe a circumference intersecting the given cir-

cumference

in

B draw AB
;

this will

be

the tangent required.

beFor, drawing CB, the angle ing inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle (Prop. XVIII. Cor. 2.) ; therefore is a perpendicular at the extremity of the radius CB ; therefore it is a tan-

CBA

AB

gent.
lies without the circle, there Scholium, When the point evidently be always two equal tangents AB, AD, passing through the point they are equal, because the right angled

will

CBA, CDA, have the hypothenuse CA common, and the side CB = CD; hence they are equal (Book I. Prop. XVII.); hence AD is equal to AB, and also the angle CAD to CAB. And as there can be but one line bisecting the angle BAC, it
triangles
follows, that the line which bisects the angle formed tangents, must pass through the centre of the circle.

by two

PROBLEM
To

XV.

inscribe a circle in a given triangle.

Let ABC be the given triangle. Bisect the angles A and B, by the lines AO and BO, meeting in the point O from the point O,
;

let

fall

OE,
all

the perpendiculars OD, OF, on the three sides of the

triangle: these perpendiculars will

be equal.

For,

by construe-

BOOK
tion,

III.

65

AFO

have the angle DAO=OAF, the right angle ADO = hence the third fengle AOD is equal to the third AOF (Book I. Prop. XXV. Cor. 2.). Moreover, the side AO is common to the two triangles AOD, AOF and the angles adjacent hence the triangles themselves are to the equal side are equal equal (Book I. Prop. VI.) and DO is equal to OF. In the same manner it may be shown that the two triangles BOD, BOE,

we
;

is equal to therefore the three are equal therefore ; perpendiculars OD, OE, OF, are all equal. as a centre, with the radius OD, Now, if from the point a circle be described, this circle will evidently be inscribed in the triangle ; for the side AB, being perpendicular to the radius at its extremity, is a tangent ; and the same thing is true of the sides BC, AC. Scholium. The three lines which bisect the angles of a triangle meet in the same point.
;

OD

OE

ABC

PROBLEM
On a given

XVI.

straight line to describe a segment that shall contain ; that is to say, a segment such, that all the angles inscribed in it, shall be equal to the given angle.

a given angle

Let

AB

be the given straight

line,

and

the given angle.

K
Produce

'J?
;

DBE = C;
dicular to

D at the point B, make the angle draw BO perpendicular to BE, and GO perpenAB, through the middle point G and from the point
AB
towards
; :

O, where these perpendiculars meet, as a centre, with a distance OB, describe a circle the required segment will be

AMB.
For, since radius OB, it half the arc
is a perpendicular at the extremity of the a tangent, and the angle ABF is measured by (Prop. XXL). Also, the angle AMB, being an inscribed angle, is measured by half the arc hence we have hence all the angles inscribed in the segment are equal to the given angle

BF
is

AKB

AKB

AMB=ABF=EBD==C AMB

GEOMETRY.

Scholium. If the given angle were a right angle, the required segment would be a semicircle, described on AB as a diameter.

PROBLEM

XVII.

To find the numerical ratio of two given straight lines, these being supposed to have a common measure.
Let

line&

AB

and

CD

From the greater CD, as many times

be the given lines. AB cut off a part equal to the less as possible for example, twice,
;

with the remainder BE.

From the line CD, cut off a part equal to the remainder BE, as many times as possible once, for example, with the remainder DF. From the first remainder BE, cut off a part equal to the second DF, as many times as possible once, for example, with the remainder BG. From the second remainder DF, cut off a part equal
; ;

-U

Iq. times as possible. i Continue this process, till a remainder occurs, which ^ is contained exactly a certain number of times in the preceding one.
to

BG the

third, as

many

remainder will be the common measure of the and regarding it as unity, we shall easily find the values of the preceding remainders and at last, those of the two proposed lines, and hence their ratio in numbers. Suppose, for instance, we find GB to be contained exactly twice in FD BG will be the common measure of the two proposed lines. Put BG=1 we shall have FD=2 but EB contains FD once, plus GB therefore we have EB=3 CD contains EB once, plus FD therefore we have CD = 5: and lastly, AB contains CD twice, plus EB therefore we have AB = 13 hence the ratio of the hnes is that of 13 to 5. If the line CD were taken for unity, the line AB would be '/ if AB were taken for unity, CD would be j%

Then

this last

proposed

lines

Scholium.

The method

just explained

is

the

employed
bers
:

in arithmetic to find the

common

divisor of

same as that two num-

has no need, therefore, of any other demonstration. far soever the operation be continued, it is possible that no remainder may ever be found, which shall be contained an exact number of times in the preceding one. When this happens, the two lines have no common measure, and are said to be incommensurable. An instance of this will be seen afterit

How

BOOK

III.

wards, in the ratio of the diagonal to the side of the square. In those cases, therefore, the exact ratio in numbers cannot be found but, by neglecting the last remainder, an approximate ratio will be obtained, more or less correct, according as the operation has been continued a greater or less number of times.
;

PROBLEM
Two

XVIII.

angles being given, to find their common measure, if they have one, and hy means of it, their ratio in numbers.

Let
gles.

and

be the given an-

With equal radii describe the arcs CD, EF, to serve as measures for the angles ; proceed afterwards in the comparison of the arcs CD, EF, as in the last problem, since an arc may be cut off from an arc of the
radius, as a straight line

same

from a straight line. We shall thus arrive at the common measure of the arcs CD, EF, if they have This ratio will be one, and thereby at their ratio in numbers. the same as that of the given angles (Prop. XVII.) and if DO is the common measure of the arcs, DAO will be that of the
;

angles.

an angle

According to this method, the absolute value of be found by comparing the arc which measures If the arc CD, for example, is it to the whole circumference. to the circumference, as 3 is to 25, the angle A will be /j of four right angles, or if of one right angle. It may also happen, that the arcs compared have no common measure in which case, the numerical ratios of the angles will only be found approximatively with more or less correctness, according as the operation has been continued a greater
Scholium,

may

or less

number of times.
/

68

GEOMETRY

BOOK
OF

IV.

THE PROPORTIONS OF FIGURES, AND THE MEASUREMENT


OF AREAS.
Definitions.

1. Similar figures are those which have the angles of the one equal to the angles of the other, each to each, and the sides about the equal angles proportional. 2. Any two sides, or any two angles, which have like positions in two similar figures, are called homologous sides or

angles.
3. In two different circles, similar arcs, sectors, or segments, are those which correspond to equal angles at the centre. Thus, if the angles are equal, and the arc BC will be similar to DE, the sector to thie sector DOE, and the segment whose chord is BC, to the seg-

BAG

ment whose chord


4.

is

DE.
rectilineal figure,
is

The

base of
is

any

the side on which

supposed to stand. 5. The altitude of a triangle is the perpendicular let fall from the vertex of an angle on the opposite side, taken as a base. Thus, AD is the altitude of the
the figure
triangle

BAG

'

6. The altitude of a parallislogram is the perpendicular which measures the distance between two opposite sides taken as bases. Thus, EF is the altitude of the parallelo-

J)

E
!<

gram DB.
7.

^
A

b
JIJ

The

altitude of a trapezoid is the per-

D E

pendicular
sides.

drawn between

its

two

parallel

Thus,

EF

is

the altitude of the trape-

zoid
8.

DB.

The area and surface of a figure, are terms very nearly synonymous. The area designates more particularly the sup'irficial content of the figure. The area is expressed num( ri-

BOOK
cally

IV.

69

by the number of times which the figure contains some other area, that is assumed for its measuring unit. 9. Figures have equal areas, when they contain the same measuring unit an equal number of times. 10. Figures which have equal areas are called equivalent. The term equal, when applied to figures, designates those which are equal in every respect, and which being applied to each other will coincide in all their parts (Ax. 13.) : the term equivalent implies an equality in one respect only : namely, an
equality between the measures of figures. may here premise, that several of the demonstrations are grounded on some of the simpler operations of algebra,

We

which are themselves dependent on admitted axioms. Thus, if we have A=B + C, and if each member is multipHed by the same quantity/M, we may infer that + CxM; in like manner, if we have, A=B + C, and C, and if the equal quantities are added together, then expunging the -f- C and C, which destroy each other, we infer that A4-D=B + E, and so of others. All this is evident enough of itself but

AxM=BxM
D=E

of difficulty, it will be useful to consult some agebraical treatise, and thus to combine the study of the two sciences.
in cases

PROPOSITION

I.

THEOREM.

Parallelograms which have equal bases and equal altitudes, are


equivalent.

Let
the

AB
:

be the common base of j)

two parallelograms

ABCD,

and since they are supposed to have the same altitude, their upper bases DC, FE, will be both situated in one straight line parallel to AB. Now, from the nature of parallelograms, we have AD=BC, and AF=BE; for the same reason, we have DC=AB, and FE=AB hence DC=FE hence, if DC and FE be taken away from the same line DE, the remainders CE and DF will be equal hence it follows that the triangles DAF, CBE, are mutually eqilateral, and consequently equal (Book I. Prop. X.). But if from the quadrilateral ABED, we take away the triangle ADF, there will remain the parallelogram ABEF and if from the same quadrilateral ABED, we take away the equal triangle CBE, there will remain the parallelogram ABCD
;
:

ABEF

70

GEOMETRY.

Hence these two parallelograms ABCD, ABEF, which have the same base and ahitude, are equivalent.
Cor, Every parallelogram is equivalent to the rectangle which has the same base and the same altitude.

PROPOSITION
Every triangle
is

II.

THEOREM.

half the parallelogram which has the same base

and

the

same

altitude.

Let ABCD be a parallele,,^j;^^^-| gram, and ABE a triangle, -y having the same base AB, / \ jT^"^^. and the same altitude then / \ / ^""^-->^.^^^ will the triangle be half the _f

H D
j

G
I

C
/

J3 parallelogram. For, since the triangle and the parallelogram have the same altitude, the vertex of the triangle, will be in the line EC, par-

FA
^

i
1

^^^

allel

to

the base

parallel to

AD.

AB. Produce BA, and from E draw EF The triangle FBE is half the parallelogram

FC, and the triangle FAE half the parallelogram FD (Book I. Prop. XXVIII. Cor.). Now, if from the parallelogram FC, there be taken the parand allelogram FD, there will remain the parallelogram AC if from the triangle FBE, which is half the first parallelogram,
:

there be taken the triangle FAE, half the second, there will remain the triangle ABE, equal to half the parallelogram AC. Cor 1 Hence a triangle is half of the rectangle ABGH, for : which has the same base AB, and the same altitude the rectangle is equivalent to the parallelogram (Prop. I. Cor.).
.

ABE

AH

ABGH

ABCD

Cor. 2. All triangles, which have equal bases and altitudes, are equivalent, being halves of equivalent parallelograms.

PROPOSITION

III.

THEOREM.
,

Tbo rectangles having the same altitude


bases.

are

to

each other as their

BOOK
Let

IV.

n
D

ABCD, AEFD,

be two rectanaltitude

gies having the

common

AD

they are to

each other as their bases

AB, AE.
Suppose, first, that the bases are L_l E B commensurable, and are to each other, If AB be divided into 7 for example, as the numbers 7 and 4 equal parts, AE will contain 4 of those parts at each point of
:

division erect a perpendicular to the base; seven partial rectangles will thus be formed, all equal to each other, because all
will have the same base and altitude. The rectangle will contain four: contain seven partial rectangles, while as 7 is to 4, or as is to hence the rectangle The same reasoning may be applied to any other is to AE. hence, whatever be that ratio, ratio equally with that of 7 to 4 if its terms be commensurable, we shall have

ABCD

ABCD

AEFD AEFD

AB

ABCD

AEFD

AB

AE.

Suppose, in the second place, that the bases AB, AE, are incommensurable it is to be shown that we shall still have
:

ABCD
For
if

AEFD
first

AB

AE.
EI

not, the

three terms continuing

the same, the fourth must be greater or less A than AE. Suppose it to be greater, and that we have

OB

ABCD
:

AEFD

AB

AO.

Divide the line AB into equal parts, each less than EO. There will be at least one point I of division between E and O from this point draw IK perpendicular to AI the bases AB, AI, will be commensurable, and thus, from what is proved
:

above,

we

shall

have

ABCD ABCD
the
:

AIKD

AB
AB
:

AI.

But by the hypothesis we have

AEFD

AO.

In these two proportions the antecedents are equal ; hence consequents are proportional (Book II. Prop. lY.) ; and
find

we

AIKD
But

AEFD
AI
;

AI

AO
:

hence, if this proportion is correct, the rectangle must be greater than AIKD on the contrary, however, it is less ; hence the proportion is impossible ; therefore cannot be to AEFD, as AB is to a line greater than
is

AO

greater than

AEFD

ABCD

AE

72

GEOMETRY.
;

Exactly in the same manner, it may be shown that the fourth term of the proportion cannot be less than AE therefore it is
equal to

AE.
ratio of the bases,
altitude, are to

ABCD, AEFD,
bases

Hence, whatever be the of the same

two rectangles

each other as their

AB, AE.

PROPOSITION

IV.

THEOREM.

Any

two rectangles are

to each other as the products of their bases multiplied by their altitudes.

Let
angle,

ABCD, AEGF,

be two rectangles
:
:

then will the rect-

ABCD

AEGF

AB.AD

AF.AE.

Having placed the two


so that the angles at produce the sides GE,

rectangles, h^ are vertical,

5
B

CD, till they The two rectangles ABCD, AEHD, having the same almeet
in

H.

are to each other as their E : in like manner the two rectangles AEHD, AEGF, having the same altitude AE, thus we have the : are to each other as their bases AD, two proportions,
titude

AD,

bases AB,

AE

AF
:

ABCD AEHD AEHD AEGF


:
:

AB

AD

AE, AF.

Multiplying the corresponding terms of these proportions together, and observing that the term may be omitted, since it is a multiplier of both the antecedent and the consequent, we shall have

AEHD
:

ABCD

AEGF

ABxAD

AExAF.

Scholium. Hence the product of the base by the altitude may be assumed as the measure of a rectangle, provided we understand by this product, the product of two numbers, one of which is the number of linear units contained in the base, the other the number of linear units contained in the altitude. This product will give the number of superficial units in the surface because, for one unit in height, there are as many superficial units as there are linear units in the base; for two units in height twice as many ; for three units in height, three times as
;

many, &c.
Still this

measure

is

not absolute, but relative

it

supposes

BOOK

ir.

73

that the area of any other rectangle is computed m a similar manner, by measuring its sides with the same linear unit a second product is tlius obtained, and the ratio of the two products is the same as that of the rectangles, agreeably to the
;

proposition just demonstrated. contains three For example, if the base of the rectangle units, and its altitude ten, that rectangle will be represented

10, or 30, a number which signifies nothing while thus isolated ; but if there is a second rectangle B, the base of which contains twelve units, and the altitude seven, this second rectangle will be represented by the number 12x7

by the number 3 x

hence be entitled to conclude that the two and therefore, if rectangles are to each other as 30 is to 84 the rectangle A were to be assumed as the unit of measurement in surfaces, the rectangle B would then have |^ for its absolute measure, in other words, it would be equal to || of a super-

84

and

we

shall

ficial unit.

It is

more common and more


assume the square as of surface and to se;

simple, to

the unit
lect that

square, whose side is In this case the unit of length. the measurement which we have regarded merely as relative, becomes absolute : the number 30, was measured, now for instance, by which the rectangle represents 30 superficial units, or 30 of those squares, which have each of their sides equal to unity, as the diagram exhibits. In geometry the product of two lines frequently means the same thing as their rectangle, and this expression has passed into arithmetic, where it serves to designate the product of two unequal numbers, the expression square being employed to designate the product of a number multiplied by itself. The arithmetical squares of 1, 2, 3, &c. are 1, 4, 9, &c. So likewise, the geometrical square constructed on a double line is evidently four times greater than the square on a single one on a triple line it is nine times great-

er,

&c.

74

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
V.

THEOREM.
equal
to the

The area of any parallelogram


hy
For, the parallelogram
to the rectangle

is

product of its base

its altitude.

ABCD is equivalent p

13

has the same base AB, and the same altitude BE (Prop. I. Cor.) but this rectangle is measured by AB (Prop. IV. Sch.); therefore, AB x BE is equal to the area of the parallelogram ABCD. Cor, Parallelograms of the same base are to each other as their altitudes and parallelograms of the same altitude are to each other as their bases for, let B be the common base, and C and the altitudes of two parallelograms
:

ABEF, which

xBE

then,

BxC:BxD::C:D,
the bases, and

(Book
the

II.

Prop. VII.)
altitude,

And if A and B be we shall have

common

AxC BxC
:

B.

And parallelograms, generally, are to each other as the products of their bases and altitudes.

PROPOSITION
The area of a triangle
is

VI.

THEOREM.
product of its base by half

equal

to the

its altitude.

For, the triangle is half of the parallelogram ABCE, which has the same base BC, and the same altitude (Prop. II.) but the area of the parallelogram is equal to BC X (Prop. V.) ; hence that of the triangle must be iBC x AD, or BC x i AD.

ABC

AD

AD

triangles of the same altitude are to each other as and two triangles of the same base are to eacn other as their altitudes. And triangles generally, are to each other, as the products of their bases and altitudes.

Cor,

Two

their bases,

BOOK
PROPOSITION
The area of a trapezoid
VII.

IV.

75

THEOREM.

is equal to its altitude multiplied by ike half sum of its parallel bases,

Jjet

tude,

AB

ABCD be a trapezoid, EF its and CD its parallel bases


;

alti-

then

will its area

be equal to'!EFxi(AB + CD). Through I, the middle point of the side BC, draw KL parallel to the opposite side
;

AD

-^ and produce DC till it meets KL. In the triangles IBL, ICK, we have the side IB=IC, by and BL construction; the angle LIB = CIK; and since are parallel, the angle IBL^ICK (Book I. Prop. XX. Cor. 2.); hence the triangles are equal (Book I. Prop. VI.) therefore, is equivalent to the parallelogram ADKL, the trapezoid

CK
;

ABCD

IBL and KCI are equal, the side BL=CK: hence, AB + CD =-AL + DK=:2AL hence AL is the half sum of the bases AB, CD hence the area of the trapezoid ABCD, is equal to the altitude
;

and is measured by EF x AL. But we have AL=DK; and since the triangles

EF

multiplied
is

by

the half
:

sum of

the bases

AB, CD, a

result

which

expressed thus

ABCD=EF x ^?-^. H

Scholium. If through I, the middle point of BC, the line IH will also be the be drawn parallel to the base AB, the point middle of AD. For, since the figure AHIL is a parallelogram, as also DHIK, their opposite sides being parallel, we have

AH=IL,
equal,

and I)II=IK; but since the triangles BIL, CIK, are


to

It

we already have IL=IK; therefore, AH=DH. may be observed, that the line HI=AL is equal
';

hence the area of the trapezoid


:

may

also

be ex-

pressed by EF x HI it is therefore equal to the altitude of the trapezoid multiplied by the line which connects the middle points of its inclined sides.

76

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
VIII.

THEOREM.

If a line is divided into two parts, the square described on ih whole line is equivalent to the sum of the squares described on the parts, together with twice the rectangle contained by the parts.

Let

AC

be the

line,

and

the point of division

then,

is

AC^or (AB + BC)2=AB2+BC2+2ABxBC. Construct the square ACDE take AF= E


;

draw FG parallel to AC, and BH parallel to AE. The square ACDE is made up of four parts the first ABIF is the square described on AB, since we made AF= AB the second IDGH is
;
:

AB

^ P
'
'

'

the square described

on IG, or

BC

AE
to

and

AB=AF,

the difference

therefore to EF, since the lines are parallel equal to a square described on BC. And those two squares being taken away from the whole square, there remains the two rectangles BCGI, EFIH, each of which is measured by AB X BC hence the large square is equivalent to the two small squares, together with the two rectangles.
;

BC, and
is

DG

AEAF,

the difference,

AC AB

for since

A B C we have AC==
to

must be equal
;

which gives

BC=EF

but

IG

is

equal

IGDH

Cor. If the line AC were divided into two equal parts, the two rectangles EI, IC, would become squares, and the square described on the whole line would be equivalent to four times the square described on half the line.
Scholium. This property is equivalent to the property demonstrated in algebra, in obtaining the square of a binominal which is expressed thus : (a + bf=d''-\-2ah-^h\

PROPOSITION
The square described on
to the

IX.

THEOREM.

the difference of two lines, is equivalcnl

sum of the squares

described on the .lines, minus tw'ue


lines.

the rectangle contained

hy the

BOOK
lyCt

IV.
;

77
then
Gis

\C\
:-

or

AB and BC be two lines, AC their difference (ABBC)2=AB2+BC22ABxBC.


ABIF
;

Describe the square

take

AE

Xi

draw CG parallel to parallel to AB, and complete

AC

to BI,

HK
IL

P
E

the square

EFLK.

The two rectangles CBIG, GLKD, x BC ; take are each measured by them away from the whole figure A. ABILKEA, which is equivalent to AB^-f BC^ and there will evidently remain the square

AB

ACDE;

hence the theorem is true. Scholium, This proposition


formula,

is

equivalent to the algebraical

(aby=a'2ab + b\
THEOREM.
the difference

PROPOSITION
The rectangle contained by
lines, is lines.

X.

the

sum and

of two

equivalent to the difference of the squares of those

Let AB, BC, be two

lines

then, will

(AB+BC)
ABIF, ACDE produce
;

(ABBC)=AB2BC^.
squares
the pro;

On AB and AC, describe the

p,

AB

&

till

duced part

is equal to BC and complete the rectangle AKLE. of the rectangle EK, The base is the sum of the two lines AB, BC ; its altitude AE is the difference of the

BK

AK

therefore the rectangle ; C B equal to (AB + BC) x (AB BC). But this rectangle is composed of the two parts is equal to the rectangle EDGF, + ; and the part is equal to DE, and because is to EF ; hence equal to -f EDGF. These two parts make up the square ABIF minus the square DHIG, which latter is equal to a square described on BC hence wc have
lines
is

same

AKLE

ABHE

BHLK BH ABHE

BHLK

BK

AKLE

(AB+BC) X (ABBC)=AB2BC2.
Scholium, This proposition is equivalent to the algebraical formula, (a+6) x (a^b)=a^h\

78

GEOMETRY,

PROPOSITION
The square described on
angle
is

XI.

THEOREM.

equivalent to the

the hypothenuse of a right angled trisum of the squares described on the

other two sides.

Let the triangle ABC be right angled at A. Having described squares on the three sides, let fall from A, on the hypothenuse, the perpendicular AD, which produce to E; and draw the diagonals AF, CH. The angle ABF is made up of the angle ABC, together with the right angle CBF the angle CBH is made up of the same angle ABC, together with the right angle hence the angle ABF is equal to HBC. But we have AB=BH, being sides of the same square and BF=BC, for the same reason
;

ABH

therefore the triangles ABF, HBC, have two sides and the included angle in each equal ; therefore they are themselves

equal (Book

I.

Prop. V.).

The

triangle

ABF

is

half of the rectangle

BE, because they

have the same base BF, and the same


Cor. 1.). square

altitude

BD

(Prop.

II.

The
:

triangle

HBC
;

is

in like

manner

half of the

AH

for the angles

BAC, BAL, being both

right angles,

AC and AL form one and the same straight line parallel to HB (Book I. Prop. III.) and consequently the triangle HBC,
and the square AH, which have the common base BH, have also the common altitude AB hence the triangle is half of the
;

square.

ABF has already been proved equal to the trihence the rectangle BDEF, which is double of the triangle ABF, must be equivalent to the square AH, which is double of the triangle HBC. In the same manner it may be
The
triangle
;

angle

HBC

proved, that the rectangle is equivalent to the square AI. But the two rectangles BDEF, CDEG, taken together, make up the square BCGF therefore the square BCGF, described on the hypothenuse, is equivalent to the sum of the squares ABHL, ACIK, described on the two other sides ; in other words, BC^zzrABHAC^.
:

CDEG

BOOK

IV.

79

Cor. 1. Hence the square of one of the sides of a right angled triangle is equivalent to the square of the hypothenuse diminished by the square of the other side ; which is thus ex-

pressed

AB2=:BC2AC2.
shown
;

Cor, 2. It has just been valent to the rectangle altitude BF, the square base is to the base

that the square

AH

is

equi-

BC

BDEF but by reason of the common BCGF is to the rectangle BDEF as the BD therefore we have
;

BC2
Hence
the

AB2

BC

BD.

square of the hypothenuse is to the square of one of the sides about the right angle, as the hypothenuse is to the segment adjacent to that side. The word segment here denotes that part of the hypothenuse, which is cut off by the perpenthus BD is the segment dicular let fall from the right angle and DC is the segment adjacent to adjacent to the side AB might have, in like manner, the side AC.
: ;

We

BC2
Cor. 3.

AC2

BC

CD.

The

rectangles

same
fore

altitude, are to

BDEF, DCGE, having likewise the each other as their bases BD, CD. But
AH, AI
;

these rectangles are equivalent to the squares

there-

we have AB^

AC^

BD

DC.

Hence the squares of the two sides containing the right angle, are to each other as the segments of the hypothenuse which lie adjacent to those sides.
Cor. 4. Let be a square, and its xi diagonal the triangle being right angled and isosceles, we shall have AC^=AB- + BC'^=2AB^: hence the square described on the diagonal AC, is double of the square described
:

ABCD

AC

ABC

G-

i^

on

the side

AB.

-^

y-

This property may be exhibited more plainly, by drawing parallels to BD, through the points A and C, and parallels to AC, through the points B and D. A new square will thus be formed, equal to the square of AC. Now evidently contains eight triangles each equal to ABE ; and contains four such triangles hence is double of ABCD. Since we have AC^ AB^ 2 1 by extractmg the square roots, we shall have AC AB : n/2 1 hence, the diagonal of a square is incommensurable with its side ; a pro perty which will be explained more fully in another place.

EFGH EFGH ABCD

EFGH

80

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
XII.

THEOREM.

In every triangle, the square of a side opposite an acute angle is less than the sum of the squares of the other two sides, by twice the rectangle contained by the base and the distance from the acute angle to the foot of the perpendicular let fall from the opposite angle on the base, or on the base produced.
perpendicular to the base ABC be a triangle, and then will AB^^AC^+BC^2BC x CD. There are two cases. Fii^st. When the perpendicular falls within

Let
;

AD

CB

the triangle ABC, we have BD=:BC CD, and consequently BD^^BCHCD^ 2BC X CD (Prop. IX.). Adding AD^ to each, and observing that the right angled triangles ABD, ADC, give AD^+BW=AB\ and AD2+CD2=AC2, we have AB^^BCH

AC22BCxCD.
Secondly,
falls

_ ^

=CD
to both,

When the perpendicular without the triangle ABC, we have BC and consequently
;

AD
BD

BD2=CDH
Adding AD^

BC22CD X BC

(Prop. IX.).

2BCxCD.

we

find, as before,

AB2=BC2+AC2

PROPOSITION

XIII.

THEOREM.

In every obtuse angled triangle, the square of the side opposite the obtuse angle is greater than the sum of the squares of the other two sides by twice the rectangle contained by the base and the distance from the obtuse angle to the foot of the perpendicular let fall from the opposite angle on the base produced.

Let

dicular to

ACB be a triangle, C the obtuse angle, and AD perpei>BC produced then will AB2=AC2+BCH2BC x
;

CD. The perpendicular cannot


triangle
;

fall

within the

for, if

it fell

at

any point such as

E, there would be in the triangle ACE, the right angle E, and the obtuse angle C, which is impossible (Book I. Prop. XXV. Cor. 3.)
:

BOOK
hence the perpendicular
falls

IV.

81

without

and we have

BD=BC

+ CD. From
in

this there results

BD^=BC2 + CDH2BC x CD

(Prop. VIII.). Adding AD- to both, and reducing the sums as the last theorem, we find x CD.

AB^^BCH ACH2BC
;

Scholium. The right angled triangle is the only one in which the squares described on the two sides are together equivalent to the square described on the third for if the angle contained by the two sides is acute, the sum of their squares will be greater than the square of the opposite side ; if obtuse, it will be less.

PROPOSITION XIV. THEOREM.


In any triangle, if a straight line he drawn from the vertex to the middle of the base, twice the square of this line, together with twice the square of half the base, is equivalent to the sum of the squares of the other two sides of the triangle.

Let

ABC

be any triangle, and


;

AE

line

drawn

to the mid-

dle of the base

BC then will 2AEH2BE2=AB2+AC2.


perpendicular

On BC,

let fa'l ihe

AD.

Then, by Prop. \1I.

AC^rrAEHEC^2EC x ED.
And by Prop. XI
1

1.

AB2-AEM-EB2+2EBxED.
Hence, by adding, and observing that we have

b^

EB

and

EC

ED
are equal,
side.%

AB2 + AC2=:2 AE2 + 2EB2.


Cor. Hence, in every parallelogram the squares of the are together equivalent to the squares of the diagonals. For the diagonals AC, BD, bisect each other (Book I. Prop. XXXI.) consequently \^;:~ the triangle ABC gives \ ^^<E^

ABH BC2=r2AEH2BE2.
The
triangle

ADC

ADH DC2=r:2AE-

gives, in like

manner. 4- 2DE2.
that

Adding the corresponding members together, and observing BE and DE are equal, we shall have

AB-+ADHDC2+BC^z=:4AEH4DE2.
is the square of 2AE, or of ; 4DE2 is the square (Prop. VIII. Cor.): hence the squares of the sides ans together equivalent to the squares of the diagonals.

But 4AE^

>f

BD

AC

S2

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION XV. THEOREM.

[fa

line he

drawn

parallel to the base of a triangle^

it

will divide

the other sides proportionally/.

liCt
allel to

ABC

be a

triangle,
;

and
:

DE
:

a straight line drawn par:

the base

BC

then will
:

AD
altitude, since

DB

AE

EC.

Draw BE and DC. The two triangles BDE, DEC having the same base DE, and the same
both their vertices
lie in

a line

parallel to the base, are equivalent (Prop. II.

Cor.

2.).

The

triangles

ADE, BDE, whose common

vertex is E, have the same altitude, and are to each other as their bases (Prop. VI. Cor.) ;

hence

we

have

ADE
The
hence
triangles
also the

BDE

AD

DB.
;

ADE, DEC, whose common


and are
:

same

altitude,

to

vertex is D, have each other as their bases


:

ADE
AD
Cor.
:
:

DEC
DB
:

AE

EC.
;

But the triangles BDE, DEC, are equivalent we have (Book II. Prop. IV. Cor.)
:

and therefore,

AE
:

EC.
:

1.

Hence, by composition, we have


:

AE + EC AE, or AB BD AC CE.
:

AD

AC

AD + DB AD AE and also AB
: ;

: :

Cor. 2. If between

of parallels
line."
_
:

J
:

two straight lines AB, CD, any number AC, EF, GH, BD, &c. be drawn, those straight cut proportionally, and we shall have AE CF
:

EG

FH

GB

HD.

OE
: :

be the point where AB and In the triangle OEF, the line being drawn parallel to the base EF, we shall have OF CF, or CF. In the triangle OF OGII, we shall likewise have

CD AC

For, let meet.

OE AE

AE
:

OF
:

FH,orOE
of the
It

OF

OE EG

EG
:

FH.

And by reason
OF,
:

common

ratio

OE
:
:

those
:

two proportions give

AE
:

CF
so on
;

EG

FH.

may
:

be proved
:

in the

same manner, that EG FH GB HD, and the lines AB, CD, are cut proportionally by the EF, GH, &c.

hence

oarallels

AC,

BOOK
PROPOSITION
y

IV.

XVI.

THEOREM.

Conversely if two sides of a triangle are cut proportionally hy a


straight line^ this straight line will be parallel to the third side.

In the triangle

ABC,
:

let
:

the line

DE

be drawn, making
to

AD
lel

AE EC then will DE be parallel DB For, if DE is not parallel to BC, draw DO paral:

BC.

Then, by the preceding theorem, we shall AO OC. But by hypotheDB DB AE EC hence we sis, we have AD AE EC,orAO AE OC must have AO OC EC an impossible result, since AO, the one antecedent, is less than its consequent AE, and OC, the other antecedent, is greater than its consequent EC. Hence the parallel to BC, drawn from the point I), cannot differ from DE hence DE is that parallel.
to
it.

have

AD
;

conclusion would be true, if the prowere the proposed one. For portion AB AC this proportion would give AB AC CE AE. AE, or
Scholium.
:

The same
: :

AD

AE

BD

AD

AD

AD

AE

PROPOSITION
The

XVII.

THEOREM.

line which bisects the vertical angle of a triangle^ divides the base into two segments^ which are proportional to the adjacent

sides.
I

In the triangle CAB then will


;

ACB,

let

AD
:
:

be drawn, bisecting the angle

BD
parallel

CD
meets

Through the point C, draw


to

AD

till

it

AB CE j BA
^

AC.

produced. In the triangle


is

BCE, the Hne

AD

parallel to the base

CE
:

hence
(Prop.

we have
XV.)
*

the

proportion
:
:

BD
:

But the
celes
for,

have the angle ACE I. Prop. XX. Cor. but, by hence the an2 3.) gle ACE=z:AEC, and consequently AE=:AC (Book I. Prop. XII.). In place of AE in the above proportion, substitute AC, -id we shall have BD DC AB AC.

AB AE. ACE is isossince AD, CE are parallel, we


triangle

DC

= DAC, and

the angle

&

AEC=BAD (Book hypothesis, DAC=BAD


: : : :

84

GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION

XVIII.

THEOREM.

Two equiangular

triangles have their homologous sides projyor tionalf and are similar.

Let ABC, CDE be two triangles which have their angles equal each to each, namely, BAC=:CDE, and ACBnDEC then the homologous sides,

ABC=DCE
CD

or the sides adjacent to the equal angles, will be proportional, so that we shall

have

BC

CE

AB

AC

DE.
Place the homologous sides BC,
line
;

CE

in the

same

straight

and produce the sides BA, ED, till they meet in F. Since BCE is a straight line, and the angle BCA is equal to CED, it follows that AC is parallel to DE (Book I. Prr)p. XIX. Cor. 2.). In like manner, since the angle ABC is equal to

DCE,
IS

the line

AB

is

parallel to

DC. Hence

the figure

ACDF
;

a parallelogram. In the triangle BFE, the line

hence
ting

we have BC

CE
:

AC is parallel to the base FE BA AF (Prop. XV.); or put:

CD

in the place of its equal

AF,

BC
BC CE
:

CE
;

BA
is

CD.

In the same triangle BEF, be considered as the base


:
: :

CD

parallel to

BF

which may

and

we
:

FD DE or putting AC in BC CE AC DE.
; : : :

have the proportion the place of its equal FD,

And
ratio

finally, since
:

both these proportions contain the same

BC

CE, we have

AC

DE

BA

CD.

BAC, CED, have their homologous sides proportional. But two figures are similar when liiey have their angles equal, each to each, and their homologous sides proportional (Def. 1.) consequently the equianguThus the equiangular triangles
;

lar triangles

BAC, CED,

are

two

similar figures.

Cor. For the similarity of two triangles, it is enough that they have two angles equal, each to each since tlien, the third will also be equal in both, and the two triangles will be equiangular.
;

BOOK
Scholium.

IV.
similar triangles, the
;

85

Observe, that

in

homolo

ffous sides are opposite to the equal angles

thus the angle

ACB

the side is homologous to ; in like are homologous, because opposite to the manner, and equal angles ABC, DCE. When the homologous sides are determined, it is easy to form the proportions

being equal to

DEC,

AB

DC

AC

DE

AB

DC

AC

DE

BC

CE.

PROPOSITION XIX. THEOREM.


TuDo triangles, which have their homologous sides proportional, are equiangular and similar.

In the two triangles BAC, DEF, suppose we have BC EF AB DE : : AC DF then will the
: : :
:

triangles

ABC,

DEF

have their an-

gles

equal,

namely,

A=D, B=E,
the angle

C=F.
At
the point E,

make

will be ; the third FEG=B, and at F, the angle will be equal to the third A, and the two triangles ABC, equiangular (Book I. Prop. XXV. Cor. 2.). Therefore, by the
last

EFG=C
: :

G EFG
;

we shall have BC EF AB EG but, by we have BC EF AB DE; hence EG =DE. AC By the same theorem, we shall also have BC EF FG and by hypothesis, we have BC EF AC DF hence FG=DF. Hence the triangles EGF, DEF, having their
theorem,
:
:

hypothesis,

three sides equal, each to each, are themselves equal (Book

I.

Prop. X.). But by construction, tlie ABC are equiangular hence and gular and similar.
:

triangles

EGF

and

DEF

ABC

are also equian-

triangles, equality

two propositions, it appears that in the angles is a consequence of proportionality among the sides, and conversely ; so that either of those conditions sufficiently determines the similarity of two triangles. The case is different with regard to figures of more than three sides : even in quadrilaterals, the proportion between the sides may be altered without altering the angles, or the angles may be altered without altering the proportion between the sides ; and thus proportionality among the sides cannot be a consequence of equality among the angles of two
Scholium
1.

By the

last

among

quadrilatierals, or vice versa.

It is evident, for

example, thai

86

GEOMETRY.
EF
parallel to

BC, the angles of are made equal to those of ABCD, though the proportion between the sides is different ; and, in like manner, without changing the four sides AB, BC, CD, AD, we can make the point B approach or recede from it, which will change the
by drawing
the quadrilateral

AEFD,

angles.

Scholium

2.

The two preceding

propositions,

which

in strict-

ness form but one, together with that relating to the square oi the hypothenuso, are the most important and fertile in results of any in geometiy : they are almost sufficient of themselves for every application to subsequent reasoning, and for solving every problem. The reason is, that all figures may be divided

and any triangle into two right angled triangles. Thus the general properties of triangles include, by implicainto triangles,
tion, those

of

all figures.

PROPOSITION XX. THEOREM.

Two

triangles, which have an angle of the one equal to an angle of the othei\and the sides containing those angles proportional, are similar.

the angles

In the two triangles ABC, and be equal

DEF,
;

let

A
:

D
:

then, if
trian-

AB
lel

DE

AC

DF,

the

two

gles will be similar.

Take AG^DE, and draw GH paralto BC. The angle AGH will be equal
the angle
3.)
;

to

ABC (Book I. Prop. XX. and the triangles AGH, ABC, will be equiangular AG AC AH. But by hypohence we shall have AB AC DF and by construction, DE thesis, we have AB AG=DE: hence AH-DF. The two triangles AGH, DEF, have an equal angle included between equal sides therefore
Cor
: :

they are equal


fore

but the triangle

AGH

is

similar to

ABC

there-

DEF

is

also similar to

ABC.

BOOK
PROPOSITION

IV

87

XXI.

THEOREM.

Two

triangles, y)hich have their

homologous aides parallel, or

perpendicular

to

each other, are similar

Let

BAG, EDF,
EF,

be two triangles.

AB is parallel to DE, and ABC will be equal to DEF (Book I. Prop. XXIV.) if AC is parallel to DF, the angle ACB will be equal to DFE, and also BAC to EDF hence the triangles
First. If the side

BC

to

the angle

are equiangular; consequently they are similar (Prop. XVIII.).


Secondly.
dicular to
the
lateral

ABC, DEF,

If the side
I

AB, and
will

the side

DE perpenDF to AC,
is
;

of the quadribe right angles and since all the four angles are together equal to four right angles (Book I. Prop. XXVI. Cor. 1.), the remaining two I AH, C GIDII, will be together equal to two right 13 angles. But the two angles EDF, IDII, are also equal to two hence the angle EDF is equal to lAH or BAC. right angles In like manner, if the third side EF is perpendicular to the third side BC, it may be shown that the angle DFE is equal to C, and

two angles

and

AIDH

DEF

to

hence the triangles

ABC, DEF, which have

the

sides of the one perpendicular to the corresponding sides of the

other, are equiangular

and

similar.

Scholium. In the case of the sides being parallel, the homologous sides are the parallel ones in the case of their being perpendicular, the homologous sides are the perpendicular ones. Thus in the latter case DE is homologous with AB, DF with AC, and EF with BC. The case of the perpendicular sides might present a relative position of the two triangles different from that exhibited in the diagram. But we might always conceive a triangle DEF to be constructed within the triangle ABC, and such that Its sides should be parallel to those of the triangle compared with ABC and then the demonstration given in the text would
:

apply.

88

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION XXII. THEOREM.

In any triangle, if a
lines

drawn from

line he drawn parallel to the base, then, all the vertex will divide the base and the par-

allel into

proportional parts.

Let be parallel to the base BC, and the other lines drawn as in the figure ;
then will

DE

DI

BF

IK
DI

FG

KL
: :

GH.

For, since
triangles
lar
;

is

parallel to

BF, the
:

ADI and ABF are equianguand we have DI BF AI AF and since iK is parallel to FG, we have in like manner AI AF
:

IK

FG
:

hence, the ratio

In the same manner we shall find IK and so with the other segments hence the line is divided at the points I, K, L, in the same proportion, as the base BC, at the points F, G, H.
: :

have DI

BF FG

IK

AI FG.
;

AF

being

common, we

shall

KL

GH

DE

Cor.

Therefore

if

BC

points F, G, H, the parallel parts at the points I, K, L.

were divided into equal parts at the DE would also be divided into equal

PROPOSITION

XXIII.

THEOREM.

Iffrom the right angle of a right angled triangle, a perpendicular he let fall on the hypothenuse ; then, 1st. The two partial triangles thus formed, will he similar to each other, and to the whole triangle. 2d. Either side including the right angle will be a mean proportional between the hypothenuse and the adjacent segment. Sd. The perpendicular will be a mean proportional between the two segments of the hypothenuse.

BAG be a right angled,triangle, and hypothenuse BC. First. The triangles BAD and BAG have the common angle B, the right angle BDA=BAC, and therefore the
Let
to the

AD

perpendicular

third angle of the one, equal to the third angle C, of the other (Book
I.

BAD

Prop.

XXV. Cor
are

2.)

two

triangles

equiangular

hence those and

BOOK
similar.

IV.

89

In the same

manner

it

may
;

gles

DAC and BAG


The

are similar

be shown that the trianhence all the triangles are


being similar, their

equiangular and similar.


Secondly.
triangles

BAD, BAG,

homologous sides are proportional. But BD in the small triangle, and BA in the large one, are homologous sides, because
they lie opposite the equal angles BAD, BGA ; the hypothenuse BA of the small triangle is homologous with the hypothenuse BG of the large triangle hence the proportion BD BA BG. By the same reasoning, we should find BA AG BG hence, each of the sides AB, AG, is DC AG a mean proportional between the hypothenuse and the segment adjacent to that side.
: ; : : : :
: :

Thirdly.

Since the triangles


their

comparing
:

homologous

sides,

ABD, ADG, are similar, by we have BD AD AD


: ; :

hence, the perpendicular is a mean proportional between the segments BD, DG, of the hypothenuse.
; : : :

DG

AD

Scholium. Since BD AB AB : BG, the product of the extremes will be equal to that of the means, or AB^=BD.BG. For the same reason we have AG-=DG.BG therefore AB--f
;

AG2=BD.BG + DG.BG= (BD + DG).BG=BG.BG=BG2; the square described on the hypothenuse BG is equivalent
the squares described

or
to

on the two sides AB, AG. Thus

we again

arrive at the property of the square of the hypothenuse, by a path very diflerent from that which formerly conducted us to it and thus it appears that, strictly speaking, the property of the square of the hypothenuse, is a consequence of the more general property, that the sides of equiangular triangles are proportionul. Thus the fundamental propositions of geometry are reduced, as it were, to this single one, that equiangular triangles have their homologous sides proportional.
:

It

happen.? frequently, as in this instance, that

by deducing

are led back to some proposition already proved. In fact, the chief characteristic of geometrical theorems, and one indubitable proof of their certainty is, that, however we combine them together, provided only our reasoning be correct, the results we obtain are always perfectly accurate. The case would be different, if any proposition were false or only approximately true : it would frequently happen that on combining the propositions together, the error would increase and become perceptible. Examples of this are to be seen in all the demonstrations, in which the reductio ad absurdum is employed. In such demonstrations, where the object is to show that two quantities are equal, we proceed by showing that if there existed the smallest

consequences from one or more propositions,

we

^0

GEOMETRY.

inequality between the quantities, a train of accurate reasoning would lead us to a manifest and palpable absurdity; from which we are forced to conclude that the two quantities are
equal.

Cor, If from a point A, in the circumference of a circle, two chords AB, AC, be drawn to the extremities of a diameter BC, the triangle C BAG will be right angled at (Book III. Prop. XVIII. Cor. 2.) hence, first, the perpendicular AT) is a mean 'proportional between the two segments BD, DC, of the diameter or what is the same, AD^rrBD.DC. Hence also, in the second place, the chord AB is a mean proportional between the diameter BC and the adjacent segment BD, or, what is the same, AB-:= BD.BC. In like manner, we have

^ ^

hence AB^ AC^ BD DC and comand AC^, to BC^, we have AB^ BC^: BD BC, and AC2 BC^ DC BC. Those proportions between the squares of the sides compared with each other, or with the square of the hypothenuse, have already been given in the third and fourth corollaries of Prop. XL

AC^^CD.BC

paring

AW

/\

PROPOSITION XXIV. THEOREM.

Two

triangles having an angle in each equal, are to each other as the rectangles of the sides which contain the equal angles.

In the two triangles ABC, ADE, let the angle the angle ; then will the triangle

A be

equal to

ABC

ADE
the

AB.AC

AD.AE.

Draw BE. The ABE, ADE, having mon vertex E, have


altitude,
to

triangles

the

comsame

and consequently are each other as their bases (Prop. VI. Cor.) that is,
:

ABE ADE
:

AB

AD.

In like manner,

ABC

ABE

AC

AE.

Multiply together the corresponding terms of these proportions, omitting the common term ; we have

ABE
:

ABC

ADE

AB.AC

AD.AE.

BOOK

IV.

91

Hence the two triangles would be equivalent, if the Cor. rectangle AB.AC were equal to the rectangle AD.AE, or if

we had AB were parallel


:

AD
to

AE

AC

which would happen

if

DC

BE.

PROPOSITION XXV. THEOREM.

Tbo

similar triangles are

to

each other as the squares described


sides.

on their homologous

Let
gles,

ABC, DEF, be tw^o similar trianhaving the angle A equal to D, and

^
Q

the angle

B=E.

Then, first, by reason of the equal angles A and D, according to the last proposition, we shall have

ABC
And

DEF

AB.AC
:

DE.DF.
:

Also, because the triangles are similar,

AB AC
there will result

DE
DF

AC
AC
;
:

DF,

multiplying the terms of this proportion by the corresponding terms of the identical proportion,
: : :
:

DF,
:

AB.AC
Consequently,

DE.DF

AC^
:

DF-.

ABC

DEF

AC^

DP.

Therefore, two similar triangles ABC, DEF, are to each other as the squares described on their homologous sides AC, DF, or as the squares of any other two homologous sides.

PROPOSITION XXVI. THEOREM.

Two

similar polygons are composed of the same number of tnangles, similar each to each, and similarly situated.

92
Let
the

GEOMETRY.
ABODE, FGHIK,
angle A, in

be two similar polygons.

From any
polygon

ABCDE,

draw diagonals AC, AD to the other angles. From


the homologous angle F, the other polygon in

FGHIK, draw
FH, FI
gles.

diagonals

to the other an-

These polygons being similar, the angles ABC, FGH, which are homologous, must be equal, and the sides AB, BC, must also be proportional to FG, GH, that is, BC : : : (Def. 1.). Wherefore the triangles ABC, FGH, have each an equal angle, contained between proportional sides ; hence they are similar (Prop. XX.) therefore the angle is equal to GHF. Take away these equal angles from the equal angles BCD, GHI, and there remains ACD=FHI. But since the triangles ABC, FGH, are similar, we have : BC ; and, since the polygons : : are similar, BC : HI ; hence : : : HI. But the angle ACD, we already know, is equal to FHI ; hence the triangles ACD, FHl. have an equal angle in each, included between proportional sides, and are consequently similar (Prop. XX.). In the same manner it might be shown that all the remaining triangles are similar, whatever be the number of sides in the polygons proposed therefore two similar polygons are composed of the same number of triangles, similar, and similarly situated.

GH

AB

FG

BCA
:

GH

AC

FH

GH

CD

AC

FH

CD

Scholium. The converse of the proposition is equally true If two polygons are composed of the same number of triangles similar and similarly situated^ those two polygons will be similar.
:

For, the similarity of the respective triangles will give the


angles,

GHI,

AB
the

ABC = FGH, BCA = GHF, ACD = FHI hence BCD= CDE=HIK, &c. Moreover we shall have FG BC GH AC FH CD HI, ifec; hence
:

likewise
:

two polygons have


;

their angles equal

and

their sides pro-

portional

consequently they are similar.

PROPOSITION XXVII. THEOREM.


The
contouj's or perimeters of similar polygons are to each othet as the homologous sides : and the areas are to each other ai the squares described on those sides.

BOOK
First. Since, by the nature of similar figures,

IV.

93

we have AB

BC

GH

FG CD HI,
:

&c. we conclude from


this series

of equal ratios
ante-

that the

sum of the

cedents AB + BC + CD, &c., which makes up the perimeter of the first polygon, is to the sum of the consequents FG + + HI, &c., which makes up the perimeter of the second polygon, as any one antecedent and therefore, as the side AB is to its coris to its consequent responding side FG (Book II. Prop. X.).

GH

Since the triangles ABC, FGH are similar, we AC^ FIP (Prop. FGH have the triangle ABC XXV.) ; and in like manner, from the similar triangles ACD, FHI, we shall have ACD FHI AC^ FH^ therefore, by reason of the common ratio, AC^ FH^ we have
Secondly.
shall
:
: :

By

the

ABC FGH ACD FHI. same mode of reasoning, we should find


:
:

ACD
and so on,
if

FHI

ADE

there were

more

triangles.

FIK; And from

this series

we conclude that the sum of the antecedents ABC 4- ACD + ADE, or the polygon ABCDE, is to the sum of the consequents FGH + FHI + FIK, or to the polygon FGHIK, as one antecedent ABC, is to its consequent FGH, or as AB^ is to FG^ (Prop. XXV.) hence the areas of similar polyof equal ratios,
;

gons are to each other as gous sides.

tlie

squares described on the homolo-

Cor. If three similar figures were constructed, on the three sides of a right angled triangle, the figure on tlie hypothenuse would be equivalent to the sum of the other two for the three figures are proportional to the squares of their homologous sides ; but the square of the hypothenuse is equivalent to the sum of the squares of the two other sides hence, <fcc.
:

PROPOSITION XXVIII. THEOREM.


Tile

segments of two chords, which intersect each other in a are reciprocally proportional.

circle^

04

GEOMETRY.
Let the chords

AB

and
:

AO
Draw AC and BD. BOD, the angles at O

CD DO

intersect at
: :

then will

OC

OB.

In the triangles

ACO,

are equal, being vertiis equal to the angle D, becal ; the angle cause both are inscribed in the same segment (Book III. Prop. XVIII. Cor. 1.) ; for the same reason the angle CrrzB ; the triangles are therefore similar, and the homologous sides give the proportion

AO DO
:

the rectangle Therefore Cor. under the two segments of the one chord is equal to the rect angle under the two segments of the other.

CO OB. AO.OB=DO.CO: hence


: :
:

PROPOSITION XXIX. THEOREM.


If

from the same point without a circle^ two secants he drawn terminating in the concave arc, the whole secants will he recip' rocally proportional to their external segments.
Let the secants OB, OC, be drawn from the point

then will

OB

OC

OD

OA.

For, drawing AC, BD, the triangles OAC, common ; likewise the have the angle angle B C (Book lU. Prop. XVIII. Cor. 1.); these triangles are therefore similar ; and their homologous sides give the proportion,

OBD

OB
Cor.

OC

OD

OA.

Hence

the rectangle

OA.OB

is

equal

to the rectangle

OC.OD.

Scholium. This proposition, it may be observed, bears a great analogy to the preceding, and differs from it only as the two chords AB, CD, instead of intersecting each other within, The following proposition cut each other without the circle. may also be regarded as a particular case of the proposition
just

demonstrated.

BOOK

IV.

95

PROPOSITION XXX. THEOREM.


If from the same point without a circle, a tangent
be drawn, the tangent will he

and a secant

a mean

pr^opoj^tional between the

secant

and

its

external segment.

From

the point O, let the tangent


;

OA, and
or

the secant

OC

be

be drawn

then will
:

OC

For, drawing

OA AD

OA

OD,

OA-==OC.OD.

and AC, the triangles


;

OAD, OAC, have the angle O common also the angle OAD, formed by a tangent and a
chord,
lias for its measure half of the arc AD (Book III. Prop. XXI.) and the angle C has the same measure hence the angle OAD =
;
:

therefore the

two

triangles are similar,


:

and

AO

we have the proportion OC OA OD, which gives OA'^=OC.OD.

PROPOSITION XXXI. THEOREM.


If either angle of a triangle be bisected by a line terminating in the opposite side, the rectangle of the sides including the bisected angle, is equivalent to the square of the bisecting line
together with the rectangle contained by the segments of the third side.

In the triangle

BAC,

let

AD bisect the

angle

then will

AB.AC-AD- + BD.DC.
Describe a circle through the three points A, B, C produce till it meets the circumference, and draw CE.
;

AD

gle

triangle BAD is similar to the trianEAC for, by hypothesis, the angle BAD = EAC; also the angle B=E, since

The

they are both measured by half of the arc

AC
the

hence these triangles are similar, and homologous sides give the proportion BA AE AD . AC hence BA.AC=AE.AD but + DE, and multiplying each of these equals by AD, we have AE.AD = AD^+ AD.DE; now AD.DE=BD.DC (Prop. XXVIII.); hence,
;
:

AE=AD

finally,

BA.AC=ADHBD.DC.

96

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION XXXII. THEOREM,

In ever]/ triangle, the rectangle contained hy two sides is equivalent to the rectangle contained by the diameter of the cirrumscribed circle, and the perpendicular let fall upon the third
side.

and

In the triangle ABC, let be drawn perpendicular to BC ; let EC be the diameter of the circumscribed circle then
;

AD

will

AB.AC=AD.CE.
For, .drawing AE, the triangles ABD, AEC, are right angled, the one at D, the other at A: also the angle ; these triangles are therefore similar, and they give the proportion AB and : ;

B=E
:

CE

AD AC
:

hence

AB.AC=CE.AD.

Cor. If these equal quantities be multiplied by the same quantity BC, there will result AB.AC.BC=CE.AD.BC ; now AD.BC is double of the area of the triangle (Prop. VI.) therefore the product of three sides of a triangle is equal to its area multiplied by twice the diameter of the circumscribed circle. The product of three lines is sometimes called a solid, for a reason that shall be seen afterwards. Its value is easily conceived, by imagining that the lines are reduced into numberab and multiplying these numbers together.
;

It may also be demonstrated, that the area of equal to its perimeter multiplied by half the radius of the inscribed circle. For, the triangles AOB, BOfC, AOC, which have a comijion vertex at O, have for theip^ommon altitude the radius of the inscribed circle hence the sum of these triangles will be equal to the sum of the bases AB, BC,

Scholium.

a triangle

is

A(

OD;

multiplied by half the radius is equal to the hence the area of the triangle perimeter multiplied by half the radius of the inscribed circle
',

ABC

BOOK

IV.

91

PROPOSITION XXXIII. THEOREM.


In every quadrilateral inscribed in a circle, the rectangle of the two diagonals is equivalent to tie sum of the rectangles of the opposite sides.

In the quadrilateral

ABCD, we

shall

have

AC.BD = AB.CD + AD.BC.


Take
the arc

meeting the diagonal

The
has for

angle
its

CO=AD, and draw BO AC in I. ABD = CBI, since the one


CO, equal
to

measure half of the arc AD,

and the
both

other, half of

AD

the angle

ADB=BCI,

because they are

inscribed in the same segment hence the triangle is similar to the triangle IBC, and we have the proportion CI : : BC ; hence AD.BC =CI.BD. Again, the triangle ABl is similar to the tf iangle ; for the arc being equal to CO, if be added to each of them, we shall have the arc hence the angle ABI is equal to also the angle BAI to BDC, because they are in-

AOB

ABD
BD

AD

BDC

AD

AO=DC
;

OD
;

DBC
: :

scribed in the same segment hence the triangles ABI, DBC, are similar, and the homologous sides give the proportion :

AB

BD

AI

CD;

hence

AB.CD=AI.BD.
and observing that

Adding the two

results obtained,

AI.BD + CI.BD = (AI + CI).BD=i AC.BD.

we

shall

have

AD.BC+AB.CD=AC.BD.

98

GEOMETRY.

PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE FOURTH BOOK.

PROBLEM L
To
divide a given straight line into

any number of equal paits,


to

or into parts proportional


First.

given
line

lines.

Let

it

be proposed to divide the

AB

into five equal parts.

Through the ex-

tremity A, draw the indefinite straight line and taking AC of any magnitude, apply )t five times upon join the last point ; of division G, and the extremity B, by the straight line GB then draw CI parallel to GB AI will be the fifth part of the line ^ AB and thus, by applying AI five times upon AB, the Hne AB will be divided into five equal parts. For, since CI is parallel to GB, the sides AG, proportionally in C and I (Prop. XV.). But part of AG, hence AI is the fifth part of AB,

AG

AG

^-

AB, are
is

cut

AC

the fifth

Secondly.

"Let

it

be proline

posed to divide the

AB
to

mto

parts proportional
lines

the given
nite

P,

Q,

R.

Through A, draw
Hne

the indefi-

P, the

AC = CD=Q, DE-R; join extremities E and B

AG

make

and through the points C, D, draw CI, DF, parallel to EB the line AB will be divided into parts AI, IF, FB, proportional to the given lines P, Q, R.
;

For, by reason of the paraLcls CI, DF, EB, the parts AI, and by IF, FB, are proportional to the parts AC, CD, ; construction, these are equal to the given lines P, Q, R.

DE

BOOK

IV.

99

PROBLEM
To find a

II.

fourth proportional to three given lines^ A, B, C.

Draw
nite lines

the

two

indefi-

DE, DF, form-

ing any angle with each take Upon other.

DA=A, upon DF draw AC


the point
parallel to

and
take
;

DE DB=B; DC = C

and through
;

B, draw BX AC DX will be the fourth proportional required for, since BX is parallel to AC, we have the proportion DC DX now the first three terms of this proDA DB
;
: :

portion are equal to the three given lines the fourth proportional required.

consequently

DX

is

Cor. A third proportional to two given lines A, B, may be found in the same manner, for it will be the same as a fourth proportional to the three lines A, B, B.

PROBLEM

IIL

To find a mean proportional between two given

lines

A and B.

Upon
line

the indefinite line


;

DF, take

DE= A, and EF=B


DGF

upon the whole

DF, as a diameter, describe the semicircle at the point E, ; erect upon the diameter the perpenmeeting the circumfedicular rence in will be the mean ; proportional required. For, the perpendicular EG, let fall from a point in the circumference upon the diameter, is a mean proportional between DE, EF, the two segments of the diameter (Prop. XXI II.

EG G EG

Cor.)

and these segments are equal to the given

lines

andB.

PROBLEM
To

IV.

divide a given line into two parts, such that the greater part

shall be

a mean proportional between

the whole line

and

the

other part.

100
I^et

GEOMETRY.
AB
be the given
line.

At the extremity B of the hne AB, erect the perpendicular BC


equal to the half of AB from the point C, as a centre, with the radius CB, describe a semicircle ; draw AC cutting the circumfeA. rence in and take ; the line AB will be divided at the point F in the manner required ; that is, we shall have AB AF : AF FB. For, AB being perpendicular to the radius at its extremity, is a tangent ; and if AC be produced till it again meets the circumference in E, we shall have AE AB : AB : (Prop. XXX.) ; hence, by division, AE AB AB AB AD. But since the radius is the half of AB, the diameter is equal to AB, and consequently AE
;

AF=AD

AD

AD

DE
:

also,

because

AF

AB

extremes for
Scholium.

AF=AD, we have ABADr=:FB hence FB AD or AF whence, by exchanging the the means, AB AF AF FB.
; : ;
: :

AB=AD=AF
:

This sort of division of the line AB is called diextreme and mean ratio the use of it will be perceived in a future part of the work. It may further be observed, that the secant AE is divided in extreme and mean ratio at the point D for, since AB=DE, we have AE DE
vision in
: ;

DE

AD.

PROBLEM

V.

Through a given pointy in a given angle,


the

to

draw a

line so thai

segments comprehended between the point and the two sides

of the angle, shall be equal.

Let
lel

BCD

Through
to

be the given angle, and the given point. the point A, draw paral-

AE
;

CD, make

BE = CE,

and through
this will

draw the points B and be the line required.


For,
:

BAD

AE being parallel to CD, we have EC BA AD; but BE=EC therefore BA=AD.


BE
:
;
:

BOOK

IV.
VI.

101

PROBLEM

To describe a square that shall be equivalent to a given parallelogram, or to a given triangle.


First,

Let

ABCD
its

be

the given parallelogram,

AB

its
:

base,

DE

alti-

tude

between

DE

find

and a mean propor-

AB

then will the tional ; square described upon XY be equivalent to the parallelogram

XY

ABCD.

For,

by

construction,
;

AB

XY

XY

DE

therefore,

XY^= AB.DE
and XY^
lent.

but AB.DE is the measure of the parallelogram, that of the square ; consequently, they are equiva-

Secondly.

Let
:

given triangle,

ABC be the BC its base,


find a

AD

its

altitude

mean

proportional between BC and be the half of AD, and let that mean ; the square dewill be equiscribed upon valent to the triangle ABC. : : : ^AD, it follows that XY= For, since BC : BC.iAD ; hence the square described upon is equivalent

XY

XY

XY

XY

XY

to

the triangle

ABC.
PROBLEM
VII.

Upon a given

line, to describe

lent to

a rectangle that shall be equivaa given rectangle.

Let AD be the line, and Find a fourth propor


tional to the three lines

ABFC

the given rectangle.

AD, AB, AC, and

let

AX

be that fourth proportional ; a rectangle constructed with the lines will be equiand

AD

AX

valent to the rectangle ABFC. : ; : For, since AB.AC ; hence the rectangle angle ABFC.

AD

AB

AC

AX,

it

follows that

AD. AX =

ADEX

is

equivalent to the rect-

102

GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
VIII.

To find two

lines
tivo

whose ratio shall he the same as the ratio oj rectangles contained by given lines.
lines

Let A.B, CD, be the rectangles contained by the given A, B, C, and D. Find X, a fourth proportional to the three j. lines B, C, D then will the two lines A and X have the same ratio to each other as the ^^ rectangles A.B and CD. For, since B C D X, it follows that ^ C.D=B.X hence A.B A.B B.X Xi A X.
;
'

CD

Cor,

Hence

to obtain the ratio of the squares described


find a third proportional
:

upon the given lines A and C, the lines A and C, so that A have

to

you

will then

A.X=C2,
A2
:

or
:

A2.X=A.C2; hence

C2

X.
IX.

PROBLEM
To find a
Let

triangle that shall he equivalent to a given polygon.

ABCDE
first

be the given polygon.

the diagonal cutting off* the triangle ; through the point

Draw

CE

CDE
;

D, draw DF parallel to CE, and meetAE produced draw CF: the polygon ABCDE will be equivalent to the polygon ABCF, which has one side
ing

than the original polygon. common, For, the triangles CDE, CFE, have the base they have also the same altitude, since their vertices and F, are situated in a line parallel to the base : these triangles are therefore equivalent (Prop. IL Cor. 2.). Add to each of them the figure ABCE, and there will result the polygon ABCDE, equivalent to the polygon ABCF. The angle B may in like manner be cut off, by substituting for the triangle the equivalent triangle AGC, and thus
less

CE

DF

the pentagon

ABC ABCDE

will

be changed int^ an equivalent

tri-

angle
for,

GCF.
applied to every other figure
its
;

The same process may be

by successively diminishing the number of

sides,

one

trianiijle will

being retrenched at each step of the <*. U^t t^ Lvjni.

-- - olont process, th^

BOOK We

IV.

103

have already seen that every triangle may Scholium. be changed into an equivalent square (Prob. VI.) ; and thus a square may always be found equivalent to a given rectilineal figure, which operation is called squaring the rectilineal figure, or finding the quadrature of it. The problem o( the quadrature of the circle, consists in finding a square equivalent to a circle whose diameter is given.

PROBLEM
To find the

X.

side of a square which shall he equivalent to the or the difference of two given squares.

sum

Let

and

be the sides of the

given squares.
First. If it is required to find a square equivalent to the sum of these squares, draw the two indefinite lines ED, EF, at right angles to each other; take A, and

ED =

EG=B;
quired.

draw

DG:

this will

be the side of the square

re-

For the triangle being right angled, the square described upon is equivalent to the sum of the squares upon

DEG

DG

ED

and EG.

Secondly. If it is required to find a square equivalent to the difference of the given squares, form in the same manner the right and angle take ; equal to the shorter of the sides

FEH

a centre, with a radius GH, equal to the other side, describe an arc cutting the square in described upon will be equivalent to the difference of the squares described upon the lines A and B. For the triangle is right angled, the hypothenuse GH=A, and the side GE = B; hence the square described upon EH, is equivalent to the difference of the squares A
;

from the point

GE G as

EH

EH

GEH

andB.
Scholium. square may thus be found, equivalent to the of any number of squares ; for a similar construction which reduces two of them to one, will reduce three of them to two, and these two to one, and so of others. It would be the same, if any of the squares were to be subtracted from the sum ot

sum

104

GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
XI.

To find a square which

shall he to

line to

a given squat e as a given a given line.

I^et

AC
lines.

square, and

be the given and the

given

Upon line EG,


and

EF=M, FG=N;uponEG

the indefinite take

as a diameter describe a semicircle, and at the point F erect the perpendicular FH. From the point H, dravi^ the chords HG, HE, v^rhich produce
indefinitely
:

the given square,

be the side of the square required. ; III will For, by reason of the parallels KI, GE, we have HI : : : HG; hence, : HK^ : : HE^ : HG^: but in the right angled triangle EHG, the square of is to the square of as the segment EF is to the segment (Prop. XL Cor. 3.), or as is to hence : N. But HK^ : : : therefore the square described upon HI is to the ; square described upon as is to N.

EG

upon the first, take equal to the side AB and through the point K draw KI parallel

HK

of

to

HE

HK

HP
N
;

HG

HE

HK=AB

FG

HP

AB

PROBLEM XIL
Upon a given
line, to describe

a polygon similar

to

a given

polygon.

line,

Let FG be the given and AEDCB the

given polygon. In the given polygon, draw the diagonals AC,

AD;
make

at

the

point

the angle

GFH =

BAC, and

at the point

will cut each the lines FH, be a triangle similar to ABC. In the same manner upon FH, homologous to AC, describe the triangle FIH similar to ADC ; and upon FI, homologous to AD, The polygon describe the triangle FIK similar to ADE.

the angle

other in H, and

FGH=ABC FGH will

GH

FGHHC
XXVI.

will

be similar to

ABCDE,

as required.

For, these

of triangles,

two polygons are composed of the same number which are similar and similarly situated (Prop.

Sch.).

BOOK
PROBLEM
Two

IV.

10^

XIII.

which shall be equivalent

similar figures being given, to describe a similar figure to their sum or their difference.
figures.

Let A and B be two homologous sides of the given Find a square equivalent to the
to the difference of the squares described upon A and B let be tiie side of that square ; then vi^ill in the figure required,

sum or

be the side which to the sides A and


figures.

is

homologous
in the

given
last

The

figure itself

may then
problem.

be constructed on X, by the

For, the similar figures are as the squares of their homologous sides ; now the square of the side is equivalent to the sum, or to the difference of the squares described upon the homologous sides and B ; therefore the figure described upon the side is equivalent to the sum, or to the difference of the

similar figures described

upon the

sides

and B.

PROBLEM
To
describe

XIV.

a figure similar to a given figure, and bearing tlie given ratio ofmtoN.

to it

Let be a side of the given figure, the homologous side of the figure required. The square of must be to the square of is to A, as hence will be found by (Prob. XL), and knowing X, the rest will be

X N
:

accomplished by (Prob. XIL).

106

GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
XV.

To

construct

a figure similar

to the

figure P,

and equivalent

to

the figure

Q.

Find M, the side of a square equivalent to the figure P, and IS, the side of a square equivaLet be lent to the figure Q. a fourth proportional to the three

given

lines,

M, N,

AB

upon

the side X, homologous to AB, describe a figure similar to the figure


lent to the figure

it

will also

be equiva-

Q.
figure described upon the side X, we have X^ but by construction, AB X N, M2 N^; hence P Y M^ N^. But by
;

For, calling

Y the
: :

AB2

: : : : or AB2 : X2 : construction also, M2=P and N2=:Q; therefore P : : P hence the figure is similar to the Q; consequently figure P, and equivalent to the figure Q.
:

Y=Q;

PROBLEM

XVI.

To construct a rectangle equivalent to a given square, and having the sum of its adjacent sides equal to a given line.
Let

be the square, and


as a diame-

AB

equal to the

sum of

the sides

of the required rectangle.

Upon AB
cle
;

ter, describe a semicir-

draw

the line

DE
C
it,

parallel to the diameter,

at a distance

AD from

A. 1?B equal to the side of the given square C ; from the point E, where the parallel cuts the circumference, draw EF perpendicular to the diameter ; AF and FB will be the sides of the rectangle required. For their sum is equal to AB and their rectangle AF.FB is hence equivalent to the square of EF, or to the square of that rectangle is equivalent to the given square C.
;

AD

Scholium. To render the problem possible, the distance AD must not exceed the radius that is, the side of the square C must not exceed the half of the line AB.
;

BOOK
PROBLEM
To

IV.

107

XVII.

construct a rectangle that shall he equivalent to a given square, and the difference of whose adjacent sides shall he
to

equal

a given

line.

Suppose
of the sides.

equal to the given square, and

AB the

difference

the given line AB as a diamedescribe a semicircle : at the extremity of the diameter draw the tangent AD, equal to the side of the square C ; through the point and the centre draw the secant DF ; then will and DF be the adjacent sides of the rectangle required. For, first, the difference of these sides is equal to the diameter EF or AB ; secondly, the rectangle DE, DF, is equal to AD^ (Prop. XXX.) hence that rectangle to the given square C.

Upon

ter,

DE

is

equivalent

PROBLEM
To find
tile

XVIII.

common measure, if there is one, between the diagonal and the side of a square.
be any square whatits

Let

ever, and

ABCG AC
must

diagonal.

We
CA,

first

apply

CB

upon

contained purpose, let the semicircle DBE be described, from the centre C, with the radius CB. It is evident that CB is contained once in AC, with the remainder the result of the first operation is therefore the quotient 1, with the remainder AD, which latter must now be compared with BC, or its equal AB. might here take AF = AD, and actually apply it upon AB we should find it to be contained twice with a remainder but as that remainder, and those which succeed it, conas often as it there. For this

may be

AD

We
; :

108

GEOMETRY.

tinue diminishing, and would soon elude our comparisons by their minuteness, this would be but an imperfect mechanical method, from which no conclusion could be obtained to determine whether the lines AC, CB, have or have not a common measure. There is a very simple way, however,

of avoiding these decreasing lines, and obtaining the result, by operating only upon lines which remain always of the same magnitude. The angle ABC being a right angle, AB is a tangent, and 4E a secant drawn from the same point so that AB AB : AE (Prop. XXX.). Hence in the second operation, when is compared with AB, the ratio of AB to AE may be taken instead of that of to AB now AB, or its equal CD, is contained twice in AE, with the remainder ; the result of the second operation is therefore the quotient 2 with the remainder AD, which must be compared with AB. Thus the third operation again consists in comparing with AB, and may be reduced in the same manner to the comparison of AB or its equal CD with AE from which there will again be obtained 2 for the quotient, and for the remainder. Hence, it is evident that the process will never terminate ;
;

AD

AD

AD

AD

AD

AD

nal

and therefore there is no common measure between the diagoand the side of a square a truth which was already known by arithmetic, since these two lines are to each other \/2 1 (Prop. XI. Cor. 4.), but which acquires a greater degree of
:
: : :

clearness

by

the geometrical investigation.

BOOK V

100

BOOK

V.

^K

REGULAR POLYGONS, AND THE MEASUREMENT OF THE R


CIRCLE.

Definition,

A Polygon,
lateral triangle

which

is

at

once equilateral and equiangular,


:

is

called a regular polygon.

Regular polygons may have any number of sides the equiis one of three sides ; the square is one of foiu*.

PROPOSITION L THEOREM.

Two

regular polygons of the same number of sides are similar


figures.

Suppose, for example,


that

ABCDEF,

abcdefi

are two regular hexagons. The sum of all the angles is the same in both figures,being in each equal to eight right angles (Book I. Prop. XXVI. Cor. 3.). The angle is the sixth part of that sum ; so is the angle a : hence the angles and a are equal ; and for the same reason, the angles B and b, the angles C and c, (fee. are equal. Again, since the polygons are regular, the sides AB, BC, CD, &c. are equal, and likewise the sides ab, bc^ cd, &c. (Def.) ; it is plain that ab : : BC : be : : : cd, 6lc. ; hence the two figures in question have their angles equal, and their homologous sides proportional ; consequently they are similar (Book IV. Def. 1.).

AB

CD

The perimeters of two regular polygons of the same Cor. number of sides, are to each other as their homologous sides,
and their surfaces are to each other as the squares of those (Book IV. Prop. XXVIL).
Scholium.
sides

The angle of a

regular polygon, like the angle of


its

an equiangular polygon, is determined by the number of sides fBook I. Prop. XXVL).

no

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
THEOREIVL

II.

Any

regular polygon

may

he inscribed in a circle, scribed about one.

and

circuni'

Let ABCDE &c. be a regular polygon describe a circle through the three points A, B, C, the centre being O, and OP the perpendicular let fall from it, to the middle point of BC draw AO and
:

OD.
If the quadrilateral

OPCD

be placed

upon the quadrilateral comcide for the side


;

OPBA, they will OP is common

_
!P
;

the angle

OPC = OPB,

side PC will apply to B besides, from the nature of the polygon, the angle PCD = PBA hence CD will take the direction BA and since CD =
:

each being a right angle hence the its equal PB, and the point C will fall on
;

BA,

the point

will fall

on A, and the two quadrilaterals

will

therefore equal to ; and consequently the circle which passes through the three points A, B, C, will also pass through the point D. By the same mode of reasoning, it might be shown, that the circle which passes tlirough the three points B, C, D, will also pass through the point and so of all the rest : hence the circle ; which passes through the points A, B, C, passes also through the vertices of all the angles in the polygon, which is therefore inscribed in this circle.

entirely coincide.

The

distance

OD

is

AO

reference to this circle, all the sides AB, BC, CD, they are therefore equally distant from the centre (Book III. Prop. VIII.) hence, if from the point with the distance OP, a circle be described, it will touch the side BC, and all the other sides of the polygon, each in its middle point, and the circle will be inscribed in the polygon, or the polygon described about the circle.

Again,

in

&c. are equal chords

Scholium 1. The point O, the common centre of the in scribed and circumscribed circles, may also be regarded as the centre of the polygon ; and upon this principle the angle is called the angle at the centre, being formed by two radii tlrawn to the extremities of the same side AB. Since all the chords AB, BC, CD, &c. are equal, all the angles at the centre must evidently be equal likewise ; and therefore the value of each will be found by dividing four right an
gles

AOB

by the number of

sides of the polygon.

BOOK V.
Scholium 2. To inscribe a regupolygon of a certain number of sides in a given circle, we have only to divide the circumference into as many equal parts as the polygon has sides for the arcs being equal, the chords AB, BC, CD, &c. will hence likewise the also be equal
lar
:

Ill

triangles

AOB, BOC, COD, must


ABC, BCD, CDE, &c.
will

,,;-_ ^^

^^-r
;

-"

be equal, because the sides are equal each to each


the angles
figure

ABCDEH,

be equal will be a regular polygon.

hence all hence the

PROPOSITION

III.

PROBLEM.

To

inscribe a square in a given circle.

diameters AC, BD, cuteach other at right angles join their extremities A, B, C, D the figure ABCD will be a square. For the angles AOB, BOC, &c. being equal, the
ting
;
:

Draw two

chords

AB, BC, &c. are

also equal
<fec.

and the angles


in semicircles,

ABC, BCD,

being

are right angles.


is right angled and isosv/2 1 (Book IV. Prop. XI the side of the inscribed square is to the radius,

Scholium, Since the triangle


celes,

BCO

we
;

Cor. 4.) as the square root

have hence

BC

BO

q/*2, is to unity.

PROPOSITION
In a given
circlet ^o inscribe

IV.

PROBLEM.

a regular hexagon ana an equilate-

ral triangle.

112

GEOMETRY!

Suppose the problem solved, and that AB is a side of the inscribed hexagon the radii AO, OB being drawn, the triangle AOB will be equilateral.
;

is the sixth For, the angle part of four right angles ; therefore, taking the right angle for

AOB

unity,

we shall have AOB = f rr and the two other angles

of the same triantogether equal to 2 =1 ; and being mutually equal, each of them must be equal to | hence the triangle equilateral ; therefore the side of the inscribed hexagon
gle, are

ABO, BAO,

ABO
is

is

equal

to the radius.

Hence to inscribe a regular hexagon in a given circle, the radius must be applied six times to the circumference ; which will bring us round to the point of beginning. And the hexagon being inscribed, the equilateral triangle may be formed by joining the vertices of the alternate angles.

ABCDEF

ACE

Scholium. The figure ABCO is a parallelogram and even hence the sum of the a rhombus, since ; squares of the diagonals AC^+BO^ is equivalent to the sum of the squares of the sides, that is, to 4AB-, or 4B0* (Book IV. Prop XIV. Cor.) and taking away BO- from both, there will BO3 remain AC2=3B02; hence AC^ 1, or AC : BO : v'S : 1 ; hence the side of the inscribed equilateral triangle is to the radius as the square root of three is to unity.

AB=:BC=CO=AO

PROPOSITION
In a given circle,
to inscribe

V.

PROBLEM.

and

also

a regular decagon; then a pentagon, a regular polygon of fifteen sides.

BOOK
Divide the radius AO in extreme and mean ratio at (Book IV. Prob. the pomt IV.) take the chord AB equal the greater segment fo A.B will be the side of the regular decagon, and will re-

V,

113

OM

quire to be applied ten times


to the

circumference. For, drawing MB, we have : by construction,

AO
:

OM
:

OM AM
:

or, since

AM

=0M, AO
;

AB

AB AB

since the triangles ABO, AMB, have a common angle A, included between proportional sides, they are similar (Book

IV. Prop. XX.). Now the U'iangle OAB being isosceles, hence but AB must be isosceles also, and ; hence the triangle = is isosceles. also being exterior to the isosceles trianAgain, the angle gle BMO, is double of the interior angle O (Book I. Prop. XXV. Cor. 6.) but the angle AMB=:MAB ; hence the triangle OAB is such, that each of the angles OAB or OBA, at its hence the three base, is double of O, the angle at its vertex angles of the triangle are together equal to five times the angle O, which consequently is the fifth part of the two right angles, hence the arc AB is the tenth part or the tenth part of four of the circumference, and the chord AB is the side of the regular decagon. 2d. By joining the alternate corners of the regular decagon, the pentagon ACEGI will be formed, also regular. 3d. AB being still the side of the decagon, let AL be the the arc BL will then, with reference to side of a hexagon the whole circumference, be } hence the chord BL yV, or yV will be the side of the regular polygon of fifteen sides, or pentedecagon. It is evident also, that the arc CL is the third of CB. Scholium. Any regular polygon being inscribed, if the arcs subtended by its sides be severally bisected, the chords of those semi-arcs will form a new regular polygon of double the number of sides thus it is plain, that the square will enable us to inscribe successively regular polygons of 8, 16, 32, &c. sides. And like manner, by means of the hexagon, regular polygons of 12j 24, 48, &c. sides may be inscribed by means of the decagon, polygons of 20, 40, 80, &c. sides by means of the pentedecagon, polygons of 30, 60, 120, &c. sides. It is further evident, that any of the inscribed polygons will be less than the inscribed polygon of double the number of sides, since a part is less than the whole.

MB OM

AB=BM BMO

= OM

AMB

AMB

114

GEOMETRl.

PROPOSITION

VI.

PROBLEM.

regular inscribed polygon being given, to circumscribe a sim ilar polygon about the same circle.

Let CBAFED be a regular polygon. At T, the middle point


of the arc AB, apply the tangent GH, which will be parallel to AB (Book III. Prop. X.) ; do the same at the middle point of each of the arcs BC,

CD, &c.
by
will

these tangents,
intersections,

their

form

the

regular

circumscribed

polygon
similar
to

GHIK
Since

&c.

the one inscribed.

IC

the middle point of the arc BTA,and the middle point of the equal arc BNC, it follows, that BT=:BN ; or that the vertex B of the inscribed polygon, is at the middle point of the arc NBT. will pass Draw OH. The line through the point B. For, the right angled triangles OTH, OHN, having the comis

OH

the side OT=:ON, must be equal Prop. XVH.), and consequently the angle TOHi= passes through the middle point HON, wherefore the line B of the arc TN. For a like reason, the point I is in the prolongation of OC ; and so with the rest.

mon hypothenuse OH, and


(Book
I.

OH

But, since

GH

is

parallel to

AB, and HI
;
:

to

BC,

the angle

GHI=ABC (Book I. Prop. XXIV.) in like manner BCD and so with all the rest hence the angles of
;
:

HIKrr.
the cir

cumscribed polygon are equal to those of the inscribed one. And further, by reason of these same parallels, we have OB, and HI BC AB OB therefore AB HI BC. But AB=:BC, therefore GH=HI. For tho same reason, HI = IK, <fec.; hence the sides of the circumscribed polygon are all equal hence this polygon is regulai and similar to the inscribed one.
:

OH

OH

GH GH

Cor.

1.

Reciprocally,

if

the circumscribed polygon

GHIK

&c. were given, and the inscribed one ABC &c. were required to be deduced from it, it would only be necessary to

BOOK'V.
draw from
lines

115
straight

the angles G,

H, T, &c. of the given polygon,

OG, OH, &c. meeting the circumference in the points then to jom those points by the chords A, B, C, &c.
;

An this would form the inscribed polygon. easier solution of this problem would be simply to join the points of contact T, N, P, &;c. by the chords TN, NP, &c. which likewise would form an inscribed polygon similar to the circumscribed one.
AB, BC, &c.
;

Cor. 2. Hence we may circumscribe about a circle, any regular polygon, which can be inscribed within it, and conversely.

Cor.

3.

It is plain that

NH + HT=:HT + TG=HG, one


VII.

of

the equal sides of the polygon.

PROPOSITION

PROBLEM.

circle and regular circumscribed polygon being given, it is required to circumscribe the circle by anotlier regular polygon having double the number of sides.

Let the
square octagon.

circle
:

whose centre

CDEG

it is

is P, be circumscribed by the required to find a regular circumscribed

Bisect the arcs

AH, HB, BF,

FA,

through the middle points c, rf, a, b, draw tangents to the circle, and produce them till they meet the sides of the square
then will the figure

and

ApH^/B &c.

be a regular octagon. For, having drawn P^, Pa, let the quadrilateral P^^^B, be applied to the quadrilateral PB/a,
so that PB shall fall on PB. Then, since the angle c?PB is equal to the angle BPa, each being half a right angle, the line Vd will fall on its equal Pa, and the point d on the point a. But the angles Vdg, Pa/, are right angles (Book HI. Prop. IX.) hence the line dg will take the direction af. The angles PB^, PB/, are also right angles hence will take the direction B/^; therefore, the two quadrilaterals will coincide, and the point g will fall at/; hence, B^=:B/, dg=af, and the angle
;

dJg'B

= B/z. By

rals

applying in a similar manner, the quadrilatePB/a, PFAa, it may be shown, that afah, fB:=zFh, and

the angle Bfa:=zahF.

But since the two tangents /a, /B, are

116

GEOMETRY.

equal (Book III. Prob. XIV. Sch.), it follows that fh^ which is twice /a, is equal to^, which is twice /B. In a similar manner it may be shown that hfznhi, and the angle Fit=Fha, or that any two sides or any two angles of the octagon are equal hence the octagon is a regular polygon (Def.). The construction which has been made in the case of the square and the octagon, is equally applicable to other polygons.
:

Cor It is evident that the circumscribed square is greater than the circumscribed octagon by the four triangles, Cnp, kDgf hEff Git ; and if a regular polygon of sixteen sides be circumscribed about the circle, we may prove in a similar way, that the figure having the greatest number of sides will be the least and the same may be shown, whatever be the number of sides of the polygons : hence, in general, any circumscribed regular polygon^ will he greater than a circumscribed regular polygon

having double the number of sides.

PROPOSITION

VIII.

THEOREM.

Two

regular polygons, of the same number of sides, can always

be formed, the one circumscribed about a circle, the other inscribed in it, which shall differ from each other by less than

any assignable
Let
less

surface.

Q be the side of a square

the given surface. Bisect AC, a fourth part of the circumference, and then bisect the half of this fourth, and

than

proceed

in this

manner, always

bisecting one of the arcs formed by the last bisection, until an

arc

found whose chord AB is than Q. As this arc will be an exact part of the circumference, if we apply chords AB, BC, CD, &c. each equal to AB, the last will terminate at A, &c. in and there will be formed a regular polygon
is

less

ABCDE

the circle.

Next, describe about the circle a similar polygon abcde &c. (Prop. VI.) : the difference of these two polygons will be less than the square of Q. For, from the points a and b, draw the lines aO, bO,, to the centre and B, as was : they will pass through the points

BOOK
shown
in Prop. VI.

V.

117
to

Draw
I,

also

OK

the point of contact

and be perpendicular to it (Book 111. Produce AO to E, and draw BE. Prop. VI. Sch.). Let P represent the circumscribed polygon, and p the inthen, since the triangles aOb, AOB, are like scribed polygon parts of P and p, we shall have P p (Book 11. Prop. XL) AOB aOb But the triangles being similar, OA', or 0K. Oa aOb AOB Oa' 0K. Hence, P p Again, since the triangles OaK, EAB are similar, having
:

it

will bisect

AB in

their sides respectively parallel,

Oa

OK"*
: : :

AE
: :

? P
But P

AE^
:

EB,

EB, hence, or by division,


or

P-p
;

AE'*

AE'-EB',

AB^
:

than the square described on the diameter AE (Prop. VII. Cor.); therefore P p is less than the square dethat is, less than the given square on Q hence scribed on AB the difference between the circumscribed and inscribed polygons may always be made less than a given surface.
is less

Cor.

1.

A circumscribed

regular polygon, having a given


:

number of sides, is greater than the circle, because the circle makes up but a part of the polygon and for a like reason, the But by increasing inscribed polygon is less than the circle. the number of sides of the circumscribed polygon, the polygon is diminished (Prop. VII. Cor.), and therefore approaches to and as the number of sides of an equality with the circle
;

the inscribed polygon is increased, the polygon is increased (Prop. V. Sch.), and therefore approaches to an equality with the circle. Now, if the number of sides of the polygons be indefinitely increased, the length of each side will be indefinitely small,

and

the

polygons will ultimately become equal


also to the circle.

to

each other, and equal

represent their For, if they are not ultimately equal, let smallest difference. Now", it has been proved in the proposition, that the difference between the circumscribed and inscribed polygons, can that is, less than be made less than any assignable quantity henee th^ difference between the polygons is equal to D, jmd less than D at the same time, which is absurd : therefore, Jme polygons are ultimately equal. But when they are equal to each other, each must also be equal to the circle, since the circumscribed polygon cannot fall within the circle, nor the
:

mscribed polygon without

it.

118

GEOMETRY.

Cor. 2. Since the circumscribed polygon has the same number of sides as the corresponding inscribed polygon, and smce the two polygons are regular, they will be similar (Prop. I.) and therefore when they become equal, they will exactly coincide, and have a common perimeter. But as the sides of the circumscribed polygon cannot fall within the circle, nor the sides of the inscribed polygon without it, it follows that the perimeters of the polygons will unite on the circumference of the circhy and become equal to it.
;

sides of the inscribed polygon and the polygon coincides with the circle, the line 01, drawn from the centre O, perpendicular to the side of the polygon, will become a radius of the circle, and any portion of the polygon, as ABCO, will become the sector OAKBC, and the part of the perimeter AB + BC, will become

Cor.

3.

When

the

number of

is

indefinitely increased,

the arc

AKBC.

PROPOSITION
The area of a regular polygon

IX.

THEOREM.

is equal to its perimeter, multiplied by half the radius of the inscribed circle.

Let there be the regular polygon

GHIK, and ON, OT,


scribed circle.
will

radii of the in-

The

be measured by

triangle GOH GH x -^^OT the


;

triangle

OHI, by

HIxiON:

but

hence the two triangles taken together will be measured by And, by con(GPI + HI)xiOT.

ON^OT;

same operation for the other triangles, it will appear that the sum of them all, or the whole polygon, is measured by the sum of the bases or the perimeter of the polygon, muhiplied into the radius of the inscribed circle.
tinuing the

GH,

HI, &c.
hall

^OT, or

Scholium.
else than the

The

perpendicular

the sides

it is

of the inscribed circle is nothing fall from the centre on one of sometimes named the apot^em of the polygon.
radius
let

OT

BOOK
PROPOSITION

V.

119

X.

THEOREM.
the

The perimeters of two regular polygons, having


ber of sides, are
to

same num-

each other as the radii of the circumscribed circles, and also, as the radii of the inscribed circles ; and their areas are to each other as the squares of those radii.

Let
gon,

AB

be the side of the one poly-

OA

the centre, and consequently the radius of the circumscribed

circle,

and OD, perpendicular

to
;

AB,
let

the radius of the inscribed circle


ab, in like

manner, be a side of the other polygon, o its centre, oa and od the radii of the circumscribed and the
inscribed circles.
the

The perimeters of
:

two polygons are to each other as the sides AB and ah (Book IV. Prop. XXVII.) but the angles A and a are equal, so also are the being each half of the angle of the polygon angles B and h hence the triangles ABO, abo are similar, as are likewise the right angled triangles ADO, ado; hence
;
;

AB

do hence the perimeters of the ab ao polygons are to each other as the radii AO, ao of the circumscribed circles, and also, as the radii DO, do of the inscribed
: :
:

AO

DO

circles.

The surfaces of these polygons are to each other as the squares of the homologous sides AB, ab ; they are therefore likewise to each other as the squares of AO,ao,the radii of the circumscribed circles, or as the squares of OD, od^,the radii of the inscribed circles.

PROPOSITION XL THEOREM.
Tlie circumferences

of circles are

to

each other as their radii,

and

the areas are to each other as the squares

of their radii.

;.20

GEOMETRY.

is

Let us designate the circumference of the circle whose radius CA by circ, CA and its area, by area CA it is then to be
; :

shown

that
circ,

area

CA CA

cir^c,

area

OB OB

CA
CA^

OB, and
:

that

OB^

Inscribe within the circles

number of
their

two regular polygons of the same Then, whatever be the number of sides, perimeters will be to each other as the radii CA and OB
sides.

(Prop. X.). Now, if the arcs subtending the sides of the polygons be continually bisected, until the number of sides of the polygons shall be indefinitely increased, the perimeters of the polygons will become equal to the circumferences of the circumscribed circles (Prop. VIII. Cor. 2.), and we shall have
circ,

CA

circ.

OB

CA

OB.

Again, the areas of the inscribed polygons are to each other as CA2 to OB^ (Prop. X.). But when the number of sides of the polygons is indefinitely increased, the areas of the polygons become equal to the areas of the circles, each to each, (Prop. VIII. Cor. 1.) hence we shall have
;

area

CA

area

OB

CA^

OB^.

DE

Cor, The similar arcs AB, are to each other as their

radii

AC,

DO

sectors
radii.

ACB, DOE, are

and the similar to each

other as the squares of their


For, since the arcs are simithe angle C is equal to the angle but C is to four right angles, as the arc
lar,
;

O (Book IV. Def. 3.) AB is to the whole circumference described with the radius AC (Book III. Prop. XVII.) and O is to the four right angles, as the arc DE is to
:

the circumference described with the radius

arcs

AB, DE,

hence the are to each other as the circumferences of which


:

OD

BOOK
they form part
their radii
:

V.

121

but these circumferences are to each other as

AC,

DO

hence
:

arc

AB
;

arc

DE

AC

DO.

For a hke reason, the sectors ACB, DOE are to each other which again are as the squares of their as the whole circles
radii
;

therefore
sect,

ACB

sect.

DOE
XII.

AC^

DO^.

PROPOSITION
The area of a
circle is

THEOREM.

equal to the product of its circumference by half the radius.

Let
centre
will

ACDE
is

be a circle whose and radius OA then


:

area

O A=^0 A xcirc. OA.

For, inscribe in the circle anyregular polygon, and draw perpendicular to one of its sides. Then the area of the polygon will be equal to ^OF, multiplied by the perimeter (Prop. IX.). Now, let the number of sides of the polygon be indefinitely increased by continually bisecting the arcs which subtend the sides : the perimeter will then become equal to the circumference of the circle, the perpendicular OF will become equal to OA, and the area of the polygon to the area of the circle (Prop. VIII. Cor. 1. But the expression for the area 3.). will then become area ; JOA x circ. consequently, the area of a circle is equal to the product of half the radius into the circumference.

OF

&

0A=

OA

Cor. 1. The area of a sector is equal to the arc of that sector multiplied by half its radius.
circle as

For, the sector ACE the arc AMB.

is

to the
to the

is

whole whole

circumference ABD (Book III. Prop. XVII. Sch. 2.), or as is to ABD X ^AC. But the whole circle is equal to ABD x ^AC hence the sector

AMBx^AC
|

ACB

is

measured by AMB x

AC

A
122
Cor, 2.
circle

GEOMETRY.
Let the circumference of the whose diameter is unity, be denoted

then, because circumferences are each other as their radii or diameters, we shall have the diameter 1 to its circumference TT, as the diameter 2CA is o the circumference whose radius is CA,
:

by n
to

t.iat is, 1

7f

2CA

circ.

CA,

there-

CA=7tx 2CA. Multiply both terms by iCA we have iCA x circ. C =71 X CA^ or area CA=7t x CA^ hence the
ibre circ.
;
:

area of a circle is equal to the product of the square of its radius by the constant number rr, which represents the circumference whose diameter is 1, or the ratio of the circumference to the diameter. In like manner, the area of the circle, whose radius is OB, will be equal to tt x OB^*; but ^ x CA^ tt x OB^ : CA^ OB^ ; hence the areas of circles are to each other as the squares oj their radii, which agrees with the preceding theorem.
:

Scholium. have already observed, that the problem of the quadrature of the circle consists in finding a square equal in surface to a circle, the radius of which is known. it

We

Now

has just been proved, that a circle is equivalent to the rectangle contained by its circumference and half its radius and this rectangle may be changed into a square, by finding a mean proportional between its length and its breadth (Book IV. Prob. III.). To square the circle, therefore, is to find the circumference when the radius is given and for effecting this, it is enough to know the ratio of the circumference to its radius, or its diameter. Hitherto the ratio in question has never been determined except approximatively but the approximation has been carried so far, that a knowledge of the exact ratio would afford no real advantage whatever beyond that of the approximate ratio. Accordingly, this problem, which engaged geometers so deeply, when their methods of approximation were less perfect, is now degraded to the rank of those idle questions, with which no one possessing the slightest tincture of geometrical science will occupy any portion of his time. Archimedes showed that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter is included between 3|^ and 3|| ; 1 ence 3j or ^^ affords at once a pretty accurate approximation to the number above designated by tt and the simplicity of this first approximation has brought it into very general use. Metius, for the same number, found the much more accurate value ff . At last the value of 7t, developed to a certain order of decimals, wasfoundbyother calculators to be 3. 141 5920535897932, <fcc.i
;
;

BOOK

V.

123

and some have had patience enough to continue these decimals to the hundred and twenty-seventh, or even to the hundred and fortieth place. Such an approximation is evidently equivalent to perfect correctness the root of an imperfect power is in no case more accurately known. The following problem will exhibit one of the simplest elementary methods of obtaining those approximations.
:

PROPOSITION

XIII.

PROBLEM.
that of a simi-

The surface of a regular inscribed polygon, and

lar polygon circumscribed, being given ; to find the surfaces of the regular inscribed and circumscribed polygons having

double the

number of sides.

Let

AB
;

be a side of the given


;

inscribed polygon

EF, parallel

to

AB, a
cle.

side of the circumscribed

polygon

If the

the centre of the circhord and the

AM

tangents AP, BQ, be drawn, will be a side of the inscribed polygon, having twice the num= 2PM ber of sides ; and AP + or PQ, will be a side of the similar circumscribed polygon (Prop. VI. Cor. 3.). Now, as the same construction will take place at each of the angles equal to ACM, it will be sufficient to consider by itself, the triangles connected with it being evidently to each other as the whole polygons of which they form part. Let A, then, be the surface of the inscribed polygon whose side is AB, B that of the similar circumscribed polygon ; A' the surface of the

AM

PM

ACM

polygon whose side is AM, B' that of the similar circumscribed polygon A and B are given we have to find A' and B'. First. The triangles ACD, ACM, having the common vertex A. are to each other as their bases CD, they are likewise to each other as the polygons A and A', of which they form part hence A A' : CD : CM. Again, the triangles CAM, CME, having the common vertex M, are to each other as their bases CA, CE they are likewise to each other as the polygons A' and B of which they form part hence A' B CA CE. But since AD and are parallel, we have CD CA CE; hence A A' A' B hence the polygon A', one of those required,isamean proportional between
:

CM

CM

ME
:

the

two given polygons A and B and consequently A' =

VA x B.

: ;

124
Secondly.
ing

GEOMETRY
The altitude CM becommon, the triangle CPM is
but since
:

to the triangle

PE
gle

CPE as PM is to CP bisects the anMCE, we have PM PE


;

CM

CE

(Book
:
:

IV.
: : :
:

XVIL)::CD

CA
:

hence CPM CPE and consequently CPM


:

CPE or CME A A + A'. But CMPA, or 2CMP, and CME are


:

A A CPM +
: :

Prop. A' A'

each other as the polygons B' and B, of which they form part hence B' B 2A A+A'. Now A' has been already determined this new proportion will
to
:

serve for determining B', and give us B' =:--? ; and thus by A'

means of the polygons A and B it is easy to find the polygons A' and B', which shall have double the number of sides.

A+

PROPOSITION XIV. PROBLEM.

To find

the

approximate ratio of the circumference


diameter.

to the

Let the radius of the circle be 1 the side of the inscribed square will be V2 (Prop. III. Sch.), that of the circumscribed square will be equal to the diameter 2 ; hence the surface of the inscribed square is 2, and that of the circumscribed square is 4. Let us therefore put A-=2, and B=:4 by the last proposition we shall find the inscribed octagon A' =r V8=2.8284271, 1 P and the circumscribed octagon B'=^T^r= 3.3 137085. The
; ;

mscribed and the circumscribed octagons being thus determined, we shall easily, by means of them, determine the polygons having twice the number of sides. have only in this

We
;

case to put A=2.8284271,

B=3.3137085
2

we

shall find

A'

A B v^A.B = 3.06 14674, and B'=j^, = 3.1825979.


;

These poly-

gons of 16 sides will in their turn enable us to find the polygons of 32 and the process may be continued, till there remains no longer any difference between the inscribed and the circumscribed polygon, at least so far as that place of decimal? where the computation stops, and so far as the seventh place, *n this example. Being arrived at this point, we shaH infer

BOOK
since

V.

125

that the last result expresses the area of the circle, which,
it must always lie between the inscribed and the circum scribed polygon, and since those polygons agree as far as a certain place of decimals, must also agree with both as far as

the

same

place.

have subjoined the computation of those polygons, carried on till they agree as far as the seventh place of decimals.
Nnmber
of sides
Inscribed polygon.

We

4
8 16 32 64 128

256 512 1024 2048 4096 8192 16384 32768

....
.

...

2.0000000 2.8284271 3.0614674 3.1214451 3.1365485 3.1403311 3.1412772 3.1415138 3.1415729 3.1415877 3.1415914 3.1415923 3.1415925 3.1415926

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

Circumscribed poljigon.

4.0000000 3.3137085 3.1825979 3.1517249 3.1441184 3.1422236 3.1417504 3.1416321 3.1416025 3.1415951 3.1415933 3.1415928 3.1415927 3.1415926

The area of the circle, we infer therefore, is equal to 3.1415926. Some doubt may exist perhaps about the last decimal figure, owing to errors proceeding from the parts omitted but the calculation has been carried on with an additional figure, that the final result here given might be absolutely correct even to the last decimal place. Since the area of the circle is equal to half the circumference multiplied by the radius, the half circumference must be 3.1415926, when the radius is 1 ; or the whole circumference must be 3.1415926, when the diameter is 1 : hence the ratio of the circumference to the diameter, formerly expressed by n^ is equal to 3.1415926. The number 3.1416 is the one generally used

126

GEOMETRY.

BOOK VL
PLANES AND SOLID ANGLES.

Definitions,

1.

straight line
all

pendicular to
in the plane.
line.

\^ perpendicular to a plane^ when it is perthe straight lines which pass through its foot Conversely, the plane is perpendicular to the

The foot of the perpendicular pendicular line meets the plane.


2.

is

the point in

which the per-

line is parallel to

plane, to
tlie

a plane, when it cannot meet that whatever distance both be produced. Conversely,
parallel to the line.

plane

is

are parallel to each other, when they cannot meet, to whatever distance both be produced.
3.

Two planes

The angle or mutual inclination of two planes is the quangreater or less, by which they separate from each other this angle is measured by the angle contained between two lines, one in each plane, and both perpendicular to the common intersection at the same point. This angle may be acute, obtuse, or a right angle. If it is a right angle, the two planes are perpendicular to
4.
tity,
;

each other.
5. A solid angle is the angular space ineluded between several planes which meet

S
y/%

at the

same

point.
-p.

Thus, the solid angle S, is formed by the union of the planes ASB, BSC, CSD,

yy

yy

"VZ"^^

/"/C

/\ / \

DSA.

//
^ii
^

/
1^

Tlfree planes at least, are requisite to

form a sohd angle.

BOOK
PROPOSITION
I.

VI.

127

THEOREM.
and partly
out of it.

straight line cannot be partly in aplane^

For, by the definition of a plane, when a straight line has two points common with a plane, it lies wholly in that plane.

To discover whether a surface is plane, it is neScholium. cessary to apply a straight line in different ways to that surface, and ascertain if it touches the surface throughout its whole
extent.

PROPOSITION

II.

THEOREM.

T\vo straight lines, which intersect each other, lie in the same plane, and determine its position,

Let AB, AC, be two straight


intersect each other in

lines

which

conceived in which AB found if this plane be turned round AB, until it pass through the point C, then the line AC, which has two of its points A and C, in this plane, lies wholly in it hence the position of the plane is determined by the single condition of containing
; ;

a plane may be the straight line is


;

the

two

straight lines

AB, AC.

Cor.

1.

triangle

ABC,

or three points A, B, C, not in a

straight line, determine the position of a plane.

Cor, 2. Hence also two parallels AB, CD, determine the position of a plane for, drawing the secant EF, the plane of the two straight lines AE, F, is that of the parallels AB, CD.
;

PROPOSITION

III.

THEOREM.

If two planes cut each other, their common intersection will be a straight line.

128

GEOMETRY.

Let the two planes AB, CD, cut Draw the straight Hne EF, joining any two points E and F in the common section of the two planes.
each other.
This
line will
lie

'1>T<1

wholly

in the plane

AB, and

also wholly in the plane


:

CD
...--"'^

(Book 1. Def. 6.) therefore it will be n both planes at once, and consequently
is

their

common

intersection.

D
PROPOSITION

IV.

THEOREM.

If a straight line he perpendicular to two, straight lines at their point of inter section, it will he perpendicular to the plane of
those lines.

Let

MN be the plane of the


P

two Hues BB, CC, and let AP be perpendicular to them at


their point of intersection

then. will

be perpendicular to every line of the plane passing through P, and consequently


1.).

AP

to the plane itself (Def.

Through P, draw in the plane MN, any straight line as PQ, and through any point of this line, as Q, draw BQC, so that BQ shall be equal to QC (Book IV. Prob. V.) draw AB, AQ, AC. The base BC being divided into two equal parts at the point
;

Q, the triangle

BPC

will give

(Book IV. Prop. XIV.),

PCHPB2=2PQ2+.2QC2.
The
triangle

BAC will
first

in like manner give, AC2-f-AB2r=2AQ2+2QC2.

Taking the
that
tiie

triangles

APC, APB, which


and

equation from the second, and observing are both right angled at

P, give

AC2PC2=AP2,
we
shall

AB^PB^^AP^;

have

AP2 + AP2 = 2 AQ22PQ2. Therefore, by taking the halves of both, we have ' PQ^ or AQ2= PQ' AP2= hence the triangle APQ is right angled at P hence pendicular to PQ.

AQ

APH
;

AP is per-

BOOK
may be

VI.

129

Thus it is evident, not only that a straight line Scholium, perpendicular to all the straight lines which pass through its foot in a plane, but that it always must be so, whenever it is perpendicular to two straight lines drawn in the plans ; which proves the first Definition to be accurate.
Cor,
line
1.
;

The perpendicular
therefore
it

AQ

AP is shorter than any oblique measures the true distance from the point

A to

the plane

MN.
'^'^

Cor, 2, At a given point P on a plane, it is impossible to erect more than on,e perpendicular to that plane ; for if there could be two perpendiculars at the same point P, draw through these two perpendiculars a plane, whose intersection iwith the is plane ; then these two perpendiculars would be perpendicular to the line PQ, at the same point, and in the same plane, which is impossible (Book I. Prop. XIV. Sch.). It is also impossible to let fall from a given point out of a plane two perpendiculars to that plane ; for let AP, AQ, be these two perpendiculars, then the triangle would have two right angles APQ, AQP, which is impossible.

MN PQ

APQ

PROPOSITION

V.

THEOREM.

Iffrom a point without a plane^ a perpendicular he drawn to the plane, and oblique lines be drawn to different points,
\st.

Any

two oblique lines equally distant from the perpendicular two oblique lines unequally distant from the perpen-

will he equal,

2d,

Of any

dicular, the

more distant

will be the longer.

Let

AP

be perpendicular to

AB, AC, AD, the plane ; oblique lines equally distant from the perpendicular, and

MN

AE
will
will

a line

more remote
;

then

AB=AC=AD
be greater than

and

AE
we

For, the angles

AD. APB, APC,


if

APD, being right

angles,

suppose the distances PB, PC, 15 PD, to be equal to each other, the triangles APB, APC, APD, will have in each an equal angle contained by two equal sides therefore they will be equal ; hence the hypothenuses, or the oblique lines AB, A(/, AD, will be equal to each other. In like
;

130

GEOMETRY.
PE

manner,

is greater than if the distance or its equal PB, the oblique hne will evidently be greater than AB, or its

AE

PD

equal AD. Cor. All the equal oblique lines, AB, AC, AD, &c. terminate in the circumference BCD, described from P the foot of the perpendicular as a centre therefore a point being given out of a plane, the point P at which the perpendicular let fall
;

from

would meet that

plane,

may be found by marking upon


that plane three points Bj^C, D, equally distant from the pomt A, and then finding the centre of the circle which passes through these points ; this centre will be P, the point sought.

ABP is called the inclination of the which inclination is evidendy plane equal with respect to all such lines AB, AC, AD, as are equally distant from the perpendicular ; for all the triangles ABP, ACP, ADP, &c. are equal to each other.
Scholium,

The

angle

oblique line

AB

to the

MN

PROPOSITION

VI.

THEOREM.

Iffrom a point without a plane, a perpendicular be let fall on the planCf and from the foot of the perpendicular a perpendicular be drawn to any line of the plane, and from the point of intersection

line be

drawn

to the first

points this latter line will be

perpendicular

to the line

of the plane.

Let
plane

BC

be perpendicular to the and PD perpendicular to then will AD be also perpen-

AP

NM,

BC. Take DB=DC. and draw PB, PC, AB, AC. Since DB=DC, the obdicular to
lique line

PB=PC:
line
;

and with regard

to the perpendicular

PC, the oblique

V. Cor.) therefore two of its points A and D equally distant from the extremities B and C therefore AD is a perpendicular to BC, at its middle point D (Book I. Prop. XVI. Cor.).
;

AP, since PB= AB=AC (Prop. the line AD has

BOOK

VI.

131

Cor, It is evident likewise, that BC is perpendicular to the plane APD, since BC is at once perpendicular to the two
straight lines

AD, PD.

The two lines AE, BC, afford an instance of two which do not meet, because they are not situated in the same plane. The shortest distance between these lines is the straight line PD, which is at once perpendicular to the line AP and to the line BC. The distance PD is the shortest distance between them, because if we join any other two points, such as A and B, we shall have AB>AD, AD>PD; therefore
Scholium.
lines

AB>PD.
The two lines AE, CB, though not situated in the same plane, are conceived as forming a right angle with each other, because and the line drawn through one of its pohits parallel to BC would make with each other a right angle. In the same manner, the line and the line PD, which represent any two straight lines not situated in the same plane, are supposed to form with each other the same angle, which would be formed

AE

AB

by

AB

and a

straight line parallel to

PD

drawn through one

of the points of

AB.

PROPOSITION

VII.

THEOREM.
to

If one of two parallel lines he perpendicular


will also he perpendicular to the

a plane^ the othef


'plane.

same

Let the
parallel;

lines
if

ED, AP, be
is

AP

perpen-

dicular

to the

plane

NM,

then will be also perpendicular to it. Through the parallels AP, DE, pass a plane ; its intersection with the plane will be PD in the plane draw BC perpendicular to PD, and draw AD. By the Corollary of the preceding Theorem, BC is perpendicular to the plane is a right ; therefore the angle angle but the angle is also a right angle, since AP is perpendicular to PD, and parallel to AP (Book I. Prop. XX. Cor. 1.) ; therefore the line is perpendicular to the two straight lines DP, ; consequently it is perpendicular to their plane (Prop. IV.)
;

ED

MN MN

APDE EDP DE
DB

BDE

DE

MN

132
Cor,
1.

GEOMETRY.
Conversely,
if the

AP, DE, are perpendicular to the same


straight lines

they will be parfor if they be not so, draw through the point D, a line parallel to AP, this parplane
allel
;

MN,

allel

will

be perpendicular

to the plane

MN

therefore

through the same point more than one perpendicular might be erected to the same plane, which is impossible (Prop. IV. Cor. 2.).

and B, parallel to a third C, are parconceive a plane perpendicular to the line C ; the lines A and B, being parallel to C, will be perpendicular to the same plane ; therefore, by the preceding Corollary, they will be parallel to each other. The three lines are supposed not to be in the same plane ; otherwise the proposition would be already known (Book L Prop. XXII.).
Cor, 2.
allel to

Two lines A
;

each other

for,

PROPOSITION

VIII.

THEOREM.
line

^ a straight line
NM

is parallel to

a straight

drawn in a plane,

it

will he parallel to that plane.

Let AB be parallel to CD then will of the plane it be parallel to the plane -^


;

NM.
the line AB, which the plane ABDC, could meet the plane MN, this could only be in some point of the line CD, the common intersection of the two cannot meet CD, since they are parallel planes but hence it is parallel to ; hence it will not meet the plane that plane (Def. 2.).

For,

if

lies

in

AB

MN

PROPOSITION IX

THEOREM.

Two

planes which are perpendicular to the same straight line are parallel to each other.

BOOK
Let the planes

VI.
-

133

NM, QP,

be per-

M_
...

pendicular to the line AB, then will they be parallel. For, if they can meet any where, let O be one of their common
points,

P
P

t^
V

1^

AB

and draw OA, OB the line which is perpendicular to the


;

plane

perpendicular to the drawn through its foot in that plane for the straight line and OB same reason AB is perpendicular to BO ; therefore are two perpendiculars let fall from the same point O, upon the same straight line which is impossible (Book I. Prop. XIV.); therefore the planes MN, PQ, cannot meet each other ; consequently they are pai'allel.
is

MN,

\ \

"\
"
\ n
;

OA

OA

PROPOSITION

X.

THEOREM.

If a plane cut two parallel planes the lines of intersection will be


^

parallel.

Let the

parallel planes

NM,

QP, be

intersected

by the plane
parallel.

EH

then will the lines of inter-

section

EF, GH, be

For, if the lines EF, GH, lying in the same plane, were not parallel, they would meet each other when produced ; therefore, the planes MN, PQ, in which those
lines lie, would also meet and hence the planes would not be
;

parallel.

PROPOSITION

XI.

THEOREM-

fftwo planes are parallel, a straight line which is perpendicular to one, is also perpendicular to the other.

34

GEOMETRY.
MN, PQ,
and
;

Let
planes,
lar to

let

NM

be two parallel be perpendicuthen will it also be per-

AB

QP. Having drawn any line BC in the plane PQ, through the lines AB and BC, draw a plane ABC, interpendicular to

\ ^Q in the secting the plane ; (Prop. X.) but the line intersection will be parallel to AB, being perpendicular to the plane MN, is perpendicular to (Book the straight line therefore also, to its parallel ;

MN

AD

.\
;

AD

BC

AD

BC

being perpendicular to any line BC, drawn through its foot in the plane PQ, is consequently perpendicular to that plane (Def. 1.).
I.

Prop.

XX.

Cor.

1.):

hence the

line

AB

PROPOSITION

XII.

THEOREM.

The parallels comprehended between two parallel planes are


equal.

Let

MN, PQ,
:

planes,
lel lines

be two parallel and FH, GE, two paral-

then will For, through the parallels EG, FH, draw the plane EGHF, intersecting the parallel planes in EF and GH. The intersections EF, GH, are parallel to each other (Prop. X.) ; so likewise are therefore the figure EG, ; is a parallelogram ; con-

EG =FH

FH EGHF
Cor.

sequently,

EG =FH.
it
:

Hence
;

follows, that two parallel planes are every


for,

where equidistant

were perpendicular to the suppose would also be perpendicular to it the parallel plane (Prop. YII.), and the two parallels would likewise be perpen(Prop. XL) ; and being parallel, they dicular to the plane will be equal, as shown by the Proposition.

EG

PQ

FH

MN

BOOK VI.
PROPOSITION
XIII.

135

THEOREM.
have their sides

If two angles, not situated in the same plane^ parallel and lying in the same direction^ those angles will he equal and their planes will he parallel.

Let the angles be

CAE

and DBF.

Make AC=BD,

AE=

and draw CE, DF, AB, CD, EF. Since AC equal and parallel to is
;

BF

C
A/
\
--:=^.E

is BD, the figure a parallelogram therefore is equal and parallel to AB. For a similar reason, EF is equal and par;

ABDC

CD

N
\
\

B P \ a parallelogram, and the side CE is equal and paiallel to DF; therefore the triangles CaE, DBF, have their corresponding sides equal ; therefore the angle

hence also CD and parallel to is equal hence the figure EF


allel to

AB
is

\;^

CEFD

CAE

DBF.
Again, the plane ACE is parallel to the plane BDF. For suppose the plane drawn through the point A, parallel to BDF, were to meet the lines CD, EF, in points different from C and E, for instance in G and then, the three lines AB, GD, FH, would be equal (Prop. XII.) but the lines AB, CD, EF, arc already known to be equal; hence CD=GD, and FH==EF, which is absurd hence the plane ACE is parallel to BDF.

Cor, If two parallel planes MN, are met by two other planes CABD, EABF, the angles CAE, DBF, formed by the mtersections of the parallel planes will be equal ; for, the intersection is parallel to BD, and to BF (Prop. X.) ; therefore the angle DBF.

PQ

AC

AE

CAE =

PROPOSITION

XIV.

THEOREM.

[f three straight lines, not situated in the same plane, are equal and parallel, the opposite triangles formed by joining the extremities of these lii^ will he equal, and their planes will he
parallel

136
Let AB,
lines.

GEOMETRY.
CD, EF, be
is

the

Since

AB

equal

and

parallel to

CD,

the figure

ABDC is a parallelogram ; hence the side AC is equal and parallel to BD. For a ike reason the sides AE, BF, are equal and parallel,
as also the

CE,
;

DF

therefore

two triangles ACE, BDF, are equa' hence, by the last


Proposition, their planes are
parallel.

PROPOSITION XV. THEOREM.


]f two Straight lines he cut by three parallel planes, they will he divided proportionally

Suppose the Hne


the parallel planes

AB to meet
;

M,

RS,

at the points

MN, PQ, A, E, B and

the line

CD
:

to

meet the same

planes at the points C, F, we are now to show that

-^t^. nxv^"
D

AE
Draw

EB

CF

FD.

AD meeting
;

the plane

^A-n,
/^^r"
:

PQ
GF,

in

G, and draw AC, EG,

the intersections EG, BD, of the parallel planes PQ, RS, by the plane ABD, are
parallel
in like

BD

R ^
AG
:

(Prop. X.)

therefore
:

AE
the ratio

EB

GD

manner, the intersections AC, GF, being

parallel,

AG

AG GD CF FD GD is the same in both; hence AE EB CF FD.


:

PROPOSITION

XVI.

THEOREM.

If a line is perpendicular to a plane, every plane passed through the perpendicular, will also he peipeyjjcular to the plane.

BOOK

VI.

137

Let AP be perpendicular to the plane then will every plane passing through AP be perpendicu-

NM

lar to

Let
planes

NM. BC be
AB,

MN

the intersection of the in the plane MN, ;


:

draw

DE perpendicular to BP
MN,
will

then
to

the line
lar to

AP, being perpendicular

the plane

be perpendiculines

each of the two straight


;

BC,
lars

DE

but the angle


to the

PA, PD,

APD, formed by the two perpendicucommon intersection BP, measures the

angle of the two planes AB, (Def. 4.) therefore, since that angle is a right angle, the two planes are perpendicular to each
;

MN

other.

Scholium, When three straight lines, such as AP, BP, DP, are perpendicular to each other, each of those lines is perpendicular to the plane of the othei two, and the three planes are perpendicular to each other.

PROPOSITION

XVII.

THEOREM.

If two planes are perpendicular to each other, a line drawn in one of them perpendicular to their common intersection, wiU be perpendicular to the other plane.

Let the plane be perpendicular to then if the line ; be perpendicular to the intersection BC, it will also be perpendicular to the plane NM. For, in the plane draw B\. perpendicular to PB ; then, because the planes are perpendicuis a right anlar, the angle gle ; therefore, the line is perpendicular to the two straight lines PB, ; therefore it is perpendicular to their plane (Prop. IV.).

NM

AB

AP

MN

PD

w
L^

yE

APD

AP

W
MN

PD

if at

Cor, If the plane AB is perpendicular to the plane MN, and a point P of the common intersection we erect a perpendicular to the plane MN, that perpendicular will be in the plane AB ; for, if not, then, in the plane AB we might draw AP per-

138
pendicular to
time,

GEOMETRY.

PB the common intersection, and this AP, at the would be perpendicular to the plane MN; therefore at the same point P there would be two perpendiculars to the plane MN, which is impossible (Prop. IV. Cor. 2.).
same

PROPOSITION
Ij

XVIII.

THEOREM.

two planes are perpendicular to a third plane, their common intersection will also he perpendicular to the third plane.

Let the planes pendicular to


intersection
to

AB, AD, be
;

per-

NM

AP

then will their be perpendicular

NM.

For, at the point P, erect a perpendicular to the plane ; that

MN

m
yE

perpendicular must be at once in the plane AB and in the plane

AD

(Prop. XVII. Cor.) ; therefore it is their common intersection AP.

D \A^
iN

PROPOSITION

XIX.

THEOREM.
,

If a solid angle is formed by three plane angles the sum of any two of these angles will be greater than the third.

tion only
IS

The proposition requires demonstrawhen the plane angle, which compared to the sum of the other

two, is greater than either of them. Therefore suppose the solid angle S to be formed by three plane angles ASB, ASC, BSC, whereof the angle ASB is the greatest; we are to show that

ASB<ASC + BSC.
In the plane
straight line

ASB make the ADB at pleasure


;

angle

BSD=BSC,

draw

the

and having taken

SC = SD
the are

draw AC, BC. The two sides BS, SD, are equal
angle equal; therefore

to the two BS, SC ; therefore the triangles BSD, BSC, But taking + ; from the one side, and from the other its equal BC, there

BSD=BSC

BD=BC.

AB<AC BC

Bi;
re

BOOK VI.
mains

139
are equal to tho

AD<AC.
SC
;

The two

sides
is

AS, SD,

two AS,

the third side

therefore the

angle

AD ASD<ASC
shall

less than the third side

AC

Adding BSI)=BSC, we

(Book I. Prop. IX. Sch.). have ASD + BSD or ASB<

ASC + BSC.
PROPOSITION XX. THEOREM.
The sum of the plane angles which form a solid angle less than four right angles.
Cut the
solid
is

always

angle

S by any plane
in that plane,

ABCDE
draw
lines

from O, a point

/A
/^/
1\

to the several

angles the straight

AO, OB, OC, OD, OE. /// \ The sum of the angles of the triangles /'^/ \\ /X^.L i..\i> ASB, BSC, &c. formed about the vertex /.''' S, is equal to the sum of the angles of an Al ''i eqiial number of triangles AOB, BOC, &c. A.\" y--"xo
1

formed about the point O.


point

But

at the

Nv

angles ABO, OBC, equal to ABC, is less than the sum of the angles ABS, SBC (Prop. XIX.) ; in the same manner at the point C we have + + SCD; and so with all the angles of the polygon ABCDE: whence it follows, that the sum of all the angles at the bases of the triangles whose vertex is in O, is less than the sum of the angles at the bases of the triangles whose vertex is in S hence to make up the deficiency, the sum of the angles formed about the point O, is greater than the sum of the angles formed about the point S. But the sum of the angles about the point is equal to four right angles (Book I. Prop. IV. Sch.) ; therefore the sum of the plane angles, which form the solid angle S, is less than four
the

sum of the

// \

\l

BCO OCD<BCS

right angles.

Scholium. This demonstration is founded on the supposition is convex, or that the plane of no one surface produced can ever meet the solid angle ; if it were other wise, the sum of the plane angles would no longer be limited, and might be of any magnitude.
that the solid angle

PROPOSITION

XXI.

THEOREM.

If two solid angles are contained by three plane angles which are equal to each othei , each to each, the planes of the equal angles
will he equally inclined to each other

140

GEOMETRY.
ASC=DTF,the
anthe

Let the angle


angle
gle

ASB=DTE, and the BSC=ETF; then will


DTF, DTE.

inclination of the

ASB,
planes

planes ASC, be equal to that of the

Having taken SB at pleasure, draw BO perpendicular to the

ASC from the point O, at which the perpendicular meets the plane, draw OA, OC perpendicular to SA, SC ;
plane
;

draw AB,
the plane

BC

next take
;

TE=SB

draw

EP perpendicular to
perpendicular

DTF

from the point


;

P draw PD, PF,

TF lastly, draw DE, EF. The triangle SAB is right angled at A, and the triangle TDE at D (Prop. VI.) and since the angle ASB = DTE we have SBA==TED. Likewise SB=TE; therefore the triangle SAB is equal to the triangle TDE; therefore SA=TD,and AB = DE. In like manner, maybe shown, that SC=TF, and BC=EF. That granted, the quadrilateral SAOC is equal to the quadrilateral TDPF: for, place the angle ASC upon its equal DTF; because SA=TD, and SC=TF, the point A will fall on D,
respectively to

TD,
:

it

and the point

on

and
fall

at the

pendicular to SA, will

on

PD

same time, AO, which is perwhich is perpendicular to


;

OC on PF wherefore the point O AO will be equal to DP. But the the hypotriangles AOB, DPE, are right angled at O and P thenuse AB^DE, and the side AO=DP: hence those trianTD, and
in like

manner

will fall

on the point P, and

gles are equal

(Book

I.

angle PDE. two planes ASB. planes DTE,

OAB =

The
;

ASC DTF hence


;

Prop. XVII.) angle OAB and the angle


those

and consequently, the


is

PDE

the inclination of the is that of the two

two

inclinations are equal to

each other.
of the right It must, however, be observed, that the angle angled triangle AOB is properly the inchnation of the two planes ASB, ASC, only when the perpendicular BO falls on for if it fell on the other side, the same side of SA, with SC the angle of the two planes would be obtuse, and the obtuse angle together with the angle A of the triangle OAB would make two right angles. But in the same case, the angle of the two planes TDE, TDF, would also be obtuse, and the obtuse angle together with the angle D of the triangle DPE, would make two right angles ; and the angle A being thus always equal to the angle at D, it would follow in the same manner that the inclination of the two planes ASB, ASC, must be equal to that of the two planes TDE, TDF.
;

Scholium, If two solid angles are contained by three plane

BOOK
angles, respectively equal to
the equal or

VI

141

each other, and if at the same time homologous angles are disposed in the same manner in the two solid angles, these angles will be equal, and they We have will coincide when applied the one to the other. already seen that the quadrilateral SAOC may be placed upon thus placing SA upon TD, SC falls upon TF,i its equal TDPF and the point O upon the point P. But because the triangh s
;

are equal, OB, perpendicular to the plane ASC, equal to PE, perpendicular to the plane ; besides, those perdendiculars lie in the same direction therefore, the point B will fall upon the point E, the line SB upon TE, and the two sohd angles will wholly coincide. This coincidence, however, takes place only when we suppose that the equal plane angles are arranged in the same manner in the two solid angles for if they were arranged in an inverse order, or, what is the same, if the perpendiculars OB, PE, instead of lying in the same direction with regard to the planes ASC, DTP, lay in opposite directions, then it would be impossible to make these solid angles coincide with one another. It would not, however, on this account, be less true, as our Theorem states, that the planes containing the equal angles must still be equally inclined to each other; so that the two solid angles would be equal in all their constituent parts, without, however, admitting of superposition. This sort of equality, which is not absolute, or such as admits of superposition, deserves to be distinguished by a particular name we shall call it equality by symmetry. Thus those two solid angles, which are formed by three plane angles respectively equal to each other, but disposed in an inverse order, will he called angles equal by symmetry or simply symmetrical angles. The same remark is applicable to solid angles, which are formed by more than three plane angles thus a solid angle, formed by the plane angles A, B, C, D, E, and another solid angle, formed by the same angles in an inverse order A, E, D, C, B, may be such that the planes which contain the equal angles are equally inclined to each other. Those two solid angles, are likewise equal, without being capable of superposition, and are called solid angles equal by symmetry, or symmetrical solid

AOB, DPE,
is

TDF

angles.
f)erly exist, all figures

plane figures, equality by symmetry does not prowhich might take this name being absoutely equal, or equal by superposition ; the reason of which is, that a plane figure may be inverted, and the upper part taken indiscriminately for the under. This is not the case with solids
;

Among

In

which the

third dimension

may

be taken

in

two

different

directions.

112

GEOMETRY.

BOOK

VII.

POLYEDRONS.

Definitions.

1.

The name

solid polyedron, or simple polyedron,

is

given

every solid terminated by planes or plane faces; which planes, it is evident, WiW themselves be terminated by straight
to
lines.

2.

The common
is

polyedron
3.

The

intersection of two adjacent faces of a called the side^ or edge of the polyedron. prism is a solid bounded by several parallelograms,
at

which are terminated


polygons.

both ends by equal and parallel


Tc

33

&

construct this solid, let be any polygon ; then if in a plane parallel to ABODE, the lines FG, GH, HI, &c. be drawn equal and parallel to the sides AB, BO, OD, &c. thus if in the next equal to forming the polygon place, the vertices of the angles in the one plane be joined with the homologous vertices in the other, by straight lines, AF, BG, BOHG, &c. will be parallelograms, OH, &c. the faces and ABCDE-K, the solid so formed, will be a prism. 4. The equal and parallel polygons ABODE, FGHIK, are called ihe bases of the prism; the parallelograms taken together constitute the lateral or convex surface of the prism ; the equal straight lines AF, BG, OH, &c. are called the sides, or edges oj

To

ABODE

FGHIK

ABODE

ABGR

the

prism,

The altitude of a prism is the distance between its two bases, or the perpendicular drawn from a point in the upper base to the plane of the lower base.
5.

BOOK
6.

VII.

143

prism

is

rights

when

the skies
;

AF, BG, CH, &c.

are

perpendicular to the planes of the bases and then each of them In eveiy other case the is equal to the altitude of the prism. prism is oblique^ and the altitude less than the side. prism is triangular^ quadrangular, pentagov.al, hex 7. agonal, &c. when the base is a triangle, a quadrilateral, a pentagon, a hexagon, &c. 8. prism whose base is a parallelogram, and A^hich has all its faces parallelograms, is named a

parallelopipedon. The parallelopipedon i.*s faces are rectangles.


9.

is

rectangular

when

all

Among

rectangular parallelopipedons,

we

distinguish the cube, or regular hexaedron, bounded

by

six equal squares.

10.

pyramid

is

a solid formed by

several triangular planes proceeding from the same point S, and terminating in the different sides of the same polygon

ABCDE.
The polygon
;

ABCDE

is

called the

base of the pyramid, the point S the vertex and the triangles ASB, BSC, CSD, &c. form its convex or lateral surface

n.
the

If from the pyramid S-ABCDE, pyramid S-abcde be cut off by a

plane parallel to the base, the remaining solid ABCDE-c?, is called a truncated pyramid, or the frustum of a pyramid. 12. The altitude of a pyramid is the perpendicular let fall from the vertex upon the plane of the base, produced if necessary. pyramid is tnangular, quadrangular, &c. according 13. as its base is a triangle, a quadrilateral, &c. 14. pyramid is regular, when its base is a regular polygon, and when, at the same time, the perpendicular let fall from the vertex on the plane of the base passes through the centre of the base. That perpendicular is then called the ojcis of the pyramid. 15. Any line, as SF, drawn from the vertex S of a regular pyramid, perpendicular to either side of the polygon which forms its base, is called the slant height of the pyramid. 16. The diagonal of a polyedron is a straight line joining the vertices of two solid angles which are not adjacent to each

other.

144
17.

GEOMETRY.
Two
poiyedrons are similar

when they

are contained

similar planes, similarly situated, and having like inclinations with each other.

by the same number of

PROPOSITION

I.

THEOREM.
is

The convex surface of a right prism


its

equal to the perimeter

oj

base multiplied by

its altitude.

Let
will

ABCDE-K
convex

its

surface

be a right prism then be equal to


:

(AB + BC + CD + DE + EA)xAF.
For, the convex surface is equal to the all the rectangles AG, BH, CI, DK, EF, which compose it. Now, the altitudes AF, BG, CH, &c. of the rectangles, are equal to the altitude of the prism. Hence, the sum of these rectangles, or the convex surface of the prism, is equal to (AB + BC + + + EA) x that is, to the perimeter of the base of the prism multi;

sum of

CD DE

AF

plied

by

its altitude.

Cor,
bases.

If

two

right prisms have the

same

altitude, their

con*
their

vex surfaces

will be to

each other as the perimeters of

PROPOSITION

II.

THEOREM.

In every prism, the sections formed by parallel planes, are equa*


polygons.

Let the prism the parallel planes


polygons
For, the sides

AH

be intersected by
;

NP, SV

then are the


equal.
parallel,

NOPQR, STVXY

being the planes with a third plane

ST, NO, are intersections of two

parallel
;

ABGF

these

ST, NO, are included between the parallels NS, OT, which are sides of the prism hence NO is equal to ST. For like reasons, the sides OP, PQ, QR, &c. of the section NOPQR, are equal to the sides TV, VX, XY, &c. of the sec-

same

sides,

tion

STVXY,

each

to each.

And

since

BOOK

VII.

145

the equal sides are at the same time parallel, it follows that the angles NOP, OPQ, &c. of the first section, are equal to the angles STV,TVX, &,c, of the second, each to each (Book VI. Prop. XIIL). Hence the two sections NOPQR, STVXY, ire equal polygons.

Cor. Every section in a prism,


is

if

drawn

parallel to the base

also equal to the base.

PROPOSITION

III.

THEOREM.
its

If a pyramid be cut by a plane parallel to


1st.

bas

2d.

The edges and the altitude will be divided proportionally. The section will be a polygon similar to the base.

Let the pyramid

S-ABCDE,
;

of which SO is the altitude, be cut by the plane abcde then will Sa : SA : So : SO, and the same for the other
:

edges and the polygon abcde, will be similar to the base


:

ABCDE.
Fi7'st.

S ince the planes ABC,

abcy are parallel, their intersec-

AB, ab, by a third plane SiVB will also be parallel (Book VI. Prop. X.) hence the triangles SAB, Sab are similar, and we have SA Sa SB S6 for a similar reason, we have SB S6 SC Sc and so on. Hence the edges SA, SB, SC, &c. are cut proportionally in a, 6, c, &c. The altitude SO is likewise cut in the same proportion, at the point for BO and bo are parallel, therefore we have SO So SB Sb.
tions
;
: : :

Secondly. Since ab is parallel to AB, be to BC, cd to CD, &c. is equal to ABC, the angle bed to BCD, and so on (Book VI. Prop. XIIL). Also, by reason of the similar trangles SAB, Sab, we have ab : SB : S6 ; and by reason of the similar triangles SBC, Sbc, we have SB : S^ : BC :
the angle abc

AB

be

hence

AB

ab

BC

be

we might

likewise have

: cd, and so on. BC : be : : Hence the polygons ABCDE. abcde have their angles respectively equal and their homologous sides proportional ; hence they are similar.

CD

146

GEOMETRY.

Cor, L Let S-ABCDE, S-XYZ be two pyramids, having a common vertex and the
altitude, or having their bases situated in the same plane if these pyramids are cut by a plane parallel to the plane of their bases, giving the sections abcde, xyz, then will the sections ahcde.xyz^heto each other as the bases ABODE,
;

same

XYZ.
For, the polygons ABODE, abcde, being similar, their siirfaces are as the squares of the homologous sides AB, ab ; but SA^ Sa^ : : : abcde ab : : : Sa; hence xyz : : SX^ : Sx\ But since For the same reason, :

AB

SA

ABODE

XYZ

XYZ

S : ; abc and xyz are in one plane, we have likewise SA abcde : SX 8x (Book VI. Prop. XV.) ; hence ; xyz ; hence the sections abcde, xyz, are to each othei as the bases ABODE, XYZ.
: :

ABCDE

Cor, 2. If the bases


tions abcde, xyz,

ABODE, XYZ,
at equal

made

are equivalent, any secdistances from the bases, will

be equivalent likewise.

PROPOSITION

IV.

THEOREM.

The convex surface of a regular pyramid


ter

is equal to the perimeof its base multiplied by half the slant height.

For, since the pyramid is regular, the point O, in which the axis meets the base, is the centre of the polygon

ABCDE

(Def. 14.)

hence thelines OA, OB, 00,

&c. drawn to the vertices of the base,


are equal. In the right angled triangles

SAO, SBO,
:

the bases and perpendiculars are equal and since the hypolhenuses are equal it may be proved in the same way that all the sides of the right pyramid are
equal. The triangles, therefore, which form the convex surface of the prism are all equal to each other. But the area of either of these triangles, as ESA, is equal

BOOK
to
is

VII.

147

multiplied by half the perpendicular SF, which its base the slant height of the pyramid : hence the area of all the triahg'.es, or the convex surface of the pyramid, is equal to the perimeter of the base multiplied by half the slant height.

EA

'Gov, The convex surface of the frustum of a regular pyraIS equal to half the perimeters of its upper and lower bases multiplied by its slant height. Ppr since the section abcde is similar to the base (Prop. 111.), is a regular polygon (Def. 14.), it and since the baste follows that the sides ea, ab, be, cd and de are all equal to each other. Hence the convex surface of the frustum ABCDE-c? is formed by the equal trapezoids EAae, AB6a, <&c. and the perpendicular, distance between the parallel sides of either of these trapezoids is equal to Ff the slant height of the frustum. But the area of either of the trapezoids, as AEea, is equal to i(EA-f ea) xF/ (Book IV. Prop. VII.) : hence the area of all of them, or the convex surface of the frustum, is equal to half the perimeters of the upper and lower bases multiplied by the

mid

ABCDE

slant height.

PROPOSITION

V.

THEOREM.

If the three planes which form a solid angle of a prism, are equal to tfie three planes which form the solid angle of another prism, each to each, and are like situated, the two prisms will he equal
to edf;h other.

be equal to the base abcde, the paralList the base lelogram ABGF equal to the parallelogram ab^, and the parequal to bchg; then will the prism ABCDE-K allelogram be equal to the prism abcde-k.

ABCDE

BCHG

For, lay the base bases will coincide.

ABCDE

upon its equal abcde these two But the three plane angles which form
;

148

GEOMETRY.

the solid angle B, are respectively equal to the three plane angles, which form the solid angle b, namely, ABCr=a/)c, =gbc ; they are also similarly situated . ABGznabgf and

GBC

hence the solid angles B and b are equal (Book VI. Prop. XXI, It Sch.) and therefore the side BG will fall on its equal bg. is likewise evident, that by reason of the equal parallelograms ABGF, abgfi the side GF will fall on its equal gf, and in the same manner on gh hence, the plane of the upper base, FGHIK will coincide with the plane fghik (Book VI. Prop. II.).
;

GH

7c

:b

be
.

But the two upper bases being equal to their corresponding lower bases, are equal to each other hence HI will coincide with hi, IK with xk, and KF with Af; and therefore the lateral
faces of the prisms will coincide : therefore, the coinciding throughout are equal (Ax. 13.).

two prisms

right prisms, which have equal bases and equal alis equal to ab, and For, since the side will be equal to the altitude to bg, the rectangle be equal to bghc ; and abgf; so also will the rectangle thus the three planes, which form the solid angle B, will be equal to the three which form the solid angle 6. Hence the

Cor,

Two

titudes, are equal.

BG

AB ABGF BGHC

two prisms are

equal.

PROPOSITION

VI.

THEOREM.

In every parallelopipedon the opposite planes are equal and


parallel

By

ABCD, EFGH,

the definition of this solid, the bases are equal parallelograms,


:

and their sides are parallel it remains only to show, that the same is true of any two opposite lateral faces, such as AEHD, BFGC. Now is equal and parallel to BC, because the figure is a par-

AD

ABCD

BOOK
DAE

VII.

149

allelogram ; for a like reason, is parallel to BF ; hence the angle is equal to the angle CBF, and the planes DAE, CBF, are parallel (Book VI. Prop. XIII.) hence also the parallelogram is equal to the parallelogram CBFG. In the same way. it might be shown that the opposite parallelograms ABFE, DCGH, are equal and parallel.
;

AE

DAEH

1. Since the parallelopipedon is asoHd bounded by six whereof those lying opposite to each other are equal and parallel, it follows that any face and the one opposite to it, may be assumed as the bases of the parallelopipedon.

Cor.

planes,

The diagonals of a parallelopipedon bisect each For, suppose two diagonals EC, AG, to be drawn both through opposite vertices is equal and parallel to since CG, the figure is a parallelogram hence the diagonals will mutually bisect each other. In the same manner, EC, we could show that the diagonal and another bisect each other ; hence the four diagonals will mutually bisect each other, in a point which may be regarded as the centre of the parallelopipedon.
Cor, 2.
other.
:

AE

AEGC

-,

AG

EC

DF

Scholium. If three straight lines AB, AE, AD, passing through the same point A, and making given angles with each other, are known, a parallelopipedon may be formed on those lines. For this purpose, a plane must be passed through the extremity of each line, and parallel to the plane of the other two that is, through the point B a plane parallel to DAE, through a plane parallel to BAE, and through E a plane parallel to BAD. The mutual intersections of these planes will form the parallelopipedon required.
;

PROPOSITION
TTie

VII.

THEOREM.

two triangular prisms into which a parallelopipedon is divided by a plane passing through its opposite diagonal edges, are equivalent.

150

GEOMETRr.

Let the parallelopipedon ABCD-H be 11 divided by the plane BDHFpassin^through ^^-^^^7^ then will the triangular its diagonal edges 'St^^^^, /,'[}>. prism ABD-H be equivalent to the trian^[i..^ gular prism BCD-H. p\ /''C^i^ Through the vertices B and F, draw the / w^^'/f^ planes Bat/c, Yehg, at right angles to the lL-^^\ / side BF, the former meeting AE, DH, CG, A^W^^/^LX / the three other sides of the parallelopipejlr* '*\ don, in the points a, d, c, the latter in e, A, \//\'^^'\y C S^^^^^- g the sections Ba<ic, Yehg, will be equal parallelograms. They are equal, because they are formed by planes perpendicular to the same straight line, and consequently parallel (Prop. II.) they are parallelograms, because aB, dc, two opposite sides of the same section, are formed by the meeting of one plane with two parallel planes ABFE, DCGH. For a like reason, the figure BaeFis a parallelogram', so also are BF^c, cdhg, adhe, the other lateral faces of the sohd ^ade-g; hence that solid is a prism (I)ef. 6.) and that pri^m is right, because the side BF is perpendicular to its base. But the right prism ^adc-g is divided by the plane into two equal right prisms Bad-h, Bcd-h for, the bases Bdd,^cdy of these prisms are equal, being halves of the same parailelogram, and they have the common altitude BF, hence they are equal (Prop. V. Cor.). It is now to be proved that the oblique triangular prism ABD-H will be equivalent to the right triangular prism Bdd-h \ and since those prisms have a common part ABD-h, it will only be necessary to prove that the remaining parts, namely, '''^' '' the solids BaAD^, FeEH/i, are equivalent. Now, by reason of the parallelograms ABFE, rtBFe, the sides AE, ae, being equal to their parallel BF, are equal to each and taking away the common part Ae, there remains other Aa = Ee. In the same manner we could prove T)d=llh. Next, to bring about the superposition of the two solids BaADd, FeEH/i, let us place the base Feh on' its eqiiial B^: the point e falling on a, and the point h on c?, the' sides eEy^AH, will fall on their equals aA, dD^ because they are perpendicuHence the two solids in question lar to the same plane Bad. hence the oblique prism will coincide exactly with each other BAD-H, is equivalent to the rigfit one Bad-h. In the same manner might the oblique prism BCD-H, be
:

//r-^^
'

a^] //\

BH

''

'

proved equivalent to prisms Bad-hy Bcd-h, tude BF, and since same parallelogram

the right prism Bcd-lu

But the two

right

are equal, since they have the same altitheir bases Bad, Bdc, are halves of the Hence the two trian(Prop. V. Cor.).

BOOK

VII.

151

gular prisms BAD-H, BDC-G, being equivalent to the equal rifijht prisms, are equivalent to each other.

Cor, Eveiy triangular prism ABD-HEF is half of the paraldescribed with the same solid angle A, and ielopipedon ihe same edges AB, AD, AE.

AG

PROPOSITION

VIII.

THEOREM.

If two parallelopipedons have a common base, and their upper bases in the same plane and between the same parallels, they
will be equivalent.

Let the parallelopipedons AG, AL, have the common base AC, and their upper bases EG,

MK,
will

in the

same
the

plane,

and between
parallels

same
;

then they be equivalent. There may be three ^ -^ cases, according as EI is greater, less than, or equal to, EF but the demonstration is In the first place, then we shall show that the same for all. the triangular prism AEI-MDH, is equal to the triangular prism BFK-LCG. to GF, the angle AEl Since AE is parallel to BF, and
;

HL,

EK

HE

and Also, since To are each equal to AB, they are equal to each other. hence the each add FI, and there will result EI equal to (Bk. I. Prop. V), and triangle AEI is equal to the triangle But the parthe paralellogram to the parallelogram FL. (Prop. VI) is equal to the parallelogram allelogram are hence, the three planes which form the solid angle at respectively equal to the three which form the solid angle at

= BFK, HEI = GFK,

and

HEA=GFB.

EF

IK

FK

EM

BFK

AH

OF

F, and being like placed, the triangular prism to the triangular prism BFK-L.

AEI-M

is

equal

But if the prism AEI-M is taken away from the solid AL, there will remain the parallelopipedon BADC-L ; and if the prism BFK-L is taken away from the same solid, there will remain the parallelopipedon BADC-G ; hence those two paral lelopipedons BADC-L, BADC-G, are equivalent.

152

GEOMETRY

PROPOSITION

IX.

THEORExM.

Two

parallelopipedons, having the same base tude, are equivalent.

and

the

same

alti'

tiion

Let ABCDbethecombase of the two par-

allelopipedons
altitude, their

AG,

AL

since they have the

same

upper bases

EFGH, IKLM, will be in


the

same

plane. Also the


will

sides

EF and AB
;

be

equal and parallel, as well


as
is

IK and AB

hence

EF

equal and parallel to IK; for a like reason, GF is equal and parallel to

LK.
IM,

Let the sides EF, GH, be produced, and likewise KL, by their intersections they form the parallelogram NPPQ this parallelogram will evidently be equal to either
till
;

of the bases EFGH, IKLM. Now if a third parallelopipedon be conceived, having for its lower base the parallelogram ABCD, and for its upper, the third parallelopipedon will be equivalent to the parallelopipedon AG, since with the same lower base, their upper bases lie in the same plane and between the same parallels, GQ, FN (Prop. VIII.). For the same reason, this third parallelopipedon will also be equivalent to the parallelopipedon hence the two parallelopipedons AG, AL, which have the same base and the same altitude, are equivalent.

NOPQ

AL

PROPOSITION

X.

THEOREM.

Any parallelopipedon may


equivalpnt base.

he changed into an equivalent rectangular parallelopipedon having the same altitude and an

BOOK
be the parLet allelopipedon proposed. From the points A, B, C,

VII.

153

AG

D,drawAI,BK,CL,DM,
perpendicular tothe plane of the base you will thus
;

form

the

don

AL

parallelopipeequivalent to

AG, and having its lateral faces AK, BL, &c.


rectangles.

Hence
is

if

the

a rectangle, be a rectangular parallelopipedon equivalent to AG, and consequently the parallelopipedon required. But if is not a rectangle draw and perpendicular to CD, and I-P and NP perpendicular to the base ; you will then have the solid ABNO-IKPQ, which will be a rectangular parallelopipedon for by construction, the bases ABNO, and IKPQ are rectangles so also are the lateral faces, the edges AI, OQ, <fec. being perpendicular to the plane of the base hence the solid AP is a rectangular parallelopipedon. But the two parallelopipedons AP, may be conceived as having the same base ABKl and the same altitude hence the parallelopipedon AG, which was at first changed into an equivalent parallelopipedon AL, is again changed into an equivalent rectangular parallelopipedon AP, having the same altitude AI, and a base equivalent to the base ABCD.

base

ABCD AL will AO

ABCD

BN

OQ

mQ

AL

AO

ABNO

PROPOSITION

XI.

THEOREM.

TiVO rectangular parallelopipedons, which have the same bas5, are to each other as their altitudes.

'

154

GEOMETRY.
will they

AG, AL, have the same base BD^ be to each other as their altitudes AE, AT. First, suppose the altitudes AE, AI, to be e X to each other as two whole numbers, as 15 is Divide AE into 15 equal to S, for example. parts whereof AI will contain 8 and through q.
J^et the parallelopipedons
I

hen

2",

y, z, &c. the points of division, draw planes These planes will cut parallel to the base.

.^

^
-

the solid

AG into 15 partial parallelopipedons,

M
K

all equal to each other, because they have 55 equal bases and equal altitudes equal bases, y so-

since every section

MIKL, made

parallel to

of a prism, is equal to that ^g" base (Prop. II.), equal altitudes, because the altitudes are the equal divisions Ax, xy, yz, But of those 15 equal parallelopipedons, 8 are con&;c. tained in hence the solid is to the solid as 15 is to is to the altitude AI. 8, or generally, as the altitude Again, if the ratio of to AI cannot be exactly expresfsed numbers, it is to be shown, that notwithstanding, we shall
the base

ABCD

AL

AG AE

AL

AE

have
solid

AG
:

solid

AL
: :

AE
:

AI."

For,

if this

proportion
sol,

is

not correct, suppose

we

have

AG

sol>

AL

AE

AO

greater than K\,

into equal parts, such that each shall be less than there will be at least one point of division m, between and I. Let P be the parallelopipedon, whose base is ABCD, and altitude ; since the altitudes AE, Atw, are to each other

Divide

AE

01

km

as the

two whole numbers, we


sol

shall
:

have
:

AG
:

AE
:

Am.
:

But by hypothesis,
sol
therefore,

we have
sol

AG

AL
P
;

AE
:

AO

solKL

AO

Am.

But .\0 is greater than Am hence if the proportion is correct, On the contrary, howthe solid AL must be greater than P. ever, it is less hence the fourth term of this proportion
:

sol

AG

sol

AL

AE
;

x,

cannot possibly be a line greater than AI. By the same mode of reasoning, it might be shown that the fourth term cannot be hence rectangular therefore it is equal to AI less than AI parallelopipedons having the same base are to each other as
;

their altitudes.

BOOK
PROPOSITION

VII.

155

XII.

THEOREM.

Two

rectangular parallelopipedons, having the same altitude are to each other as their bases.

AG, AK, have


titude
to

Let the parallelopipedons the same al-

E
.K

K
fl

AE

each other as

then will they be their bases


the
tv^^o

AC, AN.
Having placed
solids

by the

side of

each

other, as the figure represents,

ONKL plane DCGH


will thus

produce the plane the it meets till


in

PQ

you
J^I

have a third par-

A
O
13

X)

allelopipedon AQ, which maybe compared with each N^

of

the

parallelopipedons

AG, AK. The two solids AG, AQ, having the same
base
like

AEHD are to each other as their altitudes AB, AQ f -in manner, the two solids AQ, AK, having the same base AOLE, are to each other as their altitudes AD, AM. Hence we have the two proportions,
sol, sol.

AG AQ

sol.

sol.

AQ AK

AB

AO,

AD

AM.

Multiplying together the corresponding terms of these proportions, and omitting in the result the common multiplier sol,

AQ

we
But

shall

have
50/.

AG

sol.

AK

ABxAD

represents the base ; resents the base ; hence two rectangular parallelopipedons of the same altitude are to each other as their bases.

AB X AD

AOxAM. ABCD and AO x AM rep:

AMNO

PROPOSITION

XIII.

THEOREM.

Any two

rectangular parallelopipedons are to each other as tht products of their bases by their altitudes^ that is to say, as the products of their three dimensions.

156

GEOMETRY.

For, having placed the two AG, AZ, so that their surfaces have the common angle BAE, produce the planes necessary for completing the third parallelopisolids

pedon

AK

aving the same

win the parallelopipedon AG. By the last proposition, we shall have


altitude
sol.

AG ABCD

sol

AK

AMNO.

But the two parallelopipedons having the same base AMNO, are to each other as their altitudes AE, AX hence we have

AK, AZ,

sol

AK

sol

AZ

AE

AX.

Multiplying together the corresponding terms of these proportions, and omitting in the result the common multiplier sol.

AK

we

shall
50/.

have

AG

soLAZ

ABCDxAE
and

AMNO x AX.
put

Instead of the bases AO X it will give

AM

ABCD
:
:

AMNO,
:

AB x AD

and

sol.AG
other,

sol.AZ

ABxADxAE AOxAMxAX.
parallelopipedons
are to each

Hence any two rectangular


&c.

Scholium.
the

We'

are consequently authorized to assume, as

measure of a rectangular parallelopipedon, the product of its base by its altitude, in other words, the product of its
three dimensions.

In order to comprehend the nature of this measurement, it necessary to reflect, that the number of linear units in one dimension of the base multiplied by the number of linear units in the other dimension of the base, will give the number of superficial units in the base of the parallelopipedon (Book IV. For each unit in height there are evidently Prop. IV. Sch.). ns many sohd units as there are superficial units in the base. Therefore, the number of superficial units in the base multiplied by the number of linear units in the altitude, gives the number of solid units in the parallelopipedon. If the three dimensions of another parallelopipedon are valued according to the same linear unit, and multiplied together in the same manner, the two products will be to each other as
is

BOOK

VII.

157

the solids, and will serve to express their relative magniude. The magnitude of a solid, its volume or extent, forms what is called its solidity / and this word is exclusively employed to designate the measure of a solid : thus we say the solidity of a rectangular parallelopipedon is equal to the product of its base by its altitude, or to the product of its three dimensions. As the cube has all its three dimensions equal, if the side is the solidity will be 1 x 1 x 1=:1 : if the side is 2, the solidity 1,
;
:

will be 2 X 2 X 2=8 if the side is 3, the solidity will be 3 x 3 x 3 = 27 and so on hence, if the sides of a series of cubes are to each other as the numbers 1, 2, 3, &c. the cubes themselves or their soHdiiies will be as the numbers 1, 8, 27, &lc. Hence it is, that in arithmetic, the cube of a number is the name given to a product which results from three factors, each equal to
;

this

number.

it were proposed to find a cube double of a given cube, the side of the required cube would have to be to that of the given one, as the cube-root of 2 is to unity. Now, by a geo-

If

metrical construction, it is easy to find the square root of 2 ; but the cube-root of it cannot be so found, at least not by the simple operations of elementary geometry, which consist in employing nothing but straight lines, two points of which are known, and circles whose centres and radii are determined. Owing to this difficulty the problem of the duplication of the cube became celebrated among the ancient geometers, as well as that of the trisection of an angle^ which is nearly of the same species. The solutions of which such problems are susceptible, have however long since been discovered ; and though less simple than the constructions of elementary geometry, they are not, on that account, less rigorous or less satisfactory.

PROPOSITION XIV. THEOREM.


The
solidity
is

equal

of a parallelopipedon, and generally of any prisma to the product of its base by its altitude.
first

For, in the

place,

any parallelopipedon

is

equivalent to

a rectangular parallelopipedon, having the same altitude and an equivalent base (Prop. X.). Now the solidity of the latter is equal to its base multiplied by its height hence the solidity of the former is, in like manner, equal to the product of its base
;

by

its

altitude.

In the second place, any triangular prism is half of the parallelopipedon so constructed as to have the same altitude and a double base (Prop. VII.). But the solidity of the latter is equal

1^8
to

GEOMETRY

its base multiplied by its altitude ; hence that of a triangular prism is also equal to the product of its base, which is half thai of the parallelopipedon, multiplied into its altitude. ^n the third place, any prism may be divided into as many triangular prisms of the same altitude, as there are triangles capable of being formed in the polygon which constitutes Us base. But the solidity of each triangular prism is equal to its bdse multiplied by its altitude; and since the altitude is the sarrie for all, it follows that the sum of all the partial prisms mu'st'be equal to the sum of all the partial triangles, which constitiite

their bases, multiplied by the common altitude. 'Heiice the solidity of any polygonal prism, is equal to the
its base by its altitude. Comparing two prisms, which have the same altitude, 'products of their bases by their altitudes will be as the.

product of
^

Co?;.^

the

bases sir^ply ; hence two prisms of the same altitude are to each other as their bases. For a like reason, two prisms of the same base are' to each other as their altitudes. And when neither their bases npr their altitudes are equal, their solidities will be to
eachi other as the products of their bases

and

altitudes.

PROPOSITION XV.
./li

THEOREIVL
equivalent bases

f^q P^ngular pyramids, having


"ji:
k:
;

and equal

>iff;

altitudes, are equivalent, or equal %n

^lidity.

Let S-ABC,
.ent bases
!)e

S-rt6c,

be those two pyramids

let their

eqo'^a

their

ABC, abc, be situated in the same plane, and let Al common altitude. If they are not equivalent, let ^-abt

BOOK
:

VII.

159

be the smaller and suppose Ka to be the altitude of a prism, for its base, is equal to their difference. which having Divide the altitude into equal parts Aa:, xy^ yz, &c. each less than Aa, and let k be one of those parts through the points of division pass planes parallel to the plane of the bases the corresponding sections formed by these planes in the two pyramids will be respectively equivalent, namely DEF to dej^ GHI to ghi^ &c. (Prop. III. Cor. 2.). This being granted, upon the triangles ABC, DEF, GHI, &c. taken as bases, construct exterior prisms having for ed^es the in like manner, on parts AD, DG, GK, &c. of the edge SA bases def^ ghi^ klm, 6lc. in the second pyramid, construct interior prisms, having for edges the corresponding parts of Sa. It is plain that the sum of all the exterior prisms of the pyramid S-ABC w^ill be greater than this pyramid and also that the sum of all the interior prisms of the pyramid S-abc will be less than this pyramid. Hence the difference, between the sum of all the exterior prisms and the sum of all the interior ones, must be greater than the difference between the two pyramids tliem-

ABC

AT

selves.

the bases ABC, ahc, the second exteprism DEF-G is equivalent to the first interior prism rfe/*-a, beca.use they have the same altitude A*, and their bases DEF, for like reasons, the third exterior prism deff are equivalent GHI,-K.and the second interior prism ghi'd are equivalent the fourth exterior and the third interior and so on, to the last in ^ach series. Hence all the exterior prisms of the pyramid S-ABC, excepting the first prism ABC-D, have equivalent corresponding ones in the interior prisms of the pyramid ^-abc hence the prism ABC-D, is the difterence between the sum of all the exterior prisms of the pyramid S-ABC, and the sum of the interior prisms of the pyramid S-abc. But the difference betweeri th^se two sets of prisms has already been proved to be greater than that of the two pyramids which latter difference we supposed to be equal to the prism a-ABC hence the prism ABC-D, must be greater than the prism a-ABC. But in reality it is less for they have the same base ABC, and the altitude Ax of the first is less than Aa the altitude of the second. Hence the supposed inequality between the two pyramids cannot exist hence the two pyramids S-ABC, S-abc, having equal altitudes and equivalent bases, are themselves equivalent.

Now, beginning with

rior

160

GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION

XVI.

THEOREM.

Evp.ry triangular pyramid is a third part of the triangulai prism having the same base and the same altitude.

Let F-ABC be a triangular pyramid, ABC-DEF a triangular prism of the same base and the

-j^

-q

same

altitude

the

pyramid

will

be equal to a third of the prism.

Cut

off the

pyramid

F-ABC

from the

FAC

prism, by the plane there will remain the solid

be considered as a quadrangular pyramid, whose vertex is F, and whose base the parallelogram ACDE. is Draw the diagonal CE ; and pass the plane FCE, which will cut the quadrangular pyramid into two triangular ones F-ACE,F-CDE. These two triangular pyramids have for their common altitude the perpendicular let fall from F on the plane ACDE ; they have equal bases, the triangles ACE, CDE being halves of the same parallelogram ; hence the two pyramids F-ACE, F-CDE, But the pyramid F-CDE and the are equivalent (Prop. XV.). pyramid F-ABC have equal bases ABC, DEF; they have also the same altitude, namely, the distance between the parallel planes ABC, DEF hence the two pyramids are equivalent. Now the pyramid F-CDE has already been proved equivalent to F-ACE

F-ACDE, which may

hence the three pyramids F-ABC, F-CDE, F-ACE, which compose the prism ABC-DEF are all equivalent. Hence the pyramid F-ABC is the third part of the prism ABC-DEF, which has the same base and the same altitude. Cor, The solidity of a triangular pyramid is equal to a third part of the product of its base by its altitude.

PROPOSITION
The
solidity

XVII.

THEOREM.

of every pyramid is equal to the base multiplied by a third of the altitude.

BOOK
Let

VII.

161

S-ABCDE be a pyramid. Pass the planes SEE, SEC, through the diagonals EB, EC ; the polygonal pyramid S-ABCDE will be divided into several triangular pyramids all having the same altitude SO. But each of these pyramids is measured by multiplying its base ABE, BCE, or CDE, by the third part of its altitude SO (Prop. XVI. Cor.) hence the sum of these triangular pyramids, or the polygonal pyramid S-ABCDE w ill be measured by the sum of the triangles ABE, BCE, CDE, or the polygon ABCDE, multiplied by one third of SO ; hence every pyramid is measured by a third part of the product of its base by its altitude.
;

Cor. 1. Every pyramid is the third part of the prism which has the same base and the same altitude.
Cor. 2. Two pyramids having the other as their bases.

same

altitude are to

each

Cor. 3. Two pyramids other as their altitudes.

havmg

equivalent bases are to each

Cor. 4. Pyramids are to each other as the products of their bases by their altitudes.
Scholium. The solidity of any polyedral body may be computed, by dividing the body into pyramids ; and this division may be accomplished in various ways. One of the simplest is to make all the planes of division pass through the vertex of one solid angle ; in that case, there will be formed as many partial pyramids as the polyedron has faces, minus those faces which form the solid angle whence the planes of division

proceed.

PROPOSITION

XVIII.

THEOREM.

If a pyramid be cut by a plane parallel to its base, the frustum that remains when the small pyramid is taken away, is equivalent to the sum of three pyramids having for their common
altitude the altitude of the frustum, and for bases the lower base of the frustum, the upper base, and a mean proportional

between the two bases.

;;

162

GEOMETRY.

Let S-ABCDE be a pyramid cut by the plane abcde,


parallel to
its base; let T-FGH be a triangular pyramid hav-

ing the same altitude and an equivalent base with the pyra-

mid
bses

kS-ABCDE.

The two
as
;

may

be

regarded

situated in the

same plane

in

which case, the plane abed, if produced, will form in the triangular pyramid a section fgh situated at the same distance above the common plane of the bases and therefore the section jfg-/i will be to the section afecf/e as the base FGH is to the base ABD (Prop. III.), and since the bases are equivalent, the sections will be so likewise. Hence the pyramids S-abcde, T-fgh are equivalent, for their altitude is the same and their bases are equivalent. The whole pyramids S-ABCDE, T-FGH are equivalent for the same reason hence the frustums ABD-dab, FGK-hfg are equivalent hence if the proposition can be proved in the single case of the frustum of a triangular pyramid, it will be true of every
;

other.

Let FGH-/i^ be the frustum of a triangular pyramid, having parallel bases through the three points F, g^ H, pass the plane F^H it will cut off from the frustum the triangular pyramid g-FGH. This pyramid has for its base the lower of the frustum ; its altitude base likewise is that of the frustum, because the vertex g lies in the plane of the upper base fgh. This pyramid being cut off, there will
;

FGH

pyramid quadrangular remain the g-fhOFf whose vertex is g, and base /AHF.

^H through the three points /, ^, H


The

it

will divide the

Pass the plane quad-

rangular pyramid into two triangular pyramids g-FfHf g-fltillatter has for its base the upper base gfh of the frustum and fo** its altitude, the altitude of the frustum, because its verThus we already know two of tex rl lies in the lower base. tliC three pyramids which compose the frustum.

Now, if ^K be It remains to examine the third ^-FfH. drawn parallel to /*F, and if we conceive a new pyramid K-F/H, having K for its vertex and Ffll for its base, these two pyramids will have the same base FfH they will also have the same altitude, because their vertices g and K lie in the line gK, parallel to F/, and consequently parallel to the
;

BOOK
plane of the base
the
/,
:

VII.

163

hence these pyramids are equivalent. But pyramid K-F/H may be regarded as having its vertex in and thus its altitude will be the same as that of the frustum

as to its base FKH, Mve are now to proportional between the bases

show

that this

is

mean

angles

FGH and fgh. Now, the triFHK,^/i, have each an equal angle F=/; hence FHK fgh FKxFH fgxfh (Book IV. Prop. XXIV.)
: : :

but because of the parallels,

FK==^, hence
:

FHK
We
have
also,

fgh
: :

:FR
FG
:

fh.

FHG
hence,

FHK

FK or fg.

But the similar triangles

FGH,^/t

give

FG:/^::FH:/A;
or the base is a mean proportional between the two bases FGH, fgh. Hence the frustum of a triangular pyramid is equivalent to three pyramids whose common altitude is that of the frustum and whose bases are the lower base of the frustum, the upper base, and a mean proportional between the

FGH FHK

FHK

FHK

fgh;

two bases.

PROPOSITION XIX. THEOREM.


Similar triangular prisms are
to

each other a^ the cubes of their


sides.

homologous

Let CBD-P, cbd-p, be two similar triangular prisms, of

which BC, 6c, are homologous


sides:

CBD-P
as

then will the prism be to the prism cbd-p,


to 6c3.

BC^

For, since the prisms are similar, the planes which conC C tain the homologous solid angles B and b, are similar, like placed, and equally inclined to each other (Def. 17.) : hence the solid angles B and 6, are equal (Book VI. Prop. XXI. Sch.). If these solid angles be applied to each other, the angle cbd w'lW coincide with CBD, the side ba with B A, and the prism cbd-p will take the position Bcd-p. From A draw perpendicular to the common base of the prisms : then will the plane be perpendicular to the plane of the com-

AH

BAH

164

GEOMETRY.
ah
Prop. XVI.). Through a, in the plane perpendicular to

mon base (Book VI.


draw
:

BAH.

BH then will ah also be perpendicular to the base (Book VI. Prop. XVII.) ; and

BDC

AH, ah
of the

will

be the altitudes

two prisms.
ABH,B/i, and of the

Now, because of the similar


triangles
.similar

parallelograms

AC, ac,
: :

we have

AH
base

ah

AB
:

cz6

BC

he.

But since the bases are

similar,
:

we
hd"

have

BCD

base bed

BC^

(Book IV. Prop. XXV.)

lience,

base
ahf

BCD

base bed

AH^

ah^.

Multiplying the antecedents by

AH, and
: :

the consequents by

and

we have
base

BCDxAK
:

base bed x ah
is

AH^

ah\

But the

solidity of a

prism
;

XIV.) prism bed-p AH^ ah^ : BC^ BCD-P or as the cubes of any other of their homologous sides.
the altitude (Prop.

equal to the base multiplied by hence, the


: :

prism

bc\

Whatever be the bases of similar prisms, the prisma be to each other as the cubes of their homologous sides. For, since the prisms are similar, their bases will be similar polygons (Def. 17.) and these similar polygons may be divided into an equal number of similar triangles, similarly placed (Book IV. Prop. XXVI.) therefore the two prisms may be divided into an equal number of triangular prisms, having their and therefore, equally inclined faces similar and like placed (Book VI. Prop. XXI.) hence the prisms will be similar. But these triangular prisms will be to each other as the cubes of their homologous sides, which sides being proportional, the
Cor,
will
;
: ;

sums of the triangular prisms, that

is, the polygonal prisms, will be to each other as the cubes of their homologous sides.

PROPOSITION XX. THEOREM.

Two

similar pyramids are to eaeh other as the cubes of their

homologous

sides.

BOOK

VII.

\0b

For, since the pyramids are similar, the sohd angles at the vertices will be contained by the same number of similar planes, like placed, and equally inchned to each other (Def. 17.). Hence, the solid angles at the vertices may be made to coincide, or the two pyramids

may

be so placed as to have the solid angle

S common.
In that position, the bases ABCDE, abcde^ A.i be parallel ; because, since the homologous faces are similar, the angle Sab is equal to SAB, and She to SBC ; hence the plane ABC is parallel to the plane abc (Book VI. Prop. XIII.). This being proved, let SO be the perpendicular drawn from the vertex S to the plane ABC, and o the point where this perpendicular meets the plane abc: from what has already been
will

shown,

we

shall
:

have
: :

SO

So

SA
:

Sa
:

AB
AB
:

ab (Prop.
ab.

III.)

and consequently,
But the bases

iSO iSo ABCDE, abcde,


abcde
: :

being similar figures,


ab^

ABCDE

AB^

we have (Book IV. Prop. XXVIL).


;

Multiply the corresponding terms of these two proportions


there results the proportion,

ABCDE x^SO abcde x^So Now ABCDE x^SO the solidity of the
: :

AB^

ab\

is

pyramid

S-ABCDE,

and abcde X 1^0 is that of the pyramid S-abcde (Prop. XVII.) nence two similar pyramids are to each other as the cubes of their homologous sides.
General Scholium,
chief propositions of this Book relating to the solidity ol polyedrons, may be exhibited in algebraical terms, and so recapitulated in the briefest manner possible. Let B represent the base of a prism ; its altitude : the solidity of the prism will be B x H, or BH. Let B represent the base of a pyramid ; its altitude : the solidity of the pyramid will be B x ^H, or x ^B, or ^BH. represent the altitude of the frustum of a pyramid, Let

The

H H

having parallel bases


portional

A and B VAB will be the mean probetween those bases and the solidity of the frustum
; ;

willbe-^Hx(A + B+N/AB).
In
fine, let

P and p
;

prisms or pyramids shall have

A
V

represent the solidities of two similar and , two homologous edges then we
:

A}

a^

i08

GEOMETRY.

BOOK

VIII.

THE THREE ROUND


Definitions,

BODIES.

cylinder is the solid generated by the revolution of a 1. rectangle ABCD, conceived to turn about the immoveable
side

AB.

In this movement, the sides AD, BC, continuing always perpendicular to AB, describe equal circles DHP, CGQ, which are called the bases of the cylinder^ the side at the same time describing the convex surface. The immoveable line AB is called the axis

CD

of the cylinder.

Every

section

KLM, made
is

in the cylinder,

a circle equal to either of the bases ; for, whilst the rectangle ABCD turns about AB, the hne KI, perpendicular to AB, describes a circle, equal to the base, and this circle is nothing else than the section made perpendicular to
at right angles to the axis,

the axis at the point

I.

through the axis, is a rectangle double of the generating rectangle ABCD. cone is the solid generated by the revolution of a right2. angled triangle SAB, conceived to turn about the immoveable
section

Every

PQG, made

side

SA.
H ^i-i

In this movement, the side AB describes a circle BDCE, named the base of the cone ; the hypothenuse SB describes the convex
surface of The point S is named the vertex of the the axis or the altitude, and SB conCf the side or the apothem. Every section HKFI, at right angles to every section SDE, the axis, is a circle through the axis, is an isosceles triangle
the cone.

SA

double of the generating triangle SAB. 3. If from the cone S-CDB, the cone S-FKH be cut off by a plane parallel to the base, the remaining solid CBHF is called a truncated cone, or the frustum of a con

BOOK We
BH
may
conceive
it

VIIL

167

to

and trapezoid ABHG, whose angles the side AG. The immoveable line altitude of the frustum^ the circles BDC,
is its

be generated by the revolution of a G are right angles, about A AG is called the axis or

HEK,

are

its

bases,

and

side. theii

4. Tw^o cylinders, or two cones, are similar, when axes are to each other as the diameters of their bases. 5. If in the circle ACD, which forms the base of a cylinder, a polygon be mscribed, a right prism, constructed on this base ABODE, and equal in altitude to the cylinder, is said to be inscribed in the cylinder, or the cylinder to be circumscribed about the prism. The edges AF, BG, OH, &c. of the prism, being perpendicular to the plane of the base, are evidently included in the convex surface of the cylinder ; hence the prism and the cylinder touch one another along these

ABODE

edges.
6. In like manner, if is a polygon, circumscribed about the base of a cylinder, a right prism, constructed on this base ABOD, and equal in altitude to the

ABOD

cylinder,

is

said to be circumscribed about

the cylinder, or the cylinder to

be inscribed

in the prism.

Let M, N, &c. be the points of contact AB, BO, &c. and through the points M,N,&c. let MX, NY, &c. be drawn
in the sides
;

Ak

perpendicular to the plane of the base: these perpendiculars will evidently lie both in the surface of the cylinder, and in that of the circumscribed prism hence they will be their lines of

contact.
7. If in the circle ABODE, which forms the base of a cone, any polygon be inscribed, and from the vertices A, B,

ABODE

0, D, E, lines be drawn to S, the vertex of the cone, these lines may be regarded as the sides of a pyramid whose base is the polygon and vertex S. The sides of this pyramid are in the convex surface of the cone, and the pyramid is said to be inscribed in the cone.

ABODE

168
8.

GEOMETRY.
The
sphere
is

the points of whicn are equally distant called the centre.

a solid terminated by a curved surface, all from a point within,

The sphere may be conceived to be generated by the revolution of a semicircle DAE about its diameter or the surface described in this movement, by the curve

DE

DAE, will have all its points equally distant from its centre C. 9. Whilst the semicircle revolving round its di-

DAE

ameter
sphere
;

DE,

describes

the

any circular sector, as DCF or'FCH, describes a solid, which is named a spherical
10.

sector.

radius of a sphere is a straight line drawn from the centre to any point of the surface the diameter or axis is a line passing through this centre, and terminated on both sides by the surface. All the radii of a sphere are equal all the diameters are equal, and each double of the radius. 11. It will be shown (Prop. VII.) that every section of the sphere, made by a plane, is a circle this granted, a great circle is a section which passes through the centre ; a small circlet is one which does not pass through the centre. 12. plane is tangent to a sphere, when their surfaces have but one point in common. 13. zone is a portion of the surface of the sphere included
; ; :

The

between two
tliese

parallel planes,

which form

its

bases.

One

of

planes may be tangent to the sphere ; in which case, the zone has only a single base. spherical segment is the portion of the solid sphere, 14. included between two parallel planes which form its bases. One of these planes may be tangent to the sphere in which case, the segment has only a single base. 15. The altitude of a zone or of a segment is the distance between the two parallel planes, which form the bases of the zone or segment. Note. The Cylinder, the Cone, and the Sphere, are the three round bodies treated of in the Elements of Geometry.

BOOK

VIII.

169

PROPOSITION
llie

I.

THEOREM.
equal
to the .circumference of

convex surface of a cylinder


its

is

base multiplied by

its altitude.

Let CA be the radius of the its given cylinder's base, and circumference altitude the whose radius is CA being represented by circ. CA, we are to show that the convex surface of the cylinder is equal to circ. CA

xH.
Inscribe in the circle any regular polygon, BDEFGA, and

on this polygon a right prism having its altitude equal to H, the altitude of the cyhnThe convex der this prism will be inscribed in the cylinder. surface of the prism is equal to the perimeter of the polygon, (Book VII. Prop. I.). Let now multiplied by the altitude the arcs which subtend the sides of the polygon be continually bisected, and the number of sides of the polygon indefinitely increased the perimeter of the polygon will then become equal to circ. CA (Book V. Prop. VIII. Cor. 2.), and the convex surface of the prism will coincide with the convex surface of the cylinder. But the convex surface of the prism is equal to the perimeter of its base multiplied by H, whatever be the number of sides hence, the convex surface of the cylinder is equal to the circumference of its base multiplied by its altitude.
j'.onstruct
:

PROPOSITION
T/w
solidity

II.

THEOREM.
to the

of a cylinder

is

equal

product of its base by

its

altitude.

170

GEOMETRY.

Let CA be the radius of the base of the cylinder, and


the
altitude.

Let the circle whose radius is CA be represented by area CAf it is to be


proved that the solidity of the cylinder is equal to area CA x H.
Inscribe in the circle any regular polygon BDEFGA, and construct to

on

this

polygon a right
its

prism having

altitude equal
:

H, the

altitude of the cylinder

this

in the cylinder.

The

solidity of the

prism will be inscribed prism will be equal to the

area of the polygon multiplied by the altitude (Book VIL Prop. XIV.). Let now the number of sides of the polygon be indefinitely increased the solidity of the new prism will still be equal to its base multiplied by its altitude. But when the number of sides of the polygon is indefinitely increased, its area becomes equal to the area CA, and its perimeter coincides with circ. CA (Book V. Prop. VIII. Cor. 1. 2.) ; the inscribed prism then coincides with the cylinder, since their altitudes are equal, and their convex surfaces perpendicular to the common base hence the two solids will be equal ; therefore the solidity of a cylinder is equal to the product of its base by its altitude.
:

&

Cor,

I.

their bases

Cylinders of the same altitude are to each other as ; and cylinders of the same base are to each other

as their altitudes.

Cor. 2. Similar cylinders are to each other as the cubes of their altitudes, or as the cubes of the diameters of their bases.

For the bases are as the squares of their diameters ; and the cylinders being similar, the diameters of their bases are to each other as the altitudes (Def. 4.) ; hence the bases are as the squares of the altitudes ; hence the bases, multiplied by the altitudes, or the cylinders themselves, are as the cubes of the altitudes.
Scholium, Let R be the radius of a cylinder's base ; the the surface of the base will be nJR^ (Book V. Prop. .X:il. Cor. 2.) ; and the solidity of the cylinder will be ^iR^xH or 7r.R9.H.
altitude
:

BOOK

VIII.

ITl

PROPOSITION
The convex surface of a cone

III.

THEOREM.

is

bascy multiplied

equal to the circumference of its by half its side.

Let the

circle

ABCD
S

be the

base of a cone,

SO
side
:

the vertex, the the altitude, and

SA

then will its convex surface be equal to arc. OAx^S A. For, inscribe in the base of the cone any regular polygon

ABCD,

and on this polygon as a base conceive a pyramid to be constructed having S for its vertex this pyramid will be a regular pyramid, and will be inscribed
;

in the cone.

one of the sides of the inscribed pyramid is equal to the perimeter of the polygon which forms its base, multiplied by half the slant height SG (Book VII. Prop. IV.). Let now the number of sides of the inscribed polygon be indefinitely increased the perimeter of the inscribed polygon will then
S,
to
;

draw SG perpendicular polygon. The convex surface of the

From

become equal

to ciix. OA, the slant height SG will become equal to the side SA of the cone, and the convex surface of the pyramid to the convex surface of the cone. But whatever be the number of sides of the polygon which forms the base, the convex surface of the pyramid is equal to the perimeter of the base multiplied by half the slant height : hence the convex surface of a cone is equal to the circumference of the base multiplied by half the side. the radius of its Scholium. Let L be the side of a cone, base ; the circumference of this base will be 2^.R, and the surface of the cone will be 27iR x ^L, or nRh,

PROPOSITION

IV.

THEOREM.

Hie convex surface of the frustum of a cone is equal to its side multiplied by half the sum of the circumferences of its two
bases

172
Let
cone
:

GEOMETRY.
BIA-DE
then will
its

be a frustum of a convex surface be

equal to

AD x (^'>^-OA+ctVc.CD^^

For, iascribe in the bases of the frustums two regular polygons of the same number of sides, and having
their

homologous sides

parpllel,

each

the vertices of the homologous angles maybe regarded as the edges of the frustum of a regular pyramid inscribed in the frustum of the cone. The convex surface of the frustum of the pyramid is equal to half the sum of the perimeters of its bases multiplied by the slant height fh (Book VII. Prop. IV. Cor.). Let now the number of sides of the inscribed polygons be indefinitely increased the perimeters of the polygons will become equal to the circumferences BIA, the slant height ; //iwill become equal to the side or BE, and the surfaces of the two frustums will coincide and become the same surface. But the convex surface of the frustum of the pyramid will still be equal to half the sum of the perimeters of the upper and lower bases multiplied by the slant height hence the surface of the frustum of a cone is equal to its side multiplied by half the sum of the circumferences of its two bases.
to each.
lines joining
:

The

EGD

AD

the middle point of AD, draw /KL paralD^, parallel to CO. Then, since A/, ZD, are equal, Ai, id, will also be equal (Book IV. Prop. XY. Cor. 2.) But since the circumfehence, KZ is equal to ^(OA + CD). rences of circles are to each other as their radii (Book V. Prop. XL), the circ, Yil=\{circ. 0A + arc. CD) therefore, the convex surface of a frustum of a cone is equal to its side multiplied hy the circumference of a section at equal distances from

Cor, Through
to

Z,

lel

AB, and

Zi,

the

two bases.

Scholium. If a line AD, lying wholly on one side of the line in the same plane, make a revolution around DC, x will have for its measure the surface described by

OC, and

AD

AD

/ circ.AO + circ.DC

y ^^ j^jy ^ ^.^^

^j^. ^^^

^^^^ j^^ jy^ ^-^

being perpendiculars, let fall from the extremities and from the middle point of AD, on the axis OC. and OC are produced till they meet in S, the For, if is evidently the frustum of a cone surface described by

AD

AD

BOOK VIII.
having
as

AO

and

DC

for the radii of its bases, the vertex

v i

the whole cone being S.

Hence

this surface will

be measuivd

we have said. This measure will always hold good, even when the point D falls on S, and thus forms a whole cone ; and also when the In is parallel to the axis, and thus forms a cylinder. line the first case DC would be nothing in the second, DC would be equal to AO and to IK.

AD

PROPOSITION
The
solidity

V.

THEOREM.
base multiplied by a third of

of a cone

is

equal

to its

its altitude.

Let

SO be the altitude of a cone,

radius of its base, and let the area of the base be designated : it is to be proved that by area

OA the

OA

is equal to area x ^SO. Inscribe in the base of the cone any regular polygon ABDEF, and join the vertices A, B, C, &c. with the vertex S of the cone ; then will

the solidity of the cone

OA

there be inscribed in the cone a

regular pyramid having the same vertex as the cone, and having for its base the polygon ABDEF. The solidity of this pyramid is equal to its base multiplied by one third of its altitude (Book VII. Prop. XVII.). Let now the number of sides of the polygon be indefinitely increased the polygon will then become equal to the circle, and the pyramid and cone will coincide and become equal. But the solidity of the pyramid is equal to its base multiplied by one third of its altitude, whatever be the number of sides of the polygon which forms its base : hence the solidity of the cone is equal to its base multiplied by a third of its altitude.
:

Cor. A cone is the third of a cylinder having the same base and the same altitude whence it follows, 1. That cones of equal altitudes are to each other as their
;

bases
2.

That cones of equal bases are That

to

each other as their

altitudes
3.

similar cones are as the cubes of the diameters of

their bases, or as the

cubes of their altitudes.

174

GEOMETRY.

Cor, 2. The solidity of a cone is equivalent to the solidity of a pyramid having an equivalent base and the same altitude (Book VII. Prop. XVIL).
its altibe the radius of a cone's base, Scholium, Let tude the solidity of the cone will be nR^ x |H, or ^tiR^H.
;

PROPOSITION
The
solidity

VI.

THEOREM

solidities

of the frustum of a cone is equal to the sum of the of three cones whose common altitude is the altitude of the frustum, and whose bases are, the upper base of the frustum, the lower base of the frustum, and a mean proportional between them.

Let
solidity

cone, and

AEB-CD be the OP its altitude


be equal to

frustum of a then will its

i^ X

OP X (AO^+DPH AO X DP).

For, inscribe in the lower and upper bases two regular polygons having the same number of sides, and having their homologous sides parallel, each to each. Join the vertices of the homologous angles and there will then be inscribed in the frustum of the cone, the frustum of a regular pyramid. The soHdity of the frustum of the pyramid is equivalent to three pyramids having the common altitude of the frustum, and for bases, the lower base of the frustum, the upper base of the frustum, and a mean proportional between them (Book VII. Prop. XVIII.). Let now, the number of sides of the inscribed polygons be indefinitely increased: the bases of the frustum of the pyramid will then coincide with the bases of the frustum of the cone, and the two frustums will coincide and become the same solid. Since the area of a circle is equal to R^.tt (Book V. Prop. XII. Cor. 2.), the expression for the solidities of the frustum will \)ecome
for the
first

pyramid

for the second for the third

^OP x OAV iOP x PD^.tt

AO X PD.Tt
Hence ^nOP X

x PD.tt ; since J OP x proportional between OA-.^r and PD'.n the solidity of the frustum of the cone is measured bv
is

AO

mean

(OAHPDH AO X PD).

BOOK Vlll.
PROPOSITION
VII.

175

THEOREM.
is

Every

section of a sphere,

made by a plane,

circle.

be a section, made by a Let plane, in the sphere whose centre is C. perpenFrom the point C, draw

AMB

CO
;

and diffedicular to the plane rent lines CM, CM, to different points of the curve AMB, which terminates
the section.

AMB

The

oblique lines

CM, CM, CA,

are

equal, being radii of the sphere ; hence (Book VI. they are equally distant from the perpendicular Prop. V. Cor.) ; therefore all the lines OM, OM, OB, are equal is a circle, whose centre is O. consequently the section

CO

AMB

1. If the section passes through the centre of the sphere, radius will be the radius of the sphere ; hence all great circles are equal.

Cor

its

Cor, 2.
their

Two

great circles always bisect each other

for
is

common

intersection, passing through the centre,

diameter.
Cor.
into
3. Every great circle divides the sphere and its surface two equal parts for, if the two hemispheres were sepa:

rated and afterwards placed on the common base, with their convexities turned the same way, the two surfaces would exactly coincide, no point of the one being nearer the centre than any point of the other.

Cor. 4. The centre of a small circle, and that of the sphere, are in the same straight line, perpendicular to the plane of the email circle.

Small circles are the less the further they lie from Cor. 5. the centre of the sphere ; for the greater is, the less is the chord AB, the diameter of the small circle AMB.

CO

Cor. 6. An arc of a great circle may always be made to pass through any two given points of the surface of the sphere for the two given points, and the centre of the sphere make three points which determine the position of a plane. But if the two given points were at the extremities of a diameter, these two points and the centre would then lie in one straight line, and an infinite number of great circles might be made to pass through the two given points.
;

176

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
VIII.

THEOREM.
its

Evejy plane perpendicular to a radius at


to the sphere.

extremity

is

tangent

Let

FAG be a plane perpendicular

extremity A. plane being assumed, and OM, AM, being drawn, the angle will be a right angle, and hence the distance will be greater than OA. Hence the point lies without the sphere and as the same can be shown for every other point of the plane FAG, this plane can have no point but common to it and the surface of the sphere hence it is a tangent plane (Def. 12.)

to the radius

Any

point

M in

OA,

at

its

this

0AM

OM
;

Scholium. In the same way it may be shown, that two spheres have but one point in common, and therefore touch each other, when the distance between their centres is equal to the sum, or the difference of their radii in which case, the centres and the point of contact lie in the same straight line.
;

PROPOSITION

IX.

LEMMA.

If a regular semi-polygon be revolved about a line passing through the centre and the vertices of two opposite angles, the surface described by its perimeter will be equal to the axis multiplied by the circumference of the inscribed circle.

Let the regular semi-polygon ABCDEF, be revolved about the line AF as an axis then will the surface described by its perimeter be equal to AF multiplied by the circumference of the inscribed circle. From E and D, the extremities of one of
:

the equal sides, let

fall

the perpendiculars

EH,
tre
;

1)1,

on the axis AF, and from the cen-

O draw ON perpendicular to the side DE ON will be the radius of the inscribed


(Book V. Prop. H.). Now, the surface described in the revolution by any one riide of the regular polygon, as DE, has

circle

BOOK

VIII.

in

(Prop. IV. Sch.). been shown to be equal to DE x circ. But since the triangles EDK, ONM, are similar (Book IV.

NM

Prop.
circ.

XXL),
;

ED

EK or HI
may

ON NM, or as
:

circ.

ON

NM

hence

ED X circ. NM=HI x circ. ON


be shown for each of the other sides by the entire perimeter i

and since the same


it is

plain that the surface described

equal to

(FH + HH- IP + PQ+QA)x circ ON=AFxc/rc. ON.


surface described by any portion of the perimeequal to the distance between the two perpendiculars let fall from its extremities on the axis, multiplied by For, the surface the circumference of the inscribed circle. is equal to HI x circ. ON, and the surface described by hence the surface is equal to IP x circ. : described by described by + DC, is equal to (HI + IP) x circ. ON, or

Cor,

The

ter, as

EDC,

is

DE

DC ED

ON

equal to

HP x circ. ON.
PROPOSITION
X.

THEOREM.
product of its diameter by a great circle.

Tne surface of a sphere

is

equal

to the

the circumference of

Let ABODE be a semicircle. Inscribe in any regular semi-polygon, and from the centre O draw OF perpendicular to one of
it

the sides.

Let the semicircle and the semi-polygon be revolved about the axis AE the semicircumference will describe the surface of a sphere (Def 8.) and the perimeter of the semi-polygon will describe a surface which has for its measure x circ. OF (Prop. IX.), and this will be true whatever be the number of sides of the poBut if the number of sides of the polygon be indefilygon. nitely increased, its perimeter will coincide with the circumference ABODE, the perpendicular OF will become equal to OE, and the surface described by the perimeter of the semipolygon will then be the same as that described by the semicircumference ABODE. Hence the surface of the sphere is equal to AE x circ. OE.
:

ABODE

AE

of

Cor. Since the area of a great circle is equal to the product its circumference by half the radius, or one fourth of the

78

GEOMETRY.

S2}here

diameter (Book V. Prop. XII.), it follows that the surja^e of a is equal to four of its great circles: that is, equal to 47r.OA'^ (Book V. Prop. XII. Cor. 2.). Scholium
1.

is equal of a great circle. For, the surface described by any portion of the perimeter of the inscribed polygon, as BC + CD, is equal to xciVc. OF (Prop. IX. Cor.). But when the number of sides of the polygon is indefinitely increased, BC + CD, becomes the arc BCD, OF becomes equal to OA, and the surface described by BC + CD, becomes the surface of the zone described by the arc BCD hence the surface of the zone is equal to x circ. OA.

The surface of a zone

to its altitude

mul-

tiplied by the circumference

EH

EH

Scholium 2. When the zone has but one base, as the zone described by the arc ABCD, its surface will still be equal to the altitude multiplied by the circumference

AE

of a great

circle.

Scholium 3. Two zones, taken in the same sphere or in equal spheres, are to each other as their altitudes ; and any zone is to the surface of the sphere as the altitude of the zone is to the
diameter of the sphere.

PROPOSITION
,

XI.

LEMMA.

If a triangle and a rectangle having the same base and the same altitude, turn together about the common base, the solid described by the triangle will be a third of the cylinder described by the
rectangle.

be the triangle, and BE the rectangle fall the perpendicular AD: the cone described by the triangle ABD is the third part of the cylinder described by the rectan-

Let

ACB

On

the axis, let

gle

AFBD

(Prop.

Cor.)

also the

cone described b^ the triangle


is

the third pa*; of the cylinder de- ^ scribed by ^ne rectangle hence the sum of the two ; cones, or the solid described by ABC, is the third part of the two cylinders taken together, or of the cylinder described by

ADC

ADCE

the rectangle

BCEF.

BOOK
If the perpendicular

VIII.

179

AD

falls

without

the solid described by will, in that case, be the difference of the


the triangle
;

ABC

two cones described by ABD and ACD but at the same time, the cylinder described by BCEF will be the difference Hence of the two cylinders described by AFBD and AECD. the solid, desciibed by the revolution of the triangle, will still DC a third part of the cylinder described by the revolution of the rectangle having the same base and the same altitude.
;

Scholium, The circle of which AD is radius, has for its measure n x AD^ hence tj x AD^ x BC measures the cylinder described by BCEF, and ^n x AD^ x BC measures the solid described by the triangle ABC.
;

PROPOSITION

XII.

LEMMA.

If a triangle he revolved about a line drawn at pleasure through its vertex, the solid described by the triangle mill have for its measure, the area of the triangle multiplied by two thirds of lite

circumference traced by the middle point of the base.

Let

CAB

be the

triangle,

and

CD

the line about which

it

revolves.

Produce the side AB till it meets the axis CD in D from the points A and B, draw AM, BN, perpendicular to the axis, and CP perpendicular to DA produced.
;

The
angle

solid

described by the
;

tri-

CAD is measured by \n x AM^ X CD (Prop. XI. Sch.) the solid CBD measured by ^n x BN^ x CD
is

]vtx:N^
described by the triangle
;

those solids, or the solid described

by ABC,

hence the difference of will have for its

measure i7r(AM2BN^) x CD. To this expression another form may be given. From I, the middle point of AB,draw IK perpendicular to CD and through B, draw BO parallel to CD: we shall have + BN = 2IK (Book IV. Prop. VII.) and BN=AO hence (AM-(. BN) X (AMNB), or AM^BN2=2IK x AO (Book IV. Prop X.). Hence the measure of the solid in question is ex pressed by
; ;

AM

AM
;

f^xIKxAOxCD.

180

GEOMETRY.
perpendicular to

CP being drawn DCP will be similar,


But

AB,

the triangles

ABO

and give the proportion


:
:

hence
but

AO CP AB CD AO x CD = CP x AB
:
: ;

CP X AB

is

double the area of the triangle

ABC

hence

we have

A0xCD-2ABC;
hence the
triangle
solid described

by

the

by f TT same
circ,

ABC is also measured X ABC X IK, or which is the thing, by ABC x |aVc. IK,
being equal to 2n x IK.
Q'
the solid described by the

IK

Hence

revolution of the triangle Jias for its measure the area of this triangle multiplied by two thirds of the circumference traced by I, the middle point of the base.

ABC

M:x:]sr

Cor. If the side


the line

dicular
will be

AC = CB, CI will be perpento AB, the area ABC


equal to
solidity

ABx|CI,

and the

^n x

ABC x

IK will become fyrxABx IK X CI. But the triangles ABO, CIK, are similar, and
give the proportion

or

MN

AB BO
: :

solid

IK; hence ABxIK=MNxCI; hence the described by the isosceles triangle ABC will have for its
: :

CI

measure

l^txCPxMN

that

is,

equal

to

two thirds of n into

the square of the perpendicular let fall on the base^ into the distance between the two perpendiculars let fall on the axis.

Scholium.
position that

The

general solution appears to include the sup;

produced will meet the axis but the results would be equally true, though AB were parallel to the axis. Thus, the cylinder described by AMNB is equal to tt.AM^.MN-; the cone described by is equal to ^tt.AM^.CM, and the cone described by BCN to ^ttAM^ CN. Add the first two solids and take away the third we shall have the solid described by ABC equal to tt.AM^. (MN + iCN): and since =MN, this expression is reducible to yr.AM^.fMN, or fn.CP.MN which agrees

AB

ACM

iCM

CN CM

with the conclusion found above.

BOOK
PROPOSITION
[f

VIII.

18J

XIII.

LEMMA.

a regular semi-polygon be revolved about a line passing through the centre and the vertices of two opposite angles, the solid described will be equivalent to a cone, having for its base the inscribed circle, and for its altitude twice the axis about which the semi-polygon is revolved.

Let the semi-polygon


about

FABG be revolved

the radius of the inscribed circle, the solid described will be


:

FG

then, if

01 be

measured by ^area 01 x 2FG.


For, since the polygon is regular, the A, OAB, OBC, &c. are equal and isosceles, and all the perpendiculars let fall from on the bases FA, AB, &c. will be equal to 01, the radius of the inscribed
triangles

OF

circle.
is meaNow, the solid described by sured by fTt OPJtMN (Prop. XII. Cor.) ; the solid described by the triangle has for its measure I^OPxFM, the solid described by the triangle OBC, has for its measure f tiOP x NO, and since the same may be shown for the solid described by each of the other triangles, it follows that the entire solid described by the semi-polygon is measured by |^OI2.(FM + + + + QG),or l^OPxFG; which is also equal to ^jiOP x 2FG. But tt.OP is the area of the inscribed circle (Book V. Prop. XII. Cor. 2.) : hence the solidity is equivalent to a cone whose base is area 01, and

OAB

OFA

MN NO OQ

altitude

2FG.

PROPOSITION
,

XIV.

THEOREM.
a

T%e

solidity

of a sphere

is equal to its surface multiplied /y third of its radius.

182

GEOMETRY.

a Inscribe in the semicircle regular semi-polygon, having any number of sides, and let 01 be the radius of the circle inscribed in the polygon.
If the semicircle and semi-polygon be revolved about EA, the semicircle will describe a sphere, and the semi-polygon a solid which has for its measure fjiOPx (Prop. XIII.) ; and this will be true whatever be the number of sides of the polygon. But if the number of sides of

ABCDE

EA

the polygon be indefinitely increased, the semi-polygon will become the semicircle,

E
01
will

become

equal to

OA, and

the solid described by the semi-polygon will


:

become the sphere hence the solidity of the sphere is equal to fTiOA^xEA, or by substituting 20A for EA, it becomes I^.OA^ X OA, which is also equal to 47r0A2 x ^OA. But 4n.0A^
is equal to the surface of the sphere (Prop. X. Cor.) hence the solidity of a sphere is equal to its surface multiplied by a
:

third of

its

radius.
.

Scholium 1 The solidity of every spherical sector is equal to the zone which forms its hase^ multiplied by a third of the radius. For, the solid described by any portion of the regular polygon, as the isosceles triangle OAB, is measured by fyrOF x AF and when the polygon becomes the circle, (Prop. XII. Cor.)
;

becomes the sector AOB, 01 becomes equal to OA, and the solid described becomes a spherical sector. But its measure then becomes equal to fyr.AO^ x AF, which is equal But 27r.AO is the circumference of a to 27T.AO X AF X yAO. great circle of the sphere (Book V. Prop. XII. Cor. 2.), which being multiplied by AF gives the surface of the zone which forms the base of the sector (Prop. X. Sch. 1.): and the proof is equally applicable to the spherical sector described by the
the portion
circular sector is equal to the zone

OAB

BOC

which forms

hence, the solidity of the spherical sector its base, multiplitd by a third

of the radius.

R,

Scholium 2. Since the surface of a sphere whose radius is is expressed by 47rR^ (Prop. X. Cor.), it follows tliat the surfaces of spheres are to each other as the squares of their radii and since their solidities are as their surfaces mjltiplied by their radii, it follows that the solidities of spheres are to each other as the cubes of their radii^ or as the cubes of thei
;

diameters.

BOOK
will

VIII.

183

Scholium 3. Let R be the radius of a sphere its surface be expressed by 4iR-, and its solidity by AnK' x ^R, or |7iR^. If the diameter is called D, we shall have R=|D, and R^=:iD^ hence the solidity of the sphere may likewise be expressed by
;
:

PROPOSITION XV. THEOREM.


21ie surface

of a sphere is to the whole surface of the circumscribed cylinder, including its bases, as 2 is to 3 ; and the solidities of these two bodies are to each other in the same ratio.

be a great circle of the Let the circumscribed -q sphere and square if the semicircle are at the the half square same time made to revolve about the diameter PQ, the semicircle will generate the sphere, while the half square will generate the cylinder circum. scribed about that sphere. B of the cylinder is The altitude equal to the diameter PQ the base of the cylinder is equal to the great circle, since its diameter AB hence, the convex surface of the cylinder is is equal to equal to the circumference of the great circle muUiplied by its diameter (Prop. 1.). This measure is the same as that of the surface of the sphere (Prop. X.) hence the surface of the sphere
;

MPNQ
:

ABCD

PMQ

PADQ

AD

MN

convex surface of the circumscribed cylinder. But the surface of the sphere is equal to four great circles hence the convex surface of the cylinder is also equal to four great circles and adding the two bases, each equal to a great circle, the total surface of the circumscribed cylinder will be equal to six great circles ; hence the surface of the sphere is to the total surface of the circumscribed cylinder as 4 is to 6, or as 2 is to 3 which was the first branch of the Proposition. In the next place, since the base of the circumscribed cylinder is equal to a great circle, and its altitude to the diameter, the solidity of the cylinder will be equal to a great circle mulBut the solidity of the tiplied by its diameter (Prop. II.). sphere is equal to four great circles multiplied by a third of the radius (Prop. XIV.) in other terms, to one great circle multihence the plied by ^ of the radius, or by | of the diameter sphere is to the circumscribed cylinder as 2 to 3, and consequently the solidities of these two bodies are as their surfacer
is

equal

to the

184
Scholium.
;

GEOMETRY.
this

Conceive a polyedron, all of whose faces touch polyedron may be considered as formed ol pyramids, each having for its vertex the centre of the sphere, and for its base one of the polyedron's faces. Now^ it is evident that all these pyramids will have the radius of the sphere for their common altitude so that each pyramid will be equal to one face of the polyedron multiplied by a third of the radius hence the whole polyedron will be equal to its surface multithe sphere
:

third of the radius of the inscribed sphere. therefore manifest, that the solidities of polyedrons circumscribed about the sphere are to each other as the surfaces of those polyedrons. Thus the property, which we have shown to be true with regard to the circumscribed cylinder, is also true with regard to an infinite number of other bodies. might likewise have observed that the surfaces of polyplied
It is

by a

We

gons, circumscribed about the circle, are to each other as theii perimeters.

PROPOSITION

XVI.

PROBLEM.

If a circular segment he supposed to make a revolution about a diameter exterior to it, required the value of the solid which it
describes.

Let the segment

BMD revolve
;

about AC.

On
BE,

the axis, let


;

fall

the perpendiculars

from the centre C, draw CI perpendicular to the chord BD also draw


the radii

DF

^
1).

CB, CD.
described by the sector
f^r

^C But the solid described by the isosceles triangle DCB has for its meahence the sohd described sure f7r.CI-.EF (Prop. XII. Cor.) by the segment BMD=|^.EF.(CB2 CP). ]Vow, in the righthence angled triangle CBI, we have CB^ CP=BP=iBD2 will have for its meathe solid described by the segment sure |7r.EF.lBD^ or itt.BD^.EF: that is one swth of n into
solid
is

The

BCD

measured by

CB^.EF

(Prop.

XIV. Sch.

BMD

the square of the chord, into the distance between the two perpendiculars let fall from the extremities of tht arc on the

axis.
is to Scholium. The solid described by the segment for its diameter, as i-jr.BDlEF is has the sphere which to i^.BD^ or as EF to BD.

BMD

BD

BOOK
PROPOSITION
Every segment of a sphere
its

VIII.

185

XVII.

THEOREM.
the half

is

measured by
altitude, plus

sum

oj

bases multiplied by

its

the solidity

of a

sphere v)hose diameter

is this

same

altitude.

Let BE, DF, be the radii of the two bases of the segment, EF its altitude, the segment being described by the revolution of the circular space about the axis FE. The solid described by the segment equal to ^tt.BD-.EF is (Prop. XVI.) and the truncated cone described by the trapezoid is equal to i7r.EF.(BEH DF-+ BE.DF) (Prop. VI.); hence the segment of the sphere, which is the sum of those two solids, must be equal to J-7r.EF.(2BE2+2DF2+2BE.DF + BD?)

BMDFE

BMD
;

BDFE

But, drawing BO parallel to EF, we shall have BE, hence DO^-DF^2DF.BE + BE2 (Book IV. Prop. IX.) and consequently BD2=B02+D02=EF2+DF-2DF.BE+BE'^. Put this value in place of BD^ in the expression for the value of the segment, omitting the parts which destroy each other we shall obtain for the solidity of the segment,
;

DO=DF

an expression which

i7rEF.(3BE^3DF+EP), may be decomposed into two


^

parts

the

one i7r.EF.(3BE2+3DF2), or EF.(


half

1 ^^^"g ^he

sum of the bases multiplied by the altitude ; while the other iTT.EP represents the sphere of which EF is the diameter (Prop. XIV. Sch.) : hence every segment of a sphere, &c.
Cor. If either of the bases is nothing, the segment in quesbecomes a spherical segment with a single base ; hence any spherical segment, with a single base, is equivalent to half
tion

the cylinder having the same base and the same altitude, plus the sphere of which this altitude is the diameter.

General Scholium.
the radius of a cylinder's base, its altitude : the solidity of the cylinder will be ttR^ x H, or tiR^H. be the radius of a cone's base, Let its altitude : the solidity of the cone will be t^R^x |H, or ^ttR^H. and B be the radii of the bases of a truncated cone, Let

Let

R be
R

186

GEOMETRY.
altitude
:

its

the solidity of the truncated cone will be ^nJi.


ttR'**.

(AHBHAB). Let R be the radius of a sphere its solidity will be f Let R be the radius of a spherical sector, H the altitude
;

of

the zone,

which forms its base the solidity of the sector will be I^R^H. Let P and Q be the two bases of a spherical segment, H its
:

altitude: the solidity of the

segment

will

be

Zj^.H+jtt.HI

piQ

If the spherical segment has but one base, the other being nothing, its solidity will be iFH+i^lP.

BOOK

IX.

OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES AND SPHERICAL POLYGONS

Definitions.

1.

A spherical triangle

is

a portion of the surface of a sphere,


circles.

and are than a semi-circumference. The angles, w^hich their planes form with each other, are the angles of the triangle. spherical triangle takes the name of right-angled, 2. isosceles, equilateral, in the same cases as a rectilineal triangle. spherical polygon is a portion of the surface of a sphere 3. terminated by several arcs of great circles. lune is that portion of the surface of a sphere, which is 4. included between two great semi-circles meeting in a common
sides of the triangle,

bounded by three arcs of great These arcs are named the


always supposed to be each

less

dia.neter.

spherical wedge or ungula is that portion of the solid 5. sphere, which is included between the same great semi-circles, and has the lune for its base. G. A spherical pyramid is a portion of the solid sphere, included between the planes of a solid angle whose vertex is The base of the pyramid is the spherical polygon the centre.

intercepted by the same planes. 7. The pole of a circle of a sphere is a point in the surface equally distant from all the points in the circumference of this circle. It will be shown (Prop. V.) hat every circle, great or small, has always two poles.

BOOK
PROPOSITION
I.

IX.

187

THEOREM.
is less

[n every spherical triangle, any side


other two.

than the sum of the

Let O be the centre of the sphere, and ACB the triangle draw the rad O A, OB,
;

ii

OC. Imagine the planes AOB, AOC, COB, to be drawn these planes will form
;

solid angle at the centre

and the an-

gles

AOB, AOC, COB, will be measured


than the

triangle.

by AB, AC, BC, the sides of the spherical But each of the three plane anis

gles forming a solid angle

less

sum of
XIX.)
;

the other

two (Book VI. Prop. hence any side of the triangle

ABC is less than the sum of the other two.


PROPOSITION
The
II.

THEOREM.

shortest path from one point to another, on the surface of a sphere, is the arc of the great circle which joins the two given points.

Let ANB be the arc of a great circle which joins the points A and B then will it be the shortest path between them. 1st. If two points N and B, be taken on the arc of a great circle, at unequal distances from the point A, the shortest distance from B to A will be greater than the shortest distance from N to A. For, about A as a pole describe a circumference CNP. the line of shortest distance from B to A must cross this circumference at some point as P. But the shortest distance from P to A whether it be the arc of a great circle or any other line, is equal to the shortest distance from N to A; for, by passing the arc of a great circle through P and A, and revolving it about the diameter passing through A, the point P maybe made to coincide with N, when the shortest distance from P to A will coincide with the shortest distance from N to A hence, the shortest distance from B to A, will be greater than the shortest distance from N to A, by the shortest distance from B to P. If the point B be taken without the arc AN, still making AB greater than AN, it may be proved in a manner entirely similar to the above, that the shortest distance from B to A will be greater than the shortest distance from N to A. If now, there be a shorter path between the points B and A, tlian the arc BDA of a great circle, let be a point of the short
; :

1S8

GEOMETRY.

draw MA. MB, arcs of est distance possible; then through equal to BM. By the last theorem, great circles, and take from each, and there will retake BD, the shortest path from B main < AM. Now, since is equal to the shortest path from B to D: hence if we supto and the other pose two paths from B to A, one passing through through D, they will have an equal part in each ; viz. the part equal to the part from B to D. from B to But by hypothesis, the path through is the shortest path from must be less than hence the shortest path from to B to the shortest path from to A, whereas it is greater since the arc is greater than hence, no point of the shortest distance between B and can lie out of the arc of the great

BDA<BM-fMA; AD

BD BD = BM BM =

M M A

MA

DA A

circle

BDA.
PROPOSITION
III.

THEOREM.

The sum of the

three sides of a spherical triangle is less than the

circumference of a great

circle.

gle

Let ABC be any spherical trianproduce the sides AB, AC, till they meet again in D. The arcs ABD, ACD, will be semicircumferences, since two great circles always bisect each other (Book VIII. Prop. VII. Cor. 2.). But in the triangle BCD, we have the side BC<BD + CD (Prop I.); add AB+ACto both; we shall have AB+AC + BC<ABD + ACD,
;

thatistosay,lessthanacircumference.

PROPOSITION
The sum of all

IV.

THEOREM
trie

the sides of any spherical polygon is less than

circumference of a great circle.

Take the pentagon ABCDE, for example. Produce the sides AB, DC, till they meet in F ; then since BC is less than BF+CF, the perimeter of the pentagon ABCDE will be less
than that of the quadrilateral AEDF. ^^ " ''A. Again, produce the sides AE, FD, till hence the pewe shall have they meet in G; is less than that of the tririmeter of the quadrilateral angle which last is itself less than the circumference of ; a great circle ; hence, for a still stronger reason, the perimeter of the polygon is less than this same circumference.
.

ED<EG+DG;

AEDF

AFG

ABCDE

BOOK
(.';

IX.

189

Scholium. Tjiis proposition is fundamentally the same as (Book VI. Prop. XX.) ; for, O being the centre )f the sphere, a sohd angle may be fFconceived as formed at O by the plane
"

angles AOB, BOC, COD,&c., and the sum of these angles must be less than four right angles ; which is exactly the proposition here proved. The demonstration here given is different from that of Book VI. Prop. XX. ; both, however, suppose that the polygon is convex, or that no side produced will cut the figure.

^ ^

ABCDE

PROPOSITION
The poles of a great

V.

THEOREM.

circle of a sphere^ are the extremities of that diameter of the sphere which is perpendicular to the circle ; and these extremities are also the poles of all small circles
it.

parallel to

Let
;

ED be perpendic;

ular to the great circle

AMB then will E and D be its poles as also


the poles of the parallel small circles HPI,FNG.

For, being perpendicular to the plane AMB, is perpendicular


to
all

DC

the straight lines

CA, CM, CB, Redrawn


through its foot in this plane hence all the arcs
;

are quarters of the circumference. So likewise are all the arcs EA, EM, EB, &c. ; hence the points and E are each equally distant from all the points of the circumference hence, they are the poles of that circumference (Def. 7.). ; Again, the radius DC, perpendicular to the plane AMB, is perpendicular to its parallel FNG; hence, it passes through O the centre of the circle (Book VIII. Prop. VII. Cor. 4.) hence, if the oblique lines DF, DN, DG, be drawn, these obhque lines will diverge equally from the perpendicular DO,

DA, DM, DB, &c.

AMB

FNG

and

will

themselves be equal.

But, the chords being equal

190
the arcs are equal
circle
;

GEOMETRY.

FNG

hence the point D is the pole of the smaJ' and for like reasons, the point E is the other pole.

Cor, 1. Every arc DM, drawn from a point in


the arc of a great circle

AMB to
which
brevity,

ter of the

a quarcircumference, for the sake of


its pole, is
is

usually

named

a quadrant ; and this quadrant at the same time makes a right angle with the arc AM. For, the line being perpendicular to the plane AMC, everyplane DME, passing through the line DC is perpendicular to the plane (Book VI. Prop. XVI.) hence, the angle of these planes, or the angle AMD, is a right angle.

DC

AMC
To

Cor,
nite arc

2.

find the pole of a

MD perpendicular to AM
D
two points
;

rant

the poi^it

given arc AM, draw the indefitake equal to a quadwill be one of the poles of the arc or
;

MD

AD and MD perpendicular to AM their point of intersection D will be the


thus, at the

AM

and M, draw the arcs

pole required.

Cor, 3. Conversely, of the points A and be tlie pole of the arc

the distance of the point from each equal to a quadrant, the point will AM, and also the angles DAM, AMD,
if
is

will

be right angles. C be the centre of the sphere ; and draw the radii CA, CD, CM. Since the angles ACD, MCD, are right angles,
For, let

the line

hence
;

perpendicular to the two straight lines CA, perperpendicular to their plane (Book VI. Prop. is the pole of the arc IV,) hence the point ; and conse<|uently the angles DAM, AMD, are right angles.
it

CD is
is

CM

AM

Scholium. The properties of these poles enable us to describe arcs of a circle on the surface of a sphere, with the same It is evident, for instance, that facihty as on a plane surface. by turning the arc DF, or any othei line extending to the same distance, round the point I), the extremity F will describe the round small circle and by turning the quadrant ;

FNG

DFA

BOOK
the point
circle

IX.

191

D,

its

extremity

will describe the arc of the great

AMB.

If the arc were required to be produced, and nothing through which it was to were given but the points A and pass, we should first have to determine the pole D, by the as intersection of two ar(5s described from the points A and

AM

centres, with a distance equal to a quadrant

found,

we

might describe the arc

AM
;

from

as a centre, and with the

same

being the pole and its prolongation, distance as before.


;

AM

In fine, if it be required from a given point P, to let fall a find a point on the arc perpendicular on the given arc at a quadrant's distance from the point P, which is done by describing an arc with the point P as a pole, intersecting in S S will be the point required, and is the pole with which a perpendicular to may be described passing through the point P.

AM

AM

AM

PROPOSITION

VI.

THEOREM.

The angle formed by two arcs of great circles, is equal to the angle formed by the tangents of these arcs at their point of intersection, and is measured by the arc described from this point of intersection, as a pole, and limited by the sides, produced if
necessary.

Let the angle be formed by the two arcs AB, then will it be equal to the ; angle formed by the tangents AF, AG,

BAG

AC FAG A

and be measured by the arc DE, described


about
as a pole.
in the plane perpendicular to the radius and the tangent AG, drawn in the plane of the arc AC, is perpendicular to the same radius AO. Hence the angle FAG is equal to the angle contained by the planes ABO, (Book VI. Def. 4.) which is that of the arcs AB, AC, and is called the angle BAG. In like manner, if the arcs and are both quadrants, the lines OD, OE, will be perpendicular to OA, and the angle will still be equal to the angle of the planes AOD, : hence the arc is tlie measure of the angle contained by these planes, or of the angle CAB.

For the tangent AF, drawn

of the arc

AB,

is

AO

OAC

AD

AE

DOE

DE

AOE

together,

angles of spherical triangles may be compared by means of the arcs of great circles described from their vertices as poles and included between their sides hence it is easy to make an angle of this kind equal to a given angle.

Cor.

The

192
Scholium.

GEOMETRY.
and

Vertical angles, such are equal ; for either of them is still the angle formed by the two planes ACB,
as

ACO

BCN

OCN.
It is farther evident, that, in the mtersection of two arcs ACB, OCN, the two adjacent angles ACO, OCB, taken together, are equal to two

right angles.

PROPOSITION

VII.

THEOREM.

Iffrom the vertices of the three angles of a spherical triangle, as poles, three arcs be described forming a second triangle, the vertices of the angles of this second triangle, will be respectively
poles of the sides of the first.

From the vertices A, B, C, as poles, let the arcs EF, FD, ED, be described, forming on the surface of the sphere, the triangle ; then will the points D, E, and F, be respectively poles of the sides BC,

DFE

AC, AB.
For, the point being the pole of the arc EF, the distance is a quadrant ; the point C being the pole of the arc DE, the distance CE is likeis removed the length of a wise a quadrant hence the point and C ; hence, it is the quadrant from each of the points It might be shown, by pole of the arc (Prop. V. Cor. 3.). the same method, that is the pole of the arc BC, and F that of the arc AB.

AE

E A

AC

of

ABC may be described by means described by means of ABC. Triangles so described are called polar triangles, or supplemental tnCor.

Hence
as

the triangle
is

DEF,

DEF

imgles.

BOOK
PROPOSITION

IX.

193

VIII.

THEOREM.

The same supposition continuing as in the last Proposition, each angle in one of the triangles, will be measured by a semicircumference, minus the side lying opposite to it in the othe^
triangle.

For, produce the sides

AB,

AC, if necessary, till they meet EF, in G and H. The point A


being the pole of the arc GH, the angle A will be measured by that arc (Prop. VI.). But the arc is a quadrant, and likewise GF, E being the pole of AH, and F of hence ; + GF is equal to a semicircumference. Now, +

EH

AG

EH
GF

the same as hence the arc GH, which n-.via; sures the angle A, is equal to a semicircumference minus the side EF. In like manner, the angle B will be measured by \circ, the angle C, by ^ circ. DE.
is

EH EF+GH

DF

},

property must be reciprocal in the two triangles, since each of them is described in a similar manner by means of the other. Thus we shall find the angles D, E, F, of the triangle DEF to be measured respectively by circ. BC, | circ. AC, AB. Thus the angle D, for example, is measured by ^ circ. the arc MI but Ml4-BC=MC + BI=i circ. ; hence the arc MI, the measure of D, is equal to ^ circ. BC and so of all
this

And

the rest.

Scholium.

It

must further be observed,

that besides the triangle DEF, three others

might be formed by the intersection of the three arcs DE, EF, DF. But the proposition immediately before us is apthe central triangle, ^ distinguished from the other three by the circumstance (see the last figure) that the two angles and lie on the same side of B ", the two B and on the same side of AC, and the two C au 1 F on the same side of AB.

plicable only to

which

is

194

GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION

IX.

THEOREM.

If around the vertices of the two angles of a given spherical triangle, as poles, the circumferences of two circles be described which shall pass through the third angle of the triangle; if then, through the other point in which these circumferences intersect and the two first angles of the triangle, the arcs of great circles be drawn, the triangle thus formed will have all its parts equal to those of the given triangle.

Let

ABC

be the given triangle,

CED,

the arcs described about as poles ; then will the triangle


all its

DFC,

A and B ADB have


;

For,

parts equal to those of ABC. by construction, the side AD=:

AC, DB=BC, and

AB is common

hence

these iYfo triangles have their sides equal, each to each. are now to show, that the angles opposite these equal sides are also equal. If the centre of the sphere is supposed to be at O, a solid by the three plane angle may be conceived as formed at angles AOB, AOC, ; hkewise another solid angle maybe conceived as formed by the three plane angles AOB, AOD, are equal BOD. And because the sides of the triangle to those of the triangle ADB, the plane angles forming the one of these solid angles, must be equal to the plane angles forming But in that case we have shown that the other, each to each. the planes, in which the equal angles lie, are equally inclined to each other (Book VI. Prop. XXI.) ; hence all the angles ot are respectively equal to those ot the spherical triangle

We

BOC

ABC

DAB

DBA=ABC, and ADB=ACB; hence the sides and the angles of the triangle ADB are equal to the sides and the angles of the triangle ACB.
the triangle

CAB, namely, DAB=BAC,

Scholium. The equality of these triangles is not, however, an absolute equality, or one of superposition for it would be impossible to apply them to each other exactly, unless they
;

were

isosceles.

already

The equality meant here is what we named an equality by symmetry ; therefore we

havf!
shall

call the triangles

ACB, ADB,

symmetrical triangles.

BOOK
PROPOSITION
X.

IX.

196

THEOREM.

Two tmangles on
one are equal each to each.

the

in all their parts,


to

same sphere, or on equal spheres, are equal when two sides and the included angle of the two sides and the included angle of the other

Suppose the side AB=EF, the side AC =EG, and the angle BAC=FEG
then will the two triangles be equal
in all their parts.

For, the triangle EFG may be placed on the triangle ABC, or on ABD symmetrical with ABC, just as two rectilineal triangles are placed upon each other, when they have an equal angle included between equal sides. Hence all the parts of the triangle EFG will be equal to all the parts of the triangle ABC that is, besides the three parts equal by hypothesis, we shall have the side BC=:FG, the angle ABC=EFG, and the angle ACB=EGF.
;

PROPOSITION

XI.

THEOREM.

Two triangles on the same

sphere, or on equal spheres, are eqttal in all their parts, when two angles and the included side of the one are equal to two angles and the included side of the other, each to each.

For, one of these triangles, or the triangle symmetrical with may be placed on the other, as is done in the corresponding case of rectilineal triangles (Book I. Prop. VT.).
it,

PROPOSITION

XII.

THEOREM.

If two triangles on the same sphere, or on equal spheres, have all their sides equal, each to each, their angles ivill likewise be equal, each to each, the equal angles lying opposite the equal
sides.

106

GEOMETRY.
is

This truth

evident from Prop. IX,

where
sides

was shown, that with three given AB, AC, BC, there can only be two
it

triangles

ACB, ABD,

differing as to the

and equal as to the magnitude of those parts. Hence those two triangles, having all their sides respectively equal in both, must either be
position of their parts,

absolutely equal, or at least symmetrically so ; in either of which cases, their corresponding angles must be equal, and lie opposite to equal sides.

PROPOSITION

XIII.

THEOREM.

In every isosceles spherical triangle, the angles opposite the equal sides are equal ; and conversely, if two angles of a spherical triangle are equal, the triangle is isosceles.
First. Suppose the side AB=AC; we shall have the angle C=B. For, if the arc AD be drawn from the vertex A to the middle point

of the base, the two triangles ABD, ACD, have all the sides of the one respectively equal to the corresponding sides of the other, namely, common, BD DC, and AB
will

AD

hence by the last Proposition, their angles will be equal therefore, B=C.
:
;

AC

Secondly. Suppose the angle B C ; we shall have the side For, if not, let AB be the greater of the two take and draw OC. The two sides BO, BC, are equal to the two AC, BC ; the angle OBC, contained by the first two contained by the second two. Hence the is equal to two triangles BOC, ACB, have all their other parts equal but by hypothesis, (Prop. X.) ; hence the angle OCB=:ABC which is ; hence we have the angle

AC=:AB.

BO=AC,

ACB

ABC = ACB

absurd hence it is absurd to suppose hence the sides AB, AC, opposite to the equal angles
;

OCB=ACB, AB different from AC


B

and C,

are equal.

Scholium.

DAC, and
right angles

the angle
;

The same demonstration proves the angle BAD BDA=:ADC. Hence the two last are hence the arc drawn from the vertex of an isosceles
is

spherical triangle to the middle of the base, that base, and bisects the vertical angle.

at right angles

to

BOOK

IX.

i97

PROPOSITION

XIV.

THEOREM.

In any spherical triangle, the greater side is opposite the greater angle ; and conversely, the greater angle is opposite the greater
side.

Let the angle be greater than the angle B, then will BC be greater than AC ; and conversely, if BC is greater than AC, then will the angle be greater than B.

First Suppose the angle ; make the angle then we shall have (Prop. XIII.) : but greater than ; hence, putting DB in place of AD, have + DC, or

A>B AD=DB

BAD B AD + DC
we

is

AC

shall

DB

BOAC.

will be Secondly. If we suppose BC>AC, the angle greater than ABC. For, if were equal to ABC, we should have ; if BAC were less than ABC, we should then, as has just been shown, find BC<AC. Both those conclusions are false hence the angle is greater than ABC.

BAC

BAC

BC=AC
:

BAC

PROPOSITION XV. THEOREM.


If two triangles on the same sphere, or on equal spheres, are mutually equiangular, they will also he mutually equilateral.

B be the two given triangles ; P and their polar Since the angles are equal in the triangles A and B, the sides will be equal in. their polar triangles P and Q but since the triangles P and are mutually (Prop. VIII.) evuilateral, they must also be mutually equiangular (Prop. and lastly, the angles being equal in the triangles P XII.)
Let
and
triangles.
:

and Q,
gles

A
B

and

follows that the sides are equal in their polar trianHence the mutually equiangular triangles A are at the same time mutually equilateral.
it

and B.

Scholium.
triangles
;

This proposition

is

not applicable to rectilinea.

in

which equality among the angles indicates only

proportionality among the sides. Nor is it difficult to account for the difference observable, in this respect, between spherical

and

rectilineal tr angles.

In the Proposition

now

before us

198

(SEOMETRY.

as well as in the preceding ones, which treat of the comparison of triangles, it is expressly required that the arcs be traced on the same sphere, or on equal spheres. Now similar arcs are hence, on equal spheres, two trito each other as their radii angles cannot be similar without being equal. Therefore it is not strange that equality among the angles should produce
;

equality

if the triangles were drawn upon unequal spheres there, the angles being equal, the triangles would be similar, and the homologous sides would be to
;

among the sides. The case would be different,

each other as the radii of their spheres.

PROPOSITION
'

XVI.

THEOREM.
is less

The sum of

all the

six right angles,

angles in any spherical triangle and greater than tivo.

than

first place, every angle of a spherical triangle is than two right angles : hence the sum of all the three is less than six right angles. Secondly, the measure of each angle of a spherical triangle is equal to the semicircumference minus the corresponding side of the polar triangle (Prop. VIII.) hence the sum of all the three, is measured by the three semicircumferences 7ninusihe sum of all the sides of the polar triangle. Now this latter sum is less than a circumference (Prop. III.) therefore, taking it away from three semicircumferences, the remainder will be greater than one semicircumference, which is the measure of two right angles hence, in the second place, the sum of all the angles of a spherical triangle is greater than two right angles.

For, in the

less

Cor, 1. The sum of all the angles of a spherical triangle is not constant, like that of all the angles of a rectilineal triangle ; it varies between two right angles and six, without ever arriving Two given angles therefore do not at either of these limits. serve to determine the third.
spherical triangle may have two, or even three of Cor. 2. angles right angles ; also two, or even three of its angles

its

obtuse.

BOOK
ABC
in

IX.

199

is bi-rectangular, Cor. 3. If the triangle other words, has two right angles B and C, will be the pole of the base BC ; the vertex

and the sides AB, AC, (Prop. V. Cor. 3.).


If the angle

will

be

quadrants

angle

ABC

will

is also a right angle, the tribe tri-rectangular ; its angles

will all

be right angles, and its sides quadrants. Two of the tri-rectangular triangles make half a hemisphere, four make a hemisphere, and the tri-rectangular triangle is obviously contained eight times in the surface of a sphere.

Scholium. In all the preceding observations, we have supposed, in conformity with (Def. 1.) that spherical triangles have always each of
their sides less than a

semicircumfollows that

ference

from which

it

any one of their angles is always For, if less than two right angles.

AB is less tlian a semicircumference, and AC is so likewise, both those arcs will require to be produced, before they can meet in D. Now the two angles ABC, CBD, taken together, are equal to two right angles hence the angle ABC itself, is less than two right angles. may observe, however, that some spherical triangles do exist, in which certain of the sides are greater than a semicircumference, and certain of the angles greater than two right angles. Thus, if the side AC is produced so as to form a whole circumference ACE, the part which remains, after subtracting the triangle ABC from the hemisphere, is a new triangle also designated by ABC, and having AB, BC, AEDC for its sides. Here, it is plain, the side AEDC is greater than the semicirand at the same tmie, the angle B opposite cumferencc to it exceeds two right angles, by the quantity CBD. The triangles whose sides and angles are so large, have been excluded by the Definition but the only reason was, that the solution of them, or the determmation of their parts, is always reducible to the solution of such triangles as are comprehended by the Definition. Indeed, it is evident enough, that if the sides and angles of the triangle AB(y are known, it will be easy to discover the angles and sides of the triangle which bears the same name, and is the difference between a hemisphere and the former triangle.
the side

We

AED

200

GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
XVII.

THEOREM.

Tlte surface

of a lune is to the surface of the sphere^ as the angle of this lune, is to four right angles, or as the arc which mea-

sures that angle, is to the circumference.

Let be a lune then will its surface be to the surface of the sphere as the angle to four right angles, or as the arc to the circumference of a great circle.
;

AMBN

NCM NM

Suppose,
as

in the

first

place, the arc

MN to be to the circumference MNPQ


rational number is to ano5 to 48, for example. The circumference being divided into 48 equal parts, will contain 5 of them ; and if the pole A were joined with the several points of division, by as many quadrants, we should in the hemisphere have 48 triangles, all equal, because all their parts are equal. Hence the whole sphere must contain 96 of those partial triangles, the lune will contain 10 of them; hence the lune is to the sphere as 10 is to 96, or as 5 to 48, in other words, as the arc is to the circumference. If the arc is not commensurable v/ith the circumference, we may still show, by a mode of reasoning frequently exemplified already, that in that case also, the lune is to the sphere as is to the circumference.
ther, as

some one

MNPQ

MN

AMNPQ

AMBNA

MN

MN

MN

Cor,
angles.

1.

Two

lunes are to each other as their respective

Cor, 2. It was shown above, that the whole surface of the sphere is equal to eight tri-rectangular triangles (Prop. XVI. Cor. 3.) ; hence, if the area of one such triangle is represented by T, the surface of the whole sphere will be expressed by 8T This granted, if the right angle be assumed equal to 1, the surface of the lune whose angle is A, will be expressed by 2AxT.
for,

4: A:
in

8T

2AxT
bounded by the planes

which expression,
is

angle of the lune

represents such a part of unity, as the of one right angle

Scholium,

The
IS

spherical ungula,

AMB, ANB,

to the

whole

solid sphere, as the angle

is

to

BOOK
;

IX.

201

For, the lanes being equal, the spherical four right angles. ungulas will also be equal hence two spherical ungulas are to each other, as the angles formed by the planes which bound them.

PROPOSITION

XVIII.

THEOREM.

Two

symmetrical spherical triangles are equivalent.

cal triangles, that

Let ABC, DEF, be two symmetriis to say, two tri-

angles having their sides AB=DE, and yet incapable of coinciding with each other we are to show that the surface IS equal to the surface DEF. Let P be the pole of the small circle passing through the three points A, B, C ;* from this point draw the equal arcs PA, PB, PC (Prop. V.) ; at the point F, make the angle DFQ=:ACP, the arc ; and draw DQ, EQ. The sides DF, FQ, are equal to the sides AC, CP ; the anare equal gle ACP hence the two triangles DFQ, in all their parts (Prop. X.) ; hence tlie side DQ=AP, and the angle DQF=APC. In the proposed triangles DFE, ABC, the angles DFE, ACB, opposite to the equal sides DE, AB, being equal (Prop. XII.). if the angles DFQ, ACP, which are equal by construction, be taken away from them, there will remain the angle QFE, equal Also the sides QF, FE, are equal to the sides PC, to PCB. CB ; hence the two triangles FQE, CPB, are equal in all their PB, and the angle CPB. parts hence the side

AC=DF, CB=EF,

ABC

FQ=CP

DFQ=

ACP

QE =

FQE =

the triangles DFQ, ACP, which have their sides respectively equal, are at the same time isosceles, and capable of coinciding, when applied to each other ; for having placed

Now,

AC

on

the equal sides will fall on each other, and thus the two triangles will exactly coincide : hence they are equal ; and the surface For a like reason, the and the surface surface hence we ;
its

equal

DF,

DQF=APC.

FQE=CPB,

DQE=:APB

* The circle which passes through the three points A, B, C, or which circumscribes the triangle ABC, can only be a small circle of the sphere for if it were a great circle, the three sides AB, BC, AC, would lie in one plane, and the triangle ABC would be reduced to one of its sides.
;

202
have

GEOMETRY.

DQF+FQEDQE=APC + CPBAPB,
;

or

DFE=:
are

ABC

hence ihe two symmetrical triangles

ABC,

DEF

equal in surface.

might

The poles P and Scholium, within triangles ABC, lie DEF: in which case it would be requisite to add the three triangles

DQF, FQE, DQE,

together, in or-

der to make up the triangle DEF and in like manner, to ?dd the three
triangles
in

>Q^l

order to
:

APC, CPB, APB, together, make up the triangle

ABC in all other respects, the demonstration and the result would still be the same.
PROPOSITION XIX. THEOREM.
// the circumferences of two great circles intersect each other on the surface of a hemisphere, the sum of the opposite triangles thus formed, is equivalent to the surface of a lune v)hose angle is equal to the angle formed by the circles.

intersect

Let the circumferences AOB, COD, on the hemisphere OACBD

BOD,
gle
is

then will the opposite triangles AOC, be equal to the lune whose an-

BOD.

For, producing the arcs OB, OD, on the other hemisphere, till they meet in will be a semi-circumN, the arc ference, and one also and taking from each, we shall have For a like reason, we have CO, and Hence, the two triangles AOC, BDN, have their three sides respectively equal ; they are therefore symmetrical ; hence they are equal in surface (Prop. XVIII.) ; but the sum of the triangles BDN, BOD, is equivalent to the lune OBNDO, whose angle is

OBN AOB

OB

BN=AO.

DN =

BD=AC.

BOD:
angle
is

hence,

AOC + BOD

is

equivalent to the lune whose

BOD.

Scholium. It is likewise evident that the two spherical pyramids, which have the triangles AOC, BOD, for bases, are together equivalent to the spherical ungula whose angle is BOD.

BOOK IX.
PROPOSITION XX. THEOREM.
The surface of a spherical triangle
the
is

203

measured by

the excess of

sum of

its

three angles above two right angles^ multiplied

by the tri-rectangular triangle.

Let ABC be the proposed triangle produce its sides till they meet the great circle
:

DEFG drawn at pleasure without the trianBy the last Theorem, the two triangles ADE, AGH, are together equivalent to the
gle.

lune whose angle is A, and which is measured by 2A.T (Prop. XVII. Cor. 2.).

Hence we have

ADE + AGH=2A.T

for a like reason,


six

BGF+BID-2B.T,

and and

But the sum of these by twice the triangle ABC, and the hemisphere is represented by 4T therefore, twice the triangle ABC is equal to 2A.T + 2B.T + 2C.T4 T; and consequently, once ABC = (A + B + C 2)T; hence every spherical triangle is measured by the sum of all its angles minus two right angles, multiplied by the tri-rectangular triangle.
triangles exceeds the hemisphere
;

CIH + CFE=:2C.T

Cor. 1. However many right angles there may be in the sum of the three angles minus two right angles,just so many tri-rectangular triangles, or eighths of the sphere, will the proposed triangle contain.
If the angles, for example, are each equal to ^ of a right angle, the three angles will amount to 4 right angles, and the sum of the angles minus two right angles will be represented by 4 2 or 2; therefore the surface of the triangle will be equal to two tri-rectangular triangles, or to the fourth part of the

whole surface of the sphere.


Scholium. While the spherical triangle ABC is compared with the tri-rectangular triangle, the spherical pyramid, which has ABC for its base, is compared with the tri-rectangular pyramid, and a similar proportion is found to subsist between them. The solid angle at the vertex of the pyramid, is in like manner compared with the solid angle at the vertex of the trirectangular pyramid. These comparisons are founded on the coincidence of the corresponding parts. If the bases of the

ii04

GEOJNIETRY.

pyramids coincide, the pyramids themselves will evidently coincide, and likewise the solid angles at their vertices. From this, some consequences are deduced.
First. Two triangular spherical pyramids are to each other as their bases : and since a polygonal pyramid may always be divided into a certain number of triangular ones, it follows that any two spherical pyramids are to each other, as the polygons which form their bases.

Second.

The soHd angles at the vertices of these pyramids, are


;

also as their bases

hence, for comparing any two solid angles,

we have merely

to place their vertices at the centres of

two

equal spheres, and the solid angles will be to each other as the spherical polygons intercepted between their planes or faces. The vertical angle of the tri-rectangular pyramid is formed by three planes at right angles to each other this angle, which may be called a right solid angle, will serve as a very natural unit of measure for all other solid angles. If, for example, the the area of the triangle is f of the tri-rectangular triangle, then the corresponding solid angle will also be | of the
:

right solid angle.

PROPOSITION

XXI.

THEOREM.

The surface of a spherical polygon is measured hythe sum of all its angZes, minus two right angles multiplied hy the number oj sides in the polygon less two^ into the tri-rectangular triangle.

nals

From one of the vertices A, let diagoAC, AD be drawn to all the other ver-

-j^

tices ; the polygon will be divided into as many triangles minus two as it has sides. But the surface of each triangle is measured by the sum of all its an-

ABCDE

""""^^"J

^^^

gles

minus two

right angles, into the

tri-

rectangular triangle ; and the sum of the angles in all the triangles is evidently the same as that of all the angles of the polygon; hence, the surface of the polygon is equal to the sum of all its angles,diminished by twice as many right angles as less two, into the tri-rectangular triangle. it has sides Scholium. Let s be the sum of all the angles in a spherical polygon, n the number of its sides, and the tri-rectangular triangle ; the right angle being taken for unity, the surface of the

polygon will be measured by

^s^2

(712,)) T, or

(s2 7i+4)

APPENDIX,
THE REGULAR POLYEDRONS.

A regular polyedron is one whose faces are all equal regular polygons, and whose solid angles are all equal to each other. There are five such polyedrons. First, If the faces are equilateral triangles, polyedrons may be formed of them, having solid angles contained by three ol hence arise three regular those triangles, by four, or by five No other bodies, the tetraedron^ihQ octaedron^ the icosaedron. can be formed with equilateral triangles ; for six angles of such a triangle are equal to four right angles, and cannot form a solid angle (Book VI. Prop. XX.). Secondly. If the faces are squares, their angles may be arranged by threes : hence results the hexaedron or cube. Four angles of a square are equal to four right angles, and cannot form a solid angle. Thirdly. In fine, if the faces are regular pentagons, their angles likewise may be arranged by threes : the regular dodecaedron will result. can proceed no farther : three angles of a regular hexagon are equal to four right angles ; three of a heptagon are
:

We

greater.

Hence there can only be five regular polyedrons three formed with equilateral triangles, one with squares, and one with pen;

tagons.

Construction of the Tetraedron,

Let which
dron.

ABC
is

be the equilateral triangle form one face of the tetraeAt the point O, the centre of this
to
;

triangle, erect

plane

ABC

OS perpendicular to the terminate this perpendicular

S, so that

AS=AB;
S-ABC
will

draw SB, SC

be the tetraedron required. For, by reason of the equal distances


the

pyramid

OA, OB, OC,

the oblique lines

SA, SB, SC, are equally

re-

206

APPENDIX.

the perpendicular SO, and consequently equal (Book VI. Prop. V.). hence the four ; One of them faces of the pyramid S-ABC, are triangles, equal to the given triangle ABC. And the solid angles of this pyramid are all equal, because each of them is formed by three equal plane angles: hence this pyramid is a regular tetrae-

moved from

SA=AB

dron.

Construction of the Hexaedron,

be a given square. On the base ABCD, construct a right prism whose altitude AE shall be equal to the side AB. The faces of this prism v^ill evidently be equal squares ; and its solid angles all equal, each being formed w^ith three right angles hence this prism is a regular hexaedron or

Let

ABCD

It

E
C\

cube.

^
;

The

following propositions can be easily proved.

1. Any regular polyedron may be divided into as many regular pyramids as the polyedron has faces the common vertex of these pyramids will be the centre of the polyedron and at the same time, that of the inscribed and of the circumscribed sphere. 2. The solidity of a regular polyedron is equal to its surface multiplied by a third part of the radius of the inscribed
;

sphere.

regular polyedrons of the same name, are two simitheir homologous dimensions are proportional hence the radii of the inscribed or the circumscribed spheres are to each other as the sides of the polyedrons. 4. If a regular polyedron is inscribed in a sphere, the planes drawn from the centre, through the different edges, will divide the surface of the sphere into as many spherical polygons, all equal and similar, as the polyedron has faces.
3.

Two

lar solids,

and

APPLICATION OF ALGEBRA.
TO THE SOLUTION OF

GEOMETRICAL PROBLEMS.
problem is a question which requires a solution. A geometrical problem is one, in which certain parts of a geometrical figure are given or known, from which it is required to determine certain other parts.
to solve a geometrical problem by the given parts are represented by the first .etters of the alphabet, and the required parts by the final letters, and the relations which subsist between the known and
it

When

is

proposed

means of Algebra,

unknown

parts furnish the equations of the problem.

The

solu-

tion of these equations,

when

so formed, gives the solution of

die problem.

No general rule can be given for forming the equations. The equations must be independent of each other, and their number equal to that of the unknown quantities introduced (Alg. Art. 103.). Experience, and a careful examination of all the conditions, whether explicit or implicit (Alg. Art. 94,) will serve as guides in stating the questions to which may be added the following particular directions. 1st. Draw a figure which shall represent all the given parts, and all the required parts. Then draw such other lines as will establish the most simple relations between them. If an angle is given, it is generally best to let fall a perpendicular that shall lie opposite to it; and this perpendicular, if possible, should be drawn from the extremity of a given side. 2d. When two lines or quantities are connected in the same way with other parts of the figure or problem, it is in general, not best to use either of them separately ; but to use their sum, their difference, their product, their quotient, or perhaps another line of the figure with which they are alike connected. 3d. When the area, or perimeter of a figure, is given, it is sometimes best to assume another figure similar to the proposed, having one of its sides equal to unity, or some other known quantity. comparison of the two figures will often give a required part. will add the followmg problems.*
;

We

*
V)

The following problems arc selected from Hutton's Application of Alfrobri Geometry, and the examples in Mensuration from his treatise on thatsiibjjct

APPLICATION OF ALGEBRA

PROBLEM
In a right angled triangle

I,

BAG,

having given

the base

BA,

and

the

sum of

the hypothenuse

quired

to find the

and perpendicular^ hypothenuse and perpendicular.

it is re-

Put BA=c=3, BC=:a:, and the thenuse and perpendicular equal to s=9

AC=y

sum of

the hypo-

Then,

and

a:2=2/2+c^
1st equ:

x-\-y=s=9, (Bk IV. Prop. XL)

From
and

x=sy

By

subtracting,

0=^2syc^
2sy=s^

x^

= s^2sy + y^

or
hence,

c^

c^

^^"2^ =4= AC
a;+4=9
or

Therefore

a;=5=BC.
II.

PROBLEM

In a right angled triangle, having given the hypothenuse,and tka sum of the base and perpendicular, to find these ttv^ sides

Put

BC = a = 5, B A =ar, AC =y

and the sum

of the base and perpendicular 5

Then
and

x+y=s=l
first

From
or

equation

7?^f = d' x=sy


x'=s^^2sy^y''
y^==a^s^-\-2sy-^y'^

Hence,
or

2y^^2sy=d's^

or

f^-"'/ 2
the square y^

By completing
or

sy-\-\s^=^a^

\$^

Hence

\s^=4i or a?=|s=F \\a^1^5^=3 or 4


y=^s.\\a^

TO GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
III.

209

In a rectangle^ having given the diagonal


the sides.

and perimeter,

to

find

Let
Put

ABCD

be the proposed rectangle.


the

AC=c?=10,

perimeters 2a =28, or

AB + BC=a=14:
Then,

also put

AB=a;and BC=y.

xHy'=^
equations

and

From which

X'^y=a we

obtain,

y=^a: V^d^\a^=S
and

or 6,

x=^a=p V^d^--ia^=Q
PROBLEM

or 8.

IV.

Having given

the base

the side of

and perpendicular of a triangle, an inscribed square.

to

find

Let
and

ABC

be the triangle and

the inscribed square.


:

HEFG Put AB b, CD = a,

HE or GH=a: then Cl=ax. We have by similar triangles


AB: CD:; GF: CI
or

Hence,
or

abbx=ax

b: a:: x: a

x=

-=
a-\-h

the side

of the inscribed square

which, therefore, depends only on the base and altitude of tne


triangle.

PROBLEM
(n

V.

three perpendiculars

equilateral triangle, having given the lengths of the drawn from a point within, on the three d-ides: to determine the sides of the triangle.

an

210
Let

APPLICATIOJN OF

ALGEBRA

ABC be the equilateral triangle DE and DF the given perpendicuDraw lars let fall from D on the sides. DA, DB, DC to the vertices of the angles, and let fall the perpendicular CH on
DG,
Let DG^a, DE=6, and the base. DF=c put one of the equal sides
:

AB

^^^~

-ij

^2x\

hence AH=a;,

and

CH= /aC^.AiF= y/'A^x''


triangle
is

Now^ since the area of a

equal to half

its

base

into the altitude, (Bk. IV. Prop.

VL)

iAB X CH=a; x x iAB X DG=a; x a

V^x^ Vs^ triangle ACB


=ax

iBCxDE=a;x6
^AC X DF=a; x c
But the three
equal
to,

ADB = triangle BCD =-hx =cx = triangle ACD


.= triangle

last triangles
;

make

up, and are consequently

the

first

hence,
x^ Vdr=ttx+hx-\-cx=^x{a-\-h-\-c)
;

or
therefore,

xV^a-\-h-\-c
a-\-h-\-c

V3

is equal to a; Remark. Since the perpendicular 3, it consequently equal io a-\-h-\-c: that is, the perpendicular let fall from either angle of an equilateral triangle on the opposite side, is equal to the sum of the three perpendiculars let
is

CH

fall

from any point

w^ithin the triangle

on the sides respectively.

PROBLEM

VI.

In a right angled triangle, having given the base and the difference between the hypothenuse and perpendicular, to find the sides.

PROBLEM vn.
In a right angled triangle, having given the hypothenuse and difference between the base and perpendicular, to determine the triangle.
ilie

TO GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
Vni.
in

211

Having given the area of a rectangle inscribed


tnangle
;

a given

to determine the sides of the rectangle.

PROBLEM

IX.

In a triangle, having given the ratio of the two sides, togeth er with both the segments of the base made by a perp indlc ular from the vertical angle ; to determine the triangle.

PROBLEM

X.

In a triangle, having given the base, the sum of the other two and the length of a line drawn from the vertical angle to find the sides of the triangle. to the middle of the base
sides,
;

PROBLEM

XI.

In a triangle, having given the two sides about the vertical and terminating in the base ; to find the base.
angle, together with the line bisecting that angle

PROBLEM Xn.

To

lengths of

determine a right angled triangle, having given the two lines drawn from the acute angles to the mid-

dle of the opposite sides.

PROBLEM

XUI.

To determine a right-angled triangle, having given the perimeter and the radius of the inscribed circle.
PROBLEM
XIV.

To determine a triangle, having given the base, the perpendicular and the ratio of the two sides.
PROBLEM XV.

To determine a right angled triangle, having given hypothenuse, and the side of the inscribed square.
PROBLEM
XVI.

the

determine the. radii of three equal circles, described within and tangent to, a given circle, and also tangent to each other.

To

212

APPLICATION OF ALGEBRA
PROBLEM
XVII

In a right angled triangle, having given the perimeter and the perpendicular let fall from the right angle on the hypotheuuse, to determine the triangle.

PROBLEM xvni.

To determine a right angled triangle, having given the hypothenuse and the difference of two lines drawn from the two acute angles to the centre of the inscribed circle.
PROBLEM
XIX.

To

dicular,

determine a triangle, having given the base, the perpenand the difference of the two other sides.

PROBLEM XX.

To

determine a triangle, having given the base, the perpen-

dicular and the rectangle of the

two

sides.

PROBLEM

XXI.

To
lines sides.

drawn from

determine a triangle, having given the lengths of three the th'-ee angles to the middle of the opposite

PROBLEM xxn.
In a triangle, having given the three sides, to find the radius of the inscribed circle.

PROBLEM xxm.

To determine a right angled triangle, havmg given the side of the inscribed square, and the radius of the inscribed circle.
PROBLEM XXIV.

To determine a right angled triangle, having given the hypothenuse and radius of the inscribed circle.
PROBLEM XXV.

To

bisecting the vertical angle, cribing circle.

determine a triangle, having given the base, the line and the diameter of the circum-

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.

213

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
Jn every triangle there are six parts: three sides and three These parts are so related to each other, that if a certain number of them be known or given, the remaining ones can be determined. Plane Trigonometry explains the methods of finding, by calculation, the unknown parts of a rectilineal triangle, when a sufficient number of the six parts are given. When three of the six parts are known, and one of them is a If the three side, the remaining parts can always be found. angles were given, it is obvious that the problem would be indeterminate, since all similar triangles would satisfy the conangles.
ditions.

has already been shown, in the problems annexed to Book rectihneal triangles are constructed by means of three given parts. But these constructions, which are called graphic methods, though perfectly correct in theory, would give only a moderate approximation in practice, on account of the imperfection of the instruments required in constructing them. Trigonometrical methods, on the contrary, being independent of all mechanical operations, give solutions with the utmost accuracy. These methods are founded upon the properties of lines called trigonometrical lines, which furnish a very simple mode of expressing the relations between the sides and angles of triangles. shall first explain the properties of those lines, and the principal formulas derived from them formulas which are of great use in all the branches of mathematics, and which even furnish means of improvement to algebraical analysis. shall next apply those results to the solution of rectilineal triIt
III.,

how

We

We

angles.

DIVISION OF

THE CIRCUMFERENCE.

I. For the purposes of trigonometrical calculation, the circumference of the circle is divided into 360 equal parts, called legrees each degree into 60 equal parts, called minutes and each minute into 60 equal parts, called seconds. The semicircumference, or the measure of two right angles contains 180 degrees ; the quarter of the circumference, usually denominated the quadrant, and which measures the right an;
;

gle,

II.

contains 90 degrees. Degrees, minutes, and seconds, are respectively desig-

214

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.

nated by the characters : , ', " : thus the expression 16 6' 15" represents an arc, or an angle, of 16 degrees, 6 minutes, and 15 seconds. III. The complement of an angle, or of an arc, is what remains after taking that angle or that arc from 90. Thus the complement of 25 40' is equal to 90 25 40'=:64 20' ; and 77o the complement of 12 4' 32" is equal to 90 12 4' 32"

55' 28".

In general, A being any angle or any arc, 90 A is the complement of that angle or arc. If any arc or angle be added to its complement, the sum will be 90. Whence it is evident
is greater than 90, its complement will 70 be negative. Thus, the complement of 160 34' 10" is 34' 10". In this case, the complement, taken positively, would be a quantity, which being subtracted from the given angle or arc, the remainder would be equal to 90. The two acute angles of a right-angled triangle, are together equal to a right angle they are, therefore, complements of each

that if the angle or arc

other.

IV. The supplement of an angle, or of an arc, is what remains after taking that angle or arc from 180. Thus A being

any angle or arc, 180 A is its supplement. In any triangle, either angle is the supplement of the sum of the two others, since the three together make 180. If any arc or angle be added to its supplement, the sum will
be 180. Hence if an arc or angle be greater than 180, its supplement will be negative. Thus, the supplement of 200 20. The supplement of any angle of a triangle, or indeed is of the sum of either two angles, is always positive.

GENERAL IDEAS RELATING TO TRIGONOMETRICAL


V. The sine df an arc is the perpendicular let fall from
passes through the other extremity. Thus, is the sine of the arc AM, or of the angle ACM. The tangent of an arc is a line touching the arc at one extremity, and limited by the prolongation of the diameter which passes through the other extremity. Thus is the tangent of the arc AM,

LINES.

one extremity of the the diameter which

arc,

on

MP

AT

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
The
secant of an arc
is

215
the centre of

the line

drawn from

the circle through one extremity of the arc

and hmited by the

tangent drawn through the other extremity. Thus CT is the secant of the arc AM, or of the angle ACM. The versed sine of an arc, is the part of the diameter intercepted between one extremity of the arc and the foot of the sine. Thus, AP is the versed sine of the arc AM, or the angle

ACM.
These four lines MP, AT, CT, AP, are dependent upon the arc AM, and are always determined by it and the radius ; they are thus designated
:

MP=sinAM, or sin ACM, AT=tangAM, or tang ACM, CT=isec AM, or sec ACM, APr=:ver-sin AM, or ver-sin ACM.
equal to a quadrant, from the VI. Having taken the arc and D draw the lines MQ, DS, perpendicular to the radius CD, the one terminated by that radius, the other termiproduced the lines MQ, DS, and CS, nated by the radius will, in like manner, be the sine, tangent, and secant of the arc MD, the complement of AM. For the sake of brevity, they
points

AD

CM

are called the cosine^ cotangent, and cosecant, of the arc

AM

and are thus designated

MQ=:cosAM, DS=cot AM,

CS
In general,

or cos ACM, or cot ACM, cosecAM, or cosec ACM.

being any arc or angle,


cos cot

A = sin

(90

A=tang (90A),

cosec

A = sec
:

(90

A), A).

we have

CPM

is, by construction, equal to the triangle consequently CPrrMQ hence in the right-angled triangle CMP, whose hypothenuse is equal to the radius, the two hence, sides MP, CP are the sine and cosine of the arc the cosine of an arc is equal to that part of the radius intercepted between the centre and foot of the sine. The triangles CAT, CDS, are similar to the equal triangles hence they are similar to each other. From CPM, these principles, we shall very soon deduce the different relations which exist between the lines now defined before doing so, however, we must examine the changes which those lines undergo, when the arc to which they relate increases fiom zero

The

triangle

MQC

AM

CQM

to 180O.

The

angle

ACD is called the^rs^


;

quadrant

the second quadi^ant

the angle

BCE,

; the angle DCB, the third quadrant ; and

the angle

ECA.

the fourth quadrant.

216

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.

VII. Suppose one extremof the arc remains fixed in A, while the other extremity, marked M, runs successively throughout the whole extent of the semicircumference, Irom to B in the direction
ity

ADB.

When the point or when the arc the three points T,

AM

is
is

at

A,

zero,

M,

P, are

confounded with the point A whence it appears that the sine and tangent of an arc zero, are zero, and the cosine and secant of this same arc, are each equal to the radius. Hence if R represents the radius ol the circle, we have
sin

0=0, tang 0=0,

cos

0=R, secO=R.

advances towards D, the sine increases, VIII. As the point and so likewise does the tangent and the secant; but the cosine, the cotangent, and the cosecant, diminish.

When

AM
gle

is

is at the middle of the point 45, in which case it is equal to

AD,
its

or

when

the arc

complement
;

the sine

MP

CMP,
or

or CP and the trianequal to the cosine having become isosceles, gives the proportion
is

MQ
:

MD,

MP
Hence
sin

CM
:

:
:

1
:

sin 45

V2, V2,

45=cos45o=^ = JRV2.

In this same case, the triangle CAT becomes isosceles and equal to the triangle CDS ; whence the tangent of 45 and its cotangent, are each equal to the radius, and consequently we

have

tang45 = cot i5=R.

IX.
till

M arrives at D

The

arc

AM continuing
;

to increase, the sine increases

at
is

which point the


zero.

sine

is

equal to the ra-

dius,

and the cosine

Hence we have
cos90 = 0;

sin90=R,

and it may be observed, that these values are a consequence of the values already found for the sine and cosine of the arc zero ; because the complement of 90" being zero, we have

90 cos 0=:R, and cos 90=:sin 0=:0.


sin

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
As
to the tangent,
;

tni

approaches D gent properly being parallel, the tangent of

The

increases very rapidly as the point when this point reaches D, the tanexists no longer, because the lines AT, CD, cannot meet. This is expressed by saying that 90" is infinite ; and we write tang 90=: ao complement of 90'' being zero, we have
it

and

finally

tang O=cot 90 and cot

Omtang
.

90.

Hence

cot

90=0, and cot 0=qo

to advance from D towards B, and the cosines increase. Thus M'P' is the But the arc sine of the arc AM', and M'Q, or CP' its cosine. M'B is the supplement of AM', since AM' + M'B is equal to a

X. The point

M continuing

the sines diminish

is drawn parallel to AB, semicircumference ; besides, if the arcs AM, BM', which are included between parallels, will evidently be equal, and likewise the perpendiculars or sines MP, M'P'. Hence, the sine of an arc or of an angle is equal to the sine of the supplement of that arc or angle.

M'M

The

arc or angle

has for

its

supplement 180

A:

hence

generally,

we

have
sin

A = sin

(180A.)
by
the equation

The same property might


sin (90

also be expressed

+ B)=sin (90^B),
equal

being the arc

DM or

its

DM'.

XI. The same arcs AM, AM', which are supplements of each other, and which have equal sines, have also equal cobut it must be observed, that these cosines lie sines CP, CP' in diflferent directions. The line CP which is the cosine of the arc AM, has tiie origin ot us value at the centre C, and is estimated in the direction from C towards A while CP', the cosine of AM' has also the origin of its value at C, but is estimated in a contrary direction, from C towards B. Some notation must obviously be adopted to distinguish the one of such equal lines from the other and that they may both be expressed analytically, and in the same general formula^ it is necessary to consider all lines which are estimated in one direction as positive^ and those which are estimated in the conIf, therefore, the cosines which trary direction as negative. are estimated from C towards A be considered as positive, those estimated from C towards B, must be regarded as nega; ; ;

tive.

Hence, generally, we
cos

Kf=

cos (180
is

shall have,

^A)

that

is,

the cosine

of an arc or angle

equal to the cosine of its

supplement taken negatively. The necessity of changing the algebraic sign to correspond

218
ivith

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.

the change of di]*ection the trigonometrical Hne, may be illustrated by the fol.n

lowing example. The versed


sine

CA minus CP the cosine AM


hat
is,

AP

is

equal to the radius

ver-sin

Now when
to

AM=Rcos AM. the arc AM be-

comes AM' the versed sine AP, becomes AF, that is equal

R + CP'. But this expression

cannot be derived from the


formula,
cos AM, ver-sin to become negative as soon unless we suppose the cosine as the arc becomes greater than a quadrant. At the point B the cosine becomes equal to ; that is,

AMrrR

AM

AM

cos 180=--R.

For all arcs, such as AD'BN', which terminate in the third quadrant, the cosine is estimated from C towards B, and is consequently negative. At E the cosine becomes zero, and for all arcs which terminate in the fourth quadrant the cosines are estimated from C towards A, and are consequently positive. The sines of all the arcs which terminate in the first and second quadrants, are estimated above the diameter BA, while the third and fourth the sines of those arcs which terminate quadrants are estimated below it. Hence, considering the former as positive, we must regard the latter as negative.

XII. Let us now see what sign is to be given to the tangent falls above the line BA, of an arc. The tangent of the arc and we have already regarded the lines estimated in the direction as positive therefore the tangents of all arcs which terminate in the first quadrant will be positive. But the tangent of the arc AM', greater than 90, is determined by the These lines, howintersection of the two lines M'C and AT. ever, do not meet in the direction but they meet in the opposite direction AV. But since the tangents estimated in the direction are positive, those estimated in the direction must be negative: therefore, the tangents of all arcs ivhich terminate in the second quadrant will be negative. wiU When the point M' reaches the point B the tangent become equal to zero that is, tang 1 80 = 0.

AM

AT

AT

AT

AV

AV

When the point M' passes the point B, and comes into the position N', the tangent of the arc ADN'will be the line

AT


PLAICE TRIGONOMETRY.
219

hence, the tangents of all arcs which terminate in the third quadrant are positive. the tangent becomes infinite ; that is, At

tang 270^ 00. the point has passed along into the fourth quadrant will be the hne : hence, to N, the tangent of the arc the tangents of all arcs which terminate in the fourth quadrant

When

ADN'N

AV

are negative. The cotangents are estimated from the line ED. Those which are regarded as positive, and those which lie lie on the side on the side DS' as negative. Hence, the cotangents are positive in the first quadrant, negative in the second, positive in the is at B When the point third, and negative in the fourth. the cotangent is infinite ; when at E it is zero hence, 0. cot 1 80 =00 cot 270

DS

then the following table will show the signs of the trigonometrical lines in the different quadrants

Let q stand for a quadrant


1^

2q

Sq

Sine Cosine

Tangent
Cotangent

+ + +
4-

+
-f

4q +

XIII. In trigonometry, the sines, cosines, 6ic. of arcs or angles greater than 180 do not require to be considered ; the angles of triangles, rectilineal as well as spherical, and the and sides of the latter, being always comprehended between 180. But in various applications of trigonometry, there is frequently occasion to reason about arcs greater than the semicircumference, and even about arcs containing several circumferences. It will therefore be necessary to find the expression of the sines and cosines of those arcs whatever be their

magnitude.

We generally consider the arcs as positive which are estimated from A in the direction ADB, and then those arcs must be regarded as negative which are estimated in the contrary
direction

AEB.

observe, in the first place, that two equal arcs AM, with contrary algebraic signs, have equal sines MP, PN, with contrary algebraic signs ; while the cosine CP is the same for
both.

We

AN

The equal tangents AT, AV, as well DS, DS', have also contrary algebraic
X the
arc,

as the equal cotangents Hence, calling signs.

we have

in general,

ain

x)=
(

cos ( tang cot (

x)=cos X
x)

x)

x = tang x = X
sin

cot


220

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
considering the arc AM, and its supplement AM', and what has been said, we readily see that,
sin (an arc)

By

recollecting

= sin

(its

supplement)
(its

cos tang (an arc) = tang


cos (an

arc)=

supplement)
supplement)
supplement).

(its

cot (an arc)


It
if

= cot

(its

is no less evident, that one or several circumfe-

S'

D
ir^y"^"'^

rences were added to any arc AM, it would still terminate exactly at the point M, and the arc thus increased would have the same sine as the arc ; hence if C represent a whole circumference or 360, we shall have sina:=sin (C + a;) sina;=sin

N
JSI'

q"^
\

f
j\

P'

AM

\
R

y\l V

(2C+x), &c.

E
is

The same
gent,

observation

aptan-

plicable to the

cosine,

&c.
it

appears, that whatever be tne magnitude of x the its sine may always be expressed, with a proper sign, by the sine of an arc less than 180. For, in the first place, we may subtract 360 from the arc x as often as they are contained in it and y being the remainder, we shall have sin a;=sin y. Then if ?/ is greater than 180, make y=1804-2, and we have sin Thus all the cases are reduced sin z. to that in which the proposed arc is less than 180 ; and since we farther have sin (90 + a;) sin (90 x), they are likewise ultimately reducible to the case, in which the proposed arc is between zero and 90.

Hence

proposed

arc,

y=

XIV. The cosines are always reducible to sines, by means of the formula cos sin (90 A) or if we require it, by means of the formula cos sin (90 + A): and thus, if we can find the value of the sines in all possible cases, we can also find that of the cosines. Besses, as has already been shown, that the negative cosines are separated from the positive cosines by the diameter all the arcs whose extremities fall on the right side of DE, having a positive cosine, while those wliose extremities fall on the left have a negative cosine. Thus from 0 to 90 the cosines are positive from 90 to 270 they are negative from 270 to 360 they again become positive and after a whole revolution they assume the same values as in the preceding revolution, for cos (360 + a:)=cosa:.

A=

A=

DE

R
221

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
From
sines

these explanations,

it

will evidently appear, that the

and cosines of the various arcs which are multiples of the quadrant have the following values

sm
sin

0^

sin sin sin

90

=R =R
=R

180^=0

270=
450 810

sin

sin

360 =0 540 =0 sin 720 =0

sin
sin

630=
&c.

cos 0=:R COS 180= cos 360 cos 540= cos 720 R

=R
=

cos cos cos cos cos

90 =0 270 =0 450 630 810

= = =

&c.

And
have

generally,
sin

&c. &c. k designating any whole number we

shall

cos (2A:+1) . 90 0, cos 4A . 90=R, . 90=R, cos (4^ + 2) . 90= R. What we have just said concerning the sines and cosines renders it unnecessary for us to enter into any particular detail respecting the tangents, cotangents, &c. of arcs greater than 180 ; the value of these quantities are always easily deduced from those of the sines and cosines of the same arcs as we shall see by the formulas, which we now proceed to
I

2/:.90=0,
.

sin (4A-+ 1) sin (4A 1)

90=R,

explain.

THEOREMS AND FORMULAS RELATING TO


TANGENTS,
&c.

SINES, COSINES,

XV. The

sine of

an arc

is half the chord which subtends a double arc.

For the radius C A, perpendicular to the chord MN, bisects this chord, and likewise the arc ; hence MP, the

MAN

sine of the arc

MA, is

half the

chord
the arc

MN

which subtends
the double of

MAN,

MA.
The chord which subtends
the sixth part of the circumference is equal to the radius ;

hence

sm ^^^'-orsin30=iR,
12 other words, the sine of a third part of the right angle equal to the half of the radius.
in

222

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY,

XVI. The square of the sine of an arc, together with the square of the cosine, is equal to the square of the radius ; so that in general terms we have
sin2A + cos2A=R2. This property results immediately from the right-angled triangle
It

CMP,

in

which

MP2+CP'^=CM2.
follows that when the is given, its cosine may be found, and reciprocally, by means of the formulas cos d= \/ (R^ sin^A), and sin =b V (R^ cos^A). The sign of these formulas is + , or because the same sine answers to the two arcs AM, AM', whose cosines CP, CP', are equal and have contrary signs ; and the same cosine CP answers to the two arcs AM, AN, whose sines MP, PN, are also equal, and have contrary signs. Thus, for example, having found sin 30=|R, we may de(R2_iR2) \f S. sf duce from it cos 30, or sin 60
sine of an arc

A=

MP

A=

=V

= ^W^^R

XVII. The
quired

sine

and

to find the tangent, secant,

cosine of an arc being given, it is recotangent, and cosecant of the

same

arc.

The
;

triangles

CPM, CAT, CDS,


:

being similar,

we have the
A A=-

proportions

CP PM
CP
:

CA AT
:

or cos

sin

A
:

T>
:

tang

RsinA
cos

A
A

CM

CA CT
:
:

or cos

A R
: :

R
:

sec

R2
cos

PM CP
:
:

: :

CD DS
:
:

or sin

cos

A
: :

R
:

cot

A= RcosA
sm A
R^
sin

PM CM

CD CS

or sin

A R
:

cosec

A=

which are the four formulas required. It may also be observed, that the two last formul# might be deduced from the first two, by simply putting 90 A instead of A. From these formulas, may be deduced the values, with their proper signs, of the tangents, secants, &c. belonging to any and since the progresarc whose sine and cosine are known sive law of the sines and cosines, according to the different arcs to which they relate, has been developed already, it i? unnecessary to say more of the law which regulates the tangents and secants.

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.

223

By means of these formulas, several results, which have already been obtained concerning the trigonometrical lines =90, we may be confirmed. If, for example, we make shall have sin A=R, cos and consequently tang 90=-;

A=0

R2

an expression which designates an

infinite quantity

for

great,

the quotient of radius divided by a very small quantity, is very and increases as the divisor diminishes ; hence, the quo-

tient of the radius divided

by zero
to

is

greater than any

finite

quantity.
; and cotangent to R.-rsui cos it follows that tangent and cotangent will both be positive when the sine and cosine have like algebraic signs, and both negative, when the sine and cosine have contrary algebraic signs. Hence, the tangent and cotangent have the same sign in the diagonal quadrants that is, positive in the 1st and 3d, and negative in the 2d and 4th ; results agreeing with those of Art. XII. The Algebraic signs of the secants and cosecants are readily determined. For, the secant is equal to radius square divided by the cosine, and since radius square is always positive, it follows that the algebraic sign of the secant will depend on that of the cosine: hence, it is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants and negative in the 2nd and 3rd. Since the cosecant is equal to radius square divided by the sine, it follows that its sign will depend on the algebraic sign hence, it will be positive in the 1st and 2nd of the sine quadrants and negative in the 3rd and 4th. XVIII. The formulas of the preceding Article, combined with each other and with the equation sin '-^A + cos '-^Az^R^. furnish some others worthy of attention.
; :
:

The tangent being equal

First

we have R^ +
-'A
cos-*

tang^

=
^

R^

+
,

^^
cos-^

^^f^"^

=
^

RMsin'A + cos^A)^_^. ^^^^


cos

^^^^^,

formula which might be immediately deduced from the rightangled triangle CAT. By these forn^las, or by the right-angled triangle CDS, we have also R'^-fcot^ A=cosec^ A. Lastly, by taking the product of the two formulas tang

A=

RsinA
cos

and cot

A= ,-
L

RcosA

smA

we

have tang

a t>9 Ax cot A=R%


.

formula which gives Qot

A=-t
.

Rj-,

and tang

A=

R^

r^

We likewise

have cot

B=

tangB

224

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.

; cot B : : tang B : tang A ; that is, ine cotanHmce cot gents of two arcs are reciprocally proportional to their tangents^ tang A=R^ might be deduced immeThe formula cot diately, by comparing the similar triangles CAT, CDS, which

Ax

give

AT

CA
to

CD
and

DS,

or tang

cot

XIX. The
it is

sines

required

find the sine

cosines of two arcs, a and b. being given, and cosine of the sum or difference

of these arcs. Let the radius AC=R,the arc AB=a, the arc BD=6, and consequently + b. From the points B and D, let fall the perpendiculars BE, DF upon AC from the point D, draw DI perpendicular to BC lastly, from the point I draw IK perpendicu-

ABD=a

lar,

and IL parallel

to,

The

similar triangles

F' C AC. BCE, ICK, give the

FXTKE
:

proportions,

CB CB

CI

BE CE

IK, or

cos 6

sin

IK=^JI!-^-^^

CI

CK,

or

cos

biicosa:

CK=
^DL:

cos acosb.

R
COS a sin
b,

The
r>Ty

triangles

DIL, CBE, having


similar,

their sides perpendicular

each to each, are

and give the proportions,


t>

CB

TM DI

CE DL, or R sm
r^T?
:

T\T

i,

cos a

R
sin

CB DI
:

BE

IL, or

sin &

sin

IL=

a sin

But

we have
(a

IK+DL=DF=sin
Hence
.

+ &),

and

CKIL=CF=cos (a+fc).

8m{a-\-b)
cos (a+b)

= sin a cos 6 + sin & cos a R


cos a cos b

sin

sin b .

The values of sin (a-^b) and of cos (a b) might be easily deduced from these two formulas but they may be found For, produce the sine DI till it directly by the same figure. then we have BM==BD--?>, meets the circumference at and MI = 11)=: sin b. Through the point M, draw MP perpenparallel to, AC since MI=:DI, we have dicular, and =IL, and IN=DL. But we have IK IN=MP-sin {abl and CK + MN=CP=cos (a b) hence

MN

MN


PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
.

22ft

sin

{ab)^b)
^

,v

sin

a cos b

g
R
it

sin b cos

cos (a
^

= cos

a cos 6 + sin a sin h

These are the formulas which

was required to find. The preceding demonstration may seem defective in

pouit

of generality, since, in the figure which we have followed, the arcs a and b, and even + 6, are supposed to be less than 90' But first the demonstration is easily extended to the case in which a and b being less than 90, their sum a + 6 is greater than 90. Then the point F would fall on the prolongation of AC, and the only change required in the demonstration would be that of taking cos {a-\-b)z=z CF' but as we should, at the same time, have CF' rL' CK', it would still follow that cos (a + 6) CK' I'L', or R cos (a 4-^)) cos a cos b sin a sin 6. And whatever be the values of the arcs a and b, it is easily shown that the formulas are true hence we may regard them as established for all arcs. will repeat and number the formulas for the purpose of more convenient reference. sin a cos ^ + sin b cos a ,. ,v ,

We

sm(a + 6) =
.
,

(1.).

sin

{ab)=
,
,

sin

a cos b

cos a cos b

cos (a-f Z>)= COS

g
1^^
j^^

sin b

cos a ,^.
(2.).

sin

sin 6

(3.)

(a5) =
,.

cos a cos 6 + sin a sin

&.

(4.)

XX.
.

If,

in the

6= a, the
^

first

and the
<z

formulas of the preceding Article, third will give

we

mai;e

sin2a=-

sin

cos a
-,

^
cos

^p

2a=

cos^ a

1^^

sin^

a = 2 cos'p

R"

formulas which enab/e us to find the sine and cosine of the double arc, when we k:jow the sine and cosine of the arc itself. To express the sin a ana cos a in terms of Ja, put \a for a,

and

we

sm

have 2 ^

sin i<z cos


=

\a

f_,

cos

a=--

o^o'i^

\a
=

sin'^

\a

-.

R
terms of
a,

To

find the sine

and cosine of \q

in

take th

equations
cos' |a+sin'

there results
cos'-^

|a=R', and cos'^a by adding and subtracting


cos
a,

sin'

\a-=^ cos a,

ia=iR^+iR

and sin'ia=^R'

iR cos a\
cos a.

whence
sin

\a^^ OR^iR

cos a)

- \ V 2R'^2R


22

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY
we
shall have,

If we put 2a in the place of a,


sin

= V(iR2-iR
two

cos

2a)=iN/2R2 2R

cos 2a.
cos 2a.

cos

a=v/(iR2+iR cos2a)=^\/2R--l-2R
last formulas,
;

Making,
sin

in the

ar=45, gives cos

2a~0, and

Next,

45= N/iR2^Rv/i and also, cos 45= Vf make a =22 30', which gives cos 2a=R V^, and we have

VW^R

sin 22

80'=R ^--471) and

cos 22

30'=RV(i + i V^).

XXI. If we multiply together formulas (1.) and (2.) Art. XIX. and substitute for cos'^ a, R^ sin'^ a, and for cos^ 6, R^ sin^ h we shall obtain, after reducing and dividing by R^

sin {a

+ h) sin (a

or, sin (a

h)
:

= sin^ asin^ h = (sin a + sin h) (sin asin

h),

h)

sm a

sin h

sin

a + sin 6

sin (a +5).

XXII. The formulas of Art. XIX. furnish a great number of consequences ; among which it will be enough to mention those of most frequent use. By adding and subtracting we obtain
the four

which

follow,

sin (a +6)-}- sin {a

sin {a-\-h)

sin (a

2 i!>)=_sin a cos R 2 R h cos


&)=___ sin

h,

a.

cos

(a+&)+cos

{a

2 6)= cos a cos R

h,

cos {a

cos
h)

(a

+ &)=i5-sin

sin h.

and which serve

to

sines into linear sines or cosines, that is, into sines multiplied only by constant quantities.

change a product of several sines or coand cosines

XXIII. If
gives

in these

a=:-^, &=-y-, we
Bin;?

p-\-q

V a

formulas

we

put a-{-b=p, a

6=g, which
(1.)

shall find

+ sin

^= sin \(jp-\-q)
2
J {p

cos

l(pq)

sin

sin g=-:j^sin

q) cos l[{p

+ q)

(2.)

cos;?

+ cos5'=-cosJ(p+^)

cos^(j5
sin

q) (3.)

cos<7

2 cosj=-3-sin \{p-\-q)

J {p

q) (4.)

?
:

*27

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
If

we make ^=o, we
sin

shall obtain,

p=

sin

i cos A p ^-*^-^

R + cos;7=
Rcos
/?=

2 cos^ h V

g-^
R

2sinH/>
:

hence

sin/?

_tangj/?

R
^cotj;?

R+cos ;)~

R
\

Rcos p

sin

/?

_ cot

p_

R
tang

Jp

formulas which are often employed in trigonometrical calculations for reducing two terms to a single one.

XXIV. From the first four formulas of Art XXIII. and the first
of Art.XX.,dividinff, and considering that ^

cos a

= ^ cot R

we
sin sin sin

derive the following

p + si n q _ s in ^ p sin q cos^ p + sm <7 _sin^

(p + q) cos \ (p
{p + q)
(jP4-^)
sin

J (p
j^

q)

_ tang i{p + q)
tang ^~QoII^

q)

tang

(/?

+ y)
q)

cos/? + cos^
sin
/?

cos^(p-i-q)

cos q
sin
;?

_ cot (p cos p J R y _ ^ {p _ tang ^ (p R cosp + cosq cos^(;? q _cos^{p-{-q) _cot^ {p-^9) n cos qcos p R J {P + cos + cos q _ cos^{p-\-q) cos ^ (p )_cot h(p + cos q cos p tang^ ^ ^ ^+sin 7 cos + CQs H/^ {p-^q)~2sm^(p + q)cosi{p-{-q)^cos^(p-{-q) cos H/^ + p q
+ sin ^_ co8 j {p
sin
sin

q)

j^

(/?

q)
)

sin

q)

q)

si

jp

sin

sin

9)

j?

q)
q)

sin

{p-\-q) sin
y)

(j9
(/^

qj

(/?

sin

2sin

7)

(;?

7)

sin
s in

sin

2sin 1

(jo

q)

</)

sin ^ ( ;?

y)

sin

{pTq)~2sin
the
first, it

^ {p-\-q)

cos^ (p + <7)~sin

^ (p

+ q)

Formulas which are the expression of so many theorems

From

to the difference

the arcs is to

follows that the sum of the sines of two arcs i* of these sines, as the tangent of half the sum of the tangent of half their difference

228

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
In order likewise to develop some formulas relative

XXV.

to tangents, let us consider the expression

-i, in which by substituting the values -^ ^ cos (a+b) of sin (a+h) and cos (+&), we shall find (^'" ^ ^^^ b + smb cos a)

tang {a-\-b)=

"^

tang
1

(g+^- ^
.

^T Now we

have sm

a=

cos a cos b cos a tang a

sin 5 sin
,
.

^ *

R~"^ ^^

^^^

^=

cos & tang b

substitute these values, dividing all the we shall have

terms by cos a cos b

tang(a+ft)^ y7"+;^g^) R^ tang fl tang 6

which is the value of the tangent of the sum of two arcs, expressed by the tangents of each of these arcs. For the tangent of their difference, we should in like manner find R^ (tanff a tang b) ^ ; tang (a--i)= o V / R2+tang a tang b. Suppose 6=a ; for the duplication of the arcs, we shall have the formula 2 R2 tang a

^^\

tang2a=j^,_^^^g,^:
Suppose b=2a; for mula
their triplication,

we

shall

have the

for-

tang3a= gMta"g+tang2)
R^
in

tang
WS

a tang 2 a

which, substituting the value of tang 2 a, we shall have 3R^ tang a tang ^a o _= tang 3 a= --^ ^ tang ^a.

XXVI. Scholium. The radius being entirely arbitrary, is generally taken equal to 1, in which case it does not appear in For example the expression for the trigonometrical formulas. the tangent of twice an arc when R=l, becomes,
n tang 2
If

a=

2 tang a
1

tang^

s__
a-

we have an analytical formula calculated to the radius of 1 and wish to apply it to another circle in which the radius is R, we must multiply each term by such a power of as will make all the terms homogeneous: that is, so that each shall contain tlie

same number of literal

factors.

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.

229

CONSTRUCTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE TABLES.


XXVII. If the radius of a circle is taken equal to 1, and the lengths of the lines representing the sines, cosines, tangents, cotangents, &c. for every minute of the quadrant be calculated, and written in a table, this would be a table of natural sines,
cosines, i&c.

XXVIII. If such a table were known, it would be easy to calculate a table of sines, &c. to any other radius ; since, in ditferent circles, the sines, cosines, &c. of arcs containing the same number of degrees, are to each other as their radii.

XXIX.
method of sines, &c.

If the trigonometrical lines themselves


in the calculations, to

were used,

it

would be necessary,

perform the opera-

division. To avoid so tedious a use the logarithms of the sines, co; so that the tables in common use show the values of the logarithms of the sines, cosines, tangents, cotangents, <&c for each degree and minute of the quadrant, calculated to a given radius. This radius is 10,000,000,000, and consequently

tions of multiplication

and

calculation,

we

its

logarithm

is

10.

XXX. Let us glance for a moment at one of the methods of calculating a table of natural sines. The radius of a circle being 1 the semi-circumference is known This being divided successively, by to be 3.14159265358979. 180 and 60, or at once by 10800, gives .0002908882086657, Of so small an arc the sine, chord, for the arc of 1 minute. and arc, differ almost imperceptibly from the ratio of equality so that the first ten of the preceding figures, that is, .0002908882 may be regarded as the sine of 1' and in fact the sine given the tables which run to seven places of figures is .0002909. By Art. XVI. we have for any arc, cos= >/(l sin^). This theorem gives, in the present case, cos 1' 9999999577. Then
,

by

Art.

XXII.

we shall have 2 cos I'xsin I'sin 0' = sin 2 cos I'xsin 2' sin l'=sin 2 cos I'xsin 3'sin 2' = sin 2 cos 1' X sin 4' sin 3' sin 2 cos I'xsin 5' sin 4'=sin

2'
3'

==.00058 17764

4'

= .0008726646 = .00 11635526 5' = .0014544407 6' = .00 17453284


to

&c. &;c. Thus may the work be continued


difficulty consisting in
sult

&c. any extent, the whole the multiplication of each successive re-

by

the quantity 2 cos 1'=- 1.9999999154.

230

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
'

Or, the sines of 1 and 2' being determined, the work might be continued thus (Art. XXI.) sin r sin 2' sin 1' sin 2' + sin T sin 3 sin 2' sin 3' sin 1' sin 3' + sin 1' sin 4
:
:

sin 3'
sin 4'

sin 4' sin 5'

sin

sin 1'

+ sin T :: sin 5' + sin 1'


:

sin 4'

sin 5' sin 6'

&c.

&c.

&c.

In hke manner, the computer might proceed for the sines of degrees, &c. thus
sin 1 sin 2
:

sin

2--sm

sin 2

sin 3

sin 3--sin 1 ;: sin 3 sin sin 1 : : sin 4

+ sin 1 + sin 1 + sin 1

sin 3 sin 4

sin b^

&c.

(fee.

&c.

the process may be considerably simplified by the theorem for the tangents of the sums and differences of arcs. For, when the radius is unity, the tangent of 45 is also unity, and tan (a-\-b) will be denoted thus
:

Above 45

tan (4:5-{b)=i ^
^

/A^o

i.\

+ tan b tan 6
1
1

-.

And
The
sines.

this,

again,

may be

still

secants and cosecants

may

further simplified in practice. be found from the cosines and

TABLE OF LOGARITHMS.

XXXI. If the logarithms of all the numbers between 1 and any given number, be calculated and arranged in a tabular form, The table annexed such table is called a table of logarithms. shows the logarithms of all numbers between 1 and 10,000. The first column, on the left of each page of the table, is the column of numbers, and is designated by the letter N the decimal part of the logarithms of these numbers is placed directly opposite them, and on the same horizontal hne. The characteristic of the logarithm, or the part which stands to the left of the decimal point, is always known, being 1 less than the places of integer figures in the given number, and there;

fore

it is

not written

in the table

of logarithms.

numbers between 1 and 10. bers between 10 and 100 it 2, &c.

the characteristic
is 1,

Thus, for all 0: for numbetween 100 and 1000 it is


is

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
PROBLEM.
To find from
the table the logarithm

231

of any number.

CASE
Wlien
the

I.

number

is less

than 100.

Look on tlie first page of the table of logarithms, along the columns of numbers under N, until the number is found the
;

number

directly opposite

it,

in the

column designated Log.,

is

the logarithm sought.

CASE
Wfien
the

II.

number

is

greater than 100,

and

less

than 10,000.

Find, in the column of numbers, tlie three first figures of the Then, pass across the page, in a horizontal line, into the columns marked 0, 1,2, 3, 4, &c., until you come to the column which is designated by the fourth figure of the given number : to the four figures so found, two figures taken from the column marked 0, are to be prefixed. If the four figures found, stand opposite to a row of six figures in the column marked 0, the two figures from this column, which are to be prefixed to the four before found, are the first two on the left hand ; but, if the four figures stand opposite a line of only four figures, you are then to ascend the column, till you come to the line of six figures : the two figures at tlie left hand are to be prefixed, and then the decimal part of the logarithm is obtained. To this, the characteristic of the logarithm is to be prefixed, which is always one less than the places of integer figures in the given number. Thus, the logarithm of 1 122 is 3.049993. In several of the columns, designated 0, 1,2, 3, &c., small dots are found. Where this occurs, a cipher must be written for each of these dots, and the two figiires which are to be prefixed, from the first column, are then found in the horizontal line directly below. Thus, the log. of 2 188 is 3.340047, the two dots being changed into two ciphers, and the 34 from the column 0, prefixed. The two figures from the colum 0, must also be taken from the line below, if any dots shall have been passed over, in passing along the horizontal line : thus, the logarithm of 3098 is 3.491081, the 49 from the column being taken from the line 310.

given number.

*232

PLANE TRlGONOxMETRl.
CASE
III.

When

the

number exceeds 10,000, or

consists of Jive or

more

places offigures.
the figures after the fourth from the left hand, Find, from the table, the logarithm of the first four places, and prefix a characteristic which shall be one less than the number of places including the ciphers. Take from the last column on the right of the page, marked D,the number on the same horizontal line with the logarithm, and multiply this number by the numbers that have been considered as ciphers then, cut off from the right hand as many places for decimals as there are figures in the multiplier, and add the product, so obtained, to the first logarithm : this sum will be the logarithm sought. Let it be required to fiind the logarithm of 672887. The log. of 672800 is found, on the 1 1th page of the table, to be 5.827886, after prefixing the characteristic 5. The corresponding number in the column is 65, which being multiplied by 87, the figures regarded as ciphers, gives 5655 ; then, pointing off" two places for decimals, the number to be added is 56.55. This number being added to 5.827886, gives 5.827942 for the logarithm of 672887 ; the decimal part .55, being omitted. This method of finding the logarithms of numbers, from the table, supposes that the logarithms are proportional to their respective numbers, which is not rigorously true. In the example, the logarithm of 672800 is 5.827886 ; the logarithm of 672900, a number greater by 100, 5.827951 the difference of the logarithms is 65. Now, as 100, the difference of the numbers, is to 65, the difference of their logarithms, so is 87, the difference between the given number and the least of the numbers used, to the difference of their logarithms, which is 56.55 this difference being added to 5.827886, the logarithm of the less number, gives 5.827942 for the logarithm of 672887. The us^ of the column of diflferences is therefore manifest. When, however, the decimal part which is to be omitted exceeds .5, we come nearer to the true result by increasing the next figure to the left by 1 ; and this will be done in all the Thus, the difference to be added, calculations which follow. was nearer 57 than 56 ; hence it would have been more exact to have added the former number.
all

Consider

as ciphers.

The logarithm of a vulgar fraction is equal to the loga rithm of the numerator minus the logarithm of the denom

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.

2rj:^

inator. The logarithm of a decimal fraction is found, hy considering it as a whole number, and then prefixing to the decimal part of its logarithm a negative characteristic, greater hy unity than the number of ciphers between the decimal point and the first Thus, the logarithm of .0412. is significant place of figures.

2^614897.

PROBLEM.

To find from the table, a number answering

to

a given logarithm,

XXXII Search, in the column of logarithms, for the decimal part of the given logarithm, and if it be exactly found, set down Then, if the characteristic of the the corresponding number. given logarithm be positive, point off, from the left of the numbei found, one place more for v^^hole numbers than there are units in the characteristic of the given logarithm, and treat the other places as decimals ; this will give the number sought. If the characteristic of the given logarithm be 0, there will be one place of whole numbers ; if it be 1, the number will be entirely decimal ; if it be 2, there will be one cipher be-

the logarithm cannot be exacdy found in the table, take the number answering to tlie nearest less logarithm take also from the table the corresponding difference in the column D then, subtract this less logarithm from the given logarithm and having annexed a sufficient number of ciphers to the remainder, divide it by the difference taken from the column D, and annex the quotient to the number answering to the less logarithm this gives the required number, nearly. This rule, like the one for finding the logarithm of a number when the places exceed four, supposes the numbers to be proportional to their corresponding logarithms. Ex. I. Find the number answering to the logarithm 1.532708. Here, The given logarithm, is 1.532708 Next less logarithm of 34,09, is 1.532627
;
:

tween the decimal point and 3, there will be two, &c. 1.492481 is found in page 5, But if the decimal part of

the

first

significant figure

if it

be
is

The number whose logarithm


and
is

31.08.

...
-

Their difference

is

is

.
:

sT

128 hence 128) 81.00 (63 which being annexed to 34,09, gives 34.0963 for the number answering to the logarithm 1.532708.

And

the tabular difference

234

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
2.

Ex,

Required the number answering

to the logarithm

3.233568. The given logarithm is The next less tabular logarithm of 1712,

is

3.233568 3.233504

Diff.=

64

Tab. Diff.=253) 64.00 (25

Hence the number sought is 1712.25, marking four places of integers for the characteristic 3.

TABLE OF LOGARITHMIC

SINES.

XXXIII. In this table are arranged the logarithms of the numerical values of the sines, cosines, tangents, and cotangents, of all the arcs or angles of the quadrant, divided to minutes, and calculated for a radius of 10,000,000,000. The logarithm of this radius is 10. In the first and last horizontal line, of each page, are written the degrees whose logarithmic sines, &lc. are expressed on the page. The vertical columns on the left and right, are columns of minutes.

CASE L
To
find, in the table, the logarithmic sine, cosine, tangent, or co-

tangent of any given arc or angle,


If the angle be less than 45, look in the first horizontal of the different pages, until the number of degrees be tound then descend along the column of minutes, on the left of the page, till you reach the number showing the minutes tiien pass along the horizontal line till you come into the column ciesignated, sine, cosine, tangent, or cotangent, as the case may be the number su indicated, is the logarithm sought. Thus, the sine, cosine, tangent, and cotangent of 19 55', are found on page 37, opposite 55, and are, respectively, 9.532312, 9.973215, 9.559097, 10.440903. 2. If the angle be greater than 45, search along the bottom line of the different pages, till the number of degrees are fourd then ascend along the column of minutes, on the right hand -iide of the page, till you reach the number expressing the minutes ; then pass along the horizontal line into the columns designated tang., cotang., sine, cosine, as the case may be the number so pointed out is the logarithm required.
1.

line

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
It will

235

be seen, that the column designated sine at the top of is designated cosine at the bottom the one designated tang., by cotang., and the one designated cotang., by
the page,
;

tang.

The angle found by taking the degrees at the top of the page, and the minutes from the first vertical column on the left, is the complement of the angle, found by taking the corresponding degrees at the bottom of the page, and the minutes traced up This in the right hand column to the same horizontal line. being apparent, the reason is manifest, why the columns designated sine, cosine, tang., and cotang., when the degrees are pointed out at the top of the page, and the minutes counted downwards, ought to be changed, respectively, into cosine, sine, cotang., and tang., when the degrees are shovra at the bottom of the page, and the minutes counted upwards. If the angle be greater than 90, we have only to subtract it from 180, and take the sine, cosine, tangent, or cotangent of
the remainder. The secants and cosecants are omitted in the table, being easily found from the cosines and sines.

For,
log.
is

sec.

=
cos.

or,

taking the logarithms, log. sec.r=2


;

Rlog.

COS. 20

log. cos.

that

is, ttie

logarithmic secant

found by suhstracting

the logarithmic cosine

from
sine

20.

And

cosec.
sine

=R2

or log. cosec.=2 log.

R log.

=20

log.

; that is, the logarithmic cosecant is found by subtracting tlie logarithmic sine from 20. It has been shown that R'^rrtang. x cotang.; therefore, 2 log. R=log. tang. + log. cotang.; or 20=zlog. tang. -flog, cotang. The column of the table, next to the column of sines, and on the right of it, is designated by the letter D. This column is calculated in the following manner. Opening the table at any page, as 42, the sine of 24 is found to be 9.609313 ; of 24 r, 9.609597 their difference is 284 ; this being divided by
:

number of seconds in a minute, gives 4.73, which is entered in the column D, omitting the decimal point. Now,
60, the

supposing the increase of the logarithmic sine to be proportional to the increase of the arc, and it is nearly so for 60", it follows, that 473 (the last two places being regarded as decimals) is the increase of the sine for 1". Similarly, if the arc be 24 20', the increase of the sine for 1", is 465, the last two places being decimals. The same remarks are equally applicable in respect of the column D, after the column cosine, and of the column D, between the tangents and cotangents. The column between the tangents and cotangents, answers

230

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
columns
;

since of the same arc, the log. Therefore, having two arcs, a and b, log. tang b-\-\og. cotang h^og, tang fl + log. cotang a; or, log. tang z=:log. cotang a log. cotang h. log. tang h Now, if it were required to find the logarithmic sine of an arc expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds, we have only to find the degrees and minutes as before then multiply the corresponding tabular number by the seconds, cut off two places to the right hand for decimals, and then add the product *o the number first found, for the sine of the given arc. Thus, if we wish the sine of 40 26' 28". . The sine 40 26' 9.811952
to either of these
-f

tang.

log. cotangir:20.

Tabular

diflference rr

247
69.16 = = 9.812021.16

Number of seconds r:= 28


Product=:69.16, to beadded
Gives for the sine of 40 26' 28"

is found In regard to the cosine and cotangent, it must be remembered, that they increase while the arcs decrease, and decrease while the arcs are increased, consequently, the proportional numbers found for the seconds must be subtracted, not added.

The tangent of an
manner

arc, in

which there are seconds,

in a

entirely similar.

Ex, To

find the cosine 3 40' 40".

Cosine 3 40' Tabular diflference Number of seconds

9.999110
zr:

m 40

13

Product zr 5.20, which being subtracted


Gives for the cosine of 3 40' 40'

=r

5.20

9.999104.80

CASE
To find
the degrees ^ minutes,

II.

and seconds answering to any given logarithmic sine, cosine, tangent, or cotangent.

Search in the table, and in the proper column, until the number be found the degrees are shown either at the top or bottom of the page, and the minutes in the side columns, either at the left or right. But if the number cannot be exactly found in the table, take the degrees and minutes answering to the nearest less logarithm, the logarithm itself, and also the corresponding tabular difference. Subtract the logarithm taken, from the
;

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
;

237

given logarithm, annex two ciphers, and then divide the remainder by the tabular difference the quotient is seconds, and is to be connected with the degrees and minutes before found ; to be added for the sine and tangent, and subtracted for the cosine and cotangent.

Ex.

1.

To

find the arc


20',

Sine 49^

answering to the sine next less in the table,

9.880054 9.879963
181)9100(50"

Tab.

Diff.

Hence
9.880054.

the arc 49 20' 50" corresponds to the given sine

Ex,

2.

To

find the arc


26',

corresponding to cotang. 10.008688.


next less in the table

Cotang 44

10.008591

Tab.

Diflf.

421)9700(23"

Hence, 44
to

23" =44 25' 37" the given cotangent 10.008688.


26'

is

the arc corresponding

PRINCIPLES FOR

THE SOLUTION OF RECTILINEAL


ANGLES.

Till

THEOREM

I.

In etary right angled triangle, radius is to the sine of either of the acute angles, as the hypothenuse to the opposite side : and radius is to the cosine of either of the acute angles, as the hypothenuse to the adjacent side.

Let be the proposed triangle, right-angled at : from the point C as a centre, with a

ABC

radius equal to the radius of the tables, describe the arc DE, which will measure the angle C ;

CD

on

CD

let fall

the perpendicular

EF, which will be the sine of the angle C, and CF will be its cosine.

The

triangles

CBA, CEF,
:

are similar, and give the pro:

portion,

CE R

EF

sinC

CB BC

BA
BA.

hence

238
But

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
we
also have,

CE R
Cor,

cos

CF C

: :

CB CA CB CA.
: :

hence

If the radius

R=l, we
sin

shall

have,

AB=CB
Hence,
to the

C, and

CA=CB

cos C.

in every right angled triangle, the perpendicular is equal hypothenuse multiplied by the sine of the angle at the base ; and the base is equal to the hypothenuse multiplied by the cosine of the angle at the base ; the radius being equal to unity.

THEOREM

II.

In every right angled triangle, radius


posite.

is to the

tangent of ei-

ther of the acute angles, as the side adjacent to the side op-

Let
angle.

CAB be the

proposed

tri-

With any radius, as CD, describe the arc DE, and draw the
tangent

DG. From the similar triangles CDG, CAB, we shall have,

CD :DG::CA:AB: hence, R tang C CA AB.


: :
: :

Cor,

I,

If the radius

R=l,
angled triangle
is

AB=CAtangC.
Hence,
the perpendicular of a right

equal

to

the base multiplied by the tangent of the angle at the base, the radius being unity.

Cor,

2.

of

its

complement

stituted in

Since the tangent of an arc is equal to the cotangent (Art. VI.), the cotangent of B may be subthe proportion for tang C, which will give

cot

CA

AB.

THEOREM

III.

In every rectilineal triangle, the sines of the angles are to each other 05 the opposite sides.

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
Let

239

ABC

be the proposed triangle

AD
A

A
\
j^

the perpendicular, let fall from the vertex there may be two : on the opposite side

BC

cases.
First,

the triangle

If the perpendicular falls within -n ABC, the right-angled triangles


will give,

ABD, ACD,

R R
In these

sin
sin

B C

: :

AB AD. AC AD.
:

two

propositions, the extremes are equal


sin

hence,

sin

AB

AC.

Secondly, If the perpendicular falls j^ without the triangle ABC, the rightangled triangles ABD, ACD, will still give the proportions,

from

R sin ABD AB AD, ::AC:AD; R:sinC which we derive


:

sin

C
is

sin

ABD
still

AB AC.
:

But the angle


sin

ABD
;

the supplement of

ABC,

or

hence

ABD=sin B

hence
sin

we
:

have
:

sin

AB AC.
:

THEOREM

IV.

In every rectilineal triangle^ the cosine of either of the angles is equal to radius multiplied by the sum of the squares of the sides adjacent to the angle, minus the square of the side opposite, divided by twice the rectangle of the adjacent sides.

Let

ABC

be a triangle

then will

I
the triangle,
.

^ AB2+BC2~AC2 cosB=R ,ABxBC.


First If the perpendicular falls within we shall have AC^=AB^+ _ BC22BCxBD(Book IV. Prop. XII.); ^^, ABHBC^AC^ T, , ^ ^ ^ , hence lil>= But m the right-angled triangle rrrr?^

B
.

2BC

ABD, we have

cos

AB BD
:

Ji4(j

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY

hence, cos

B= ^-5
cos

or by substituting the value of

BD,

B=R X

AB2+BC2-~AC2

2ABxBC

Secondly, If the perpendicular falls without the triangle, we shall have

AC2=::ABHBCH2BCxBD; AC2AB2BC2 ^^= 2BC


But
in the right-angled triangle
still

hence

'

BAD,
;

we

RxBD have cos ABD=xp


ABC,
or B,

D B
ABD

C
being

and the angle

supplemental to
cos

we

have

^ B=

,^^ cos ABD=

RxBD
^t^ AB
.

hence by substituting the value of BD,

we shall ^ AB2-I-BC2AC^ cosB=Rx

again have

^^g^g^

Scholium,

a, 6, c, the sides respectively opposite

Let A, B, C, be the three angles of any triangle them by the theorenri,


, :

we

shall

have cos

B=R x
^I

And

the

same

principle,

when

applied to each of the other

two

angles, will, in like

ner give cos

A=R x

>

^^^ ^^^

C=R x


-^-r

msn-

Either of these formulas


the computation

may readily be reduced to one can be made by logarithms.

in whi-^'h

Recurring to the formula R^ R cos A=2sin^ ^A (Art. XXIIL), or 2sin^^A=R^ RcosA, and substituting for cosA,

we

shall

have

==

2bc

^
2bc

2bc

R^x

-j^^^Wx 2bc

(.''+b-c){a+c-b)^

^^^^^

,iniA=nv(^t:y^=^).
For the sake of brevity, pat

+ + c)=p, or a-[-c b=2p 2b


i (a
fc

a-\-b

+ c=2p; we

have

a+b

c=^2p

Sic,

hence

sm

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
THEOREM

241

V.

[n every rectilineal triangle, the sum of two sides is to their difference as the tangent of half the sum of the angles opposite those sides J to the tangent of half their difference.

For,

AB BC
;
:

sin

sin
:

rem
:

III.).

Hence,
sin

AB + BC AB BC
C

(Theo-

sin

C + sin A
:

sin
: :

A.
tang

But

sinC + sin

A ^ Q
;

sin

sin

-
:

tang

-^ (Art. XXIV.)
ABBC
:
:

hence,

AB + BC

tang

^-^

tang

^^,
<^

which

is

the property we had to demonstrate. With the aid of these five theorems

we

can solve

all

the

cases of rectilineal trigonometry.

the

Scholium. The required part should always he found from given parts ; so that if an error is made in any part of the work, it may not affect the correctness of that which follows.

SOLUTION OF RECTILINEAL TRIANGLES BY MEANS OF LOGARITHMS.


has already been remarked, that in order to abridge the which are necessary to find the unknown parts of a triangle, we use the logarithms of the parts instead of the parts themselves. Since the addition of logarithms answers to the multiplication of their corresponding numbers, and their subtraction to it follows, that the logarithm of the division of their numbers the fourth term of a proportion will be equal to the sum of the logarithms of the second and third terms, diminished by the logarithm of the first term. Instead, however, of subtracting the logarithm of the first term from the sum of the logarithms of the second and third terms, it is more convenient to use the arithmetical complement of the first term. The arithmetical complement of a logarithm is the number which remains after subtracting the logarithm from 10. Thus 109.274687 0.725313: hence, 0.725313 is the arithmetical complement of 9.274687.
It
;

calculations


242

PLANE TRIGONOxMETRY,

It is now to be shown that, the difference between two logarithms is truly found, by adding to the first logarithm the arithmetical complement of the logarithm to be subtracted, and diminishing their sum by 10.

Let

a
b

= the logarithm. = the logarithm to be subtracted. b=the arithmetical complement of c = 10


first

6.

Now,
c

the difference

expressed by a

10=

b.

between the two logarithms will be But from the equation c=10 6, we have

hence

if

we
a

substitute for
10,

its

value

we

shall

have

b==ai-c

which agrees with the enunciation.


arithmetical complement of a logaritnm, from the tables, by subtracting the left hand figure from 9, then proceeding to the right, subtract each figure from 9, till we reach the last significant figure, which must be taken from 10 : this will be the same as taking tho

When we

wish
it

tlie

we may

write

directly

logarithm from 10.


r.

From 3.274107

take 2.104729.

Common

method.

By ar.-comp.
ar.-comp
.

3.274107 2.104729
Diff.

3.274107 7.895271
after
re-

1.169378
all

sum 1.169378

jecting the 10. therefore have, for the following

We

the proportions of trigonometry

RULE.

Add

together the arithmetical complement of the logarithm of the

the first term, the logarithm of the second term, and the logarithm of the third term, and their sum after rejecting 10, will

And if any expression be the loganthm of the fourth term. occurs in which the arithmetical complement is twice used, 20
must be rejected from the sum.

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.

243

SOLUTION OF RIGHT ANGLED TRIANGLES.

A be the right angle of the proposed angled triangle, B and C the other two angles; let a be the hypothenuse, h the side opposite the angle B, c the side opposite the angle C. Here we must consider that the ^ ^ c" two angles C and B are complements of each other ; and that consequently, according to the different cases, we are entitled to assume sin C=cos B, sin B=cos C, and likewise tang This being fixed, the unknown parts cot C, tang C=cot B. of a right angled triangle may be found by the first two theorems ; or if two of the sides are given, by means of the property, that the square of the hypothenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.
Let
right

B=

EXAMPLES.
Ex, L In the right angled triangle BCA, there are given the hypothenuse a=250, and the side 6=240 ; required the other
parts.

R
or,
(z

: :

sin

B
:

a
:

(Theorem

I.),

sin B.

When logarithms are used, proportion thus,


As hyp. a
-

it is

most convenient
log.
-

tcyj^rite the

^^

To
So

side 6
is

250 240

ar.-comp.

R
B
-

7.602060 2.380211 10.000000


9.982271
15'

To
)r,

sin

73 44' 23" (after rejecting 10)

But the angle C=90B=90 73 44' C might be found by the proportion.

23"= 16
-

37"

As hyp. a

To
So

side 6
is

250 240

ar.-comp.

log.

R
C
-

7.002060 2.380211 10.000000


9.98227 1

To

cos

16 15' 37"

To
As

find the side


ar.

c,

we
log.

say,
-

R
side

comp.
-

To
So

16 15' 37" tang. is side 6 240


c 70.0003

0.000000 9.464880 2.380 211


1.845100

To

214

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
the side c might be found from the equation

Or
For,

c2=a2_fe*= (a + b)x (ab)


2
log.

hence,

c=log.

(a +6)

+ log.

{a

6),

or

log.

c=^log. (a-{-b)+^]og, {al)


log.
-

a + 6=250 + 240=490

2.690196
1.000000
2) 3.690196

a6=250240=10
Log. c

70
In the right angled triangle and the angle B=53

1.845098

Ex.
parts.

2.

BCA,
8'
:

side 6=384 yards,

there are given, required the othei

To

find the third side

c.

R
or

tang
:

: :

:
:

tangB

(Theorem c. Hence,
log.

II.)

As tang
Is to

53

8'

ar.-comp.

R
side 6

So is To side
Note,
is

384
-

9.875010 10.000000 2.584331

c 287.965

"2^59341

When the logarithm whose arithmetical complement be used, exceeds 10, take the arithmetical complement with reference to 20 and reject 20 from the sum.
to

To

find the

hypothenuse
a
:

a,
I.).

R
As
So
sin

sin
8'

(Theorem
log.

Hence,
0.096892 10.000000 2.584331 2.681223
are given,

53

ar.

comp.
-

Is to
is

R
side 6

384

To
Ex.
3.

hyp.

a 479.98

In the right angled triangle


side

c=195, angle

BAG, there B=47 55',

required the other parts.


^715.

Angle

C=42

05',

fl=290.953, 6=215.937.

SOLUTION OF RECTILINEAL TRIANGLES IN GENERAL.


be the three angles of a proposed rectilineal tri the sides which are respectively opposite them ; tVie different problems which may occur in determining three of lliese quantities by means of the other three, will all be reducible to the four followinp- cases.
angle
;

Let A, B,

a, 6, c,

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
CASE
Criven
I.

245

a side and two angles of a

triangle, to find the

remaining

parts.

sum of the two angles from two right anremainder will be the third angle. The remaining sides can then be found by Theorem III.
First, subtract the
gles, the
I.

In the triangle

ABC, there

are given the angle

A =58

07',
tlie

the angle

and the side c=408 yards: required remaining angle and the two other sides.
37',

B=22

To the angle A Add the angle B


Their sum taken from 180 leaves the angle
This angle being greater than 90 that of its supplement 80 44'.

C
its

=58 07' =22 ST =80 44' =99 16'.

sine

is

found by taking

To
As
sine

find the side a.

Is to sine

99 16' 58 07'

ar.-comp.
-

log.
.
-

So So

is

side c

408
351.024
-

0.005705 9.928972 2.610660

side

2.545337

To
As
So
sine

find the side

6.

C
B

Is to sine
is

99 16' 22 37'

ar.-comp.
. -

log.
-

side c

408
158.976
-

0.005705 9.584968 2.6106 60


2.201333"

To
2.

side b

In a triangle
42',

ABC,

B=57
parts.

and the

side

38 25' there are given the angle c=400 : required the remaining

A-

Ans, Angle

C=83

53', side

a=249.974, side 6=340.04.

CASE

11.

Gtven two sides of a triangle, and an angle opposite one of to find the third side and the two remaining angles.

thent,

246

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
AC = A

1. In the triangle ABC, there 21 6, BC are given side =22 37', 117, and the angle

remaining parts. Describe the triangles ACB, ACB; as in Prob. XI. Book III. Then find the angle B byto find the

Theorem
As
side
is

III.

Is to

B'C or BC 117 side AC 216


sine

ar.-comp.

log.

So

22 37' 45
1 3'

7.931814 2.334454 9.584968


9.85123C>

To sine B' Add to each

55" or

ABC 1 34 46' 05"


22^ 37' 00' ^

Take their sum From Rem. ACB' 112

22 37' 00 " 67 50' 55" 180 00^ 00"


09' 05"

157 23' 05" 180 00' 00"

ACB=22 36' 55"

To
As
sine

find the side

AB
-

or AB'.
log.

22 37'

ar.-comp.

Istosine ACB' 11209'05" So is side B'C 117 To side AB' 281.785

0.415032 9.966700 2.068186

2.449918

The ambiguity in this, and similar examples, arises in consequence of the first proportion being true for both the triangles

ACB, ACB'. As long as the two triangles exist, the ambiguity will continue. But if the side CB, opposite the given angle, be greater than AC, the arc BB' will cut the line ABB' on the same side of the point A, but in one point, and then there will be but one triangle answering the conditions. If the side CB be equal to the perpendicular Cd, the arc BB' will be tangent to ABB', and in this case also, there will
be but one triangle. When CB is less than the perpendicular Cd, the arc BB' will not intersect the base ABB', and in that case there will be no triangle, or the conditions are impossible.

2. Given two sides of a triangle 50 and 40 respectively, and the angle opposite the latter equal to 32 : required the remaining parts of tiie triangle.

Ans. If the angle opposite the side 50 be acute, it is equal 41 28' 59", the third angle is then equal to 106 31' 01", and the third side to 72.368. If the angle opprsite the side 50 be obtuse, it is equal to 138 31' 01", the third angle to 9 28' 59 ',
to

and the remaining side

to 12.436.

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
CASE
III.

247

Given two sides of a triangle, with their included angle, the third side and the two remaining angles.

to find

Let
angle,

ABC

be a triangle,

the given

and c and a the given sides. Know^ing the angle B, v^^e shall like-

wise
gles

know

the

sum of the other two

an-

C + A=i80 B, and their half sum (C + A)=90-4B. We shall next

A
:

_^___
h

'C

compute the half difference of these two angles by the proportion (Theorem V.),
tang \ (C + A) or cot J B tang \ (C ^A,) c>a and consequently C>A. Having found the half difference, by adding it to the half sum ^ (C + A), we shall have the greater angle C and by subtracting it from the half-sum, we shall have the smaller angle A. For, C and A being any two quantities, we have always,

c+a

in

which we consider

A:=J(C + A)-4(CA).
Knowing
the angles

C=i(C + A)+J(CA)
C
and

A
:

to find the third side 6,

we

have

the proportion.
sin

sin

6
in-

In the triangle ABC, let a =450, c=:540, and the cluded angle B=z: 80 required the remaining parts.

Ex,

\,

+ a=990,ca=90,

180- B=100==C + A.
log.

990 ar.-comp. 90 Is toea So is tang ^ (C + A) 60 To tang \ (CA) 6 11'

Asc + a

7.004365 1.954243 10.076187

9.034795
49'

Hence, 50 + 6 ll'=56 ll'=C; and

506 ir=43

=A.
To
As
So
sine
is

find the third side b.

A
B
a

43 49'
80

ar.-comp.

log.

Is to sine

side

450

...
-

0.159672 9.993351 2.653213

To

side h
2.

640.082

2.806236

sides of a plane triangle, 1686 and 960, Ex, and their included angle 128 04': required the other parts.

Given two

^715. Angles,

33 34' 39

",

18 21' 21" side

2400


248

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
CASE
Given
IV

the three sides of a triangle^ to find the angles.

We have

from Theorem IV. the formula,

sin

A=R^(l^(^
sum of the
or

i^hich

represents the half

three sides.

Hence

si'iA=R=((^=:^i^),
2
log. sin

JA=2

log.

R+log. (p

ft)

+ log.

{p

c)

log. e

log. b.

Ex. 1. In a triangle required the angles.

ABC,

let

b=40y c=34, and a=25:

Here p=
2 Log.
log.

=49.5, p
9.5 15.5

5=9.5, and p c=
-

5.5.

R
34 40
ar.-comp. ar.-comp.

log.

ip^b) Ipc)
b
sin

log. c

log. 2 log.
log.

20.000000 0.977724 1.190332 8.468521 8.397940


19.034517

J A sin J A 19

12'

39"

9-517258

Angle
the angle

A=38

25' 18".

In a similar manner

Ex.
are,

2.

we find the angle B=83 53' 18" and C=57 41' 24". What are the angles of a plane triangle whose sides
Ans. 41 24' 34", 55 46' 16" and 82 49'
10''.

a=60, 6=50, and c=40?

APPLICATIONS.

Suppose the height of a building


foot of
it

AB

were required,

the

being accessible.

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
On
the

249

ground which

we

suppose to be horizontal or very nearly so, measure a base AD, neither very great nor very small in comparison with the altitude AB then at D place the foot of the circle, or whatever be the instrument, with
;

angle

zontal line

B CE parallel to AD, A. and by the visual ray direct it to the summit of the building. Suppose we find AD or CE 67.84 yards, and the angle
BCE=41o
04'
:

which we are to measure the BCE formed by the hori-

in

order to find BE,

we

shall

the right angled triangle BCE, in adjacent side are known.

which the angle

have to solve C and the

CE
-

To

find the side


-

EB
-

AsR

ar.-comp.

Is to tang.

So is EC ToEB

41 04' 67.84
59.111

0.000000 9.940183 1.831486


1.771669

Hence, EB=59.111 yards. To EB add the height of the instrument, which we will suppose to be 1.12 yards, we shall khen have the required height AB=60.231 yards. If, in the same triangle it were required to find the hypothenuse, form the proportion log. 0.122660 As cos C 41 04' ar.-comp.

BCE

IstoR

CE To CB
So
is

67.84
89.98

10.000000 1.831486
1.954146

Note, If only the summit B of the building or place whose height is required were visible, we should determine the distance by the method shown in the follovying example are sufficient for solvthis distance and the given angle mg the right angled triangle BCE, whose side, increased by the height of the instrument, will be the height required.

CE

BCE

"

250
2.

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
To find upon the ground

the distance of the point from an inaccessible object

^ ^^^^yl^

B,

we must measure
the

a base

AD, and

two adjacent
Sup-

angles BAD, ADB. pose we have found 588.45 yards,


55'

^
^===^..=^^^-^=--^y^^^^^-,

BAD = 103 ^^l^^^XrZ ^>-^/ 55",andBDA = 36^04';


get the third

AD==

we shall thence
angle obtain AB, proportion

ABD = 40 05'; and to


we
shall

form the

J>y-^
-

^I>

ABD 40 05" BDA 36 04' So is AD 588.45 To AB 538.943


As
sine
Is to sin
-

ar.-comp.

log.

0.191920 9.769913 2.769710 "27731543

If for another inaccessible object C,


gles

CAD=35

15',

find the distance

AC= 1201.744 yards.


;

ADC = 119

32',

we have found the anwe shall in like manner

3. To between two inaccessible objects B and C, we determine AB and AC as in the last example we shall, at the same time, have the included angle BAG =: BAD DAC. Suppose AB has been found equal to 538.818 yards, AC = 1201.744 yards, and the angle BAC = 68 40' 55"; to get BC, we must resolve the triangle BAG, in which are known two sides and the included angle.

find the distance

Is to

AsAG + AB 1740.562 AGAB 662.926


B-4-

ar.-comp.

log.-

6.759311 2.821465

So

is

tang.
r>

^G
r*

55 39' 32"

-10.165449
9.740225

To

tang.

-^29 08'

19"

Hence
But

?=^ =29 08'


have
-

19"

we

- = 55
B =84 C =26

R4- G

39'

32"

Hence
and

47' 51
31' 13"

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
Now,
As
So
sine
Is to sine
is

251

to find the distance

BC make
-

the proportion,
log.
-

A 68^

84 47' 51" ar.-comp. 40' 55'

AC

1201.744

0.001793 9.969218 3.079811

To BC

1124,145

3.050822

4. Wanting to know the distance between two inaccessible objects which lie in a direct line from the bottom of a tower of 120 feet in height, the angles of depression are measured, and found to be, of the nearest, 57 ; of the most remote, 25 30' required the distance between them.
:

Ans. 173.656

feet.

and In order to find the distance between two trees, B, which could not be directly measured because of a pool which occupied the intermediate space, the distance of a third point C from each, was measured, viz. CA=588 feet and CB =672 feet, and also the contained angle ACB=55 40'; required the distance AB.
5.

Ans. 592.967 feet. Being on a horizontal plane, and wanting to ascertain ^he height of a tower, standing on the top of an inaccessible hill, there were measured, the angle of elevation of the top ol then measuring the hill 40"^, and of the top of tlie tower 51 m a direct line 180 feet farther from the hill, the angle of elevation of the top of the tower was 33 45' required the height
^.
:
:

of the tower.

Ans. 83.9983
7.

feet.

the horizontal distance between two maccessible objects and B, and not finding any station from which both of them could be seen, two points C and D, were chosen, at a distance from each other equal to 200 yards, from the former of which could be seen, and from the latter B, and at each of the points C and a staff was set up. From C a distance CF was measured, not in the direction DC, equal so 200 yards, and from D, a distance equal to 200 yards, and the following angles were taken, viz. AFC=83 54 31', ACD=53" 30 , BDC=156^ 25', BDE=54 30', and
to

Wanting

know

DE

ACF=

BED =88
8.

30'

required the distance

AB.
Ans. 345.46 yards.

there can be seen three objects. A, B and C, whose distances from each other are known, viz. 800, 600, and BC 400 yards. There are also measured the horizontal angles, A?C=33 45', BPC=22 30'. It is required, from these data, to determine the three distances PA,
station

From a

AC =

AB=

PC and PB.
Ans. PA=710.193,

PC = 1042.522, PB=934.291

yards.

252

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
I. It has already been shown that a spherical triangle is formed by the arcs of three great circles intersecting each other on the surface of a sphere, (Book IX. Def. 1). Hence, every the sides and three angles. spherical triangle has six parts Spherical Trigonometry explains the methods of determining, by calculation, the unknown sides and angles of a spherical triangle when any three of the six parts are given. II. Any two parts of a spherical triangle are said to be of the same species when they are both less or both greater than 90 and they are of different species when one is less and the
:

other greater than 90.

HI. Let

triangle, and

ABC be a spherical O the centre of the

A^
7I^^^^^'\

sphere. Let the sides of the triangle be designated by letters

/
/
|

|.\

^\,^^^

|\

^^"\^
'
!

cori-esponding to their opposite i| \ ^ cT'^T^t^^ angles that is, the side opposite [ j ;fa\ the angle by , the side oppo^y \ _ !J^ \-i-j-' \ \ site B by h^ and the side opposite " l^ C by c. Then the angle \ "^^'t^ will be represented by , the an>^^^ gle by h and the angle ^ by c. The angles of the spherical triangle will be equal to the angles included between the planes which determirue its sides (Book IX. Prop. VI.).
:

i^ ^

COB

CO A BOA

\ ^\

'\

y^

From any
to the plane

point A, of the edge

COB.

From

perpendicular to ; be respectively perpendicular to OB and OC, (Book VI. Prop. VI.) will be equal to the angle B of the spheriThe angle to the angle C. cal triangle, and the angle The two right angled triangles OKA, ADK, will give the proportions
:

and

DK

OA, draw AD perpendicular D draw DH perpendicular to OB, OC and draw AH and AK the

last lines will

DHA

DKA

AOK OA AK, or, R x AK= OA sin AKD AK AD, or, R x ADirr AK sin C. Hence, R^* x AD=AO sin h sin C, by substituting for AK
R R
:

sin

h.

sin

: :

its

value taken from the

first

equation.

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
In like

253

manner
sin c
sin

the Jriangles

AHO, ADH,

right angled at

and D, give

R R
Hence,

AO AH,
:

or

R x AH=AO

sin c
sin B.

AH AD, or Rx AD=AH R^ x AD= AO sin c sin B.


:

Equating
viding

this

with the value of R^ x


sin

AD, before found, and


sin c

di-

by AO, we have
.

8in6sinC=sincsinB,or^-j^=^j^
or,

(1)
is,

sin

sin

; :

sin b

sin c that

7%e sines of

the angles of a spherical triangle are to each other as the sines of their opposite sides,

IV.

From

K draw KE perpendicular to OB, and from D draw


OB.

DF

parallel to
is

Then

will the

angle

pKF=COB=a,

since each

the

complement of the angle

EKO.

In the right angled triangle


:
: :
:

OAH, we
;

have

R cos c OA OH hence AOcosc=RxOH=RxOE + R.F. In the right-angled triangle OKE R cos a OK OE, or Rx OE:=OK cos a. But in the right angled triangle OKA R cos 6 OA OK, or, R x OK=OA cos h.
: : : : :
: : :

tr Hence

R x r^n = O A. OE
r
/-. A
:

C^S a COS h

Id the right-angled triangle

KFD
R x DF=KD
sin a.

sm a
sin 6

KD
:

DF, or

But in the right angled triangles

OAK, ADK, we

have

R R
,

OA

cos

K AK
:

AK, KD,

Rx AK=OA sin h or Rx KD==AK cos C


or

hence

^,^ KD= OA
sin

sin b

cos

_^ RxDF= 0\
_
.

^
C

C
,
,

and

a sin 5 cos

g2
cos a cos b

therefore
sin

^ OA

cos

c=

OA

AO

sin b cos

C
,

^2

or

R^ cos

c R

cos a cos i/+sin a sin b cos C.


254

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
may
be deduced for each of the cthe^

Similar equations
sides.

Hence, generally,

R2 cos R2 cos R" cos

a=R cos b cos c+sin b sin c cos 6=R cos a cos c+sin a sin c cos c=R cos b cos a + sin b sin a cos

A.
B. C.

)
>

(2.)

That is, radius square

into the cosine of either side of a spheri-

cal triangle is equal to radius into the rectangle of the cosines of the two other sides plus the rectangle of the sines of those sides
into the cosine of their included angle.

the formulas designated (2) involves the three one of the angles. These formulas are used to determine the angles when the three sides are known. It is necessary, however, to put them under another form to adapt them to logarithmic computation.
sides of the triangle together w^ith

V.

Each of

Taking the

first

equation,
.

we
:

have

cos

cos A= R^ cos aRsm c b cos c rsm

Adding

R to

each member,
fl^ cos

we

have

R+cos
But,

A=

a + R sin b sin c

R cos b cos
and

sin b sin c

R+cos

A=
n

2 cos

^-^-

''^iA

(Art. XXIII.),

sin b sin c

R cos
R

b cos

c=
(cos

^R^

cos (b+c) (Art. XIX.)


(6

2cos2JA_R2
neuce,

gcos
i.

+ c)) _

sm

sm

2
Putting

R ""^

^'^+'t'^>

sm

""^ ('+'^-") sm c
have

(Art. XXIII). ^

5=a+6+c, we

shall

^5=i(a + 6+c) and isa=i (6+c

a)

hence

^'

co8^A=.Rx/^A HOsin(^^-g) ^ sin b sin c


.

cos ^

/sin I B-Rv/"^"^
,-

-r*

(^^''" ^^^~^'^
.

sin
(

s.in

>

(3.)

/aiii ^

sin

sc)

C
2^^

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.

Had we subtracted each member of the first equation from R, instead of adding, we should, by making similar reductions,
^ave found
^ JA=RV/
sin

^{a + b

sm

c) sin

j^

(a

+c

b)

sin h sin n

sm ^1> =
sm

KV/

sin

^{a + b

c) sin

(6 -f c

a)

sin

a sin c

!^(4.)

,^_^^y^sin^{a^cb)sm^(b-{-c-^
sin

a sin

/>

Putting 5
^s

= a + 6 4- c, we
a),

shall

have
^s

tf

= J(6 + c

Js

= J (a + c6), and
s'"

c=^{a +
b

ci

hence,

sin

^A=R^

g^-^)

si"

(^^-^)

sin 6 sin c

sin

^R=R^

shi

Q^sc) sin (^sa) sm a sm c

MS-)

sin

^C=R^/si" ^

tt^ ^)
sin

s'"

(i^Q)
^

s\n b

may deduce the value of the side of a triangle of the three angles by applying equations (4.), to Thus, if a\ b', c\ A', B', C', represent the the polar triangle. sides and angles of the polar triangle, we shall have
VI.

We

terms

A=180^a', B = 1806', 0=180^a=

-c'

180^A', 6

180 B',

and

c=180

(Book IX. Prop. VII.)


tions

are

: hence, omitting the ', since the equar applicable to any triangle, we shall have

cos

B)" i^.=R^AQs i (A + B-C) cos ^ (A + C sin B sin C

cos i ft=R4^

A i (A + B-C)
sin

cos i (B + C-A)
sin

'>

(o.)

cos i

c=R\/co8 i (A + CB)
sin

cos j (B +

CA)

A sin B.

25
Tutting

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.

S=A + B + C, we

shall

have

JSA=J(C + BA), JSB=^(A + C^B)

and

^S C=i(A4-B C), hence


cos

ia=RvAQs~a^ ^)
sin

^Qs
sin

(JSB)

C
,

cos

ih=R^ A^ (JS-C) cos (jS-A) sin A sin C


/cos(iS~B)cos(iS-A) p sm A sin B
.

p_j

^^ co3ic=RV
VII. If
shall

we

apply equations

(2.)

to the polar triangle,

we

have

W cos A'=R cos B' cos C


Or, omitting the
angle,

sin B' sin

C cos
C C B
\
>

a'.
tri

we have
R^.cos

', since the equation is applicable to any the three symmetrical equations,

R^.cos

R^.cos

A=sin B B=sin A C=sin A

sin sin

sin

C cos a R cos B C cos b-^R cos A B cos c R cos A

cos cos

(8.)

cos

That is, radius square into the cosine of either angle of a spk&* ncal trianghy is equal to the rectangle of the sines of the two other angles into the cosine of their included side, minus radius into the
rectangle of their cosines,

VIII. All *he formulas necessary for the solution of spherimay be deduced from equations marked (2.). If we substitute for cos h in the third equation, its value taken from the second, and substitute for cos^ a its value R^ sin^ , and then divide by the common factor R.sin a, we shall have
cal triangles,

R.cos c
i
.
^.

sin

arrsin c cos a cos B4- R.sin b cos C.


.

But equation

/, X

(1.)

gives sin

sin 6= sin B c sm C
,
:

hence, by substitution,

cos c sin a=sin c cos a cos


c,

s in

f R.

cos
sin

C C

sin c

Dividing by sin

we have
.

cose sin c

sin

a=cos a

cos

]a-\-ii

T)

sin

cos

sinC


SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
But,

257

^=^^ sin R

(Art. XVII.).

Therefore,

cot c sin

a=cos a

cos

B + cot C

sin B.

Hence, we may write the three symmetrical equations,


cot a sin
cot b sin

h=cos c=cos

b cos

c cos

cot c sin

a cos

C + cot A sin C A + cot B sm A cos B + cot C sin B

\
> (9.)

That

is,

in every spherical triangle^ the cotangent of one of the

sides into the sine of a second side, is equal to the cosine of the second side into the cosine of the included angle, plus the cotangent

of the angle opposite the first side into the sine of the included
angle.

IX.

We

J^apier's Analogies^

shall terminate these formulas by demonstrating which serve to simplify several cases in the

solution of spherical triangles. If from the first and third of equations (2.), cos c be eliminated, there will result, after a little reduction,

R
By

cos

A
B

sin

c=R

cos a sin h

cos C

sin

a cos

b.

a simple permutation,

this gives

R
have

cos

sin

c=R

cos b sin a

cos C

sin b cos a.

Hence by adding

these

two equations, and reducing, we


sin (a-\-b)
,

shall

sin c (cos

A+cos B)=(R
sin
-:

But smce
sin c (sin sin c (sin

cos C) 6 7^- = 5, we sm C sm A sm B
c
sin

sin
"=

i,

shall

have
Z>),

A + sin 6)= sin C A sin B)=sin C

(sin

a + sin a

and

(sin

sin b).

Dividing these

two equations successively by

the preceding

one

we

shall

have
sin fl-f-sin b
*

cos

A + sin B _ sin C A + cos B Rcos C sin A sin B_ sin C cosA+cosB~Rcos C


sin

sin (a
sin

+ b)
sin b

sin (a-f 6)*


2ft8

SPHERICAL TRIGOIMOMETRY.
reduci
>g

And

these

by the formulas

Articles XXIII. and

XXIV.,

the e will result

tangJ(AH-B)=cotK.;-^i|=|

tagHA-B)=cotiC.i;-i^.
given, the

Hence, two sides a and h with the included angle C being two other angles A and B may be found by the

analogies,

cos^(a+&)
sin

cos^(a
sin

{a-\-h)

\ {a

h)
h)

cot ^

cot

C JC

tang^(A + B)
tang ^ (A

B).
result,

If these

same analogies are applied

to the polar triangle of

ABC,we shall have tv^put 180^A', 180B', 180a', 180 6',


180

c',

we

shall

instead of a, 6, A, B, C, respectively; and for the have after omitting the ', these two analogies,
:

cos^(A + B)
sinJ(A + B)

cos

^(A

tang J (a h) tangle by means of which, when a side c and the two adjacent angles A and B are given, we are enabled to find the two other sides a and h. These four proportions are known by the name of Napier's Analogies,
:
:
:

sin^(A

B) B)

tangle

tangJ(cf4-6)

X. In the case in which there are given two sides and an angle opposite one of them, there will in general be two solutions corresponding to the two results in Case II. of rectilineal
It is also plain that this ambiguity will extend itself corresponding case of the polar triangle, that is, to the case in which there are given two angles and a side opposite one of them. In every case we shall avoid all false solutions

triangles.

to the

by

recollecting,
1st.

is less

That every angle, and every side of a spherical triangle than 180.
lies

2d. That the greater angle

the least angle opposite the least side,

opposite the greater side, and reciprocally.

and

NAPIER'S CIRCULAR PARTS.


Besides the analogies of Napier already demonstrated, also invented rules for the solution of all the cases of right angled spherical triangles.
'.hat

XL

Geometer

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
In every right angled spherical BAG, there are six parts three sides and three angles. If we omit the consideration of the right angle, which is always known, there will be five remaining parts, two of which must be given before the others can
triangle

'^5J>

be determined.

The circular parts, as they are called, are the two sides c and />, about the right angle, the complements of the oblique angles B and G, and the complement of the hypothenuse a. Hence there are five circular parts. The right angle A not being a circular part, is supposed not to separate the circular parts c and b^ so that these parts are considered as adjacent to each other. If any two parts of the triangle be given, their corresponding circular parts will also be known, and these together with a required part, will make three parts under consideration. Now, these three parts will all lie together, or one of them will be sepaFor example, if B and c were rated from both of the others. given, and a required, the three parts considered would lie
together.

But
lie

if

and
;

would not

together

the part a, and from b middle part. Hence, when there are three of the circular parts under consideration, the middle part is that one of them to winch

G were given, and b required, the parts for, B would be separated from G by by the part c. In either case B is the

both of the others are adjacent, or from which both of them are separated. In the former case the parts are said to be adjacent* and in the latter case the parts are said to be opposite.

This being premised, we are now to prove the following rules for the solution of right angled spherical triangles, which
it

must be remembered apply

to the circular parts, as already

defined.
1st. Radius into the sine of the middle part angle of the tangents of the adjacent pat'ts. is

equal

to the rect-

2d. Radius into the sine of the middle part angle of the cosines of the opposite parts.

is

equal

to the rect-

These
extremes

rules are

lar parts, in succession, as the

proved by assuming each of the five circumiddle part, and by taking the

first opposite, then adjacent. Having thus fixed the three parts which are to be considered, take that one of the general equations for oblique angled triangles, which shall contain the three corresponding parts of the triangle, together with 90^, and after making the reducthe right angle then make tions corresponding to this supposition, the resulting equation
:

A=

will

prove the rule for that particular case.

260

SPHERICAT. TRIGONOMETRY.

For example, let comp. a be the middle part and the extremes opposite. The equation to be applied in this case must contain a, 6, c, and A. The first of equations (2.) contains these four quantities hence
:

R^cosa=Rcosfecosc+sin6sinccos A.
If

A=90'* cos

A=0; hence R cos a=cos h cos c

radius into the sine of the middle part, (which is the is equal to the rectangle of the cosines of liie opposite parts. Suppose now that the complement of a were the middle part and the extremes adjacent. The equation to be applied must contain the four quantities a, B, C, and A. It is the first of equations (8.).
that
is,

complement of a,)

R^ cos A=sin

sin

cos a

R cos B cos C.
or

Making

A =90, we
sin

have
cos

B sin C

a=R cos B cos C,


cot

R cos a=cot B
that
is,

radius into the sine of the middle part is equal to the rectangle of the tangent of the complement of B into the tangent of the complement of C, that is, to the rectangle of the tangents of the adjacent circular parts. Let us now take the comp. B, for the middle part and the extremes opposite. The two other parts under consideration will then be the perpendicular h and the angle C. The equation to be applied must contain the four parts A, B, C, and 6 : it is the second of equations (8.),

Making

R- cos B=:sin A sin C cos hR cos A A = 90, we have, after dividing by R, R cos B=sin C cos 6.

cos

Let comp.
cent.

be

still

The equation
c,

four parts a, B,

the middle part and the extremes adja must then contain the foui and A. It is similar to equations (9.).
to be applied

cot a sin

c=cos
;

cosB + cot A

sin

But

if A = 90, cot A =

hence,

cot a sin crrcos c cos

or

cos

B=cot a tang c.

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
A.nd circular part
is made the middle part, we obtain the lowing equations, which embrace all the cases

26]

by pursuing the same method of demonstration when eacli


five fol-

R cos a=cos b cos c=cot B cot C^ R cos Brzcos b sin C =cot a tang c R cos C=cos c sin B=cot a tang b ^ R sin 6=sin a sinB=tangccotC R sin c=sin asin C=tang6cotB-

i^^-)

We see from these equations that, if the middle part is required we must begin the proportion with radius ; and when one oftJie extremes is required we must begin the proportion with the other
extreme.

of the equations, that when be of the same species, and also that the angles B and C will likewise be of the same species. When a is greater than 90, the sides b and c will be of different species, and the same will be true of the angles B and C. also see from the two last equations that a side and its opposite angle will always be of tlie same species. These properties are proved by considering the algebraic signs which have been attributed to the trigonometrical lines, and by remembering that the two members of an equation must always have the same algebraic sign.
also conclude,
is

We

from the

first

the hypothenuse

less than 90^, the sides b and c will

We

SOLUTION OF RIGHT ANGLED SPHERICAL TRIANGLES BY LOGARITHMS.


It is to

the form of

be observed, that when any element is discovered in its sine only, there may be two values for this ele-

ment, and consequently two triangles that will satisfy the question because, the same sine which corresponds to an angle or an arc, corresponds likewise to its supplement. This will not take place, when the unknown quantity is determined by means In all these cases, the of its cosine, its tangent, or cotangent. sign will enable us to decide whether the element in question is less or greater than 90 the element will be less than 90, if its cosine, tangent, or cotangent, has the sign + it will be greater if one of these quantities has the sign In order to discover the species of the required element ot the triangle, we shall annex the minus sign to the logarithms of all the elements whose cosines, tangents, or cotangents, are negative. Then by recollecting that the product of the two
;

262

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.

extremes has the same sign as that of the means, we can at once determine the sign which is to be given to the required element^ and then its species will be known.

EXAMPLES.
1. In the right angled spherical triangle BAG, right angled at A, there are given a=r64 40' and 5=42 12': required the remaining parts.

First, to find the side c.

B
c
to the middle part,

The hypothenuse a corresponds


extremes are opposite
:

and the

hence
cos
c,

R cos a=cos h
As
So
cos
is

or
log.

42 12' 64" 40'


54 43' 07"

ar.-comp.
-

Is to

R
cos

a
c

0.130296 10.000000 9.631326


9.761622

Tocos

To
The
site
:

find the angle B.

side h will

be the middle part and the extremes oppo(comp. a) x cos (comp. B)=sin a
ar.-comp.
-

hence

R sin 5=cos
As
sin

sin

B.

a
h

Is to sin

64 40' 42 12'
48 00' 14"

log.
-

Sois

R
B
-

0.043911 9.827189 10.000000

To

sin

9.871100

To
The
hence
angle

find the angle G.

is

the middle part and the extremes adjacent

R
As
Is to cot

cos

G=cot
-

a tang

h.

R
a
is

ar.-comp.

log.
-

So

tang h

64 40' 42 12'
64 34' 46"

0.000000 9.675237 9.957485


9.632722

To

cos

2. In a right angled triangle BAG, there are given the hy poihenuse alOb'' 34', and the angle B=80 40' ; required the remaining parts.


SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
To
The hypothenuse
adjacent
:

203

find the angle C.

will

be the middle part and the extremes

hence,

R cos a=cot B cot C.


Ascot
Istocos

B 80 40' a 105 34'

ar.-comp.
-

log.
-

0.784220 +

9.428717
10.000000 +

So

is

R
C
148 30' 54"
-

To

cot

10.212937

Since the cotangent of C is negative the angle C is greater than 90^, and is the supplement of the arc which would correspond to the cotangent, if it were positive.

To
The
angle
will

find the side

c.

extremes

correspond to the middle part, and the be adjacent : hence,


will

R cos B=cot a tang c.


As
cot
is

a 105 34'

Is to

R
cos

So

80 40'

....
-

ar.-comp.

log.

0.555053 10.000000 + 9.209992 +

To

tang

c 149 47' 36"

9^765045^

To
The
side h will
site; hence,

find the side 6.

be the middle part and the extremes oppo-

Rsin

6= sin a sin B.
comp.
-

As

R
is

ar.

To sin
So
sin

a 105 34'

80 40'

To

sin

h 7154' 33"

.... ....
log.
.

0.000000 9.983770 9.994 212


9.977982

OF QUADRANTAL TRIANGLES.

A quadrantal spherical triangle sides equal to 90^.


Let

is

one which has one of

its

be a quadrantal triangle 90. side a If we pass to the corresponding polar triangle, we shall have A' 180a = 90, B' 180 6, G' 180c, a' 180A, 6=180B,c' 180 G; from which we see, that the polar triangle will be
in

BAG

which the

264

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.

right angled at A', and hence every case may be referred to a right angled triangle. But we can solve the quadrantal triangle by means of the right angled triangle in a manner still more simple. In the quadrantal triangle BAG,

which BG=90, produce the side till GD is equal to 90, and conceive the arc of a great circle to be drawn through B and D. Then G will be the pole of the arc BD, and the angle G will be measured by BD (Book IX. Prop. VI.), and the angles GBD and D will be right angles. Now before the remaining parts of the quadrantal triangle can be found, at least two parts must be given in addition to the side BG=:90 in which case two parts of the right angled triangle BDA, together with the right angle, become known. Hence the conditions which enable us to determine one of these
in

GA

triangles, will enable us also to


3.

determine the other.

In the quadrantal triangle BGA, there are given GB=:90, the angle G=42 12', and the angle A=115 20' : required the

remaining parts. Having produced


arc

BD,

BAD,

BAG =
The
site
:

90 and drawn the to D, making there will then be given in the right angled triangle the side a=G=42 12', and the angle 180 115 20'=6440',to find the remaining parts.

GA

GD =

BAD=180

To
side

find the side d.

a will be the middle part, and the extremes oppo-

hence,

R
As sm
Is to

sin

a = sin

sin d,
log.

A R
a

64 40'

ar.-comp.

0.043911 10.000000
9.8 27189

8o

is

sin

42 12' 48 00' 14'

To sin
The

9.871100

To
angle

find the angle B.

correspond to the middle part, and the extremes will be opposite : hence
will

R cos A=:sin B cos a.


As cos
Is to

42 12'
64 40'

ar.-comp.

log.

So

is

R cos A
B

0.130296 10.000000 9.631326


9~76i622

To

sin

35 16' 53'

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
To
The
cent
:

2G5

find the side b.

side b will be the middle part,

and the extremes adjaa.

hence,

R
As
Is to cot

sin

6= cot A
-

tang
.

R A
b

ar.-comp.
-

log.
.

64 40'

So

is

tang a

42M2'
25^ 25' 14"

To

sin

0.000000 9.675237 9.957485 9.632722

Hence,

4. In are given <z=115 25', and

=64 34' 46" CA=90-'6=9025 25' 14" CBA=90ABD = 9035 16' 53"=54 43 07" =48 00' 15". . . BA=df the right angled triangle BAG, right angled at A, there
c=60
59'
;

required the remaining


(

parts.

B=:14856'45"

Ans,

) I

G=
6

75 30' 33"
13' 50".

=152

In the right angled spherical triangle BAG, right angled A, there are given c=116 30' 43", and 6=29 41' 32" : required the remaining parts.
5.

at

G=10352'46"
32 30' 22" a =112 48' 58".

Ans,

B=

In a quadrantal triangle, there are given the quadrantal side =90, an adjacent side =115 09', and the included angle 115 55' : required the remaining parts. 113 18' 19" (side, 117 33' 52" ^^*- < o^ ( angles,
6.

|ioi40'or.

SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE ANGLED TRIANGLES BY LOGARITHxMS


There are six cases which occur in the solution of oblique angled spherical triangles.
-

1.

Having given two

sides,

and an angle opposite one

of

them.
2.

Having given two

angles,

and a side opposite one of

them.
3.

Having given the three

sides of a triangle, to find the

angles.

2i\i)

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
Having given the three angles of a
triangle, to find
tlie

4.

sides.
5.

Having given two

sides

and the included angle.


the included side.

6.

Having given two angles and

CASE
Given two
sides,

I.

and an angle opposite one of them, maining parts.

to find the re-

For
Ex.

this

case

we employ
sin

equation
:

(1.)

As
1.

sin 6

sin

sin B.

Given the

side

a =44

6=r84 14' 29" and the angle A=32 26' 07" ; required the remaining parts.
13' 45",

To
As
sin
Is to sin

find the angle B.

^
^
-

^^

_,

d^
log.

a
h

So

is

sin

A
B

44 13' 45" 84 14' 29" 32 26' 07"

ar.-comp.
-

0.156437 9.997803 9.729445


9.88368 5

To

sin

49 54' 38" or sin B' 130

5'

22"

Since the sine of an arc is the same as the sine of its supple ment, there will be two angles corresponding to the logarithmic sine 9.883685 and these angles will be supplements of each other. It does not follow however that both of them will satisfy all the other conditions of the question. If they do, there will be two triangles ACB', ACB if not, there will be but one. To determine the circumstances under which this ambiguit}^ arises, we will consider the 2d of equations (2.).
;

R^ cos
from which

6=R
_
cos

cos a cos c+sin a sin c cos B.

we

obtain

B=

R^ cos

R cos a cos
:

c
.

-.

sm a sm
a,

c
shall

Now

if

cos h be greater than cos

we

have

R^ cos
or the sign of the second

6>R cos a cos c,


member
cos

of the equation will depeno


will

on that of cos

h.

Hence

and cos h

have the same

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.

267

sign, or B and b will be of the same species, and there will be but one triangle.

But when

cos

6>cos

a, sin

6<sin a

hence,

If the sine of the side opposite the required angle be less than the sine of the other given side, there will be but one triangle.
If however, sin

and

it is

6>sin a, the cos b will be less than cos a, plain that such a value may then be given to c as to

render

R^ cos

< R cos a

cos

c,

or the sign of the second member may be made to depend on cos c. can therefore give such values to c as to satisfy the two equations

We

f cos

cos R^ B= cos bR sm c a cos c sm a

cos B:

sm a sm

Hence, if the sine of the side opposite the required angle be greater than the sine of the other given side, there will be two triangles which will fulfil the given conditions. Let us, however, consider the triangle ACB, in which we are yet to find the base can find these and the angle C. parts most readily by dividing the triangle into two right angled triangles. : Draw the arc perpendicular to the base then in each of the triangles there will be given the hypothenuse and the angle at the base. And generally, when it is proposed to solve an oblique angled triangle by means of the right angled triangle, we must so draw the perpendicular that it shall pass through the extremity of a given side, and lie opposite to a given angle.

AB

We

CD

AB

To
As
So
cot
is

find the angle

C,in the triangle


ar.-comp.
-

ACD.
0.803105 10.000000 9.001465
"a!804570

Is to

A R

32 26' 07"

log.

cos

b 84 14' 29"

To

cot

ACD
To

86^ 21' 06"

find

tlie

angle

in the triangle

DCB.
0.074810 10.000000 9.855250
9.930060

Ascot
Is to

49^ 54' 38"

ar.-comp.
-

log.

R
cos

So

is

44 13' 45"
49 35' 38"

To

cot

DCB

Hence

ACB=135

56' 47'^

^68

SPHERICAL TRIGOJWMETRY.
To
find the side

AB.
log.

As
So

sin sin

Is to sin
is

To sin

A 32 26' 07" C 135 56' 47" a 44 13' 45" c 115 16' 29"
AB

ar.-comp.

0.270555 9.842191 9.843563


9.956309

The arc 64 43' 31", which corresponds to sin c is not tlie value of the side for the side : must be greater than 6, since it lies opposite to a greater angle. But 6=84 14' 29" : hence the side must be the supplement of 64 43' 31", or 115 16' 29".

AB

AB

Ex,

2.

Given 6=91

03' 25",

=40

36' 37",

and

A = 35 57'
B
is

15": required the remaining parts, taken.

when

the obtuse angle

B=:11535'41"

Ans.

)
i

C=
c

58 30' 57" 70 58' 52"

CASE
Having given two angles and a
the

II.

side opposite one of them j to find

remaining parts.
equation
:

For

this case,

sin

we employ the A sin B


:
:

(1.)

sin

sin h.

Ex,

1.

A=50

12',

In a spherical triangle ABC, there are given the angle B=58 8', and the side a=62 42' ; to find the re

maining parts.

To
As So
sin

find the side h.

A
B
a
h

Is to sin
is

sin

50 12' 58 08' 62 42'

ar.-comp.
-

log.
. .

0.114478 9.929050 9.948715

To

sin

79 12' 10", or 100 47' 50"

9.992243

see here, as in the last example, that there are two arcs corresponding to the 4th term of the proportion, and these arcs are supplements of each other, since they have the same sine. It does not follow, however, that both of th^m will satisfy all If they do, there will be two the conditions of the question. triangles ; if not, there will be but one.

We


SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
To
there

269

determine
is

when
let

but one,

there are two triangles, and also us consider the second of equations

when
(8.)

R2 cos B=sin

sin
,

cos b

R cos A cos C,
A cos C
.
:

which gives

cos

Now,

if

cos

be

C A sin Ti greater than cos A we shall have R^ cos B>R cos A cos C,
sin

0=

R^cos B +R cos
1
:

and hence the sign of the second member of the equation will depend on that of cos B, and consequently cos b and cos B will have the same algebraic sign, or b and B will be of the same species. But when cos B >cos A the sin B<sin A hence
:

If the sine of the angle opposite the required side be


If,

less

than

the sine of the other given angle, there will be but one solution.

however,

sin

B>sin A,

the cos

and

it is

plain that such a value

may

B will be less than cos A, then be given to cos C, as


C,

to render

R^cos
or the sign of the second
to

B<R cos A cos

member of the equation may be made


to

as to satisfy ihe

depend on cos C. We can therefore give such values two equations

+C0S
cos

b=
0=

R^ cos

B+R 7
;

sin

A A ^ sm C
cos
:

cos

C
,

ano

R^ cos B + R cos
;

sin

7^ A sm C
1

A cos C
-.

Hence, if the sine of ihe angle opposite the required side be greater than the sine of the other given angle there will b$^o
solutions.
"ii^P
first

Let us
If

suppose the side b to be

less

than 90^, or equal

to 79 12' 10".
let fall from the angle C a perpendicular on the the triangle will be divided into two right angled triangles, in each of which there will be two parts known besides the right angle.

now, we

base

BA,

Calculating the parts by Napier's rules

we find, C = 13054'28
c=:119^03'2(>".

If

wc

take the side

6=100 47

50",

we

shall find

C=156

15'

06"

c=r=l52 14' 18',

270

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.

there are given A=103 Ex. 2. In a spherical triangle 50' 57", B=46 18' 7", and a==42'' 8' 48" ; required the remaining parts.

ABC

There

will but

on^

triangle, since sin

B<sin A. / h =30
)
1

Ans,

C=36^ r
c

54"
56".

=24

3'

CASE
Having given

III.

the three sides of- a spherical triangle to

find

the

angles.

For

this

case

we use

equations

(3.).

^A cos,.. K
a;. 1. In

V
,

g^ gjj^ 6 sine

given

a=56

an oblique angled spherical triangle there are required the 40', 5=83 13' and c=114 30'
;

angles.

\{a + h-^c)=\s

=127

11' 30"

J(6-|-c~-a)=(^5a)=70 31'

30".
-

Log sin Js 127 11' 30" log sin (^5a) 70 31' 30" log sin h 83 13' log sin c 114 30'

ar.-comp. ar.-comp.

9.901250 9.974413 0.003051 0.040977


19.919691

Sum
Half sum =log cos JA 24
Hence,
angle
15',

39"

9.959845

A=48 31'

18".

The addition of twice the logarithm of radius, or 20, to the numerator of the quantity under the radical just cancels the 20 which is to be subtracted on account of the arithmetical complements, to that the 20, in both cases, may be omitted. Applying the same formulas to the angles B and C, we find,

B=
Ex.
6
2.

62 55' 46"
19' 02".

C = 125

= rt7

14' 28",

In a spherical triangle there are given flrz40^ 18' 29" and c=89 47' 6" : required the three angles.

A=
Ans.
^

Brr 53

C=

34 22' 16" 35' 16" 119o IS' .q.2'

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMK'l

KY.

*J1

CASE
Hiving given

IV.

the three angles of a spherical triangle^ to find ike three sides.

For

this case

we employ
,

equations

(7.)

cos

^./cos(iS-B)cos(JSia=R V p ^ sm Jd sm O
.

-C)

-^

Ex.
30',

1.

B^125

In a spherical triangle ABC there are given 62^ 54' required the sides. 20', and C

A =48**

^(A + B4-C)=JS= 118 = 690 (5SA)

22' 52'

feS-B) (jS-C)

=- 6 58' = 550 28'

(iSB) (JS C) log sin B


cos log cos

Log

58'

. -

log sin

C
-

55 28' 125 20' 62 54'


.

ar. -comp.

ar. -comp.
-

9.996782 9.753495 0.088415 0.050506


19.889198

Sum

Half sum=log cos iA=28


Hence,
In a similar

19'

48"

9.944599

side tf= 56 39' 36",

manner we

find,

6= 1140
:

29' 58" 83 12' 06".

Ex.

2.

In a spheri<al triangle
38' 13",

55' 42",

B = l J60

and

ABC, there are given A = 1 09 C=120o 43' 37" required the


;

three sides.

Ans.

( ) 6
/

a=

98 21' 40"
50'
13'

= 109 c = 115

22" 26"

CASE
Having given

V.

in a spherical triangle^ two sides and their cluded angle J to find the remaining parts.

in-


272

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETKY.
this

For

case

we employ the two first of Napier*s


;

Analogies,

cos ^{a-j-b)
sin ^(a-\-b)

cos i(a
sin

b)
:

cot

^{ab)

cot

^C iC

tang ^(A + B)

tang

^(AB).
;

Having found the half sum and the half difference of the
iingles

and B, the angles tliemselves become known


is

for,

the

greater angle
rence.

equal to the half sum plus the half difference, and the lesser is equal to the half sum minus the half diffe-

The
side.

greater angle

is

The remaining
II.

side of the triangle

then to be placed opposite the greater can then be found by-

Case

Ex.
46' 2",

1.

In a spherical triangle
10',

ABC,
;

there are given

a=6S*
30".

b=3T

and

C=39

23'

to find the

remaining parts

l{a + b)

= 52''

58' 1",

i{a^b)=:l5o
log.
-

48' 1",

iC = 1941'
-

As

i(a+6)5258' 1" cos 1" Is to cos (ct_fe) 15 48' iC 19M1'30" So is cot

ar.-comp.
. -

0.220210 9.983271 10.446254


10.649735
0.097840 9.435016 10.446254 9.979110
59' 46"

Totangi(A + B)
As
Is

77 22'

25"
1"

sin

i(a + ^)5258'

log.
-

ar.-comp.
.

tosin
is

So

cot

A(ai) 1548' 1" iC 19M1'30"


43 37' 21"

To tang KAB)
Hence,

A=77
side c

22' 25"-f43 37'

21"=120

Bir:77 22'
-

25"43
-

37'
-

21"=
-

33 45' 04"

43 37' 37".

Ex. 2. In a spherical triangle ABC, there are given 6=83" 19' 42", c=23 27' 46", the contained angle 39' 48

A=20

to find

the remaining parts.


(
-4.715.

B = 156

)
(

C= a=

30' 16" 9 11' 48"

61 32' 12".

CASE
fn

VI.

a spherical iHangle, having given two angles and the included


side to find the

remaining parts.

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
For
this

273

case

we employ
:

the second of Napier's Analogies,


:

cos ^(A + B)
sin

cos
sin

J(A

B)
:

^(A + B)

(AB)

tang Jc tang ^c

iang ^{a + b) tang ^{a

b).

found as in the maining angle can then be found by Case


b are

From which a and

last case.
I.

The

re-

Ex,
parts.

1.

In a spherical triangle
9'

ABC,
28"

38' 20",

B = 70

38",

c=59

16'

there are given A=:-81 to find the remaining

^(A + B)=75
cos

53'

59",J(AB)=544'21", Jc=29
log.
-

38' 11".

As KA Tocos KAB) 5 29 So is tang ^c

+ B) 75 53' 59"
44' 21" 38' 11"

ar.-comp. 0.613287
-

9.997818 9.755051
10.366158

To
As

tang
sin

i{a-^b) 66 42' 52"

^(A + B) 75

To
So

sin
is

i(A-B)
2^

53' 59" log. ar. -comp. 5 14' 21" m

tang

29 38' 11"
3 21' 25"
-

0.013286 9.000000 9.755051

To

tang

Ua^b)
a=Q6^ 6=66
angle

8.768337
04' 17"

Hence

42' 52"

+ 3
-

21'

42' 52" 3 21'


-

25"=70 25"=63
-

21' 27"
46' 33".

=64
;

Ex.
15' 3",

2.

B=42

In a spherical triangle ABC, 76 35' 36" 15' 13", and

there are given


to find the

A =34
remain10"

ing parts.
(

=40

0'

Ans,

6=50 10' 30" (C=12r36'19"


]

274

MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
The
sumed
area, or content of a surface,

how many

times

it

contains

is determined by finding some other surface which is as-

as the unit of measure. Thus, when we say that a square yard contains 9 square feet, we should understand that one square foot is taken for the unit of measure, and that thi? unit is contained 9 times in the square yard. The most convenient unit of measure for a surface, is a square whose side is the Hnear unit in which the Hnear dimensions of the figure are estimated. Thus, if the linear dimensions are feet, it will be most convenient to express the area in square feet if the linear dimensions are yards, it will be most convenient to express the area in square yards, &c. have already seen (Book IV. Prop. IV. Sch.), that the term, rectangle or product of two lines, designates the rectangle constructed on the lines as sides and that the numerical value of this product expresses the number of times which the rectangle contains its unit of measure.
;

We

PROBLEM

I.

To

find the area of a square,

a rectangle, or a parallelogram.

Rule.

Multiply
find the

the base by the altitude,

and

the product will

be the area
1.

(Book IV. Prop. V.).

area of a parallelogram, the base being 12.25 Ans. 104.125. 2. What is the area of a square whose side is 204.3 feet ? Ans. 41738.49 sq.ft. 3. What is the content, in square yards, of a rectangle whose Ans. 245.31. base is 66.3 feet, and altitude 33.3 feet? 4. To find the area of a rectangular board, whose length is Ans. 9^ sq.ft. 12^ feet, and breadth 9 inches. a par5. To find the number of square yards of painting allelogram, whose base is 37 feet, and altitude 5 feet 3 inches. Ms. 21y\.

To

and the

altitude 8.5.

PROBLEM

IL

To

find the area of a triangle.

CASE

1.

When- the base and


Rule. Multiply

altitude are given.

the base by the altitude, and take half the product. Or, multiply one of these dimensions by half the other (Book IV. Prop. VI.).

MENSURATION OF SURFACES.

275

1. To find the area of a triangle, whose base is 625 and altitude 520 feet. Ans. 102500 sq. ft. 2. To find the number of square yards in a triangle, whose

base
3.

is

40 and 49 and

altitude

30

feet.

Ans. 66|.
in a triangle,

To
is

find the

number of square yards


25^
feet.

whose

base

altitude

Ans. 68.736].

CASE II.

When
Rule.

two

sides

and

their included angle arc given.

Add together the logarithms of the two sides and the logarithmic sine of their included angle ; from this sum sub* tract the logarithm of the radius^ which is 1 0, and the remainder will he the logarithm of double the area of the triangle. Findffrom the table, the number answering to this logarithm, and divide it by 2; the quotient will be the required area.
Let

BAG

be a

triangle, in

are given gle B.

BA, BC, and

which there the included an-

From

the vertex

A
B

draw AD, perpen-^


I.)

dicular to the base BC, and represent the area of the triangle by Q. Then,

R
hence,
But,

sin

: :

BA AD
:

(Trig. Th.

^p^ BAxsinB
R

Q=S^xAD
AD

^^^^ jy p^^p yj^


its

nence, by substituting for

value,

we have

Q_ BCxBAxsinB
'

^^

9n__ BCxBAxsin B

Taking the logarithms of both numbers,


log.

we

have

2Q=log.

BC + log. BA + log.

sin

Blog. R
BC =

which proves the


1.

rule as enunciated.

What

is

125.81,

BA=57.65, and

the area of a triangle whose sides are, 57 25? the incliided angle B

{+log. BC

+ log. BA + log. sin B


log.
log.

125.81 57.65 67 25'

.... ....

2.099715 1.760799 9.925626

10.
3.786140

2Q
or

and 2Q=6111.4,

Q =3065.7, me

required area.

276

MENSURATION OF SURFACES.

2. What is the area of a triangle whose sides are VCl ?nd 40 and their included angle 28 57' ? Ans. 290.427. 3. What is the number of square yards in a triangle of which the sides are 25 feet and 21.25 feet, and their 'ncluded angle

45?

A.v!t.

20.8694.

CASE

III.

When
Rule.
2.
3.

the three sides are

known.
take half their

1.

Add

the three sides together ,

and

sum

From

this half-sum subtract each side separately.

Multiply together the half sum and each of the three reand the product will be the square of the area oj the triangle. Then, extract the square root of this product, for the required area.
mainder's,

Or, After having obtained the three remainders, add together the logarithm of the half sum and the logarithms of the respective remainders, and divide their sum by 2 : the quotient will be the logarithm of the area.

Let

ABC
;

be the given

triangle.

aC
/|\

Take CD equal to the side CB, and draw DB draw AE parallel to DB,
produced, in E then CE will be equal to CA. Draw CFG perpendicular to AE and DB,

iV
y''

meeting

CB

/
ixl-''

"

\-r\

/
;

yvv-jpr
'

and it will bisect them at the points G and F. Draw FHI parallel to AB, meeting CA in H, and EA pro-

1y^

y\\
'
:

\
*^''

)y^L.l^..
'

_]/

Z?^

.y'^

\^^

' K" duced, in I. Lastly, with the centre and radius HF, describe the circumference of a circfe, meeting CA produced in K: this circumference will pass through I, because AI=FBr=FD, therefore, HF=H1 and it will also pass through the point G, because FGI is a right

angle.

Now, since HA=HD, CH is equal to half the sum CA, CB that is, CH^^CA + iCB; and since equal to iIF=iAB, it follows that
sides
;

of the

HK

is

CK=iAC + iCB + iAB=iS,


by representing the sum of the sides by S.
Again,

HK=HI=AlF=:iAB,
Hence, and and

or

Now,
and
therefore,

CL=CK KL=iSAB, AK=CK-CA=iSCA, AL=DK=CK CD=^S--CB. AGx CG= the area of the triangle ACE, AGxFG= the area of the triangle ABE;
AG x CF=r:
the area of the triangle

KL=AB.

ACB

MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
x\Iso,

2n

by similar
:

triangles,
:

AG CG therefore, AG x CF=
consequently,

CF ACB = CG x DF=CG x AI AGxCFxCGx AI= square of the area ACR.


:
:

DF

CF, or AI

triangle

But and
(iS

CGxCF=CKxCL=iS(iSAB), AGx AI =AKx AL-(iS CA) x (^S CB)


which
is

therefoie,AGxCFxCGxAI =iS(iS

CB),
To

AB) x 0S CA) x

equal to the square of the area of the

triangle
1.

ACB.
find the area of

a triangle whose three sides are 20,

30,

and 40. 20 30 40

25

45 20
1st

rem.

45 30
15 2d rem.

45 half-sum. 40
5 3d rem

2)90

45 half-sum. Then, 45 x 25 x 15 x 5=84375. The square root of which is 290.4737, the required area.
2. How many square yards of plastering are there in a triangle whose sides are 80, 40, and 50 feet ? Ans. 66|.

PROBLEM

III.

To
Rule.

find the area

of a trapezoid.
:

Add

together the two parallel sides

then multiply their

sum by

of the trapezoid, and half the product will he the required area (Book IV. Prop. VII.).
the altitude
1. In a trapezoid the parallel sides are 750 and 1225, and the perpendicular distance between them is 1 540 ; what is the

Ans. 152075. square feet are contained in a plank, whose length is 12 feet 6 inches, the breadth at the greater end 16 inches, and at the less end 11 inches? Ans. 13^^ sq.ft. 3. How many square yards are there in a trapezoid, whose parallel sides are 240 feet, 320 feet, and altitude Q(S feet ? Ans, 2053^.
area?
2.

How many

PROBLEM

IV.

To
Rule.

find the

area of a quadrilateral.

Join two of
let

rilateral into two triangles.

angles

a diagonal, dividing the quadThen, from each of the other fall a peipendicular on the diagonal : then multiply

the angles by

278
t]ie

MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
diagonal by half the sum of the two perpendiculars^ and product will be the area.

the

the area of the quadthe diagonal being 42, and the perpendiculars D^, Bfc, equal to 18 and 16 feet? Ans. 714.
1.

"What

is

rilateral

ABCD,

AC

2.

How many square

yards of paving are there


feet,

in the

quad-

rilateral
let fall

whose diagonal is 65 on it 28 and 33i feet ?

and the two perpendiculars An&, 222^2.


V.

PROBLEM

To
Rule.

find the

area of an irregular polygon.

Draw diagonals dividing the proposed polygon into Then find the areas of these trapezoids and triangles. figures separately, and add them together for the content of
the whole polygon.
1.

Let

it

be required to determine

the content of the polygon

ABODE,

having

five sides.

Let us suppose that we have measured the diagonals and perpendicufound AC 36.21, EC lars, and 39.11, B6=4, D6/=7.26, Aa=4.18, required the area. ^715. 296.1292.

PROBLEM

VI.

To

find the area of a long

and irregular one side by a right line.

figure,

bounded on

Rule.

1. At the extremities of the right line measure the perpendicular breadths of the figure, and do the same at several intermediate points, at equal distances from each other. 2. Add together the intermediate breadths and half the sum oj the extreme ones : then multiply this sum by one of the equal parts of the base line : the product will be the required area, very nearly.

Let AEe<z be an irregular

figure,

hav-

ing for its base the right line AE. At the points A, B, C, D, and E, equally distant from each other, erect the per-

pendiculars A, B6, Cc, Dc?, Ee. to the


MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
base line
a,
//,

279

AE, and
and
e.

designate them respectively by the letters

c, d,

Then, the area of the trapezoid


the area of the trapezoid

ABba=
BCcb
6+c

x AB,

xBC,
x CD,
x DE
is
;

the area of the trapezoid

CDJc=

c4-d
d-{-e

and the area of the trapezoid I>Eed=

nence, their sum, or the area of the whole figure,


ia-\-h
,

equal to

+c

c-\rd

d-\-e\

.^
But
this

smce AB, BC, &c. are equal


also equal to

to

each other.

sum

is

(^ + 6 + c+rf+i-)xAB,
which corresponds with the enunciation of the
rule.
1. The breadths of an irregular figure at five equidistant places being 8.2, 7.4, 9.2, 10.2, and 8.6, and the length of the base 40, required the area. 8.2 4)40 8.6 10 one of the equal parts.

2(16.8
8.4 7.4 9.2 10.2

mean of the extremes.


35.2

sum.

10

352= area.
35.2 sum.
2. The length of an irregular figure being 84, and the breadths at six equidistant places 17.4, 20.6, 14.2, 16.5, 20.1, Ans, 1550.64. and 24.4; what is the area^

PROBLEM

VII.

To
Rule

find the area of

a regular polygon.

Multiply half the perimeter of the polygon by th. I. apothem, or perpendicular let fall from the centre on one of the sides, and the product will be the area required (Book V Prop. IX.).


280

MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
I.

Remark

The

following

is

the

manner of determining

the perpendicular when only one side and the number of sides of the regular polygon are known : First, divide 3G0 degrees by the number of sides of the polygon, and the quotient will be the angle at the centre ; that is,

Divide this the angle subtended by one of the equal sides. angle by 2, and half the angle at the centre will then be known. Now, the line drawn from the centre to an angle of the
polygon, the perpendicular let fall on one of the equal sides, and half this side, form a right-angled triangle, in which there are known, the base, which is half the equal side of the polyHence, the perpendicular gon, and the angle at the vertex. can be determined.
1. To find the area of a regular hexagon, whose sides are 20 feet each.

6)360

60=ACB,the

angle at the centre.

30=ACD,
Also,

half the angle at the centre

Then, as
:
:

CAD=90ACD=60; and AD=10. sin ACD 30% ar. comp sin CAD ... 60
.
.

301030
.

AD
CD.

10

&.93753J 1.000000
1.238561

17.3205

Then,
2.

Perimeter =120, and half the perimeter =60. 60 x 17.3205=1039.23, the area.

What

is

the area of an octagon

whose

side is 20 ? Ans, 1931.36886.

Remark II. The area of a regular polygon of any number of sides is easily calculated by the above rule. Let the areas of the regular polygons whose sides are unity or 1, be calculated and arranged in the following

MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
TABLE.
Names,
Sides.
. .
.
.

28]

Areas.
.
.

Triangle

.
.

Square Pentagon

4
5 G 7 8 9 10
11

.
.

Hexagon

Heptagon Octagon Nonagon Decagon Undecagon Dodecagon


.

. .

12

0.4330127 1.0000000 1.7204774 2.59807G2 3.G339124 4.8284271 G.1818242 7.6942088 9.3G5G399 11.1961524

Now, since the areas of similar polygons are to each other as the squares of their homologous sides (Book IV. Prop,
XXVII.),

we
;

shall

have
:

tabular area : : any side squared Or, to find the area of any regular polygon,
1^

area.

we have

Rule
2.

II. 1. Square the side of the pohjgon. Then multipkj that square by the tabular area set opposite the polygon of the same number of sides, and the produd will

be the required area,


is the area of a regular hexagon whose side 20-=400, tabular area =2.59807G2. Hence, 2.5980762x400=1039.2304800, as before. 2. To find the area of a pentagon whose side is 25.

1.

What

is

20

3.

To

find the area

Ans. 1075.298375. of a decagon whose side is 20. Ans. 3077.68352.

PROBLEM

VIII.
is

To

find the circumference of a circle when the diameter given, or the dicmeter when the circumference is given.

Rule.

Multiply

the diameter by 3.1416,

and

the product ivill

be the circumference; or ^divide the circumference by 3.1416,

and

the quotient will be the diameter.

It is shown (Book V. Prop. XIV.), that the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 1, is 3.1415926, or 3.1416. But since the circumferences of circles are to each other as their radii or diameters we have, by calling the diameter of the

second circle
or,

</,

::

Jx 3.1416=
also.

3.1416 circumference, circumference.


:

Hence,

a^<^J^2^^^^
3.1416


282
1.
IS

MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
What
is

the circumference of a circle


is

whose diameter

Ans. 78.54. 7921 miles, what is thecircumference ? Ans. 24884.6136. 3. What is the diameter of a circle whose circumference i' 11652.1904? Ans. 37.09. 4. What is the diameter of a circle whose circumference i 6850? ^715. 2180.41.
2.

25 ?

If the diameter of the earth

PROBLEM

IX

To

find the length of

an arc of a

circle containing

any numbei

of degrees.

Rule.

Multiply the number of degrees in the given arc by 0.0087266, and the product by the diameter of the circle.

Since the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 1, is 3.1416, it follows, that if 3.1416 be divided by 360 degrees, the quotient will be the length of an arc of 1 degree ; that is,
-'

=0.0087266=

360

arc of one decree to the diameter ^

1.

This being multiplied by the number of degrees in an arc, the product will be the length of that arc in the circle whose diameter is 1 ; and this product being then multiplied by the diameter, will give the length of the arc for any diameter whatever.

Remark. When the arc contains degrees and minutes, reduce the minutes to the decimal of a degree, which is done by
dividing
1.

them by
feet.

60.

of an arc of 30 degrees, the diameter Ans. 4.712364. 2. To find the length of an arc of 12 10', or 12^, the diameter being 20 feet. ^715.2.123472. 3. What is the length of an arc of 10 16', or 10^, in a circle whose diameter is 68 ? Ans. 6.082396.
find the length

To

being 18

PROBLEM

X.

To
Rule

find the area of

circle.

i. Multiply the circumference by half the radius (Book V. Prop. XII.). lluLE II. Multiply the square of the radius by 3.1416 (Book V. Prop. XII. Cor. 2).

1. To find the area of a circle whose diameter is 10 and circumference 31.416. Ans. 78.54.


MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
283

2. Find tiie area of a circle whose diameter is 7 and circumference 21.9912. Ans, 38.4846. .3. How many square yards in a circle whose diameter is 3^ feet? Ans. 1.069016. 4. What is the area of a circle whose circumference is 12 feet? Ans. 11.4595.

PROBLEM

XI.
circle.

To
Rule

find the

area of the sector of a

I. Multiply the arc of the sector by half the radius (Book V. Prop. XII. Cor. 1). Rule II. Compute the area of the whole circle: then say^ as 360 degrees is to the degrees in the arc of the sector, so is the

area of the whole circle

to the

area of the sector.

1. To find the area of a circular sector whose arc contains 18 degrees, the diameter of the circle being 3 feet. ^715. 0.35343. 2. To find the area of a sector whose arc is 20 feet, the radius being 10. Ans. 100. 3. Required the area of a sector whose arc is 147 29', and radius 25 feet. Ans. 804.3986

PROBLEM XIL

To
Rule.
2.

find the

area of a segment of a

circle.

1.

Find

the

area of the sector having the same arc, oy

the last problem.

Find the area of the triangle formed by the chord of the segment and the two radii of the sector. 3. Then add these two together for the answer when the seg' ment is greater than a semicircle, and subtract them when it
is less.
1. To find the area of the segment ACB, its chord AB being 12, and the

radius

EA, 10

feet.
. .

jVsEA
:

AD
sin

lOar. comp. 6

::

sinD 90

9.000000 0.778151 10.000000


9.778151

AED 36 52' = 36.87


2
73.74

= the degrees in the arc ACB

284

MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
5

Then, 0.0087266 x 73.74 x 20 = 12.87 = arc ACB, nearly

64.85

= area EACB.

Again, and

VEA^AD^^ \/ 10036= V64=8=EJ); 6x8=48 = the area of the triangle EABi. Hence, sect. EACBEAB= 64.35 48 = 16.35= ACB.

2. Find the area of the segment whose height is 18, iht, Ans. 636.4834. (hameter of the circle being 50. 3. Required the area of the segment whose chord is 1 6, the Ans. 44.764. diameter being 20.

PROBLEM

XIII.
is,

To

find the area of

a circular ring: that

the area included

between the circumferences of two

circles

which have a

common
Rule.

centre.

Take the difference between the areas of the two circles. Or, subtract the square of the less radius from the square oj the greater, and multiply the remainder iy 3.1416.
is

For the area of the larger and of the smaller

W^
r^^
ring, is

Their difference, or the area of the

(R^

r^)??.

1. The diameters of two concentric circles being 10 and 6, required the area of the ring contained between their circumAns. 50.2656. ferences. 2. What is the area of the ring when the diameters of the Ans. 235.62. circles are 10 and 20?

PROBLEM

XIV.
ellipse,

To
Rule.

find the area of

an

or oval.*

Multiply the two semi-axes together, and their product by 3.1416.

Required the area of an ellipse 1. whose semi-axes AE, EC, are 35 and 25.
A.ns. 2748.9.

.^

F
f

E G

\fi

* Although this rule, and the one for the following problem, cannot be de monstrated without the aid of principles not yet considered, still it was thought beet to insert them, as they complete the rules necessary for tlie mensurttion of planes.


MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
2.

285
18.

Required the area of an

ellipse

whose axes are 24 and

Ans. 339.2928.

PROBLEM

XV.

To
Rule.

find the area of

any portion of a parabola.

Multiply the base by the perpendicular height, two-thirds of the product for the required area.

and

tak

C
1.

To

ACB,
titude

area of the parabola the base AB being 20 and the alfind the

CD,

18.
^715. 240.

A.
2
the altitude 30.

Required the area of a parabola, the base being 20 and Ans. 400.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
The mensuration of solids is divided into two and, 1st. The mensuration of their surfaces 2dly. The mensuration of their solidities.
;

parts.

We
A

have already seen, that the unit of measure for plane


is

a square whose side is the unit of length. line which is expressed by numbers is also referred to a unit of length, and its numerical value is the number ol If, then, we suppose the times which the line contains its unit. linear unit to be reduced to a right line, and a square constructed on this line, this square will be the unit of measure
surfaces

curved

for

curved surfaces.

unit of solidity is a cube, the face of which is equal to the superficial unit in which the surface of the solid is estimated, and the edge is equal to the linear unit in which the linear dimensions of the solid are expressed (Book VII. Prop. XIII. Sch.). The following is a table of solid measures : 1728 cubic inches == 1 cubic foot. == 27 cubic feet 1 cubic yard. == 1 cubic rod. 4492i cubic feet 282 cubic inches == 1 ale gallon.

The

231 2150.42

cubic inches cubic inches

==

wine gallon
bushel.

==

286

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

OF POLYEDRONS, OR SURFACES BOUNDED BY PLANES.

PROBLEM

I.

To
the

find the surface of a right prism.

Rule. Multiply

the perimeter of the base hy the altitude, ana product will he the convex surface (Book VII. Prop. I.). To this add the area of the two bases, when the entire surface

is
1.

required,

being 20

a cube, the length of each side Ans. 2400 sq.ft. 2. To find the whole surface of a triangular prism, whose base is an equilateral triangle, having each of its sides equal Ans. 91.949. to 18 inches, and altitude 20 feet. 3. What must be paid for lining a rectangular cistern with lead at 2d. a pound, the thickness of the lead being such as to the inner dimenrequire libs, for each square foot of surface sions of the cistern being as follows, viz. the length 3 feet 2 inches, the breadth 2 feet 8 inches, and the depth 2 feet 6 inches ? Ans. 21, 3s, lOf d
find the surface of
feet.
;

To

PROBLEM

II.

To
height,

find the surface

of a regular pyramid.

Rule. Multiply

and

the

Prop. IV.) : to surface is required,

the perimeter of the base by half the slant product will be the convex surface (Book VII. this add the area of the base, when the entire

1. To find the convex surface of a regular triangular pyramid, the slant height being 20 feet, and each side of the base Ans. 90 sq.ft. 3 feet. 2, What is the entire surface of a regular pyramid, whose slant height is 15 feet, and the base a pentagon, of which each Ans. 2012.798. side is 25 feet?

PROBLEM

III.

To
Rule.

find the

convex surface of the frustum of a regular


pyramid.
half-sum of the perimeters of the two

Multiply

the

bases by the slant height of the frustum, and the product wih he the convex surface (Book VI 1. Prop. IV. Cor.).

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
1.

287

How many

square feet are there in the convex surface of

the frustum of a square pyramid, whose slant height is 10 feet, each side of the lower base 3 feet 4 inches, and each side of

the upper base 2 feet 2 inches?


2.

Ans. 110

sq. ft.

the convex surface of the frustum of an heptagonul pyramid whose slant height is 55 feet, each side cf the lower base 8 feet, and each side of the upper base 4 feet ?
is

What

Ans. 2310

sq.

ft.

PROBLEM

IV

To

find the solidity

of a prism.

Rule. 1. Find the area of the base, 2. Multiply the area of the base by the altitude, and the product will be the solidity of the prism (Book VII. Prop. XIV.).
1.

What

is

the solid content of a cube whose side

is

24

Ans. 13824. 2. How many cubic feet in a block of marble, of which the length is 3 feet 2 inches, breadth 2 feet 8 inches, and height or thickness 2 feet 6 inches ? Ans. 21^. 3. How many gallons of water, ale measure, will a cistern contain, whose dimensions are the same as in the last example ? Ans. 129H. 4. Required the solidity of a triangular prism, whose height is 10 feet, and the three sides of its triangular base 3, 4, and 5 feet. Ans. 60.
inches?

PROBLEM

V.

To
Rule.
tude,

find the solidity of a

pyramid.

Multiply the area of the base


and

the product will be the solidity

by one-third of the alti(Book VII. Prop.

XVII.).

Required the solidity of a square pyramid, each side of base being 30, and the altitude 25. Ans. 7500. 2. To find the solidity of a triangular pyramid, whose altitude is 30, and each side of the base 3 feet. Ans. 38.9711. 3. To find the solidity of a triangular pyramid, its altitude being 14 feet 6 inches, and the three sides of its base 5, 6, and 7 feet. Ans. 71.0352. 4. What is the solidity of a pentagonal pyramid, its altitude being 12 feet, and each side of its base 2 feet? Ans. 27.5276. 5. What is the solidity of an hexagonal pyrar?id, whose alti tude is 6.4 feet, and each side of its base 6 inches ? Ans. 1.38564.
1.
its

888

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
PROBLEM
VI.

To
Rule.
<Lnd a

find the solidity of the frustum of a

pyramid.

Add

mean proportional between


find the

together the areas of the two bases of the frustum them, and then multiply the

sum by
1.

one-third of the altitude (Book VII. Prop.

XVIIL).

To

number of

solid feet in

a piece of timber,

whose bases are squares, each side of the lower base being 15 inches, and each side of the upper base 6 inches, the altitude Ans. 19.5. being 24 feet. 2. Required the solidity of a pentagonal frustum, whose altitude is 5 feet, each side of the lower base 18 inches, and each Ans. 9.31925. side of the upper base 6 inches.

Definitions,

wedge is a solid bounded by five 1. H g planes : viz. a rectangle. ABCD, called the base of the wedge ; two trapezoids ABHG, DCHG, which are called the sides of the wedge, and which intersect and the two each other in the edge ; triangles GDA, HOB, which are called the ends of the wedge. When AB, the length of the base, is equal to GH, the trapezoids ABHG, DCHG, become parallelograms, and the wedge is then one-half the parallelopipedon described on the base ABCD, and having the same altitude with the wedge. The altitude of the wedge is the perpendicular let fall from any point of the line GH, on the base ABCD. rectangular prismoid is a solid resembling the frustum 2. of a quadrangular pyramid. The upper and lower bases are rectangles, having their corresponding sides parallel, and the convex surface is made up of four trapezoids. The altitude of the prismoid is the perpendicular distance between its bases,

GH

PROBLEM Vn.

To
Rule.

find the solidity of a

wedge.

edge.

twice the length of the base add the length of the Multiply this sum by the breadth of the base, and then by the altitude of the wedge, and take one-sixth of the product

To

for the solidity.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
Let

289

L=AB,
/=GH,

the length of
the length of

the base.
the edge.

6=BC,
liie

the breadth of

base.

/i=PG,
the

the altitude of

wedge. Then,

L Z=AB GH =

AM.
Suppose AB, the length of the base, to be equal to GH, the length of the edge, the solidity will then be equal to half the parallelopipedon having the same base and the same altitude (Book VII. Prop. VII.). Hence, the solidity will be equal to \hlh (Book VII. Prop. XIV.).' If the length of the base is greater than that of the edge, tet a section be made parallel to the end BCH. The wedge will then be divided into the triangular prism BCH-M, and the quadrangular pyramid G-AMND. The solidity of the prism =\hhl, the solidity of the pyramid

MNG

^ihh{\.T)\ and their sum, '^hhl-\-^hhQuT) = lhh^l-\-\bh2l. ibh2l=ibh(2L-\-I). If the length of the base is less than the length of the edge, the solidity of the wedge will be equal to the difference between the prism and pyramid, and we shall have for the solidity

of the wedge,
.bhl^,hh(l1.

-h)=lbh3l-

bh2l+lbh2L=ibh{2L + l),
the edge 35 feet,
^715.

If the base of a

and the
2.
(eeif

altitude 10 feet,

wedge is 40 by 20 feet, what is the solidity?

3833.33.

The base
and the

wedge being 18 feet by 9, altitude 6 feet, what is the solidity ?


of a

the edge 20

Ans.

.504.

PROBLEM

Vlll.

To
Rule.

find the solidity of a rectangular prismoid.

Add together
:

the area of

bases

the areas of the tivo bases and four time t a parallel section at equal distances from the then multiply the sum by one-sixth of the altitude.

zm

MENSURATION OF S0LID8.
^

Let 1. and B be the length and breadth of the lower base, / and b the length and breadth of the upper base, and ?n the length and breadth of the

V_

section equidistant from the bases, k the altitude of the prismoid.

and

\I_JM

the diagonal edges L and a plane be passed, and it will divide the prismoid into two wedges, having for bases, the bases of the prismoid, and for edges the

Through

let

lines

L
is

and

/'=/.

The
moid,

solidity of these

wedges, and consequently of the

pris-

But since

iB/i(2L + Z) + jft/i(2/+L)=i/i(2BL + B/+2&/+&L). is equally distant from L and /, we have

and + Z, + 6; hence, 4Mw=(L + x (B + ^>)=BL + BZ+6L + 6Z. for its value in the preceding equation, Substituting

2M=L
4Mm

2m=B

and

we have

for the solidity

i/i(BL+^>/+4Mm).
ever.

may be applied to any prismoid whatFor, whatever be the form of the bases, there may be inscribed in each the same number of rectangles, and the number of these rectangles may be made so great that their sum in each base will differ from that base, by less than any assignNow, if on these rectangles, rectangular prisable quantity. moids be constructed, their sum will differ from the given prismoid by less than any assignable quantity. Hence the rule is general.
rule
1. One of the bases of a rectangular prismoid is 25 feet by 20, the other 15 feet by 10, and the altitude 12 feet ; required Ans. 3700. the solidity. 2. What is the solidity of a stick of hewn timber whose ends are 30 inches by 27, and 24 inches by 18, its length bein^

Remark. This

24 feet?

Ans, 10? feet

OF THE MEASURES OF THE THREE ROUND BODIES.

PROBLEM

IX.

To
Rule. and
I.).

find the surface

of a cylinder.
of the base by the
altitude,

Multiply
To
this

the circumference the areas of the

the product will be the convex surface

add

(Book VIII. Prop two bases, when the entire

surface is required.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
1

291

What

is

the convex surface of a cylinder, the diametei


is

of

whose base
2.

20,

and whose

altitude

is

50 ^

is

Ans. 3141.6. Required the entire surface of a cylinder, whose altitude 20 feet, and the diameter of its base 2 feet. Ans, 131.9472.

PROBLEM

X.

To

find the

convex surface of a cone.

Rule. Multiply the circumference of the base by half the side (Book VIII. Prop. III.) to which add the area of the base,
:

when
1.

the entire surface is required.

Required the convex surface of a cone, whose side is 50 and the diameter of its base 8' {qqU Ans. 667.59. 2. Required the entire surface of a cone, whose side is 36 and the diameter of its base 18 feet. Ans. 1272.348.
feet,

PROBLEM XL

To
Rule.

find the surface

of the frustum of a cone.

Multiply the side of the frustum by half the sum of the circumferences of the two bases, for Uie cenvex surface (Book VIII. Prop. IV.) : to which add the areas of the two baseSt when the entire surface is required.
1.

To

find the

convex surface of

tlie

frustum

of*

a cone, the

and the circumferences of Ans. 90. the bases 8.4 feet and 6 feet. 2. To find the entire surface of the frustum of a cone, the side bemg 16 feet, and the radii of the bases 3 feet and 2 feet. Ans. 292.1688.
side of the frustum being 12^ feet,

PROBLEM XIL

To
Rule.

find the solidity of a cylinder.


the

Multiply
II.).

area of the base by the altitude (Book VIII.

Prop.
1.

feet,

2.
feet,

Required the solidity of a cylinder whose altitude is 12 Ans. 2120.58. and the diameter of its base 15 feet. Required the solidity of a cylinder whose altitude is 20 and the circumference of whose base is 5 feet 6 inches.
Ans. 48.144.


292

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS
PROBLEM
XIII.

To
Rule. Multiply

find the solidity of a cone.

Ike area of the base by the altitude^ one-third of the product (Book VIII. Prop. V.).

and

take

1. Required the solidity of a cone whose altitude is 27 feet, and the diameter of the base 10 feet. Ans. 706.86. 2. Required the solidity of a cone whose altitude islOjfeet, and the circumference of its base 9 feet. Ans. 22.56.

PROBLEM

XIV.

To

find the solidity

of the frustum of a cone.

Rule. Add

together the areas of the two bases and a mean proportional between them^ and then multiply the sum by onethird of the altitude (Book VIII. Prop. VI.).

1. Tc find the solidity of the frustum of a cone, the altitude being 18, the diameter of the lower base 8, and that of the upper base 4. Ans. 527.7888. 2. What is the solidity of the frustum of a cone, the altitude being 25, the circumference of the lower base 20, and that of Ans. 464.216. the upper base 10? 3. If a cask, which is composed of two equal conic frustums joined together at their larger bases, have its bung diameter 28 inches, the head diameter 20 inches, and the length 40 inches how many gallons of wine will it contain, there being 23 1 cubic Ans. 79.0613. mches in a gallon?

PROBLEM

XV.

To
Rule

find the surface of

a sphere.

Multiply the circumference of a great circle by the I. diameter (Book VIII. Prop. X.).
II.

Rule

the square of the radius , by Cor.).


1.

Multiply the square of the diameter^ or four times 3.1416 (Book VIII. Prop. X.

Required the surface of a sphere whose diameter is 7. Ans. 153.9384. 2. Required the surface of a sphere whose diameter is 24 Ans. 1809.5610/71. inches. 3. Required the area of the surface of the earth, its diameter being 7921 miles. Ans. 197111024 sq. miles.
4. What is the surface of a sphc-e, the circumference of its great circle being 78.54? Ins. 1963.5.


MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
PROBLEM
XVI.

203

To

find the surface of

a spherical zone.

Rule. Multiply the altitude of the zone hy the circumference of a great circle of tfie sphere^ and the product will he the Surface (Book VIII. Prop. X. Sch. 1).
1. The diameter of a sphere being 42 inches, what is the convex surface of a zone whose altitude is 9 inches ? Ans. 1181.5248 sq. in. 2. If the diameter of a sphere is 12^ feet, what will be tl>e surface of a zone whose altitude is 2 feet ? Ans, 78.54 sq. ft.

PROBLEM XVn.

To
Rule

find the solidity of

a sphere.

Multiply the surface by one-third of the radius (Book I. VIII. Prop. XIV.).
the diameter^

Rule II. Cube found by \n


:

that

is,

and multiply the number thus by 0.5236 (Book VIII. Prop. XIV.
whose diameter

Sch.
1.

3).
is

is 12? Ans. 904.7808. 2. What is the solidity of the earth, if the mean diameter be taken equal to 7918.7 miles ? Ans. 259992792083.

What

the solidity of a sphere

PROBLEM XVIIL

To
Rule.

find the solidity of a spherical segment.

Find the areas of the two bases, and multiply their sum by half the height of the segment ; to this product add the solidity of a sphere whose diameter is equal to the height oj the segment (Book VIII. Prop. XVII.).

Remark. When the segment has but one base, the other (Book VIII. Def. 14). to be considered equal to

is

1. What is the solidity of a spherical segment, the diameter of the sphere being 40, and the distances from the centre to the bases, 16 and 10. Ans. 4297.7088. 2. What is the solidity of a spherical segment with one base

the diameter of the sphere being 8, and the altitude of the Ans. 41.888. segment 2 feet?


294

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
segment with one base, and the altitude of the Ans. 1781.2872.

3. What is the solidity of a spherical the diameter of the sphere being 20, segment feet ?

PROBLEM

XIX.

To
Rule.

find the surface of a spherical triangle.

1. Compute the surface of the sphere on xohich the triari' gle is formed, and divide it by 8 ; the quotient will be the surface of the tri-rectangular triangle, 2. Add the three angles together ; from their sum subtract 180, and divide the remainder by 90"^ : then multiply the tri-

rectangular triangle by this quotient, and the product will be the surface of the triangle (Book IX. Prop. XX.).
1. Required the surface of a triangle described on a sphere, whose diameter is 30 feet, the angles being 140, 92, and 68.

2.

Ans. 411,24 sq.ft. Required the surface of a triangle described on a sphere

of 20 feet diameter, the angles being 120 each. Ans, S14.1Q sq.ft.

PROBLEM

XX.

To
Rule.
2.

find the surface of a spherical polygon.

Find the tri-rectangular triangle, as before, the sum of all the angles take the product of two Divide the reright angles by the number of sides less two. mainder by 90, and multiply the tri-rectangular triangle by
1.

From

Vie quotient

the

product will be the surface of the polygon

(Book IX. Prop. XXL).


1. What is the surface of a polygon of seven sides, described on a sphere whose diameter is 17 feet, the sum of the Ans. 226.98. angles being 1080 ? , 2. What is the surface of a regular polygon of eight sides, described on a sphere whose diameter is 30, each angle of the

polygon being 140

^715.

157.08

OP THE REGULAR POLYEDRONS.


In determining the solidities of the
re^"'ilar

polyedrons,

it

oecomes necessary to know, for each of them, the angle con The determitained between any two of the adjacent faces.
nation of this angle involves the following property of a regu lar polygon, viz.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
Half

295

the diagonal which joins the extremities of two adjacent sides of a regular polygon^ is equal to the side of the polygon multiplied by the cosine of the angle which is obtained by dividing 360 by twice the number of sides : the radius being
to unity.

equal

Let be any regular polygon. Draw the diagonal AC, and from the centre F draw FG, perpendicular
to

ABCDE
Draw

AB.

also

AF,

FB
it

the lat-

ter will 'be perpendicular to the diag-

onal
III.

AC, and

will bisect

at

(Book

Prop. VI. Sch.). Let the number of sides of the polygon be designated by n then,
:

AFB=?^,
n
But

and

AFG = CAB=

360=

2n
cos

in the right-angled triangle

AH=AB cos A=AB


Remark
1.

ABH, we have ?!^ (Trig. Th. I.


271 in

Cor.)

^When the polygon


becomes a

triangle, the diagonal

side,

question is the equilateral and consequently half

the diagonal

becomes half a

side of the triangle.

Remark
Th.
I.

2.

The

perpendicular

BH=AB

sin

360 _
271

(Trig.

Cor.).

To determine the angle included between the two adjacent faces of either of the regular polyedrons, let us suppose a plane to be passed perpendicular to the axis of a solid angle, and through the vertices of the solid angles which lie adjacent. This plane will intersect the convex surface of the polyedron
a regular polygon the number of sides of this polygon will be equal to the number of planes which meet at the vertex of either of the solid angles, and each side will be a diagonal of one of the equal faces of the polyedron.
in
;

Let D be the vertex of a solid angle, CD the intersection of two adjacent faces, and ABC the section made in the convex
surface of the polyedron by a plane perpendicular to the axis through D. let a plane be drawn perThrough pendicular to CD, produced if necessary, and suppose AE, BE, to be the lines in

AB

2y6
which
this

MENSURATION OF
Then

SOLIDS.

plane intersects the adjacent will be the angle included between the adjacent faces, and FEB will be half that angle, which we will represent by J A. Then, if we represent by n the number of faces which meet at the vertex of the sohd angle, and by m the number of sides of each face, we shall have, from what has already
faces.

AEB

been shown,

BF=BC
But

360
cos
'

and

EB=BC

3G0
sin

2n

2m

BF.

EB

sin

FEB = sin

^A, to the radius of unity


360''

cos
hence,
sin

^A=.
sm

~2n

360

2m
This formula gives, for the plane angle formed by every adjacent faces of the

two

Tetraedron

Hexaedron
Octaedron Dodecaedron
Icosaedron

70 31' 42" 90 lOO'^ 28' 18" 116 33' 54" 138 11' 23"

Having thus found the angle included between the adjacent

we can easily calculate the perpendicular let fall from ihe centre of the polyedron on one of its faces, when the faces
faces,

ithemselves are known. The following table shows the solidities and surfaces of the (regular polyedrons, when the edges are equal to 1.

A TABLE
Names.

OP THE REGULAR POLYEDRONS WHOSE EDGES ARE


No. of Faces.
.

1,

Surface.
. .
.

Solidity.

Tetraedron

.
.

4
6 8 12

. .
.

Hexaedron
'Octaedron.
ilcosaedron

. .

.
. . .

.
.

.
.

Dodecaedron
.

.
.

. .

20

1.7320508 .... 6.0000000 .... 3.4641016 . 20.6457288 .... 8.6602540 ...


. .
-

0.1178513 1.0000000
0.471404.5

7.6631189 2.1816950


MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
PROBLEM
XXI.

297

To
Rule
let

find the solidity of

a regular polyedron.

I. Multiply the surface hy one-third of the perpendicular fall from the centre on one of the faces, and the p*'oducl will be the solidity.

Rule

II. Multiply the cube of one of the edges by the solidity of a similar polyedron, whose edge is 1.

as

The first rule results from the division of the polyedron into many equal pyramids as it has faces. The second is proved

by considering that two regular polyedrons having the same number of faces may be divided into an equal number of similar pyramids, and that the sum of the pyramids which make
up one of the polyedrons will be to the sum of the pyramids which make up the other polyedron, as a pyramid of the first sum to a pyramid of the second (Book II. Prop. X.) that is, as the cubes of their homologous edges (Book VII. Prop. XX.) that is, as the cubes of the edges of the polyedron.
;

1.

What

is

the solidity of a tetraedron

whose edge

is

15

2.

3.

4.

5.

Ans. 397.75. What is the solidity of a hexaedron whose edge is 12? Ans, 1728. What is the solidity of a octaedron whose edge is 20 ? Ans. 3771.236. What is the solidity of a dodecaedron whose edge is 25 ? Ans. 119736.2328. ^liat is the solidity of an icosaedron whose side is 20 ? Ans. 17453.56

A TABLE
OP

LOGARITHMS OF NUMBERS
FROM
1

TO 10,000.

N^
i

Log.

N.

Log.

N.

Loa.

N.

Log.

3
4

5 6 7 8 9 10
li

12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19
'^0

21

22 23 24 25

0.000000 0.301030 0.477121 0.602060 0.698970 0.778151 0.845098 0.903090 0.954243 1.000000 1.041393 1.079181 1.113943 1.146128 1.176091 1.204120 1.230449 1.255273 1.278754 1.301030 1.322219 1.342423 1.361728 1.380211 1.397940

26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

1.414973 1.431364 1.447158 1.462398 1.477121 1.491362 1.505150 1.518514 1.531479 1.544068 1.556303 1..568202 1.579784 1.591065 1.602060 1.612784 1.623249 1.633468
1.6434.53

51

52 53 54 55 66 57 58 59 60
61

62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
71

1.707570 1.716003 1.724276 1.732394 1.740363 1.748188 1.755875 1.763428 1.770852 1.778151 1.785330 1.792392 1.799341 1.806180 1.812913 1.819544 1.826075 1.832509
1.8.38849

76 77 78 79 80
81

82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
91

1.880814 1.886491 1.892095 1.897627 1.903090 1.908485 1.913814 1.919078 1.924279 1.929419 1.934498 1.939519 1.944483 1.949390 1.954243
1.9.59041

1.653213 1.662758 1.672098 1.681241 1.690196 1.698970

72 73 74 75

1.845098 1.851258 1.857333 1.863323 1.869232 1.875061

92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

1.9637S8 1.968483 1.973128 1.977724 1.982271 1.986772 1.991226 1.995635 2.000000

N. B. In the following table, in the last nine columns of each page, where the first or leading figures change from 9's
to O's, points or dots are introduced instead of the 0s through

the rest of the line, to catch the eye, and to indicate that from

thence the annexed

first two figures of the Jjogtuithm second column stand in the next lower line.

in tli

2
N.
100
101
1

T^BLE OF LOGARITHMS FROM

TO 10,U00

102 103 104 105


106

107 108 109 110


111

112 113 114 115 116

Uf
118
119

120
121

122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129


130
131

132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143

144 145 146 147 148 149


150
151

000000 4321 8G00 012837 7033 021189 5306 9384 033424 7426 041393 5323 9218 053078 6905 0G0698 4458 8186 071882 5547 079181 082785 6360 9905 093422 0910 100371 3804 7210 110590 113943 7271 120574 3852 7105 130334 3539 6721 9879 143015 146128 9219 152288 5336 8362 161368 4353 7317 170262 3186
]

|.|2;oi4i5i6|7|8|0 >i 2166 0434 0868


1301 1734

4751 9026 3259 7451 1603 5715 9789 3826 7825 1787 5714 9606 3463 7286 1075 4832 8557 2250 5912 9543 3144 6716
.258

5181 945 3680 7868 2016 6125 .195


J

5609 9876 4100 8284 2428 6533


.600

4227 8223 2182 6105 9993 3846 7666

4628 8620 2576 6495

6038 .300 4521 8700 2841 6942 1004 5029 9017 2969 6885

.380 .766

3772 7257 0715 4146 7549 0926 4277 7603 0903 4178 7429 0655 3858 7037
.194

3327 6438 9527 2594 5640 8664


1667

'eooi

152 153 154 155 156 157 158


N.

8977 181844 4691 7521 190332 3125 5899 8657 159 '201397 1670
1

4650 7613 0555 3478 6381 9264 2129 4975 7803 0612 3403 6176 8932

1452 5206 8928 2617 6276 9904 .266 .626 .987 3503 3861 4219 4576 7071 7426 7781 8136 .611 .963 1315 1667 4122 4471 4820 5169 7604 7951 8298 8644 1059 1403 1747 2091 4487 4828 5169 5510 7888 8227 8565 8903 1263 1599 1934 2270 4611 4944 5278 5611 7934 8265 8595 8926 1231 1.560 1888 2216 4504 4830 5156 5481 7753 8076 8399 8722 0977 1298 1619 1939 4177 4-496 4814 5133 7354 7671 7987 8303 .508 .822 1136 1450 3639 3951 4263 4574 6748 7058 7367 7676 9835 .142 .449 .756 2900 3205 3510 3815 5943 6246 6549 6852 8965 9266 9567 9868 1967 2266 2564 2863 4947 5244 5541 5838 7908 8203 8497 8792 0848 1141 1434 1726 3769 4000 4351 4641 6670 6959 7248 7536 9552 9839 .126 .413 2415 2700 2985 3270 5259 5542 5825 6108 8084 8366 8647 8928 0892 1171 1451 1730 3681 3959 4237 4514 6453 6729 7005 7281 9206 9481 9755 ..29 1943 2216 2488 2761

4230 4613 8046 8426 1829 2206 5580 5953 9298 9668 ..38 2985 3352 3718 6640 7004 7368

6466 .724 4940 9116 3252 7350 1408 5430 9414 3362 7275 1153 4996 8805 2582 6326

2598 6894 1147 5360 9532 3664 7757 1812 5830 9811 3755 7664 1538 5378 9185 2958 6699 .407 4085 7731 1347 4934 8490 2018 5518 8990 2434
.5851

9241 2605 5943 9256

2544 5806 9045 2260


5451

8618 1763 4885 7985 1063 4120 7154


.168 3161

6134 9086 2019 4932 7825


.699

3555
6391 9209

2010 4792 7556


.303

3033

8029 3461 3S91 4.32 7321 7748 8174 428 1570 1993 2415 424 5779 6197 6616 419 9947 .361 .775 416 4075 4486 4896 412 8164 8571 8978 408 2216 2619 3021 404 6230 6629 7028 400 .207 .602 .998 396 4148 4540 4932 393 8053 8442 8830 389 1924 2309 2694 386 5760 6142 6524 .382 9563 9942 .320 379 3333 3709 4083 376 7071 7443 7815 372 .776 1145 1514 369 4451 4816 5182 366 8094 8457 8819 363 1707 2067 2426 360 5291 5647 6004 357 8845 9198 9552 355 2370 2721 3071 351 6866 6215 6562 349 9335 9681 ..26 3^o 2777 3119 3462 343 6191 6531 6871 340 9579 9916 .253 338 2940 3275 3609 335 6276 6608 6940 333 9586 9915 .245 330 2871 3198 3525 328 6131 6456 6781 325 9368 9690 ..12 323 2580 2900 3219 321 5769 6086 6403 318 8934 9249 9564 315 2076 2389 2702 314 5196 .5507 5818 311 8294 8603 8911 .309 1370 1676 1982 307 4424 4728 .5032 305 7457 7759 8061 303 .469 .769 1068 301 3460 3758 4055 299 6430 6726 7022 297 9380 9674 9968 295 2311 2603 2895 293 5222 5512 5802 291 8113 8401 8689 289 .985 1272 1.558 287 3839 4123 4407 285 6674 6956 7239 283 9490 9771 ..51 281 2289 2567 2846 279 5069 5346 5623 278 7832 8107 8382 276 .577 .8.50 1124 274 3305 3577 3848 1272

|l|2|3|4|5|6|7L8.l9|D.

'

A TABT
N.(

OF LOGARITHMS FROW 1 TO 10,000.


2
1

8
1

t>.
1

no

^Sl 162

.163
104 165 166 167 168, 169
170
171

172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180


181

182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190


191 192

193 194 195 196


197 198 199

200
201

202 203 204 205 200 207 208


109

210
211

212 213 214 215 2n5 217 218 219


N-

1247 3412 5351 5500 7496 7710 9630 9843 ..56 311754 1900 2177 3867 4078 4289 5970 6180 0390 8003 8272 848 320140 0354 0502 322219 2426 2633 4282 4488 4094 0336 6541 0745 8380 8583 8787 330414 0617 0819 2438 2040 2842 4454 4055 4850 6460 6000 6800 8456' 8656 8855 I340444I0O42IO.S4I

204120 6826 9515 212188 4844 7484 220108 2716 5309 7887 230449 2996 5528 8046 240549 3038 5513 7973 250420 2853 255273 7679 260071 2451 4818 7172 9513 271842 4158 6462 278754 281033 3301 5557 7802 290035 2256 4406 6665 8853 301030 3196

4391 4063 4934 7096 7365 7634i 9783 ..51 .319 2454 2720 2986 5109 5373 5638

7747 0370 2976 5568 8144 0704 3250 5781 8297 0799 3280 5759 8219 0004 3096 5514 7918 0310 2688 5054 7406 9746 2074 4389 6692 8982
1201

8010 0631 3236 5826 8400 0960 3504 6033 8548


1048

3534 6000 8404 0908


5755 8158 0548 2925 5290

8273 0892 3496 6084 8657 1215 3757 6285 8799 1297 3782 6252 8709
1

33381 3580

3527 5782 8026 0257 2478 4087 0884


9071

5996 8398 0787 3102 5525 7041 7875 9980 .213 2300 2538 4020 4850 6921 7151 9211" 9439 1488 1715 3?o3 3979 0007 0232 8249 8473 0480 0702 2099 2920 4907 5127 7104 7323 9289 9507 1404 1081 3028 3844 5781 5990 7924 8137
2389 4499 0599 8089
0709i

6204 ft475 5746. 6016 6286 8556 7904 8173 8441 8710 8979 J247 .586 .853 1121 1388 1654 1921 3252 3518 3783 4049 4314 4579 5902 6166 6430 6694 6957 7221 8530 8798 9000 9323 95851 9840 1153 1414 1075 1936 2196 2450 3755 4015 4274 4533 4793 5051 6342 0600; 6858 7115 7372 7030 8913 91701 9426 9682 9938 .193 1470 1724! 1979 2234 2488 2742 4011 420414517 4770 5023 5276 6537 6789 7041 7292 7544 7795 9049 9299 9550 9800 ..50 .300 1546 1795 2044 2293 2541 2790 4030 4277 4525 4772 5019 6206 6499 6745 6991 7237 7482 7728 8954 9198 9443 968? 9932 .176 395 1638 1881 2125 2368 2610 3822 4064 4306 4548 4790 5031 6237 6477 6718 6958 7198 7439 8637 8877 9116 9355 9594 9833 1025 1263 1501 1739 1976 2214 3399 3636 3873 4t09 4346 4582 5761 5996 6232 6407 6702 6937 8110 8344 8578 8812 9046 9279 .446 .679 .912 1144 1377 1609 2770 3001 3233 3464 8696 'Ami 5081 5311 5542 5772 hO)2 7380 7609 7838 8067 9067 9895 23 .351 1942 2109 2390 2022 28'i9 )75 4205 4431 4050 4882 5107 o^i-Z 6456 0081 0905 7130 7354 151-^ 8096 8920 9143 9366 9589 ;12, 0925 1147 1309 1591 1813 5i\)34 3141 3303 3584 3804 4025 4x^.W 5347 5567 5787 6007 6226 64'.^B 7542 7761 7979 8198 416 863i9725 9943 .161 .378 .595 .813, 1898 2114 2331 2547 2764 2980 4059 4275 4^191 4700 4921 5130 6211 6425 6639 6854 7008 7282 8351 8564 8778 8991 9204 9417
1

271

2691

267 206 2o4 262


261 259

258 256 254 253 252 250 249 248 246 245 243
24:i

241

239
23J-

23' 23f
2i*4 iHir

m^

'^^
2.<

S2^ 22V
'^^(

2-i
:^:.
2.9.-

002
00,.

219

oiH
217 210 216
21:.
1

.268 .451

.693 .906 1118 1330 1542 212

2839 4899 0950 8991 1022 3044 5057 7000 9054


3

2600 4710 &809 8898 0977 3046 5105 7155 9194

2812 4920 7018 9100 1184 3252 5310 7359 9398


5458 7459 9451
1435
1

3023 5130 7227 9314

3234 5340 7436 9522

1225 1427 3246 3447

5257 7260 9253 1039' 1237


1

1391 1598 3458 3665 5516 5721 7563 7767 9601 9805 1630 1832 3649 3850 5058 5859 7059 7858 9050 9849

3445 5551 7040 9730 1805 3871 5920 7972


...8

3050 5700 7854 9938 2012 4077

211

2034 4051 6059 8058 ..47 .240 w:i 1632' 1830 2028' 2225 198
6
1

210 209 208 207 200 0131 205 8176 204 .211 203 2230 202 4253 202 6200 201 8257 200

''

D. 1

A TABLE OF LOGARITHMS PROM


N.

TO 10,000.
1

|l{2|3|4|5l6|7|8|9lD.
342423 4392 6353 8305 350248 2183 4108 6026 7935 9835 361728 3612 5488 7356 9216 371068 2912 4748 6577 8398 380211 2017 3815 6606 7390 9166 390935 2697 4452 6199 397940 9674 401401 3121 4834 6540 8240 9933 411620 3300 2620 4589 6549 8500 0442 2375 4301 6217 8125 ..25 1917 3800 5675 7542 9401 1253 3096 4932 6759 8580 0392 2197 3995 5785 7668 9343 1112 2873 4627 6374 8114 9847 1573 3292 5005 6710 8410

220
221

222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250
251

2817 4785 6744 8694 0636 2568 4493 6408 8316

3014 4981 6939 8889 0829 2761 4685 6599 8506

3212 5178 7135 9083 1023 2954 4876 6790 8696

3409 5374 7330 9278 1216 3147 5068 6981 8886

.215 .404 .693 .783 2105 2294 2482 2671 3988 4176 4363 4551 5862 6049 6236 6423 7729 7915 8101 8287 9587 9772 9958 .143 1437 1622 1806 1991 3280 3464 3647 3831 5115 5298 5481 6664

3606 5570 7525 9472 1410 3339 5260 7172 9076 .972 2859 4739 6610 8473

3802 5766 7720 9666 1603 3532 6452 7363 9266


1161

3999 6962 7915 9860

4196 197 6167 196 8110 195

3724 5643 7554 9456

..64 194 1796 1989 193 3916 193 5834 192

7744

19]

3048 4926 6796 8659

.328 .513

6942 8761 0573 2377

4174 5964
7746 9520
1288

3048 4802 6548 8287

7124 8943 0754 2567 4353 6142 7923 9698 1464 3224 4977 6722 8461

252 253 254 255 256 257 253 259 260


261

..20 .192 1745 1917

3464 3635 5176 5346


6881
7051

8579 8749
3635 5307 6973 8633

7488 9306 1115 2917 4712 6321 6499 8101 8279 9875 ..51 1641 1817 3400 3575 5152 5326 6896 7071 8634 8808 .365 .538 2089 2261 3807 3978 55.7 6688 7221 7391 8918 9087

7306 9124 0934 2737 4533

2175 4015 6846 7670 9487 1296 3097 4891 6677 8466
.228 1993 375 5501 7245

2360 4198 6029 7852 9668 3277 5070 6856 8634

9646 190 1350 1539 189 3236 3424 188 5113 5301 188 6983 7169 187 8845 9030 186 .698 .883 185 2544 2728 184 4382 4565 184 6212 6394 183 8034 8216 182 9849 ..30 181

8981
.711

.102 .271 .440 .609 .777 1788 1956 2124 2293 2461

262 263 264 265


266 267
2fiR

269 270
271 272 273 274 275 276 277
7R

279

3467 414973 5140 6641 6807 8301 8467 9956 .121 421604 1788 3246 3410 4882 5045 6511 6674 8135 8297 9752 9914 431364 1525 2969 3130 4569 4729 6163 6322 7751 7909 9333 9491 440909 1066 2480 9637 4045 4201 5604 5760
1

3803 6474 7139 8798

3970 5641 7306 8964

4137 5808 7472 9129


.781

2433 4149 4320 4492 5858 6029 6199 7561 7731 7901 9257 9426 9595 .946 1114 1283 2629 2796 2964 4305 4472 4639 5974 6141 6308 7638 7804 7970 9295 9160 9625

1476 1656 1837 181 3456 3636 180 5249 5428 179 7034 7212 178 8811 8989 178 .405 .582 .759 177 2169 2345 2521 176 3926 4101 4277 176 5676 5850 6025 175 7419 7592 7766 9154 9328 9501 173 .883 1056 1228 173 2605 2777 2949 172

4663 6370 8070 9764


1451

171 171

170 169 169 3132 168 4806 167

6474 167 8135 166

.286 .451 .616 1933 2097 2261 3574 3737 3901 5208 5371 5534 6836 6999 7161 8459 8621 8783 ..75 .236 .398

2426 4065 5697 7324 8944

1686 3290 4888 6481 8067 9648 1224

.559 1846 2007 2167 2328 2488 2649 2809 161 3450 3610 3770 3930 4090 4249 4409 160 5048 5207 5367 5526 5685 5844 6004 159 6640 6798 6957 7116 7275 7433 7592 159 8226 8384 8542 8701 8859 9017 9175 158 9806 9964 .122 .279 .437 .594 .752 158 1381 1538 1695 1852 2009 2166 2323 157 2793 29.50 3106 3263 34 19 3576 3732 3889 157 4357 4513 4669 4825 4981 5137 5293 5449 156 5915 607116226 6382 6537 6692 6848 7003' 155
^

9791 165 .945 1110 1275 1439 165 2590 2754 2918 3082 164 4228 4392 4555 4718 164 5860 6023 6186 6349 163 7486 7648 7811 7973 162 9106 9268 9429 9591 162 .720 .881 1042 1203 161

N.

I).

A tahle of logarithms from

TO 10.000.
1

A- 447158 280
281

D.
I

282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290


291

292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310
311

312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320


321

322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330


331

332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339


N.
1

8706 450249 1786 3318 4845 6366 7882 9392 460898 462398 3893 6383 6868 8347 9822 471292 2756 4216 5671 477121 8566 480007 1443 2874 4300 5721 7138 8551 9958 491362 2760 4155 5544 6930 8311 9687 501059 2427 3791 505150 6505 7856 9203 510545 1883 3218 4548 5874 7196 518514 9828 521138 2444 3746 6045 6339 7630 8917 530200
1

7313 8861 0403 1940 3471 4997 6518 8033 9543 1048 2548 4042 5532 7016 8495 9969 1438 2903 4362 5816 7266 8711 0151 1586 3016 4442 5863 7280 8692 ..99 1502 2900 4294 5683 7068 9448 9824 1196 2564 3927 5286 6640 7991 9337 0679 2017 3351 4681 6006 7328 8646 9959 1269 2575 3876 6174 6469 7759 9045 0328
1
1

7468 9015 0557 2093 3624 5150 6670 8184 9694 1198 2697 4191 5680 7164 8643
.116

1585 3049 4508 5962 7411 8855 0294 1729 3159 4585 6005 7421 8833 .239 1642 3040 4433 5822 7206 8586 9962 1333 2700 4063 5421 6776 8126 9471 0813 2151 3484 4813 6139 7460 8777 ..90 1400 2705 4006 5304 6598 7888 9174 0456
2
1

7623 7778 7933 9170 9324 9478 0711 0865 1018 2247 2400 2553 3777 3930 4082 5302 5454 5606 6821 6973 7125 8336 8487 8638 9845 9995 .146 1348 1499 1649 2847 2997 3146 4340 4490 4639 .5829 5977 6126 7312 7460 7608 8790 8938 9085 .263 .410 .557 1732 1878 2025 3195 3341 3487 4653 4799 4944 6107 6252 6397 7555 7700 7844 8999 9143 9287 0438 0582 0725 1872 2016 2159 3302 3445 3587 4727 4869 5011 6147 6289 6430 7563 7704 7845 8974 9114 9255
.380 .520 .661

8088 9633 1172 2706 4235 5758 7276 8789

8242 8397 8552 9787 9941 ..95 1326 1479 1633 2859 3012 3165 4387 4540 4692 6910 6062 6214 7428 7579 7731 8940 9091 9242

1.55

154 154
1.53
1.53

152 152
151 161 160

1782 1922 2062

3179 4572 5960 7344 8724

3319 4711 6099 7483 8862

3458 4850 6238 7621 8999 9137 9275 9412

.296 .447 .597 .748 1799 1948 2098 2248 3296 3445 3594 3744 4788 4936 5085 5234 6274 6423 6571 6719 7756 7904 8052 8200 9233 9380 9527 9675 .704 .851 .998 1145 2171 2318 2464 2610 3633 3779 3925 4071 5090 5235 6381 5526 6542 6687 6832 6976 7989 8133 8278 8422 9431 9575 9719 9863 0869 1012 1156 1299 2302 2445 2688 2731 3730 3872 4015 4157 5153 5295 5437 5579 6572 6714 6865 6997 7986 8127 8269 8410 9396 9637 9677 9818 .801 .941 1081 1222 2201 2341 2481 2621 3597 3737 3876 4015 4989 5128 5267 .5406 6376 6515 6653 6791 7759 7897 8035 8173
9.'^50

150 149 149 148 148 147 140 146 140 145
145 144

144 143 143 [42 .42


141 141

140 140 139 139 139 138


1.38

..99 .236 .374 .511 .648 .785 .922 137 1470 1607 1744 1880 2017 21.54 2291 137

2837 2973 3109 3246 4199 4335 4471 4607 5557 5693 5828 5964 6911 7046 7181 7316 8260 8395 8530 8664 9606 9740 9874 ...9 0947 1081 1215 1349 2284 2418 2551 2684 3617 3750 3883 4016 4946 5079 5211 5344 6271 6403 6535 6668 7592 7724 7855 7987 8909 9040 9171 9303 2835 4136 5434 6727 8016
.221 .353 .484 .615 1530 1661 1792 1922 2966 3096 .3226

3382 4743 6099 7451 8799


1482 2818 4149 5476 6800 8119 9434 745 2053 3356 4656 5951 7243 8531 9815
7

3518 4878 6234 7586 8934

3655 1.36 5014 136 6370 136


7721
1,35

9068 135

.143 .277 .411 134 1616 1750 i:m 2951 3084 133 4282 4414 133 5609 5741 133

4266 5563 6856 8145 9.302 9430 0584 0712


3
1

4396 5693 6985 8274 9559 0840


1

4526 5822 7114 8402 9687 0968


1

6932 8251 9566 .876 2183 3486 4785 6081 7372 8660 9943 1096 1223
1

7064 1.32 8382 1.32 9697 131


1007 131

2314 3616 4915 6210

131

130 130 129 7501 129 8788 129 ..72 128 1361 12F
9
1

l<

i:^

A TABLE OF LCGARIl rf313 TliOM


N.
1
1

lo,ot;>.

1).
1

340 341 342 343 844 f845


1

f347 848 349 350


j

351

352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370
371

372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 360


381

382 383 384 385 386 387 388 3o9 390


391

392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399


N.

531479 2754 4026 5294 6558 7819 9076 540329 1579 2825 544068 5307 6543 7776 9003 550228 1450 2668 3883 5094 556303 7507 8709 9907 561101 2293 3481 4666 5848 7026 568202 9374 570543 1709 2872 4031 5188 6341 7492 8639 579784 580925 2063 3199 4331 6461 6587 7711 8832 9950 591065 2177 3286 4393 5496 6597
.7695

1607 1734 1862 2882 3009 3136 4153 4280 4407 6421 5547 5674 6685 6811 6937 7945 8071 8197 9202 9327 9452 0455 0580 0705 1704 1829 1953 2950 3074 3199

4192 4316 5431 5555 6666 6789 7898 8021 9126 9249 0351 0473 1572 1694 2790 2911 4004 4126 5215 5336 6423 6544 7627 7748 8829 8948
2412 3600 4784 5966 7144 8319

4440 5678 6913 8144


9371 0595
1816

3033 4247 5457 6664 7868 9068

..26 .146 .265 1221 1340 1459 2531 2650

3718 4903 6084 7262 8436 9491 9608 0660 0776


1825 1942

2988 4147 5303 6457 7607 8754 9898

3104 4263
.5419

6572 7722 8868

3837 5021 6202 7379 8554 9725 0893 2058 3220 4379 5534 6687 7836 8983

..12 .126 1039 1153 1267


2*291

2177 3312 4444 5574 6700 7823 8944

3426 4557 5686 6812 7935 9056

2404 3539 4670 5799 6925 8047 9167

8791 9S83 600973


1

..61 .173 .284 1176 1287 1399 1510 1621 1732 1843 1955 2060 2288 2399 2510 2621 2732 2843 2954 3064 3175 3397 3508 3618 3729 3840 3950 4061 4171 4282 4503 4614 4724 4834 4945 5055 5165 5276 5386 5606 5717 5827 5937 6047 6157 626 6377 6487 6707 6817 6927 7037 7146 7256 7366 7476 7586 7805 7914 8024 8134 8243 8353 8462 8572 8681 8900 9009 9119 9228 9337 9446 9556 9665 9774 9992 .101 .210 .319 .428 .,537 .646 755 .864 1082 1191 1299 1408 1517 1625 1734 1843 1951
(

1990 2117 2245 2372 2500 2627 128 3264 3391 3518 3645 3772 3899 127 4534 4661 4787 4914 .5041 5167 127 5800 5927 6053 6180 6306 6432 126 7063 7189 7315 7441 7567 7693 126 8322 8448 8574 8699 8825 8951 126 9578 9703 9829 9954 ..79 .204 125 0830 0955 1080 1205 1330 14.54 125 2078 2203 2327 2452 2576 2701 125 3323 3447 3571 3696 3820 3944 124 4564 4688 4812 4936 5060 5183 124 5802 5925 6049 6172 6296 6419 124 7036 71.59 7282 7405 7529 7652 123 8267 8389 8512 86.35 8758 8881 123 9494 9616 9739 9861 9984 .106 123 0717 0840 0962 1084 1206 1328 122 1938 2060 2181 2303 2425 2547 122 3155 3276 3398 3519 3640 3762 121 4368 4489 4610 4731 4852 4973 121 5578 5699 5820 5940 6061 6182 121 6785 6905 7026 7146 7267 7387 120 79S8 8108 8228 8.349 8469 8589 120 9188 9308 9428 9548 9667 9787 120 ..385 ..504 .624 .743 .863 .982 119 1578 1698 1817 1936 2055 2174 119 2769 2887 3006 3125 3244 3362 119 3955 4074 4192 4311 4429 4548 119 5139 5257 5376 5494 5612 5730 118 6320 6437 6555 6673 6791 6909 118 7497 7614 7732 7849 7967 8084 118 8671 8788 8905 9023 9140 9257 117 9842 9959 ..76 .193 .309 .426 117 1010 1126 1243 1359 1476 1592 117 2174 2291 2407 2523 2639 2755 116 3336 3452 3568 3684 3800 3915 116 4494 4610 4726 4841 4957 5072 116 5650 5765 5880 5996 6111 6226 115 6802 6917 7032 7147 7262 7377 115 7951 8006 8181 8295 8410 8525 115 9097 9212 9326 9441 9555 9669 114 .241 ..355 .469 .583 .697 .811 114 1381 1495 1608 1722 1836 1950 114 2518 2631 2745 2858 2972 3085 114 3652 3765 .3879 3992 4105 4218 113 4783 4896 5009 5122 5235 5348 113 5912 6024 61.37 6250 6362 6475 113 7037 7149 7262 7374 7486 7599 112 8160 8272 8384 8496 8608 8720 112 9279 9391 9503 9615 9726 9838 112 .396 .507 .619 .730 .842 .953 112
111 111 ill

no
110 110 110 109 109 109
n.
1

A TABLE OF LOGARITUMS FKOM

TO 10,0U0.
1

IT 602000
1

1400 401

402 403 404 405 406 407


408 409 410 411

3144 4226 5305 6381 7455 8526 9594 610660


1723

412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420


421

61.35 422 423 7161 424 8185 425 9206 426 .224 427 1241 144-1 42S 2255 1951 2457 2963 3266 4^9 4276 4S0 633468 3973 4477 431 4981 5283 5484 432 6986 6287 6488 433 7290 6989 7490 434 7990 8290 8489 435 8988 9287 9486 436 .283 9984 437 640481 0978 1276 1474 438 1970 2267 2465 439 2959 3255 440 643153 3946 4242 4439 441 4931 5226 5422 442 5913 6208 6404 443 6894 7187 7383 444 7872 8165 8360 445 8848 9140 9335 446 .113 9821 447 650308 1084 0793 1278 448 1702 2053 2246 449 3019 2730 450 653213 .3695 3984 4177 451 4946 4658 5138 452 5906 5619 6098 453 6864 6.577 7056 454 7820 7534 8011 455 8774 8488 8965 456 9726 9441 9916 ..11 .106 .201 .296 .391 .486 ..581 .676 457 458 660805 0960 10,55 11.50 1245 1.339 1434 1529 1623 i59 I8I3 19071 2002 2096 2191 2280 2380 2475 2569

612 r84 3842 4897 5950 7000 8048 9093 620136 117o 2214 623249 4282 5312 6340 7366 8389 9410 630428

1384 1488 15S2 2421 25-^5 2628 3456 3559 3663 3^3 4365 4488 4591 4695 5415 ,5518 5621 5724 6443 6546 6648 6751 7468 7571 7673 7775 8491 8593 8695 8797 9512 9613 9715 9817 0530 0631 0733 0835 1545 1647 1748 1849 2559 2660 2761 2862 ;J569 3670 3771 3872 4578 4679 4779 4880 5584 5685 5785 .5886 6588 6688 6789 6889 7590 7690 7790 7890 8589 8689 8789 S8SS 9580 9686 9785 98S5 0581 0680 9779 0879 1573 1672 1771 1871 2563 2662 2761 2860 3551 36.50 3749 3847 4537 4636 4734 4832 5521 5619 5717 5815 6502 6600 6698 6796 7481 7579 7676 7774 8458 85.55 86.53 8750 9432 95.30 9627 9724 0405 0502 0599 0696 1375 1472 1569 1666 2343 2440 2536 2633 3309 3405 3502 3.5981 4273 4369 4465 45621 5235 .5331 .5427 .5523 6194 6290 6386 6482 7152 7247 7343 7438 8107 8202 8298 8393 9060 9155 9250 9346

2169 3253 4334 5413 6489 7562 8633 9701 0767 1829 2890 3947 5003 6055 7105 8153 9198 0240 1280 2318

2277 2386 3361 3469 4442 4550 5521 5628 6596 6704 7669 7777 8740 8847 9808 9914 0873 0979 1936 2042 2996 3102 4053 4159 6108 .5213 6160 6265 7210 7315 8257 8362 9302 9406 0344 0448

2494. 2603 2711 2819 2928 3036; 108 3.577 .3686 3794 3902 4010 4118 108 4658 4766 4874 49S2 5089 5197 108 5736! .5844 .5951 6059 6166 6274 108

6811 6919 7026 7884 7991 8098 8954 906 9167 ..21 .128 .2.34 1086 1192 1298 2148 2254 2360

7133 7241 7348 107 8205 8312 8419 107 9274 9381 9488 107
.341 .447 ..5.54 107 1405 1511 1617 106 2466 2572 2678 106 3525 3630 3736 106 4.581 4686 4792 106 5634 5740 5845 105 6686 6790 6895 105 7734 7839 7943 105 8780 8884 8989 105

3207 4264 5319 6370 7420 8466

3313 4370 5424 6476 7525 8571 9511 9615 0552 0656
1695 2732 3766 4796 5827 6853 7878 8900 9919 0936

.3419

4475 5529
6581 7629

9824 0864 1903 2939 3973 5004 6032 7058 8082 9104 ..21 .123 1038 1139 2052 21.53 3064 3165 4074 4175 .5081 5182 6087 6187 7089 7189 8090 8190 9088 9188 ..84 .183 1077 1177 2069 2168 3058 3156 4044 4143 .5029 5127 6011 6110 6992 7089 7969 8067 8945 9043 9919 ..16 0890 0987 1859 1956 2826 2923 3791 3888 4754 4850 5715 .5810 6673 6769 7629 7725 8584 8679 9536 9631

8676 9719 0760 1799 2835 3869 4901 5929 6956 7980 9002

9928 0968 2007 3042 4076 5107

...32

104

1072 101 2110 104 3146 104

4179 \03
.5210

6238 7263 8287 9308

103 103 103 102 102 .326 102 1342 102


101 101

2356 3367 4376 5383 6388 7390 8389 9387


.382

1375 2360
33.54

100 100 100 100 99 ^} 99 99 99 99

4340 5324 6306 7285 8262 9237


.210 1181

2150 3116 4080 5042 6002 6960 7916 8870


9821
.771 1718

98 98 98 98 98 97 97 97 97 97

2663
1

96 96 96 96 96 95 95 95 95 95
D.
1

N.

A T AHLE OF LOGARITHMS
N.
I

FROM
6

TO 10,000.
I

D.

460
461 162
163

464 165 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519
N.

662758 2852 2947 3041 3701 3795 3889 3983 4642 4736 4830 4924 5581 5675 5769 5862 6518 6612 6705 6799 7453 7546 7640 7733 8386 8479 8572 8665 9317 9410 9503 9596 670246 0339 0431 0524

3135 4078 5018 5956 6892


7826! 87591

..60 .153 9689 0988 1080 0617 1173 1265 1358 1451 1543 1636 1728 1821 1913 2005

3230 4172 5112 6050 6986 7920 8852 9782 0710

3324 4266 5200 6143 7079 8013 8945 9875 0802

3418 4360 5299 6237 7173 8106 9038 9967 0895

3512 4454 5393 6331 7266 8199 9131

3607 4548 5487 6424 7360 8293 9224

94 94 94 94 94 93 93
93

672098 2190 :i021 3113 S942 4034 4861 4953 5778 5870 6694 6785 7607 7698 8518 8609 9428 9519 680336 0426
681241 2145 3047 3947 4845 5742 6036 7529 8420 9309 690196
1081

1965

2847 3727 4005 5482 6356 7229


8101

698970 9838 700704


1568 2431 3291 4151 5008

5864 6718 707570


8421

9270 710117 0963 1048


1807 1892 2650 2734 349] 3575 4330 4414 5167 5251
I

1332 223o 3137 4037 4935 5831 6726 7618 8509 9398 0285 1170 2053 2935 3815 4693 5569 6444 7317 8188 9057 9924 0790 1654 2517 3377 4236 5094 5949 6803 7655 8506 9355 0202

2283 3205 4126 5045 5962 6876 7789 8700 9610 0517 1422 2326 3227 4127 5025 5921 6815 7707 8598 9486 0373 1258 2142 3023 3903 4781 5657 6531 7404 8275 9144
..11

2375 3297 4218 5137 6053 6968 7881 8791 9700 0607 1513 2416 3317 4217 5114 6010 6904 7796 8687 9575 0462 1347 2230 3111 3991 4868 5744 6618 7491 8362 9231

2467 2560 2652 2744 3390 3482 3574 3666 4310 4402 4494 4586 5i:28 5320 5412 .5503 6145 6236 6328 6419 7059 7151 7242 7333 7972 8063 8154 8245 8882 8973 9064 9155 9791 9882 9973 ..63 0698 0789 0879 0970 1603 1693 1784 1874 2506 2596 2688 2777 3407 3497 3.587 3677 4307 4396 4486 4576 5204 5294 5383 5473 6100 6189 6279 6368 6994 7083 7172 7261 7886 7975 8064 8153 8776 8865 8953 9042 9664 9753 9841 9930 0550 0639 0728 0816 1435 1524 1612 1700 2318 2406 2494 2583 3199 3287 3375 3463 4078 4166 4254 4342 4956 5044 5131 5219 5832 5919 6007 6094 6706 6793 6880 6968 7678 7665 7752 7839 8449 8535 8622 8709 9317 9404 9491 9578
2086 2947 3807 4665 5522 6376 7229 8081 8931 9779 0625 1470 2313 3154 3994 4833 5669
1

2836 3758 4677 5595 6511 7424 8336 9216

2929 3850 4769 5687 6602 7516 8427 9337 .154 .245 1060 1151 1964 2055 2867 2957 3767 3857 4666 4756 5563 5652 6458 6547 7351 7440 8242 8331 9131 9220
..19 .107

93 93 92 92 92 92 92
91 91 91 91 91

90 90 90 90
90 89 89 89 89 89

0877 0963 1741 1827 2603 2689 3463 3549 4322 4408 5179 5265 0035 6120 0888 6974 7740 7826 8591 8676 9440 9524 0287 0371 1132 1217 1976 2060 2818 2902 3650 3742 4497 4581 5335 5418
I

..98 .184 .271 10.50 1136 1913 1999 2775 2861 3635 3721

9751 .358 .444 .531 .617 1222 1309 1395 1482

0905 1789 2671 3551 4430 5307 6182 7055 7926 8796 9664

0993
1877

2759 3639 4517 5394 6269 714? 8014 8883

89 88 88 88

87 87 87 87 87 87 86
86 86 86 86 86 85 85 85 85 85 85 84 84
84 81 81

4494 5350 6206 7059 7911 8761 9609 0456


1301

2144 2986 3826 4665 5502

4579 5436 6291 7144 7996 8846 9694 0540 1385 2229 3070 3910 4749 558G
5

2172 3033 3895 4751 5607 6462 7315 8166 9015 9863 0710 1554 2397 3238 4078 4916 5753

2258 3119 3979 4837 5693 6547 7400 8251 9100 9948 0794
3323 4162 5000 5836
I

2344 3205 4005 4922 5778 6632 7485 8330 9185


..33

0879

1639 1723 2481 2566

3407 4246 5084 5920


9

8t

T~T

7~r8

A TABLE OF LOGARITHMS FROM


N.
"620
1

TO 10,000.
1

|l|2|3|4|6|fi|7|8|9iD.
7160031 6087| 6170 6254 6337 6838 6921 7004 7088 7171 7671 7754 7837 7920 8003 8502 8585 8668 8751 8834 9331 9414 9497 9580 9663
i

521

522 523 524 525 720159 526 0986 527 1811 528 2634 529 3450 530 724276 531 5095 532 6912 533 6727 7541 534 535 8354 536 9165 537 9974 538 730782 539 1589 540 732394 541 3197 3999 542 543 4800 544 6599 545 6397 546 7193 547 7987 87S1 548 9572 549 550 740363 551 1162 552 1939 553 2725 554 3510 4293 555 556 5075 557 5856 6634 558 7412 559 560 748188 8963 661 9736 562 563 750508 1279 664 2048 565 2816 566 567 3583 568 4348 569 5112 570 766875 6636 571 572 7396 573 8155 574 8912 575 9668 576 760422 577 1176 578 1928 2679 579

0242 0325 0407 0490 1068 1151 1233 1316 1893i 1976 2058 2140 2716 2798 2881 2963 3538 3620 3702 3784 4358 4440 4522 4604 5176 5258 6340 5422 5993 6076 6156 6238 6809 6890 6972 7063 7623 7704 7786 7866 8435. 8516 8597 8678 9246 9327 9408 9489

0863 1669 2474 3278 4079 4880 5679 6476 7272 8067 8860 9651 0442 1230 2018 2804 3588 4371 6163 6933 6712 7489 8266 9040 9814 0586

..65 .136 .217 .298 0944 1024 1105 1750 1830 1911

6421 65041 6588] 6671 6754 "SJ 7254 7338 742117504 7587 83 8086 81691 8253; 8336 8419 83 8917 90001 9083! 9165 9248 83 9746 9828 991 li 9994 ..77 83 0573 0655 0738,0821 0903 83 1398 1481 1563 1646 1728 82 2222 2305 2387 2469 2552 S2' 3045 3127 3209 3291 3374 82 3866 394>^ 4030 4112 4194 82 4686 4767 4849 4931 50 lo' 82 6503 5685 5667 5748 5830 S3 6320 64011 6483 6564 6646 82 7134 72161 7297 7379 7460 81 7948 8029 8110 8191 8273 81 8759 8841 8922 9003 9084 81 9570 9651 9732 9813 9893 81 .378 .459 540 .621 702 81 1186 1266 1347 1428 1508 SI 1991 2072 2162 2233 2313 81
.

2555 3358 4160 4960 6759 6556 7352 8146 8939

2635 343W 4240 5040 5838 6636


7431

8225 9018

9731 9810 0521 0600 1309 1388

2096 2882 3667 4449 6231


6011

2175.

6790 7667 8343 9118 9891 0663 1356 1433 2125 2202 2893 2970 3660 3736 4425 4501 6189 6265 6951 6027 6712 6788 7472 7548 8230 8308 8988 9063 9743 9819 0498 0573 1251 1326 2003 2078 275412829' 2904'

2961 3745 4528 5309 6089 6868 7645 8421 9195 9968 0740 1610 2279 3047 3813 4578 5341 6103 6864 7624 8382 9139 9894 0649 1402 2153

2716 3518 4320 6120 6918 6716 7511 8305 9097 9889 0678 1467 2254 3039 3823 4606 5387 6167 6945 7722 8498 9272

2796 3598 4400 6200 5998 6796 7590 8384 9177 9968 0757

2876 3679 4480 6279 6078 6874 7670 8463 9256


..47

2956 3769 4560 6359


61.57

0836

1646 1624 2332 2411

3118 3902 4684 5465 6245 7023 7800 8576 9360

3196 3980 4762 5543 6323


7101 7878

8653 9427

..45 .123 .200 0817 0894 0971 1687 1664 1741

0799 1552 2303 29781 3053

2356 3123 3889 4654 6417 6180 6940 7700 8458 9214 9970 0724 1477 2228

2433 3200 3966 4730 5494 6266 7016 7776 8633 9290

2509 3277 4042 4807 5570 6332 7092


7851

8609 9366

6954 7749 8543 9335 .126 0916 1703 2489 3275 4058 4840 5621 6401 7179 7955 8731 9504 .277 1048 1818 2586 3353 4119 4883 5646 6408 7168 7927 8685 9441

3037 3839 4640 5439 6237 7034 7829 8622 9414

3117 3919 4720 5519 6317 7113 7908 8701 9493

.205 .284

80 80 80 80 80 80 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 78 78 78 78 78 78 78

0994 1073
1782 1860 2568 2646 3353 3431

4136 4919 6699 6479 7256 8033 8808 9582

4215 4997 5777 6556 7334 8110 8885 9659

77
77

.354 .431 1125 1202 1895 1972 2663 2740 3430 3506

Y7 77
77 77 77

4195 4960 5722 6484 7244 8003 8761 9517

4272 5036 5799 6560 7320 8079 8836 9592

77
76 76

..46 .121

.196 .272 .347

0875 0950 1025 1101 1627 1702 1778 1853 2378 2453 2529 2604 3128' 3203 3278 3353

76 76 76 76 76 75 76

75 75 75
i

JJ.J

ll|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|>.

10
N.
ftao
1

A TABLE OF LOGARITHHS FKOM


1

TO
1

0,000.
i

3
1

D.
'^"

fwi

582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590


591

592 593 594 695 596 597 598 599 600


601

763428 4176 4923 6669 6413 7156 7898 8638 9377 770115 770852 1687 2322 3055 3786 4517 5246 5974 6701 7427 778151

3503 4251 4998 5743 6487 723t 7972 8712 9451 0189 0926
1661

3578, 3653 3727, 3802

8874

60^ 9596 603 780317 604 1037 605 1755 606 2473 607 3189 608 3904 609 4617 610 786330 611 6041 612 6751 613 7460 614 8168 615 8875 616 9581 617 790285 618 0988 619 1691 620 792392
621

2395 3128 3800 4590 5319 6047 6774 7499 8224 8947 9669 0389 1109 1827 2544 3260 3975 4689 5401 6112 6822 7531 8239 8946
9651

0356

1059 1761 1831 1901

4326 440C 5072 5147 5818 5892 (ib6^A 6636 7304 7379 8046 8120 8786 8860 9525 9599 0263 0330 0999 1073 1734 1808 2468 2542 3201 3274 3933 4006 4663 4730 5392 5405 6120 6193 6846 6919 7572 7644 8296 8368 9019 9091 9741 9813 0461 0533 1181 1253 1899 1971 2616 2688 3332 3403 4046 4118 4760 431 5472 5543 6183 6254 6893 6964 7602 7673 8310 8381 9016 9087 9722 9792 0426 0496 1129 1199
j

2462 2532 2002

3092, 3162 3231 3301

622 3790 623 4488 624 5185 625 5880 626 6574 627 7268 628 7960 629 8651 630 799341
631

8000291

632 633 631 635 636 637 638 639


N.
I

0717 1404 1472 15411 1609 2089 2158 2226 2295 2774 2842 2910 29791 34571 3525 35941 3602'
4139' 4208* 4276; 4344' 4821 4889: 4957 50251 55011 5509' 50371 5705
i

3860 3930 4000 4558 4627 46C7 5254 5324 53931 5949 6019 6088 6644 67131 6782 73371 7400 7475 8029 8098 8167 8720 8789 8858 9409 9478 9547 0098 0167 0236 0786 0854' 0923

6338 7082 7823 8194 8268 834*; 8416 8490 8504 8934 9008 9082 9 56 9230 9303 9673 9746 982C 9S94 9968 ..42 0410 0484 0557 0631 0705 07781 1 146 1220 1293 1367 1440 15141 1881 1955 2029 2102 2175 2248 2615 2688 2702 2835 2908 2981 3348 3421 349^ 3507 3640 3713 4079 4162 4225 4298 4371 4444 4809 4882 4955 5028 5100 5173 5538 5610 5683 5756 5829 5902 6265 6338 6411 6483 6556 6629 6992 7064 7137 7209 7282 7354 7717 7789 7862 7934 8006 8079 8441 8513 8585 8658 8730 8802 9163 9236 9308 9380 9452 9524 9885 9957 ..29 .101 .173 .245 0605 0677 0749 0821 0893 0965 1324 1396 1468 1540 1612 1684 2042 2114 2186 2258 2329 2401 2759 2831 2902 2974 3046 3117 3475 3540 3618 3689 3761 3832 4189 4261 4332 4403 4475 4546 4902 4974 5046 5116 5187 5259 5616 5686 6757 5828 .5899 5970 6325 6396 6467 6538 6609 6680 7035 7106 7177 724 7319 7390 7744 7815 7885 7956 8027 8098 8451 8522 8593 8663 8734 8804 9157 9228 9299 9369 9440 9510 9863 9933 ...4 ..74 .144 .215 0567 0637 0707 0778 0848 0918 1269 1340 1410 1480 1550 1620 1971 2041 2111 2181 2252 2322 2672 2742 2812 2882 2952 3022 3371 3441 3511 3581 3651 3721 4070 4139 4209 4279 4349 4418 4767 4836 4906 4976 5046 5115 5463 5532 5002 5672 5741 5811 61581 6227 0297 6366 6436 6505 6852|6921 6990 7060 7129 7198 75451 7614 7683 7752 7821 7890 8236 8305 8374 8443 8518 8582 89271 8990 9065 9134 9203 9272 9016 9685 97.54 9823 9892 9961 0305: 0373 0442 0511 0580 0648 0992 1061 1129 1198 1266 1335 1678! 1747 1815 1884 1952 2021 2303 24321 2500 2568 2637 2705 3047; 3116 3184 3252 3321 3389 3730 3798 3867 39.35 4003 4071 4112; 4480 4548 4616 4685 4753 5093' 5l6l| 52291 5297 5365 5433 5773' 58411 59081 59 6 OO'U 6112

1
1

3877, 3952 4027 4475 455C 462' 4699 477^ 5221 5296 537f 5445 5520 5960 004] 6iU 619( 026-1 6710 6785 685 093: 7007 7453 7527 7001 7675 7749
)

14101 4848
559^

75 75 74
74 74

74
74

74 74 74 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72
71
71

71
71 71 71

71
71

71

70 70 70 70

70 70 70 70 70 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 68 68 68 68 68

4"!
I

D.

A FABLE OF LOGARITH3IS FROM

ro 10,000.
1

11
1

N^
640
641

4
1
!

U.
1

612 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 G69 670
671

806180 624."= 6316 6384 6858 6926 6994 17061 7535 760;^ 7670 !7738 8211 8279 S346 '8414 8886 8953 9021 90S8 9560 9627 9694 9762 810233 0300 0367 0434 0904 0971 1039 1106
' ; '

6451 6519 71x^9 7197 7806 7873 8481 8549 9156 19223 9829 9896
i
i

65871 6655 6723 6790

7264 7332 7400 794 ll 8008 8076 86161 8684 8751 9290 93.58 9425
99641

0.501

0569 0636
2646 3314 3981 4647
.5312

1173 1240 1307 1575 1642 1709 1776 1843 1910 1977

2245 812913 3581 4248 4913 5578


6241

6904 7565 8226 8885 819544 820201 0858


1514 2168 2822 3474 4126 4776 5426 826075 6723 7369 8015 8660 9304 9947 830589 1230 1870 832509 3147 3784 4421 5056 5691 6324 6957 7588 8219 838849 9478 840106 0733 1359 1985 2609 3233 3855 4477

672 073 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 681 685 686 687 688 689 690
691 692

2312 2980 3648 4314 4980 56'M 6308 6970 7631 8292 8951 9610 0267 0924 1579 2233 2887 3539 4191 4841 5491 6140 6787 7434 8080 8724 9368
..11

2379 2445 2512 2579 3047 3114 3181 3247 3714 3781 3S4S 3914 4381 4447 4514 4.581 5046 5113 5179 5246 5711 5777 5843 .5910 6374 6440 6.506 6573 7036 7102 7169 7235 7698 7764 7830 7896 8358 8424 8490 85.56 9017 9083 9149 9215 9676 9741 9807 9873 0333 0399 0464 0530 0989 10.55 1120 1 186 1645 1710 1775 1841 2299 2364 2430 2495 29.52 3018 3083 3148 8605 3670 3735 3800 4256 4321 4386 4451 4906 4971 5036 5101 5556 5621 5686 5751 6204 6269 63.34 6399 6852 6917 6981 7046 7499 7563 7628 7692 8144 8209 8273 8338 8789 8853 8918 8982 0432 9497 9561 9625
..75 .139 .204 .268
13.58

5976 6639 7301 7962 8622 9281 9939 0595


1251

1906 2560 3213 3865 4516 5166


.5815

6464 7111 7757 8402 9046 9690


.332

693 694 695 696' 697 69S 699


N.

7083 7273 7715 7904 8345 8534 8975 9101 9164 9604 9667 9729 9792 0232 0294 0357 0420 0796! 0859 0921 0984 1046 14221 1485 1547 1610 1672 2047 2110 2172 2235 2297 2672 2734 2796 2859 2921 3295 3357 3420 3482 3544 3918 3980 4042 4104 4166 4539 4601 4664 4726 478S
i

0653 1294 1934 2573 3211 3848 4484 5120 5754 6387 7020 7652 8282 8912 9541 0169

0717 0781 0845 0909 0973


1998

2637 3275 3912 4548 5183 5817


6451

1422 2062 2700 3338 3975 4611 5247 5881 6514 7146 7778 8408 9038

1486 1.550 1614

2126 2764 3402 4039 4675 5310 5944 6577 7210 7841 8471

2189 2828 3466 4103 4739 5373 6007

2253 2892 3530 4166 4802 5437


6071

6641 6704

7336 7967 8597 9227 9855 0482


1109 1735 2360 2983 3606 4229 4S50
I

7467 8143 8818 9492 ..31 ..98 .165 0703 0770 0837 1374 1441 1508 2044 2111 2178 2713 2780 2847 3381 3448 3514 4048 4114 4181 4714 4780 4847 5378 5445 5511 6042 6109 6175 6705 6771 6838 7367 7433 7499 8028 8094 8160 8688 8754 8820 9346 9412 9478 ...4 ..70 .136 0661 0727 0792 1317 1.382 1448 1972 2037 2103 2626 2691 2756 3279 3344 3409 3930 3996 4001 4581 4646 4711 .5231 5296 5361 5880 5945 6010 6528 6593 6658 7175 7240 7305 7821 7886 7951 8467 8.531 8595 9111 9175 9239 97.54 9818 9882 396 .460 .525 10.37 1102 1166 1078 1742 1806 2317 2381 2445 2956 3020 3083 3593 3657 3721 4230 4294 4357 4866 4929 4993 5.500 5564 5627 6134 6197 6261 6767 6830 6894 7399 7462 7.525 8030 8093 81.56 8660 8723 8786 9289 9352 9415 9918 9981 ..43 0545 0608 0071 1172 1234 1297 1797 1860 1922 2422 2484 2547 3046 3108 3170 3669 3731 3793 4291 4353 4415 4912 4974 .5030
7
I

68 68 68 67 67 67 67 67 67
6/

67 67 67 66 66 66 66 66 66 66

66 66 66 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 66 65 64 64 64 64
64 64

64 64
64 64

64 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 62 62 62
fi2

62

2J

li>

A TABLE OP LOGARITHMS FROM


1

TO 10,000.
j

N.

|l|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9iD.
845098 5718 6337 6955 7573 8189 8805 9419 850033 0646 851258
5160t 6222 5284 5346 5408 5470 5532 5594 5656,

700

6:j|

5780 5842 701 702 6399 6461 7017 7079 703 704 7634 7696 705 8251 8312 706 8806 8928 707 9481 9542 708 0095 0156 709 0707 0769 710 1320 1381 711 1870 1931 1992 712 2480 2541 2602 713 3090 3150 3211 714 3898 3759 3820 715 4306 4307 4428 716 4913 4974 5034 717 5519 5580 5640 718 6124 6185 6245 719 6729 6789 6850 720 857332 7393 7453 721 7935 7995 8056 722 8537 8597 8657 723 9138 9198 9258 724 9739 9799 9859 725 860338 0398 0458 726 0937 0996 1056 727 1534 1594 1654 728 2131 2191 2251 729 2728 2787 2847 730 863323 3382 3442 3917 3977 4036 731 732 4511 4570 4630 5104 5163 5222 733 734 5696 5755 5814 735 6287 6346 6405 73b 6878 6937 6996 737 7467 7526 7585 738 8056 8115 8174 739 8644 8703 8762 740 869232 9290 9349 9818 9877 9935 741 742 870404 0462 0521 0989 1047 1106 743 1573 1631 1690 744 745 2156 2215 2273 746 2739 2797 2855 747 3321 3379 3437 3902 3960 4018 748 4482 4540 4598 749 750 875061 5119 5177 5640 5698 5756 751 6218 6276 6333 752 6795 6853 6910 753 7.'} 71 751 7429 7487 755 7947 8004 8062 756 8522 8579 8637 757 9006 9153 9211 -58 9669 9726 9784 759 880242 0299 0356
N.
1

5904 5966 6028 6523 G585 6646 7141 7202 7264 7758 7819 7881 8374 8435 8497 8989 9051 9112 9604 9665 9726 0217 0279 0340 0830 0891 0952 1442 1503 1564 2053 2114 2175 2663 2724 2785 3272 3333 3394 3881 3941 4002 4488 4549 4610 6095 5156 5216 5701 5761 5822 6306 6366 6427 6910 6970 7031 7613 7574 7634 8116 8176 8236 8718 8778 8833 9318 9379 9439 9918 9978 ..38 0518 0578 0637
1714 2310 2906 3501 4096 4689 5282 5874 6465 7055 7644 8233 8821 9408 9994 0579
1164 1748 2331 2913 3495

1116 1176 1773 2370 2966 3561

4155 4748
6341 5933 6524 7114 7703 8292 8879 9466 ..53 0638 1223 1806 2389 2972 3563 4134 4714 5293 5871 6449 7026 7602 8177 8752 9325 9898 0171
1

1236 1833 2430 3025 3620 4214 4808 5400 5992 6583 7173 7762 8350 8938
9525'

.111

0696

4076 4656 5235 5813


6391 6968

7544 8119 8694 9268 9841 0413


1

1281 1398 1865 1981 2448 2564 3030 3146 3611 3727 4192 4308 4772 4888 5466 6351 6045 6929 6507 6622 7083 7199 7659 7774 8349 8234 8809 8924 9383 9497 9956 ..13 ..70 0528 0585 0642
1

6090 6708 7320 7943 8559 9174 9788 0401 1014 1625 2236 2846 3455 4063 4670 5277 5882 6487 7091 7694 8297 8898 9499 ..98 0697 1295 1893 2489 3085 3680 4274 4867 5459 6051 6642 7232 7821 8409 8997 9584 .170 0755 1339 1923 2506 3088 3669 4250 4830 5409 5987 6564 7141 7717 8292 8866 9440

6151 6213 6275

62

6770 7388 8004 8620 9235 9849 0462 1075 1686 2297 2907 3516 4124 4731 5337 5943 6548 7152 7755 8357 8958 9559
.158

0757 1355
1952 2549 3144 3739 4333 4926 5519 6110 6701
7291

7880 8468 9056 9642


.228

0813

6832 6894 ^3 62 7'149 7511 8066 8128 62 8682 8743 62 9297 9358 61 9911 9972 61 0524 0585 01 1136 1197 01 1747 1809 "61 2358 2419 01 2968 3029 61 3577 3037 61 4185 4245 6J 4792 4852 61 5398 5459 01 6003 6064 61 6608 6668 60 7212 7272 60 7815 7875 60 8417 8477 60 9018 9078 60 9619 9679 60 .218 .278 60 0817 0877 60 1415 1475 60 2012 2072 60 2608 2668 60 3204 3263 60 3799 3858 59 4392 4452 59 4985 5045 59 5578 5637 59 6169 6228 59 6760 6819 59 7350 7409 59 7939 7998 59 8527 8586 59 9114 9173 59 9701 9760 59 .287 .345 59 0872 0930 68 1456 1515 58 2040 2098 58 2622 2681 58 3204 3262 58 3785 3844 68 4366 4424 68 4945 5003 58 5524 5582 58 6102 6160 58 6680 6737 68 7256 7314 58 7832 7889 58 8407 8464 57 8981 9039 57 9555 9612 57 .127 .185 57 57 0699 0756
1

I).

A TAFIK OF I.OOARlTHJlis FKOM


N.
1

TO 10,000.

13
1

7W
761

ll|2|3|4|5|6l7l8|9lD.
880814 0871 0928 0985 i042| 1099, 1156 1213 1271 1328
1385 1955 2525 3093 3661 4229 4795 5361 5920 886491 7054 7617 8179 8741 9302 9862 890421 0980 1537 892095 2651 3207 3762 4316 4870 5423 5975 6526 7077 897627 8176 8725 9273 9821 900367 0913
1458

762 763 764 765 766 767 768


769

770
771

772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780


781

1442 2012 2581 3150 3718 4285 4852 5418 5983 6547 7111 7674 8236 8797 9358 9918 0477

2069 2638 3207 3775 4342 4909 5474 6039 6604 7167 7730 8292 8853 9414 9974 0533

1499 1550 1613 1670 1727 1784 1841 1898 2120 2183 2240 2297 2354 2411 2468

2695 8264 3832 4399 4965 5531 6096 6600 7223 7786 8348 8909 9470

2752 2809 3321 3377 3888 3945 4455 4512 5022 5078 5587 5644 0152 6209 6716 0773 7280 7336 7842 7898 8404 8460 8905 9021 9526 9582

..30 ..86 .141

0589 0645 0700

1035 1091 1147 1203 1259 1593 1049 1705 1760 1816

782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790


791

792 793 794 795 790 797 798 799 800


801

2150 2707 3262 3817 4371 4925 5478 6030 6581 7132 7682 8231 8780 9328 9875 0422 0968

802 803 804 M05 806 807 S08 809


811

2003 2547 903090 3633 4174 4716 5256 5796 6335 6874 7411 7949 908485
9021

812 813 814 315 816 817 818 819

9556 910091 0624 1158 1690 2222 2753 3284


:
1

2206 2762 3318 3873 4427 4980 5533 6085 6636 7187 7737 8286 8835 9383 9930 0470 1022 1513 1567 2057 2112 2601 2655 3144 3199 3687 3741 4229 4283 4770 4824 5310 5364 5850 5904 6389 6443 6927 6981 7405 7519 8002 8056 8539 8592 9074 9128 9610 9663 0144 0197 0678 0731 1211 1204 1743 1797 2275 2328 2806' 2859 33371 3390
1
1

2262 2818 3373 3928 4482 5036 5588 6140 0692 7242 7792 8341 8890 9437 9985
0.531

2317 2873 3429 3984 4538 5091 5644 6195 6747 7297 7847 8396 8944 9492
..39
1131

2373 2929 3484 4039 4593 5146


.5699

6251 6802

7352 7992 8451 8999 9547


..94

2866 3434 4002 4569 5135 5700 6265 6829 7392 7955 8516 9077 9638 .197 0750 1314 1872 2429 2985 3540 4094 4648 5201 5754 6306 6857 7407 7957 8506 9054 9602
.149

2923 3491 4059 4625 5192 5757 6321 6885 7449 8011 8573 9134 9694

2980 3548 4115 4682 5248 5813 6378 6942 7505 8067 8629 9190 9750

3037 3605 4172 4739 5305 5870 6434 6998 7561 8123 8685 9246 9806

67 57 57 57 57 67 57 57
57

56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 55 55 55 55 5^ 55 55 55 55 55 55
F'^

.253 .309 .305

0812 0868 1370 1426 1928 1983 2484 2540 3040 3096 3595 3051 41.50 4205 4704 4759 5257 5312 5809 5864 0301 6416 0912 6967 7462 7517 8012 8067 8561 8615 9109 9164 9656 9711
.203
.2.58

0924
1482 2039 2595 3151 3706 4261 4814 5367 5920 6471 7022 7572 8122 8670 a2l8 9766 .312 0859 1404 1948 2492 3036 3578 4120 4661 5202 5742 6281 6820 7358 7895 8431 8967 9503 ..37 0571 1104 1637 2169 2700 3231 3761
!

0586 0640 0695 0749 0804


1186 1240 1295 1.349 1676 1731 1785 1840 1894 2221 2275 2329 2384 2438 2764 2818 2873 2927 2981
.3307

1077 1622 2166 2710 3253 3795 4337 A37S 5418 5958 6497 7035 7573 8110 8646 9181 9716 0251 0784 1317 1850 2381 2913 3443
1

3849 4391 4932 5472 6012 6551 7089 7026 8163 8099 9235 9770 0304 0838
1371

1903

2435 2906 3496


1

3361 3904 4445 4986 5526 6066 6604 7143 7680 8217 8753 9289 9823 0358 0891 1424 1956 2488 3019 3549
1

3416 3958 4499 5040 5580 6119 6658 7196 7734 8270 8807 9342 9877 0411 0944
1477 2009 2541 3072 3002
6
1

3470 4012 4553 5094 5634 6173 6712 7250 7787 8324 8860 9396 9930 0404 0998
15.30

3524 4066 4607 5148 5688 6227 6766 7304


7841

8378 8914 9449 9984 0518


1051

55 55 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 63
1

2063 2594 3125 3055


7
i

1584 2116 2647 3178 3708


8

"n."

D.l

14
N.
1

A TABLE OF I.OGARITIOIS FKOM

TO 10,000.
1

|l!2|3|4|5|6|7|8i9|D.
3867 4396 4925 5453 5980 6507 7033 7558 8083 8607 9130 9653 0176 0697 1218
1738

820 913814, 4343 821 4872 822 5400 823 824 5927 825 6454 826 69S0 827 7506 828 8030 829 8555 830 919078 831 9001 832 920123 833 0645 834 1166 835 1686 836 2206 837 2725 838 3244 839 3762 840 924279 841 4796 842 5312 843 5828 84t 6342 845 6857 846 7370 847 7883 848 8396 849 8908 850 929419 851 9930 852 930440 853 0949 854 1458 855 1966 856 2474 857 2981 858 3487 859 3993 860 934498 861 5003 862 5507 863 6011 864 6514 865 7016 866 7518 887 8019 868 8520 869 9020 870 939519 871 940018 872 0516 875J 1014 874 1511 2008 875 876 2504 877 3000 878 3495 879 3989
N.
1

2258 2777 3296 3814 4331 4848 5354 5879 6394 6908 7422 7935 8447 8959 9470 9981 0491 1000 1509 2017 2524 3031 3538 4044 4549 5064 5558 6061 6564 7066 7566 8069 8570 9070 9569 0068 0566 1064
2058 2554 3049 3544 4038
1
1

3920 4449 4977 5505 6033 6559 7085 7611 8135 8659 9183 9706 0228 0749 1270 1790 2310 2829 3348 3865 4383 4899 5415 5931 6445 6959 7473 7986 8498 9010 9521
..32

0542
1051

1560 2068 2575 3082 3589 4094 4599 5104 5608 6111 6614 7117 7618 8119 8620 9120 9619 0118 0616 1114

1561 1611

2107 2603 3099 3593 4088


2
1

3973 4502 5030 5558 6085 6612 7138 7663 8188 8712 9235 9758 0280 0801 1322 1842 2362 2881 3399 3917 4434 4951 546 7 5982 6497 7011 7524 8037 8549 9061 9572 ..83 0592 1102 1610 2118 2626 3133 3639 4145 4650 5154 5658 0162 6665 7167 7668 8169 8670 9170 9669 0168 0666 1163 1660 2157 2653 3148 3643 4137
3
1

4026 4555 5083 5611 6138 6664 7190 7716 8240 8764 9287 9810 0332 0853 1374 1894 2414 2933 3451 3969 4486 5003 5518 6034 6548 7062 7576 8088 8601 9112 9623

4079 4608 5136 5664 6191 6717 7243 7768 8293 8816 9340 9862 0384 0900 1426
1946

4132 4660 5189 5716 6243 6770 7295 7820 8345 8869 9392 9914 0436 0958
1478 1998

2466 2985 3503 4021 4538 5054 5570 6085 6G00 7114 7627 8140 8652 9163 9674

2518 3037 3555 4072 4589 5106 5621 6137 6651 7165 7678 8191 8703 9215 9725

4184 4237 42901 4713 4766 4819 5241 5294 5347 5769 5822 5875 6296 6349 6401 6822 6875 6927 7348 7400 7453 7873 7925 7978 8397 8450 8502 8921 8973 9026 9444 9496 9549 9967 ..19 ..71 0489 0541 0593 1010 1062 1114 1530 1582 1634 2050 2102 2154 2570 2622 2674 3089 3140 3192 3607 3658 3710 4124 4176 4228 4641 4693 4744 5157 5209 5261 5673 5725 5776 6188 6240 6291 6702 6754 6805 7216 7268 7319 7730 7781 7832 8242 8293 8345 8754 8805 8857 9266 9317 9368 9776 9827 9879

53 53 53 53 53 53 53 52 52 52
52

52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52
51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 61 61 51 51

.134 .185 .236 .287 .333 .389,

0643 0694 0745 0796 0847 08981 1153 1204 1254 1305 1356 1407;
1661

2169 2677 3183 3690 4196 4700 5205 5709 6212 6715 7217 7718 8219 8720 9220 9719 0218 0716 1213
1710

1712 2220 2727 3234 374C 4246 4751 5255 5759

1763 2271 2778 3285 3791

4296 4801 5306


.5809

6262' 6313

2207 2702 3198 3692 4186


4
1

6765 7267 7769 8269 8770 9270 9769 0267 0765 1263 1760 2256 2752 3247 3742
5

6815 7317 7819 8320 8820 9320 9819 0317 0815 1313 1809 2306 2801 3297 3791 42361 4285
6
i

1814 2322 2829 3335 3841 4347 4852 5356 5860 6363 6865 7367 7869 8370 8870 9369 9869 0367 0865 1362 1859 2355 2851 3346 3841 4335
7
1

1865 1915

2372 2879 3386 3892 4397 4902 5406 5910 6413 6916 7418 7919 8420 8920 9419 9918 0417 0915

2423 2930 3437 3943


'1448

4953
.5457 .5960

64G3 6966 7468 7969 8470 8970 9469 9968 0467 0964 1412 1462 1909 1958 2405 2455 2901 2950 3396 3445 3890 3939' 4384 4433
8
1

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
49

49 49
!^
1

A TABLE OF LOGARITHMS FROM


N.
i 1

TO 10,000.
1

15
1

D.
j

880~ 944483 4532 4581 4631 4680 4729 4779 48281 48771 4927 881 4976 5025 5074 5124 5173 5222 5272 5321 537015419 882 5469 5518 5567 5616 5665 5715 5764 5813 5862 59 1 21 883 5961 GOlO 6059 6108 6157 6207 6256 6305 6354 6403; 884 6452 G501 6551 6600 6649 6698 6747 6796 6845 6894 885 G943 6992 7041 7090 7140 7189 7238 7287 7336 7385 886 7434 7483 7532 7581 7630 7679 7728 7777 7826 7875 887 7924 7973 8022 8070 8119 8168 8217 8266 8315 8364 888 8413 8462 8511 8560 8609 8657 8706 8755 8804 8853 889 8902 8951 8999 9048 9097 9146 9195 9244 9292 9341 H90 949390 9439 94881 9536 9585 9634 9683 9731 9780 9829 891 9878 9926 9975 ..24 ..73 .121 .170 .219 .267 .316 892 950365 0414 04G2 0511 0560 0608 0657 0706 0754 0803 893 0851 0900 0949 0997 104G 1095 1143 1192 1240 1289 894 1338 1386 1435 1483 1532 1580 1629 1677 1726 1775 895 1823 1872 1920 1969 2017 2066 2114 2163 2211 2260 S96 2308 2356 2405 2453 2502 2550 2599 2647 2696 2744 897 2792 2841 2889 2938 2986 3034 3083 3131 3180 322S 898 3276 3325 3373 3421 3470 3518 3566 3615 3663 3711 899 3760 3808 3856 3905 3953 4001 4049 4098 4146 4194 9UU 954243 4291 4339 4387 4435 4484 4532 4580 4628 4677 901 4725 4773 4821 4869 4918 4966 5014 5062 5110 5158 902 5207 6255 5303 5351 5399 5't47 5495 5543 5592 5640 903 5688 5736 5784 5832 5880 5928 5976 6024 6072 6120 904 6168 6216 6265 6313 6361 6409 6457 6505 6553 6601 905 6649 6697 6745 6793 6840 6888 6936 6984 7032 7080 QO*! 7128 7176 7224 7272 7320 73G8 7416 7464 7512 7559 907 7G07 7655 7703 7751 7799 7847 7894 7942 7990 8038 908 8086 8134 8181 8229 8277 8325 8373 8421 8468 8516 909 8564 8612 8659 8707 8755 8803 8850 8898 8946 8994 910 939041 9089 9137 9185 9232 9280 9328 9375 9423 9471 911 9518 9566 9614 9661 9709 9757 9804 9852 9900 9947 912 9995 ..42 ..90 .138 .185 .233 .280 .328 .376 .423 913 960471 0518 0566 0613 0661 0709 0756 0804 0851 0899 0946 0994 1041 1089 1136 1184 1231 1279 1326 13741 914 915 1421 1469 1516 1563 1611 1658 1706 1753 1801 1848 916 1895 1943 1990 2038 2085 2132 2180 2227 2275 2322 917 2369 2417 2464 2511 2559 2606 2653 2701 2748 2795 918 2843 2890 2937 2985 3032 3079 3126 3174 3221 3268 919 3316 3363 3410 3457 3504 3552 3599 3646 3693 3741 920 963788 3835 3882 3929 3977 4024 4071 4118 4165 ^212 4260 4307 4354 4401 4448 4495 4542 4590 4637 46841 921 922 4731 4778 4825 4872 4919 4966 5013 5061 5103 5155 5202 5249 5296 5343 5390 5437 5484 5531 5578 5625 923 924 5672 5719 5766 5813 5860 5907 5954 6001 6048 0095 925 6142 6189 6236 6283 6329 6376 6423 6470 6517 6564 926 6611 6658 6705 6752 6799 6845 6892 6939 6'/86 7033 927 7080 7127 7173 7220 7267 7314 7361 7408 7454 7501 928 7548 7595 7642 7688 7735 7782 7829 7875 7922 7969 929 8016 8062 8109 8166 8203 8249 8296 8343 8390 8436| 930 968483 8530 8576 8623 8670 '87 IG 8763 8810 8856 8903; 931 8950 8996 9043 9090 91.36 9183 9229 9276 9323 9369' 932 9416 9463 9509 9556 9602 9649 9695 9742 9789 9835 933 9882 9928 9975 ..21 ..68. .114 .161 .207 .254 .3001 934 970347 0393 0440 0486 0533 0579 0626 0672 0719 07651 935 0812 0858 0904 0951 0997 1044 1090 ,1137 1183 1229 936 1276 1322 1369 1415 1461 1508 1.554 1601 1647 1693! 937 1740 1786 1832 1879 1925 1971 2018 12064 2110 21571 2203 224S 2295 2342 2388 2434 2481 2527 2573 26191 938 26661 2712' 2758' 2804' 285l' 2897' 2943' 2989' 3035' 3082' 939
1 1

49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 47 47

47 47 47 47 47
17 47

47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 46 46 4G 46 46 46
|

N.

'

D.

IP
N.

A TABLE OF LOGARITHMS FROM

TO 10,000.
1

|l|2|3|4|5|6|7|8l9|D.
973128 3590 4051 4512 4972 6432 5891 6350 6808 7266 977724 8181 8637 9093 9548 980003 0468 0912 1366 1819 982271 2723 3175 3626 4077 4527 4977 6420 6875 6324 986772 7219 7666 8113 8559 9005 9450 9895 990339 0783 991226 1669 2111 2564 2995 3436 3877 4317 4757 5196 995635 6074 6512 6949 7386 7823 8259 8695 9131

940
941

942 943 944 945 946 9i7 948 949 950


951

952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 96i 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990
991

3174 3636 4097 4568 6018 6478 5937 6396 6854 7312 7769 8226 8683 9138 9594 0049 0503 0957
1411 1864

3220 3682 4143 4604 6064 5524 6983 6442 6900 7368 7816 8272 8728 9184 9639 0094 0549

992 993
t/94

995 996 d97 998 999

2316 2769 3220 3671 4122 4672 6022 6471 5920 6369 6817 7264 7711 8167 8604 9049 9494 9939 0383 0827 1270 1713 2166 2698 3039 3480 3921 4361 4801 6240 5679 6117 6555 6993 7430 7867 8303 8739 9174 9565; J609
1

3266 3728 4189 4660 6110 5570 6029 6488 6946 7403 7861 8317 8774 9230 9685 0140 0594 1003 1048 1466 1601 1909 1954 2362 2407 2814 2859 3266 3310 3716 3762 4167 4212 4617 4062 6067 6112 6516 6561 6966 6010 6413 6468 6861 6906 7309 7363 7756 7800 8202 8247 8648 8693 9094 9138 9639 9583 9983 ..28 0428 0472 0871 0916 1316 1369 1768 1802 2200 2244 2642 2686 3083 3127 3624 3568 3965 4009 4405 4449 4846 4889 5284 6328 6723 5767 6161 6205 6599 6643 7037 7080 7474 7617 7910 7954 8347 8390 8782 8826 9218 9-^r.i 9652 [){][){)
2
1

3313 3774 4235 4696 5156 5616 6076 6633 6992 7449 7906 8363 8819 9275 9730 0185 0640 1093 1647 2000 2462 2904 3366 3807 4257 4707 6167 5606 6065 6503 6951 7398 7845 8291 8737 9183 9628

3359 3820 4281 4742 6202 6662


6121

6679 7037 7495 7952 8409 8865 9321 9776 0231 0685 1139 1692 2046 2497 2949 3401 3852 4302 4752 6202 6661 6100 6648 6996 7443 7890 8336 8782 9227 9672
0561 1004 1448 1890 2333 2774 3216 3657 4097 4537 4977 6416 5864 6293 6731 7168 7606 8041 8477 8913 9348 9783
1

3405 3866 4327 4788 5248 6707 6167 6626 7083 7641 7998 8464 8911 9366 9821 0276 0730 1184 1637 2090 2643 2994 3446 3897 4347 4797 6247 6696 6144 6593 7040 7488 7934 8381 8826 9272 9717 0605 1049 1492 1935 2377 2819 3260 3701 4141
4.581 .5021

3451 3497 3543 3913 3959 4005

4374 4S34 5294 5763 6212


6671 7129 7586

8043 8500 8956 9412 9867 0322 0776 1229 1683 2135 2588 3040

4420 4880 5340 5799 6258 6717 7176 7632 8089 8646 9002 9457 9912 0367
0821 1276 1728 2181

2633 3085

3491 3636

3942 .3987 4392 4437 4842 4887 6292 6337 6741 6786 6189 6234 6637 6682 7085 7130 7532 7577 7979 8024 8425 8470 8871 8916 9316 9361 97G1 9806
0660 0694 1093 1137 1536 1580 1979 2023 2421 2466 2863 2907 3304 3348 3745 3789 4185 4x529 4626 4669 6065 5108 6504 5647 6942 5986 6380 6424 6818 6862 7255 7299 7692 7736 8129 8172 8564 8608 9000 9043 9435 9479 987019913
1

4466 4926 5386 5846 6304 6763 7220 7678 8136 8691 9047 9503 9968 0412 0867 1320 1773 2226 2678 3130 3581 4032 4482 4932 5382 5830 6279 6727 7176 7622 8068 8514 8960 9405 9850 0738 1182 1625 20B7 2509 2951 3392
38331

46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46
46

..72 .117 .161

.206 .260 .294

0516 0960 1403 1846 2288 2730 3172 3613 4063 4493 4933 6372
.5811

46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 46 46 45 45 45 45 46 46 44 44 44 44 44 44 44

U
44 44
44 44

4273 4713 5152


.5691

5460
.6898

44 44
44 44
44 41 44

6030
6468J

6249 6687 7124 7661 7998 8434 8869 9305 9739


1

6337 6774 7212 7648 8086


8.521

6906 7343
7779!

8956 9392 9826


1

8216 8652 9087 9522


()!)57

IN.

M^

I).
!

A TABLE
OP

LOGARITHMIC

SINES AND TANGENTS


FOR BTKRT

DEGREE AND MINUTE


OF THE QUADRANT.

N.

The minutes

in

the left-hand

column of each page,


;

increasing downwards, helong to the degrees at the top

and

those increasing upwards, in the right-hand column, belong to

the degrees below.

~
1

18

Degi ee.)
I

A TABLE OF LOGARITHM^;
|

Sine

D.

Cosine

D.

Tana.

D.

Coiang.
ililliiUt;.

"0 0.000000
1

2 3

4
6 6 7 8
9 10
11

12 13 14 15 16

17
18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

40
41

42 43 44 46 46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 64 65 56 57

58 59
60

6.463726 764756 940847 7.065786 162696 241877 308824 366816 417968 463725 7.505118 542906 577668 609853 639816 667845 694173 718997 742477 764754 7.785943 806146 825451 843934 861662 878695 895085 910879 926119 940842 7.955082 968870 982233 995198 8.007787 020021 031919 043501 054781 065776 8.076500 086965 097183 107167 116926 126471 135810 144953 153907 162681 8.171280 179713 187985 196102 204070 211895 219581 227134 234557 241855
Cosine
1

501717 293485 208231 161517 131968 111575 96653 85254 76263 68988 62981 57936 53641 49938 46714 43881 41372 39135 37127 35315 33672 32175 30805 29547 28388 27317 26323 25399 24538 23733 22980 22273 21608 20981
20390. 19831

19302 18801 18325 17872 17441 17031 16639 16265 15908 15566
1.5238

14924 14622 14333 14054 13786 13529 13280 13041 12810 12587 12372 12164 11963

10.000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 9.999999 999999 999999 999999 999998 9.999998 999997 999997 999996 999996 999995 999995 999994 999993 999993 9.999992 999991 999990 999989 999988 999988 999987 999986 999985 999983 9.999982 999981 999980 999979 999977 999976 999975 999973 999972 999971 9.999969 999968 999966 999964 999963 999961 999959 999958 999956 999954 9.999952 999950 999948 999946 999944 999942 999940 999938 999936 999934

00 00 00 00 00
01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01

02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 (3 04 04 04 04 04
1

0.000000 6.463726 764756 940847 7.065786 162696 241878 308825 366817 417970 463727 7.505120 542909 577672 609857 639820 667849 694179 719003 742484 764761 7.785951 806155 825460 843944 861674 878708 895099 910894 926134 940858 7.955100 968889 982253 995219 8.007809 020045 031945 043527

60 501717 13.536274 59 293483 235244 58 208231 059153 57 161517 12.934214 5G 131969 837304 55 111578 758122 54 99653 691175 53 85254 633183 52 76263 .582030 51 68988 536273 50 62981 12.494880 49 57933 457091 48 53642 422328 47 49939 390143 46 46715 360180 45 43882 332151 44 41373 305S21 43 39136 280997 42 37128 257616 41 35136 235239 40 33673 12.214049 39 32176 193845 38 30806 174540 37 29549 156056 30 28390 138326 35 27318 121292 34 26325 104901 33 25401 089100 32 24540 073St;6 31 23735 059142 30 22981 12.044900 29 22275 031111 28 21610 017747 27 2()!)83 004781 26 2r.^92 11.992191 25 iy;^:v.3 979955 24 9680.55' 23 19305 18803 956473 22 0.54S09 18327 945191 21 065806 17874 934194 20 8.076531 17444 11.923469 19 086997 17034 913003 18 097217 16642 902783 17 107202 16268 892797 16 116963 15910 883037 15 126510 15568 873490 14 135851 15241 864149 13 144996 14927 855004 12 153952 14627 846048 11 162727 14336 837273 10 8.171328 14057 11 828672 '9 179763 13790 8202371 8 188036 13532 811964'. 196156 13284 803844 6 204126 13044 795874 5 788047 4 211953 12814 12590 219641 780359 3 227195 r^37n 772805 2 234621 12168 765379 758079 241921 11967
1

Sine

Clang.
1

Tans:.
I

M.
1

K) Degrenii.

SINES

AND TANGENTS.
Cosine
1

(I
Tang.

Degree.

19
Cotaiip.

nn
1

Sine

D.

D.

2 3
4

5 6 7 8 9 10
11

12

13 14 15
16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 2t 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44

45 46 47
48 49
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 53 59 60

8.241855 349033 256094 263042 269881 276614 283243 289773 296207 302540 30S794 8.314954 321027 327016 332924 338753 344504 350181 355783 361315 366777 8.372171 377499 382762 387962 393101 398179 403199 408161 413068 417919 8.422717 427462 432156 436800 441394 445941 450440 454893 459301 463665 8.467985 472263 478498 480693 484848 488963 493040 497078 501080 605045 8..508974 512867 516726 520551 524343 528102 531828 63552? 539186
.542819
Cosine

11963 11768 11580 11398 11221 11050 10883 10721 10565 10413 10266 10122 9982 9847 9714 9586 9460 9338 9219 9103 8990 8880 8772

8667 8564 8464 8366


8271 8177 8086 7996 7909 7823 7740 7657 7577 7499 7422 7346 7273 7200 7129 7060
6991 6924
68.59

6794 6731 6669 6608 654S 6489 6431 6375 6319 6264 6211
61.58

6106 6055 6004


i

9.999934 999932 999929 999927 999925 999922 999920 999918 999915 999913 999910 9.999907 999905 999902 999899 999897 999894 999891 999888 999885 999882 9.999879 999876 999873 999870 999867 999864 999861 999858 999854 999851 9.999848 999844 999841 999838 999834 999831 999827 999823 999820 999816 9.999812 999809 999805 999801 999797 999793 999790 999786 999782 999778 9.999774 999769 999765 999761 999757 999753 999748 999744 999740 999735
'"
1

04 8.241921 11967 249102 11772 04 256165 11684 04 263115 11402 04 04 269956 11225 276691 11054 04 283323 10887 04 289856 10726 04 296292 10570 04 302634 10418 04 308884 10270 04 04 8.315046 10126 321122 9987 04 327114 9851 04 333025 9719 05 338956 9590 05 344610 9465 05 350289 9343 05 355895 9224 05 361430 9108 05 366895 8995 t)5 05 8.372292 8885 377622 8777 05 382889 8672 05 388092 8570 05 393234 8470 05 398315 8371 05 403338 8276 05 408304 8182 05 413213 8091 05 418068 8002 06 06 8.422869 7914 427618 7830 06 432315 7745 06 436962 7663 06 441560 7583 06 446110 7505 06 4.50613 7428 06 455070 7352 06 459481 7279 06 463849 7206 06 06 8.468172 7135 06 472454 7066 06 476693 6998 480892 6931 06 485050 6865 07 489170 6801 07 07 493250 6738 07 497293 6676 07 601298 6615 07 605267 6555 07 P 509200 6496 07 613098 6439 07 6382 516961 07 520790 6326 07 524586 6272 07 528349 6218 07 532080 6165 07 535779 6113 07 539447 6062 07 543084 6012
Cotang.
1

11.758079 750898 743835 736885 730044 723309 716577 710144 703708 697366 691116 11.684954 678878 672886 666975 661144
649711 644105 63S570 633105 11.627708 622378 617111 611908 606766 601685 596662 591696 586787 581932 11.677131 672382 567685 563038 658440 653890 6493H7 544930 640519 536151 11.531828 527546 523307 519108 514950 510830

60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 45

655.390 44

43 42
41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21 20
19 18

17 16 15 14 5067.50 13 502707 12

498702 11 494733 10 11.490800 9 486902 8 483039 7 479210 6 475414 6 471651 4 467920 3 464221 2 460553 1
4.56916
Ta.^.

88 Degrees.

20
"m"
1

(2 Degrees.;
awe
8.542819 546422 549995 553539 657054 560540 563999 567431 570836 574214 577566 8.580892 584193 587469 590721 593948 597152 600332 603489 606623 609734 8.612823 615891 618937 621962 624965 627948 630911 633854 636776 639680 8.642563 645428 648274 651102 653911 656702 669475 662230 664968 667689 8.670393 673080 676761 678405 681043 683665 686272 688863 691438 693998 8.696543 699073 701589 704090 706577 709049 711507 713952 716383 718800
Cosine
D.

a TABLE OP LOGARITHBIIC
|

t;osine

D.

^
1

Tang.

D.

CcranR.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

SL
1

6004 5955 5906 6858 5811 6765 5719 5674 6630 6587 6644 5602 5460 5419 5379 5339 6300 5261 6223 6186 5149 6112 6076 6041 5006 4972 4938 4904 4871 4839 4806 4776 4743 4712 4682 4662 4622 4692 4563 4536 4606 4479 4451 4424 4397 4370 4344 4318 4292 4267 4242 4217 4192 4168 4144 4121 4097 4074 4051 4029 4006
1

9.999735 999731 999726 999722 999717 999713 999708 999704 999699 9D9694 999689 9.999685 999680 999675 999670 999665 999660 999655
9996.50

999645 999640 9.999035 999629 999624 999619 999014 999608 999603 999597 999592 999586 9.999681 999675 999570 999564 999668 999653 999647 999541 999535 999529 9.999524 999518 999512 999606 999600 999493 999487 999481 999475 999469 9.999463 999456 999450 999443 999437 999431 999424 999418 999411 999404
Sine
1

07 8.543084 07 640691 07 550268 08 653817 08 557336 08 660828 08 664291 08 567727 08 571137 08 674520 08 577877 08 8.581208 08 684514 08 587795 08 591051 08 694283 08 597492 08 600677 08 603839 09 606978 09 610094 09 8.613189 09 616262 09 619313 09 622343 09 625352 09 628340 09 631308 09 634256 09 637184 09 640093 09 8.642982 09 645853 09 648704 09 651537 10 654352 10 667149 10 659928 10 662689 10 665433 668160 12 10 8.670870 10 673563 10 676239 10 678900 10 681544 10 684172 10 686784 10 689381 10 691963 10 694529 11 8.697081 11 699617 11 702139 704646 11 11 707140 709618 11 712083 11 714534 11 11 716972 11 719396
.

6012 5962 5914 5866 5319 5773 5727 5682 5638 5595 5552 5510 5468 5427 5387 5347 5308 5270 6232 5194 6158 5121 5085 5050 5015 4981 4947 4913 4880 4848 4816 4784 4753 4722 4691 4661 4631 4602 4573 4544 4526 4488 4461 4434 4417 4380 4354 4328 4303 4877 4252 4228 4203 4179 4155 4132 4108 4086 4062 4040 4017
1

11.456916 00 453309 59
4497321 58

446183157
442664 56 439172! .55 4357091 54 432273 53 4288631 52 425480, 51 422123; 50

11.418792U9
4154861 4122051 4089491 405717]
i

48 47 46 45

402508 44399323 143 396161 42 393022 41 389906 '^iO


11.3868111 39 383738 38 380687 37 3776571 36 3746481 35 3716601 34 3686921 33 365744! 32

362816 359907 11.357018 354147 351296 348463 345648 342851 340072 337311 334667 331840 11.329130 326437 323761 321100 318456 315828 313216 310619 308037 305471 11.302919 300383 297861 295354 292860
290:}82

31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18
l'

16 15 14 13 12
11

10
9 8 7
G

287917
2854651 283028;
2Snf504'
Tanij.

5 4 3 2
I

CoianLv
1

(M.

fj

WES AND TANGENTS.


D.

^^3

Degrees.^
D.

21
'olHllL'.
1

M.

Sine

Cosine

D.

'J'aiiK.

"o" 8.718800 721204 1 723595 2 725972 3 728337 4 730688 5 733027 6 735354 7 737667 8 9' 739969 742259 10 11 8.744536 12 746802 749055 13 751297 14 753528 15 16 755747 17 757955 760151 18 19 762337 20 764511 21 8.766675 22 768828 23 770970 24 773101 775223 25 777333 26 27 779434 28 781524 783605 29 30 785675 31 8.787736 32 789787 33 791828 34 793859 35 795881 36 797894 37 799897 38 801892 39 803876 40 805852 41 8.807819 42 809777 43 811726 44 813667 45 815599 46 817522 47 819436 48 821343 49 823240 50 825130 51 8.827011 52 828884 53 830749 54 832607 55 834456 56 836297 57 838130 58 839956 59 841774 SO 843585

4006 3984 3962 3941 3919 3898 3877 3857 3836 3816 3796 3776 3756 3737 3717 3698 3679 3661 3642 3624 3606 3588 3570 3553 3535 3518 3501 3484 3467 3451 3431 3418 3402 3386 3370 3354 3339 3323 3308 3293 3278 3263 3249 3234 3219 3205 3191 3177 3163 3149 3135 3122 3108 3095 3082 3069 3056 3043 3030 3017 3000

9.999404 11 999398 11 999391 11 999384 11 999378 11 999371 11 999364 12 999357 12 999350 12 999343 12 999336 12 9.999329 12 999322 12 999315 12 999308 12 999301 12 999294 12 999286 12 999279 12 999272 12 999265 12 9.999257 12 999250 13 999242 13 999235 13 999227 13 999220 13 999212 13 999205 13 999197 13 999189 13 9.999181 13 999174 13 999166 13 999158 13 999150 13 999142 13 999134 13 999126 13 999118 13 999110 13 9.999102 13 999094 14 999086 14 999077 14 999069 14 999061 14 999053 14 999044 14 999036 14 999027 14 9.999019 14 999010 14 999002 14 998993 14 998984 14 998976 14 998967 15 998958 15 998950 15 998941 15
Sine
1

8.719396 721806 724204 726588 728959 731317 733663 735996 738317 740626 742922 8.745207 747479 749740
75198:>

754227 756453 758668 760872 763065 765246 8.767417 769578 771727 773866 775995 778114 780222 782320 784408 786486 8.788554 790613 792662 794701 796731 798752 800763 802765 804758 806742 8.808717 810683 812641 814589 816529 818461 820384 822298 824205 826103 8.827992 829874 831748 833613 835471 837321 839163 840998 842825 844644
Cotang.

4017 3995 3974 3952 3930 3909 3889 3868 3848 3827 3807 3787 3768 3749 3729 3710 3692 3673 3655 3636 3618 3600 3583 3565 3548
3531

3514 3497 3480 3464 3447


3431 3414 3399 3383 3368 3352

3337 3322 3307 3292 3278 3262 3248 3233 3219 3205 3191 3177 3163 3150 3136 3123 3110 3096 3083 3070 3057 3045 3032 3019
1

11.280604(60 278194 59 275796 58 273412 57 271041 56 268683 55 266337 54 264004 53 261683 52 259374 51 257078 50 11.254793 49 2.52521 48 2502B0 47 248011 46 245773 45 243547 44 241332 43 239128 42 236935 41 234754 40 11.232583 39 230422 38 228273 37 220134 36 224005 35 221886 34 219778 33 217680 32 215592 31 213514 30 11.211446 29 209387 28 207338 27 205299 26 203269 25 201248 24 199237 23 197235 22 195242 21 193258 20 11.191283 19 189317 18 187359 17
185411 183471 181539 179616 177702 175795 173897
16 15 14 13 12
11

10

11.172008 170126 168252 166387 164529 162679 160837 159002 157175 155356
Tang.
1

9 8 7 6 6

4
3 2
1

C.sine

M.
|

86

IIPKri-ea

14

22

(4 Degrees.)
Sine
D.
1

a TABLE OF LOGARITHMIC
|

TJ
1

Cosine

D.
|

Ta,.g.

D
3019 3007 2995 2982 2970 2958 2946 2935 2923 2911 2900 2888 2877 2866 2854 2843 2832 2821 2811 2800 2789 2779 2768 2758 2747 2737 2727 2717 2707 2697 2687 2677 2667 2658 2648 2638 2629 2620 2610 2601 2592 2583 2574 2565 2556 2547 2538 2530 2521 2512 2503 2495 2486 2478 2470 2461 2453 2445 2437 2430 2421
1

Cotang.
i

2 3 4 5
f)

7
8-

9 10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17
18

19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26

27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 54 55 66

57 58 59 60

8.843585 845387 847183 848971 85075 852525 854291 856049 85780 859546 861283 8.863014 86473S 866455 868165 869^68 871565 873255 874938 876615 878285 8.879949 881607 883258 884903 686542 888174 889801 891421 893035 894643 8.890246 897842 899432 901017 902596 904169 905736 907297 908853 910404 8.911949 913488 915022 916550 918073 919591 921103 922610 924112 925609 8.927100 928587 930068 931544 933015 934481 935942 937398 938850 940296
C'ufiiiie

3005 9.998941 15 8.8'M644 9989^2 15 846455 2992 998923 15 2980 848260 998914 15 850057 2967 998905 15 851846 2955 998896 15 853628 2943 998887 15 855403 2931 998878 15 857171 2919 998869 15 858932 2907 998860 15 860686 2896 998851 15 862433 2884 2873 9.998841 15 8.864173 998832 15 865906 2861 998823 16 867632 2850 998813 16 869351 2839 998804 16 871064 2828 998795 16 872770 2817 998785 16 874469 2806 998776 16 876162 2795 998766 16 877849 2786 998757 16 879529 2773 2763 9.998747 16 8.881202 998738 16 882869 2752 884530 998728 16 2742 998718 16 886185 2731 887833 998708 16 2721 16 889476 998699 2711 891112 998689 16 2700 892742 998679 16 2690 17 894366 998669 2680 895984 998659 2670 17 8.897596 2660 9.998649 899203 2651 998639 17 900803 2641 998629 17 902398 2631 998619 17 903987 2622 998609 17 905570 2612 998599 17 907147 2603 998589 17 17 908719 2593 998578 910285 2584 998568 17 911846 2575 998558 17 2566 9.998548 17 8.913401 2556 914951 998537 17 916495 2547 998527 17 918034 2538 998516 18 919568 998506 18 2529 921096 2520 998495 18 998485 18 922619 2512 924136 2503 998474 18 998464 18 925649 2494 18 998453 927156 2480 2477 9.998442 18 8.928658 18 930155 998431 2469 998421 18 931647 2460 998410 18 933134 2452 998399 18 934616 2443 936093 998388 18 2435 998377 18 937565 2427 998366 18 939032 2419 998355 18 940494 2411 998344 18 941952 2403
Sine
1 1 1

11.155356 60 1 53,545 5 151740 58 149943 57 148154 56 146372 55 144597 54 142829 53 141068 52 139314 51 137567 50 11.135827 49 134094 48 132368 47 130049 46 128936 45 127230 44 125531 43 123838 42
1221'>1 41

11

120471 118798 117131 115470 113815 112167 110524 108888 107258 105634 104016 11.102404 100797 099197 097602 096013 094430 092853 091281 089715 088154

40
39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28

27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20

11.086.599 19 C85049 18 083505 17 081966 16 080432 15 078904 14 077381 13 075864 12

074351 11
07284-1 10

11.071342 069845 068353 066866 065384 063907 062435 000968 059506 058048
Tang.
1

9 8 7 6 6 4 3 2
1

Colang.

|M.
1

R5 DoRrees.

SINES

AND TANGEN-hs.
Cosine
|

(5 Degrees. )
Tang.
1

23
OdUtilU.
1 1

Sine

D.

D.

D.

"o" 8.940296 941738 1


2 3

4
6
f.

V
t^ I!

10
11
It:
r.f

14 15 16

17
18
1(1

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 33 39 40

4f 42 43 44 45
46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

943174 944606 946034 947456 948874 950287 951696 953100 954499 8.955894 -^2317 957284 2310 958670 2302 960052 2295 961429 228P 902801 2280 964170 2273 965534 2206 966S93 2259 968249 2252 8.969600 2244 970947 2238 972289 2231 973628 2224 974962 2217 976293 2210 977619 2203 978941 2197 930259 2190 9S1573 2183 8.982883 2177 934189 2170 985491 2163 986789 21.57 988083 2150 989374 214-1 990660 21.38 991943 2131 993222 2125 994497 2119 8.995768 2112 997036 2106 998299 2100 999560 2094 9.000316 2087 002069 2082 003318 2076 004563 2070 005805 2064 0070-44 2058 9.008278 2052 009510 2046 010737 2040 011962 2034 013182 2029 014400 2023 015613 2017 016824 2012 018031 2006 019235' 2000
Cosine
1

2403 2394 2387 2379 2371 2363 2355 2348 2340 2332 2325

9.993^544 19 998333 19 998322 19 998311 19 998300 19 998289 19 998277 19 998266 19 998255 19 998243 19 998232 19

9.998220 998209 998197 998186 998174 998163 998151 993139 998128 993116 9.998104 998092 998080 998068 998056 998044 998032 998020 998008 997996 9.997984 997972 997959 997947 997935 997922 997910 997897 997885 997872 9.997860 997847 997835 997822 997809 997797 997784 997771 997758 997745 9.997732 997719 997706 997693 997680 997667 997654 997641 997628 997614
Sine
1

19 19 19 19 19 19 19

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21
21 21 21

8.941952 943404 944S52 946295 947734 949168 950597 952021 953441 954856 956267 8.957674 959075 960473 961866 963255 964639 960019 967394 968766
9701.33

2421 2413

11.0.58048 60

2405 2397 2390 2382 2374 2366 2360 2351 2344 2337 2329 2323 2314 2307 2300 2293 2236 2279
2271 2265 2257 2251

8.971496 972855 974209 975560 976906 978248 979586 980921 982251 983577 8.984899 986217 987532 988842 990149 991451 992750 994045 995337 996624 8.997908 999188 9.000465 001738 003007 004272 005534 006792 008047 009298
9.010.546

2244 2237 2230 2223 2217 2210 2204 2197 2191 2184 2178
2171 2165 2158 2152 2146 2140 2134 2127 2121 2115 2109 2103 2097 2091 2085 2080 2074 2068 2062 2056 2051 2045 2040 2033 2028 2023

011790 013031
0l426fi

22 22 22 22 22 22 22
1

015502 016732 017959 019183 020403 021620


Cotang.

056596 055148 053705 052266 05^332 049403 047979 046559 045144 043733 11.042326 040925 039527 038134 036745 035361 033931 032606 031234 029867 11.028504 027145 025791 024440 023094 021752 020414 019079 017749 016423 11.015101 013783 012468 011158 009851 008549 007250 005955 004663 003376 11.002092 000312 10.999535 993262 996993 995728 994466 993208 991953 990702 10.989454 988210 986969 985732 984498 983268 982041 980817 979597 978380
Tang.
1

59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31 30

29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18

17 16 15 14 13 12

111
10

9 8 7 6 6

4 3
2
1

84JJeg:ree8.

2-1

16 Dejrrees.)
^^lllo

a TABLE OF LOGARITHMIC
j

v ~
1

D.

Cosine

I).

Tang.

V.

Cutaiig.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
i

9.019235 020435 021632 022825 024016 025203 026386 027567 028744 029918 03 1089
9.'>:^2v57

2000 1995 1989 1984 1978 1973 1967 1962 1957


1951 1947
1941

9.997614 997001 997588 997574 997561 997547 997534 997520 997507


997493 997480 9.997466

11

n
14
15

16 17
18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 2S 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

43 44 45 46 47 48 49 60
51

52 53

64
55 56 57 58 59 60
i

033421 034582 035741 036896 038048 039197 040342 041485 042625 9.043762 044895 046026 047154 048279 049400 050519 051635 052749 053859 054966 056071 057172 058271 059307 060460 061551 002639 063724 064806 9.065885 066962 068036 069107 070176 071242 072306 073366 074424 075480 9.076533 077583 078631 079676 080719 081759 082797 083832 084864 085894
Cosine
1

1936 1930 1925 1920 1915 1910 1905 1899 1894 iS89 1884 1879 1875 1870 1865 1860 1855 1850 1845 1841 1836 1831 1827 1822 1817 1813 1808 1804 1799 1794 1790 1786 1781 1777 1772 1768 1763 1759
17.55

1750 1746 1742 1738 1733 1729 1725 1721 1717 1713

997452 997439 997425 997411 997397 997383 997369 997355 997341 9.997327 997313 997299 997285 997271 997257 997242 997228 997214 997199 9.997185 997170 997156 997141 997127 997112 997098 997083 997068 997053 9.997039 997024 997009 996994 996979 996964 996949 996934 996919 996904 9.996889 996874 996858 996843 996828 996812 996797 996782 996766 996751
Sine
1

22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24

9.021620 022834 024044 025251 026455 027655 028852 030046 031237


032425 033609

2023 2017 2011 2006 2000 1995 1990 1985


1979 1974 1959

10.978380 977166 975956 974749 973545 972345 971148


9699.-^4

60 59 58 57 56 55

9.034791 035969
0.37144

24 24 24 24 24 24
25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26

038316 039485 040651 041813 042973 044130 045284 9.046434 047582 048727 049869 051008 052144 053277 054407 055535 056659 9.057781 058900 060016 061130 062240 063348 064453 065556 066655 067752 9.068846 069938 071027 072113 073197 074278 075356 076432 077505 078576 9.079644 080710 081773 082833 083891 084947 086000 087050 088098 089144
ColaiiK!.

968763 967575 966391 1964 10.965209 964031 1958 962856 1953 961684 1948 960515 1943 959349 1938 958187 1933 957027 1928 955870 1923 9o47l6 1918 1913 10.953566 952418 1908 951273 1903 950131 1898 948992 1893 947856 1889 946723 1884 945593 1879 944465 1874 943341 1870 1865 10.942219 941100 1869 939984 1865 938870 1851 1846 937760 1842 936652 935547 1837 934444 1833 933345 1828 932248 1824 1819 10.931154 930062 1815 1810 928973 1806 927887 926803 1802 925722 1797 924644 1793 1789 923568 1784 922495 921424 1780 1776 10.9203,56 1772 919290 1767 918227 1763 917167 1759 916109 1755 915053 1751 914000 1747 912950 1743 911902 1738 910856
'l"8..g
1

54 53 52
51 50

49
48

47 46 45
44 43 42 41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11

10

9 8 7 6 5

4
3 2
1

Al.
1

83 Depree*

SIWES ANI> TANOl:^'TS

(7De grees.)
Tanp.
1

26
Coiari-i.
(

pr
1

Sine

D.

Cosine

D.

D.

2 3 4
5 6 7 8 9 13
ll 12 13 14 .5 16 17 18 19

20
21

9.085894 086922 087947 088970 089990 091008 092024 093037 094047 095056 096062 9.097065 098066 099065 100062 101056 102048 103037 104025 105010 105992 9.106973
107951 108927 109901 110873 111842 112809 113774 114737 115698 9.116656 117613 118567 119519 120469 121417 122362
1233ft6

1713 1709 1704 1700 1696 1692 1688 1684 1680 1676 1673 1668 1665
1661

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51 52

124248 125187 9.126125 127060 127993 128925 129854 130781 131706 132630 133551 134470

53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

9.135387 136303 137216 138128


1,39037

139944 140850 141754 142655 143555


Coteiiic

1657 1653 1649 1545 1641 1638 1634 1630 1627 1623 1619 1616 1612 1608 1605 1601 1597 1594 1590 1587 1583 1580 1576 1573 1569 1566 1562 1559 1556 1552 1549 1545 1642 1539 1535 1532 1529 1525 1522 1519 1516 1512 1509 1506 1503 1500 1496

9.996751 996735 996720 996704 996688 996673 996657 996641 996625 996610 996594 9.996578 9965C2 996546 996530 996514 996498 996482 996465 996449 996433 9.996417 996400 996384 996368 996351 996335 996318 996302 996285 996269 9.996252 996235 996219 996202 996185 996168 996151 996134
99611":

26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26

9.089144 090187 091228 092266


093.302

996100 9.9yu083 996066 996049 996032 996015 995998 995980 995963 995946 995928
9.99.5911

995894 996876 995869 995841 995823 995806 995788 995771 995753


Sine
1

27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 ?8 28 28 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29
1

094336 095367 096395 097422 098446 099468 9.100487 101504 102519 103532
104.542

1738 1734 1730 1727 1722 1719 1715 1711 1707 1703 1699

10.910850 60 909833 59 908772 58


9077.34 57 90669S 56

905664 {jb 904633 54 903605 53/ 902578 5^/


9015,54 51 90053r: 50

105550 106556 107559 108560 109559 9.110556 111551 112543 113533 114521
11.5507

1695 1691 1687 1684 1680 1676 1672 1669 1665 1661 1658 1654
16.50

10.899513 898496 897481 896468


8954.58

116491 117472 118452 119429

9.120404 121377 122348 123317 124284 125249


126211 127172 128130 129087 9.130041 130994 131944 132893 133839
1.34784 13.5726

1646 1643 1639 1636 1632 1629 1625 1622 1618 1615 1611 1607 1604 1601 1597 1594 1591 1587 1584
1.581

894450 893444 892441 891440 890441 10.889444 888449 887457 886467 885479 884493 883509 882528 881648 880571

49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40
39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30

10.879.596 29 878623 28

1677 1574
1571

877652 876683 875716 874751 873789 872828 871870 870913 10.869959 869006 868056 867107 866161

27 26 26 24 23 22
21

20

136667 137605 138542 9.139476 140409 141340 142269 143196 144121 145044 145966 146885 147803
Cotang.

1667 1664 1561 1558 1555


1551 1548 1545 1542 1639 1635

19 18 17 16 15 86.5216 14 864274 13 863333 12

862395
8614.58

11

10
9 8 7 6 5
4

1632 1629 1526

10.860524 859591 858660 857731 856804 855879 854950 854034 863115


8.52197

3 2
1

Tang.

82 Degrees.

f
M.
Sine
I
1

(8 Degrees.;
1

a table of lcxjarithmic
1

D.

Cosine

D.

Taii^.

D.

C-.taiifi.

[
1

"o" 9.143555 144453 J 145349 2 146243 3 147136 4 148026 5 148915 C 149802 7 150686 8 151569 9 152451 10 11 9 153330 154208 12 155083 13 155957 14 156830 15 157700 16 158569 17 159435 18 100301 19 161164 20
1
'

1496 1493 1490 1487 1484 1481 1478 1475 1472 1469 1466 1463 1460 1457
14.54

9.995753 30 995735 30
99.5717 30

995699 30
99.5681

995664 995646 995628 995610 995591 995573

30 30 30 30 30 30 30

9.147803 148718 149632 150544 151454 162363 163269 154174 165077 166978
1.56877

1526 1623 1520 1517

10.8521971 60 851282 69 850368 68

1514
1511 1508

849456 57 848546 56 847637 55

9.995.555 30 995.537 30

1451 1448 1445 1442 1439 1436

995519 995501 995482 995464


99.5446

30
31 31 31 31 31 31 31

995427
99.5409

995390

9.162025 22 162885 163743 23 164600 24 165454 25 166307 26 27 167159 168008 28 168856 29 30 169702 31 9.170547 171389 32 33 172230 34 173070 173908 35 36 174744 37 176578
21

38 39 40
41

42 43

176411 177242 178072 9.178900 179726


180.551

1433 1430 1427 1424 1422 1419 1416 1413 1410 1407 1405 1402 1399 1396 1394 1391 1388 1386 1383 1380

9.99.5372 31 9953.53 31 995334 31 995316 31 995297 31 995278 31 995260 31 995241 32

44 45
46

47
48 49 50
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 69

181374 182196 183016 183834 184651 185466 186280 9.187092 187903 188712 189519 190325 191130 191933 192734
19.3534
1

1377 1374 1372 1369 1366 1364 1361


1.359 13.56 13.53

995222 995203 9.995184 995165 995146 995127 995108 995089 995070 995051 995032 995013 9.994993 994974
9949,55

32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32
32 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
i

9.157776 158671 169665 160457 161347 162236 163123 164008 164892 165774 9.166654 167532 168409 169284 170157 171029 171899 172767 173634 174499 9.176362 176224 177084 177942 178799
1796.55

994935 994916
99-1896

94332

1351 1348 1346 1343 1341 1338 1336 1333 1330 1328

994877 994857 994838 994818 9.994798 994779 994759 994739 994719 994700 994680 994660 994640 994620
Sine

180508 181360 182211 183059 9.183907 184752 186597 186439 187280 188120 188968 189794 190629 191462 9.192294 193124
1939.53

194780 195606 196430 197253 198074 198894 199713


Cotaiig.

846731 54 845826 53 1506 1502 844923 52 844022 21 1499 1496 843123 50 1493 10.842225 49 841329 48 1490 1487 840435 47 1484 839543 46 838653 45 1481 837764 44 1479 836877 43 1476 1473 835992 42 835108 41 1470 834226 40 1467 1464 10.833346 39 832468 38 1461 831591 37 1458 830716 36 1455 829843 36 1453 828971 34 1450 828101 33 1447 827233 32 1444 826366 31 1442 825501 30 1439 1436 10.824638 29 823776 28 1433 822916 27 1431 822058 26 1428 821201 25 1425 1423 820345 24 1420 819492 23 818640 22 1417 817789 21 1415 816941 20 1412 1409 10.810093 19 815248 18 1407 814403 it 1404 813561 16 1402 812720 15 1399 811880 14 1396 811042 13 1393 810206 12 1391 809371 11 1389 808538 10 1386 1384 10.807706 9 80C876 8 1381 806047 7 1379 806220 6 1376 804394 5 1374 803570 4 1371 802747 3 1369 801926 2 1366 801106 1 1364
1361
,

800287
Tans.
I

Cosine

ISl.
1

81 Degreei.

SINES
M.
Si>.e

AAD TAAOENTs.
Cosino
1

(^9

Degree*. ;
D.

27
Cutang.
1

D.

I)

Tan,.

19. 194332
1

19515:9

2 3 4 5
6

7 8 9
10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

195925 196719 197511 198302 199091 199879 200666 201451 202234 9.203017 203797 204577 205354 206131 206906 207679 208452 209222 209992 9.210760 211526 212291 213055 213818 214579 215338 216097
2168.54

1328 1326 1323 1321 1318 1316 1313 1311 1308 1306
1.304

1301 1299 1296

1294 1292 1289 1287 1285 1282 1280


1278 1275 1273
1271

32 33 34 35
36

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

47
48 49 50
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

217609 9.218363 219116 219868 220618 221367 222115 222861 223606 224349 225092 9.225833 226573 227311 228048 228784 229518 230252 230984 231714 232444 9.233172 233899 234625 235349 236073 236795 237515 238235 238953 239670
Cosine

1268 1266 1264 1261 1259 1257 1255 1253 1250 1248 1246 1244 1242
12.39

1237 1235 1233


1231 1228

1220 1224 1222 1220 1218 1216 1214 1212 1209 1207 1205 1203
1201

1199 1197 1195 1193

9.994620 994600 994580 994560 994540 994519 994499 994479 994459 994438 994418 9.994397 994377 994357 994336 994316 994295 994274 994254 994233 994212 9.994191 994171 994150 994129 994108 994087 994066 994045 994024 994003 9.993981 993960 993939 993918 993896 993875 993854 993832 993811 993789 9.993768 993746 993725 993703 993681 993660 993638 993616 993594 993572 9.993550 993528 993506 993484 993462 993440 993418 993396 993374 993351
Sine
1

33 33 33 34 34 34 34

34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35
35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 37 37

9.199713 200529 201345 202159 202971 203782 204592 205400 206207 207013 207817 9.208619 209420 210220 211018 211815 212611 213405 214198 214989 215780 9.216568 217356 218142 218926 219710 220492 221272 222052 222830 223606 9.224382 225156 225929 226700 227471 228239 229007 229773 230539 231302
9.2.32065

1361

1359 1356 1354 1352


1.349

1347 1345 1342 1340 1338 1335 1333


1331 1328 1326

1324 1321 1319 1317 1315 1312 1310 1308 1305 1303 1301 1299 1297 1294 1292 1290 1288 1286 1284
1281

37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37

232826 233586 234345 235103 235859 236614 237368 238120 238872 9.239622 240371 241118 241865 242610 243354 244097 244839 245579 246319
Cutang.

1279 1277 1275 1273 1271 1269 1267 1265 1262 1260 1258
12.56 12.54

1252 1250 1248 1246 1244 1242 1240 1238 1236 1234 1232
12.30

10.800287 799471 798655 797841 797029 796218 795408 794600 793793 792987 792183 10.791381 790580 789780 788982 788185 7S7389 786595 785802 785011 784220 10.783432 782644 781858 781074 780290 779508 778728 777948 777170 776394 10.775618 774844 774071 773300 772529 771761 770993 770227 769461 768698 10.767935 767174 766414 765655 764897 764141 763386 762632 761880 761128 10.760378 759620 7588S2 758135 757390 756646 755903
7.55161

60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51

50 49 48

47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37
3(5

35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16 15 'i x3 12
11

10 9 8 7
6 5

4
3 2
1

75 142 753681
'J'ang.

ZI

|.M.
1

80 Degreed

28
M.
Sli.c

(10
1

D;-'|,n-ees.)

a TABLE
1

Ol
Tans.

LOGAKITHMIC
1

n-

Cusino

D.

D.
i

Cntans.
1

2 3

4 5
6 7 8 9 JO
11

12 13 14 15
Ifi

17
18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38
:-9

40
41

42

43

45

46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
\

9.239670 240386 241101 241814 242526 243237 243947 244656 245363 246069 246775 9.247478 248181 248883 249583 250282 250980 251677 252373 253067 253761 9.254453 255144 255834 266523 257211 257898 258583 259268 259951 260633 9.261314 261994 262673 263351 264027 264703 266377 266051 266723 267395 9.268065 268734 269402 270069 270735 271400 272064 272726 273388 274049 9.274708 275367 276024 276681 277337 277991 278644 279297 279948 280599
Cosine
1

1193 1191 1189 1187 1185 1183 1181 1179 1177 1175 1173
1171 1169

1167 1165 1163


1161 1159 1158 1156 1154 1152 1160 1148 1146 1144 1142 1141 1139 1137 1135 1133 1131 1130 1128 1126 1124 1122 1120 1119 1117 1115 1113 1111 1110 1108 1106 1105 1103 1101 1099 1098 1096 1094 1092 1091 1089 1087 1086 1084 1082
1

9.993351 37 993329 37 993307 37 993285 37 993262 37 993240 37 993217 38 993195 38 993172 38 993149 38 993127 38 9.993104 38 993081 38 993059 38 993036 38 993013 38 992990 38 992967 38 992944 38 992921 38 992898 38 9.992875 38 992852 38 992829 39 992806 39 992783 39 992759 39 992736 39 992713 39 992690 39 992666 39 9.992643 39 992619 39 992596 39 992572 39 992549 39 992525 39 992501 39 992478 40 992454 40 992430 40 9.992406 40 992382 40 992359 40 992335 40 992311 40 992287 40 992263 40 992239 40 992214 40 992190 40 9.992166 40 992142 40 992117 41 992093 41 992069 41 992044 41 992020 41 991996 41 991971 41 991947 41
Sine

9.246319 247057 247794 248530 249264 249998 250730 251461 252191 252920 253648 9.254374 265100 255824 256547 257269 257990 258710 259429 260146 260863 9.261578 262292 263005 263717 264428 265138 265847 266555 267261 267967 9.268671 269375 270077 270779 271479 272178 272876 273573 274269 274964 9.275658 276351 277043 277734 278424 279113 279801 280488 281174 281858 9.282542 283225 283907 284588 285268 285947 286624 287301 287977 288652
Cotaiig.
1

1230 10.7.^3681 60 1228 752943 59 1226 752206 58 1224 75)470 57 1222 750736 56 1220 750002 56 1218 749270 748539 53 1217 747809 52 1216 7470801 51 1213 746352 50 1211 1209 10.745626 40 744900 48 1207 744176 47 1205 743453 46 1203 742731 45 1201 742010 44 1200 741290 43 1198 740571 42 1196 739854 41 1194 739137 40 1192 1190 10.738422 39 737708 38 1189 736995 37 1187 736283 36 1185 735572 35 1183 734862 34 1181 734153 33 1179 733445 32 1178 732739 31 1176 732033 30 U74 1172 10.731329 29 730625 28 1170 729923 27 1169 729221 26 1167 728521 25 1165 727822 24 1164 727124 23 1162 726427 22 1160 725731 21 1168 72.5036 20 1157 1155 10.724342 19 723649 18 1153 722957 17 1151 722266 IS 1150 1148 721576 15 720887 14 1147 720199 13 1145 719512 12 1143 718826 11 1141 718142 JO 1140 1138 10.717458 9 716775 8 1136 716093 7 1135 715412 6 1133 714732 5 1131 714053 4 1130 713376 3 1128 712699 2 1126 712023 1 1125 711348 1123

Tant;.
1

M.
j

9? Degree.s

SINES
M.
1

AND TANGENTS,
n.
1

(ll Degrees.)
1

2&
Cman?.
(

Sine

Cosiire

n.

Tana.

0.

1
60 69 68 57
56 55 54 53 52
61

~0
1

9.280599
2812-18

2 3

4
5 6 7

9 10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39 40
41

281897 282544 283190 283836 284480 285124 285766 286408 287048 9.287687 288326 288964 289600 290236 290870 291504 292137 292768 293399 9.294029 294658 2952SG 295913 296539 297164 297788 298412 299034 299655 9.300276 300895 301514 302132
.302748

1082 1081 1079 1077 1076 1074 1072


1071

1069 1067 1066

1064 1063
1061 1059 1058 1056 1054 1053 1051 1050 1048 1046 1045 1043 1042 1040 1039 1037 1036 1034 1032 1031 1029 1028 1026 1025 1023 1022 1020 1019 1017 1016 1014 1013 1011 lOlo
10 J 9

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 GO

303364 303979 304593 305207 305819 9.306430 307041 307650 308259 308867 309474 310080 310685 311289 311893 9.312495 313097 313698 314297 314897 315495 316092 316689 317284 317879
Cosine
1

1007 1005 1004 1003


1

1001

1000 998 997 996

994 993
991

990

9.991947 41 991922 41 991897 41 991873 41 991848 41 991823 41 991799 l4l 991774 42 991749 42 991724 42 991699 42 9.991674 42 991649 42 991624 42 991599 42 991574 42 991549 42 991524 42 991498 42 991473 42 991448 42 9.991422 42 991.397 42 991372 43 991346 43 991321 43 991295 43 991270 43 991244 43 991218 43 991193 43 9.991167 43 991141 43 991115 43 991090 43 991064 43 991038 43 991012 43 990986 43 990960 43 990934 44 9.990908 44 900S82 44 990855 44 990829 44 990803 44 990777 44 990750 44 990724 44 990697 44 990671 44 9.990644 44; 990618 44; 990591 44 990565 44 990538 44, 990511 45 J90485 45 990458 45 990431 45 990404 45
.Sine
1

9.288652 289326 289999 290671 291342 292013 292682 293350 294017 294684 295349 9.296013 296677 297339 298001 298662 299322
2999.80

1123 1122 1120 1118 1117 1115 1114 1112 1111 1109 1107
1106 1104 1103 1101 1100 1098 1096 1095 1093 1092

300638 301295 301951 9.302607 303261 303914 304567 305218 305869 306519
.307168

1090 1089 1087 1086 1084 1083


1081

307815 308463 9.309109 309754 310398 811042 311685 312327 312967 313608 314247 314885 9.315523 316159 316795 317430 318064 318697 319329 319961 320592 321222 9.321851 322479 323106 323733 324358 324983
325607'

1080 1078 1077

10.711348 710674 710001 709329 708658 707987 707318 706650 705983 705316 704651 10.703987 703323 702661 701999 701338 700678 700020 699362 698705 698049 10.697393 696739 696086 695433 694782 694131 693481 692832 692185

60 i9 48 47 46 45

44
43 42
41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32

31 691.537 30

1075 1074 1073 1071 1070 1068 1067 1065 1064 1062
1061 1060 1058 1057 1055 1054 1053 1051 1050 1048

326231 326853
327475i
<:(.t!iii.-.

1047 1045 1044 1043 1041 1040 1039 1037 1036 1035

10.690891 29 690246 28 689602 27 6889;:8 26 688315 25 687673 24 687033 23 686392 22 685753 21 685115 20 10.684477 19 683841 18 683205 17 682570 16 681936 15 681303 14 680671 13 680039 12 679408 11 678778 10 10.678149 9 677521 8 676894 7

676267 675642 675017 674393 673769 673 147 672525


Tang.
1

6 5

4 3
2
1
1

Ij

7ft

Desrfea

30
M.
1

"(12
Sin.

Degrees.)
r>.
1

a TABLE OP I.OGAR1THM1C
1

Cosine

D.

Ta.ig.

D.

Cotaiig.
i

3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10
11

12 13 14 15 16

17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31'

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47
48 49

60
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 68 59 60

9.317879 318473 319066 319658 320249 320840 321430 322019 322607 323194 323780 9.324366 324950 325534 326117 326700 3272S1 327862 328442 329021 329599 9.330176 330753 331329 331903 332478 333051 333624 334195 334766 335337 9.335906 336475 337043 337610 338176 338742 339306 339871 340434 340996 9.341558 342119 342679 343239 343797 344355 344912 345469 346024 346579 9.347134 347687 348240 348792 349343 349893 350443 350992 351640 352088
Cd^iiie

990 988 987 986 984 983 982 980 979 977 976 975 973 972 970 969 968 966 965 964 962
961

960 958 957 956 954 953 952 950 949 948 946 945 944 943
941

940 939 937 936 935 934 932


931

930 929 927 926 925 924 922


921 920 919

917 916 915 914 913


911
1

9.990404 990378 990351 990324 990297 990270 990243 990215 990188 990161 990134 9.990107 990079 990052 990025 989997 989970 989942 989915 989887 989860 9.989832 989804 989777 989749 989721 989693 989665 989637 989609 989582 9.989553 989525 989497 989469 989441 989413 989384 989356 989328 989300 9.989271 989243 989214 989186 989157 989128 989100 989071 9S9042 989014 9.988985 988956 988927 988898 988869 988840 988811 988782 988753 988724
Sine
1

45 9.327474 45 328095 45 328715 45 329334 45 329953 45 330570 45 331187 45 331803 45 332418 45 333033 45 333646 46 9.334259 46 334871 46 335482 46 336093 46 336702 46 337311 46 337919 46 338527 46 339133 46 339739 46 9.340344 46 340948 46 341552 47 342155 47 342757 47 343358 47 343958 47 344558 47 345157 47 345755 47 9.346353 47 346949 47 347545 47 348141 47 348735 47 349329 47 349922 47 350514 47 351106 47 351697 47 9.352287 47 352876 47 353465 47 354053 47 354640 48 355227 48 355813 48 356398 48 356982 48 357566 48 9.358149 48 358731 48 359313 48 359893 48 360474 48 361053 49 361632 49 362210 49 362787 49 363364
'

1035 1033 1032 1030 1029 1028 1026 1025 1024 1023 1021 1020 1019 1017 1016 1015 1013 1012 1011 1010 1008

10 672526 60

1007 1006 1004 1003 1002 1000 999 998 997 996 994 993 992 991 990 988 987 986 985 983 982 981 980 979 977 976 975 974 973 971 970 969 968 967 966 966 963 962 961 960

671905 671285 670666 670047 669430 668813 668197 667582 666967 666354 10.665741 665129 664518 663907 663298 662689 662081 661473 660867 660261 10.659656 659052 658448 657845 657243 656642 656042 655442 654843 654245 10.653647 653051 652455 651859 651265 650671 650078 649480 648894 648303 10.647713 647124 646535 645947 645360 644773 644187 643602 643018 642434 10.641851 641269 640687 640107 639526 638947 638368 637790 637213
636P3f>

59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51

50 49 48

47
46 45 44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37 36
35 34 33

32
31

30
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11

10
9 8 7

5
4

3 2
1

Lj

Cuiai.g.
17 Decrees.

Tang

M.
^

SINES
M.
Sii.e
j

AND TANGENTS.
Cosine
1

;^13 Dei^rees )
Ta.i2.
I).

31
Cofan?.
1

D.

I).

~0
I

9.352(W8
352fi35

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

353181 353726 354271 354815 355358 3559U1 356443 356984 357524 9.358064 358603 359141 359078 360215 360752 361287 361822 362356 362889 9.363422 363954 364485 365016 365546 366075

32 33 34 35 36 37 33 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

366604 367131 367659 368185 9.368711 369236 369761 370285 370808 371330 371852 372373 372894 373414 9.373933 374452 374970 375487 376003 376519 377035 377549 378063 378577 9.379089 379601 380113 380624 381134 381643 382152 382661 383168 383675
Cosine
1

9.988724 988695 910 988666 909 988636 908 988607 907 988578 905 988548 904 988519 903 988489 902 988460 901 988430 899 898 9.988401 988371 897 988342 896 988312 895 988282 893 988252 892 988223 891 988193 890 988163 889 988133 888 887 9.988103 988073 885 988043 884 988013 883 987983 882 987953 881 987922 880 987892 879 987862 87T 876987832 875 9.987801 987771 874 987740 873 987710 872 987679 871 987649 870 987618 869 987588 867 987557 866 987526 865 864 9.987496 863 987465 862 987434 861 987403 860 987372 859 987341 858 997310 857 987279 856 987248 854 987217 853 3.987186 852 987155 851 987124 850 987092 849 987061 987030 848 847 986998 846 986967 845 986936 844 986904
911
Sine
1

49 9.363364 363940 49 49 364515 49 365090 49 365664 49 366237 49 366810 49 367382 49 367953 49 368524 369094 49 49 9.369663 49 370232 370799 49 50 371367 50 371933 50 372499 50 373064 50 373629 50 374193 50 374756 50 9.375319 50 375881 50 376442 50 377003 50 377563 50 378122 378681 50 50 379239 50 379797
51

960 959 958 957 955 954 953 952 951 950 949 948 946 945 944 943 942 941 940 939 938

10.6366361 60 636060' 59 635485' 58 634910 57 634336 56 633763 55 633190 54 632618 53 632047 52

937 935 934 933 932


931 930 929

51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51

52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 62 52

380354 9.380910 381466 382020 382575 383129 383682 384234 384786 385337 385888 9.386438 386987 387536 388084 388631 389178 389724 390270 390815 391360 9.391903 392447 392989 393531 394073 394614 395154 395694 396233 396771
Cot-llliT

928 927 926 925 924 923 922


921

920 919 918 917 915 914 913 912 911 910 909 908 907 906 905 904 903 902
901

631476 630906 10.630337 629768 629201 628633 628067 627501 626936 626371 625807 625244 10.624681 624119 623558 622997 622437 621878 621319 620761 620203 619646 10.619090 618534 617980 617425 616871 616318 615766 615214 614663 614112 10.613562

51

50 49 48

47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37
36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19
1

900 899 898 897 896


1

612464 611916 611369 610822 610276 609730 609185 608640 10.608097 607553 607011 600469 605927 605386

6130131 18 17
16 15

14 13 12
11

10
9 8 7 6

4
3 2
]

604846' 6043061 603767J 603229'


1

_J

aiip.
1

M.

rfi

Dogrecf

~
Siiio

32

(U

Degrees.;
D.

a TABLE OF LOGARITHMIC
|

Cosine

I).

Tang.

D.

Cutaiig.

9.383675 384182 1 384687 2 385192 3 385697 4 386201 5 386704 6 387207 7 387709 8 388210 9 388711 10 11 9.389211 389711 12 390210 13 390708 14 391206 15 391703 16 392199 L7 392695 18 393191 19 393685 20 21 9.394179 394673 22 395166 23 395658 24 .396150 25 396641 26 27 397132 397621 28 398111 29 30 398600 31 9.399088 399575 32 400062 33 400549 34 401035 35 401520 36 402005 37 402489 38 402972 33 403455 40 41 9.403938 404420 42 404901 43 40,5382 44 405862 45 406341 46 406820 47 407299 48 407777 49 408254 50 51 9.408731 409207 52 409682 53 410157 54 410632 55 411106 56 57 411579 58 412052 59 412524 60 412996
(;<)>i!ie
1

844 843 842 841 840


'J39

838 837 836 835 834 833 832 831 830 828 827 826 825 824 823 822 821 820 819 818

817 817
816 815

814 813 812


811

810 809 808 807 806 805 804 803 802 801 800 799 798 797 796 795 794 794 793 792
7^1

9.980904 986873 986841 986809 986778 986746 986714 986683 986651 986619 986587 9.986555 986523 986491 986459 986427 986395 986363 986331 986299 986266 9.986234 986202 986169 986137 986104 986072 986039 986007 985974 985942 9.985909 985876 985843 985811 985778 985745 985712 98567S 985646 985613 9.985580 985547 985514 985480 985447 985414 985380 985347 985314 985280 9.985247
98.5213

52 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54

54 54 54
54 65 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56

9.396771 397309 397846 398383 398919 399455 399990 400524 401058 401591 402124 9.402656 403187 403718 404249 404778 405308 405836 406364 406892 407419 9.407945 408471 408997 409521 410045 410569 411092 411615 412137 412658 9.413179 413699 414219 414738
41.5257

896 896 895 894 893 892 891 890 889 888 887 886 885 884 883 882 881 880 879 878

877 876 875 874 874 873 872


871 870 869
-868

415775 416293 416810


417.326

790 789 788 787 786 785

985180 985146 985113 985079 985045 985011 984978 984944 56


Sine
1

417842 9.418358 418873 419387 419901 420415 420927 421440 421952 422463 422974 9.423484 423993 424503
42,5011

867 866 865 864 864 863 862 861 860 859 858 857 856 855 855 854 853 852
851

10.603229 602691 602154 601617 601081 600545 600010 599476 598942 598409 697876 10.697344 596813 596282 595751 695222 594692 594164 593636 593108 592581 10.592055 691529 591003 590479 589955 589431 588908 588385 687863 587342 10.686821 586301 585781
58.5262

60 59 58 57 56 55 64 53 62
61

60 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11

684743 584225 583707 583190 582674


,582158

425519 426027 426534 427041 427547 428052


(.'otaiig.
1

850 849 848 848 847 846 845 844 843 843 842
1

10.581642 581127 680613 580099 679585 579073 578560 578048 677537 577026 10.576516 576007 675497 6749S9 674481
57397;^

10
9 8 7 6 5
4

673466 572959 572453


571
9-1
<

2
1

<;

Tang

Tm"

75 l^oRreeB.

i 1

SINES

AND TANGENTS.
1

(15 Degrees.)
Tanu'.
1

33
Cotaiia.
j

JL ~U
1

Sine
1

D-

Cosine

D.

D.

9.412996 413467
4139.38

2 3

4
6 6
7

8 9

10
11

414408 414878 415347 415815 416283 416751 417217 417684


9.4181.50

785 784 783 783 782


781

418615 419079 419544 420007 420470 420933 17 421395 18 421857 19 422318 20 21 9 422778 423238 22 423697 23 424156 24 25 424615 425073 2G 425530 27
12 13 14 15 16

780 779 778 777 770 775 774 773 773 772
771

770 769 768 767

767 766 765 764 763 762


761

28 29 30
31

42.5987

32 33 34 36 36 37 38 39 40

4r
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

426443 426899 9.427354 427809 428263 428717 429170 429623 430075 430527 430978 431429 9.431879 432329 432778 433226 433675 434122 434569 435016 435462
4.35908
9. 436353

760 760 759 758 757 756 755 754 753 752 752 751 750 749 749 748 747 746 745 744 744 743 742
741

9.984944 984910 984876 984842 984808 984774 984740 994706 984672 984637 984603 9.984569 984535 984500 984466 984432 984397 984363 984328 984294 984259 9.984224 984190 984155 984120 984085 984050 984015 983981 983946 983911 9.983875 983840 983805 983770 983735 983700 983664 983629 983594
983.5.58

57 9.428052 428557 57 429062 57 429566 57 430070 57 430573 57 431075 57 431577 57 432079 57 432580 57 433080 57 9.433.580 57 434080 57 434579 57 435078 57 435576 58 436073 58 436570 58 437067 58 437563 58 438059 58 58 9.438554 439048 58 439543 58 440036 58 440529 58 441022 58 441514 58 442006 58 442497 58 442988 58
58 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60
,

9. '143479

9.983.5231 98.3487

443968 444458 444947 445435 445923 44641 446898 447384 447870 9.448356
4^18841

983452
9834161

52 53 54 55 56 57 5S 59 60

436798 437242 437686 438129 438572 439014 439456 439897 440338


Cf)8ine
1

740 740 739 738 737 736 736 735 734


1

983381 983345 983309 983273 983238 983202 9.983166 983130 983094 983058 983022 982986 982950 982914 982878 9828421
S.ne
,

449326 449810 450294


4.50777

451260 451743 452225 452706 9.453187 453668 454148 454628 .


4.55107

455586 456064 456542 457019 457496


Cotnntr.
|

842 841 840 839 838 838 837 836 835 834 883 832 832 831 830 829 828 828 827 826 825 824 823 823 822 821 820 819 819 818 817 816 816 815 814 813 812 812 811 810 809 809 808 807 806 806 805 804 803 802 802 801 800 799 799 798 797 796 796 795 794
1

50 49 48 56.5421 47 664922 46 664424 45 563927 44 563430 43 662933 42 662437 41 561941 40 10.561446 39 560952 38 660457 37 659964 36 559471 35 658978 34 558486 33 557994 32 657503 31 557012 30 10.656521 29 656032 28 565542 27 555053 26 554565 25 654077 24 5535S9 23 553102 22 552616 21 652130 20

10.571948 671443 670938 570434 569930 569427 568925 568423 567921 667420 566920 10..566420 565920

60 59 58
57 56 55 54 53 52
51

10.551644 551159 550674 550190 549706 549223 548740 548257 547775 547294 10..5468 13 646332 645852 545372 544893 544414 543936 643458 542981 542504
Tan?.
1

19 18

17 16 15 14 13 12
11

10
9

8 7
6 5

4
3 2
1

RL

74 Degrees.

34
M.
Sine

(16 Degrees.)
D.
1

a TABLE OF LOGARITHMIC
|

Cosine

D.

Tang.

D.

Cotai:g

'(

=r
1

2 3

4 5
6 7 8 9 iO
11

IS 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 60
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

9.440338 440778 441218 441658 442096 442535 442973 443410 443847 444284 444720 9.445155 445590 446025 446459 446893 447326 447759 448191 448623 449054 9.449485 449915 450345 450775 451204 451632 452060 452488 452915 453342 9.453768 454194 454619 455044 455469 455893 456316 456739 457162 457584 9.458006 458427 458848 459268 459688 460108 460527 460946 461364 461782 9.462199 462616 463032 463448 463864 464279 464694 465108 465522 465935
Cosine

734 733 732


731 731

730 729 728 727 727 726 725 724 723 723 722
721

720 720 719 718 717 716 716 715 714 713 713 712
711

710 710 709 708 707 707 706 705 704 704 703 702
701 701 700

699 698 698 697 696 695 695 694 693 693 692 691 690 690 689 688
1

9.982842 982805 982769 982733 982696 982660 982624 982587 982551 982514 982477 9.982441 982404 982367 982331 982294 982257 982220 982183 982146 982109 9.982072 982035 981998 981901 981924 981886 981849 981812 981774 981737 9.981699 981662 981625 981587 981549 981512 981474 981436 981399 981361 9.981323 981285 981247 981209 981171 981133 981095 981057 981019 980981 9.980942 980904 980866 980827 980789 980750 980712 980673 980635 980596
.

60 60
61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61

62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64
1 1

9.457496 457973 458449 458925 459400 459875 460349 460323 461297 461770 462242 9.462714 463186 463658 464129 464599 465069 465539 466008 466476 466945 9.467413 467880 468347 468814 469280 469746 470211 470676 471141 471605 9.472068 472532 472995 473457 473919 474381 474842 475303 475763 476223 9.476683 477142 477601 478059 478517 478975 479432 479889 480345 480801 9.481257 481712 482167 482621 483075 483529 483982 484435 484887 485339
Colang.
1

794 793 793 792


791 790 790 789 788 788

10.542504 60 542027 5i)


541.'351

541075 540600 540125 539651


=^39177

58 57 56 55
54

787 786 785 785 784 783 783 782 781 780 780 779 778 778 777 776 775 775 774 773 773 772
771 771

538703 538230 537758 10.537286 536814 536342


.535871 5 J 54 01 534y:il

53 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42

770 769 769 768 767 767 766 765 765 764 763 763 762 761 761 760 759 759 758 757 757 756 755 755 754 753 753
}

534461 533992 533524 41 533055 40 10.532587 39 532120 38 531653 37 531186 36 530720 d^ 530254 o^ 529789 33 529324 32 528859 31 5283'J5 30 10.527982 2y 527468 28 527005 27 526543 26 526081 25 525619 24 525158 23 524097 22 524237 21 523777 20 10.523317 19 522858 18 522399 17 521941 16 521483 15 521025 14 520568 13 520111 12 519655 11 519199 10 9 10.518743 8 518288 517833 7 fi 517379 f, 516925 4 516471 3 616018 616565
i.'

5151 13

5Mnni
Tang.
1

{>

Sine

M.
1

73 Dc'Krees

SINES

AND TANGENTS.
Cosine
1

(l7 Degrees
1

35
Cotaiig.
1

rr

Sine

I)

D.

Tang.

D.

9.465935 466348 1 460761 2 467173 3 407585 4 467996 6 468407 6 468817 7 469227 8 469637 ^ 470046 10 9.470455 11 470863 12 471271 13 471679 14 472086 15
472898 473304 473710 474115 20 21 9.474519 474923 22 475327 23 475730 24 476133 25 476536 26 476938 27 477340 28 477741 29 478142 30 9.478542 31 478942 32 479342 33 479741 34 480140 35 480539 36 480937 37 481334 38 481731 39 482128 40 41 9.482525 482921 42 43 483316 483712 44 484107 45 484501 46 484895 47 485289 48 485682 49 50 486075 51 9.486467 52 486860 53 487251 54 487643 55 488034 56 488424 57 488814 58 489204 59 489593 60 489982
Cosine

16 17 18 19

472495:

688 688 087 686 685 685 684 683 683 682 681 680 680 679 678 678 677 076 676 675 674 674 673 672 672 671 670 669 669 668 667 667 666 665 665 664 663 663 662
661 661

600 669 659


6.58

657 657 656 655 655 654 653 653 652


651 651

9.980596 980558 980519 980480 980442 980403 980364 980325 980286 980247 980208 9.980169 980130 980091 980052 980012 979973 979934 979895 979855 979816 9.979776 979737 979697 979658 979618 979579 979639 979499 979459 979420 9.979380 979340 979300 979260 979220 979180 979140 979100 979059 979019 9.978979 978939 978898 978858 978817 978777 978736 978696 978655 978615 9.978574
978.533

650 650 649 648 648

978493 978452 978411 978370 978329 978288 978247 978206


Sine
{

64 64 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68

9.485339 485791 486242 486693 487143 487593 488043 488492 488941 489390 489838 9.490286 490733 491180 491627 492073 492519 492965 493410 493854 494299 9.494743 495186 495630 496073 496515 496957 497399 497841 498282 498722 9.499163 499603 500042 500481 500920 501359 501797 502235 502672 503109 9.503546 603982 504418 504854 605289 605724 506159 506593 507027 507460 9.507893
508.326

755 752 751 751 750 749 749 748 747 747 746 746 745 744 744 743 743 742 741 740 740 740 739 738 737 737 736 736 735 734 734 733 733 732 731 731
7,30

10.514661 60 514209 59 513758 58 613307 57


5128.57

56

512407 55 511957 54
611.508 5110.59

53 52
51

610610 610162 10 509714 509267 508820 508373 507927 507481 607035 506590 606146 505701
10.60.5257

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41

730 729 728 728 727 727 726 725 725 724 724 723 722 722
721 721

504814 504370 503927 503485 503043 502601 502159 601718 601278 10.500837 500397 499958 499519 499080 498641 498203 497765
497.328

40 39 88 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21 20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11

508759 509191 509622 510054 510485 610916


611,346

720 719 719 718

718
717 716 716

511776
Cotanir.

496891 10.496454 496018 495582 495146 494711 494276 49384 493407 492973 492540 10.492107 491674 491241 490809 490378 489946 489515 489084 488654 488224
Tang.

10 9 8 7 6 6

4
3 2
1

|M/j

71 Degrees.

39
M.
Sine

(18 Degrees.)
I).

a TABtM OK
1

LOtiAUITlI.lflo
D.
Cotar.s.
}

Cosine

I).

Tang.

~T
2 3

4
5 6

7 8
9

10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42

43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 64 55
56 57 ns 59 60

9.489982 490371 490759 491147 491535 491922 492308 492695 493081 493466 493851 9.494236 494621 495005 495388 495772 496154 496537 496919 497301 497682 9.498064 498444 498825 499204 499584 499963 500342 600721 501099 501476 9.501854 602231 602607 602984 503360 603735 504110 504485 604860 605234 9.505608 505981 506354 606727 507099 607471 607843 608214 508585 508956 9 609326 509696 510065 510434 510803 511172 511540 511907 612275 512642
Cosine

648 648 647 646 646 645 644 644 643 642 642 641 641 640 639 639 638 637 637 636 636 635

634 634 633 632 632


631 631 630 629 629 628 628 627 626 626

625 625 624 623 623 622 622


621

620 620 619 619 618 618 617 616 616 615 615 614 613 613 612 612

9.978206 978165 978124 978083 978042 978001 977959 977918 977877 977835 977794 9.977752 977711 977669 977628 977586 977544 977503 977461 977419 977377 9.977335 977293 977251 977209 977167 977125 977083 977041 976999 976957 9.976914 976872 976830 976787 976745 976702 976660 976617 976574 976632 9.976489 976446 976404 976361 976318 976275 976232 976189 976146 976103 9.976060 976017 975974 975930 975887 975844 975800 975757 975714
Sine

68 68 68 69 69 69 69

69 69
69 69 69 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 70

70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71

71 71 71 71 71 71

72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 975670! 72
1

9.511776 512206 512635 513064 513493 513921 614349 514777 515204 615631 516057 9.516484 516910 517335 517761 618185 518610 519034 619458 519882 520305 9.520728 521151 521573 521995 522417 522838 523259 623680 524100 524520 9.524939 625369 625778 526197 526616 627033 627451 527868 528285 528702 9.529119 529535 529950 530366 530781 531196 531611 532025
5324391

716 716 715

714 714 713 713 712 712


711 710

532853 9.633266 633679 534092 634504 634916 635328 535739 636150 536561 536972
C'otaii!;.
1

710 709 709 708 708 707 706 706 705 705 704 703 703 703 702 702 701 701 700 699 699 698 698 697 697 696 696 695 695 694 693 693 693 692 691 691 690 690 689 689 688 688 687 687 686 686 685 685 684 64

10.488224 487794 487365 486936 480507 486079 485651 485223 484796 484369 483943 10.483516 483090 482665 482239 481815 481390 480966 480542 480118 479695 10.479272 478849 478427 478005 477583 477162 476741 476320 475900 475480 10.475061 474641 474222 473803 473385 472967 472549 472132 471715 471298 0.470881 470465 470050 469634 469219 468804 468389 467975 46756] 46714? ]M. 466734 466321 465908 465496 465084 464672 464261 463850 463439 463028
Tani;.
(

60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11

10
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
1

>'

SINKS

AND

TANGf:NT.s.
Cosine
D.

'^0
Tang.

De'nee.-i.)
.).

37
Cotani.'.
(

JL T
1

Sine

D.

3 4
5 6

7 8 9 10
11 12

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48
49 50
51

9.512642 513009 513375 513741 514107 514472 514837 515202 515566 515930 616294 9.516657 517020 517382 517745 6J8107 518468 518829 519190 519551 519911 9.520271 520631 520990 521349 521707 522066 522424 522781 523138 523495 9.523852 524208 624564 524920 525275 525630 525984 626339 526693 527046 9.527400 527753 528105 628458 528810 529161 529513

612
611 611

629864*

o2 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

530215 530565 9.530915 531265 531614 531963 532312 532661 533009 533357 633704 534052
Cijsiiie
1

610 609 609 608 608 607 607 606 605 605 604 604 603 603 602 601 601 600 600 599 599 598 698 697 596 596 595 696 594 594 693 693 592 591 591 690 590 589 689 688 688 687 687 586 586 585 685 684 584 583 682 682 581 581 580 580 579 578

9.975670 975627 975583 975539 975496 975452 975408 975365 975321 975277 975233 9.975189 975145 975101 975057 975013 974969 974925 974880 974836 974792 9.974748 974703 974659 974614 974570 974525 974481 974436 974391 974347 9.974302 974257 974212 974167 974122 974077 974032 973987 973942 973897 9.973852 973807 973761 973716 973671 973625 973580 973635 973489 973444 9.973398 973352 973307 973261 973215 973169 973124 973078 973032
Siiio

73 73 73 73 73 73
73.

73 73 73 73

9.536972 537382 537792 538202 538611 539020 539429 539837


.540245

684 683 683 682 682


681 681

73 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 .546735 74 647138 74 647540 74 547943 74 648345 74 548747 74 649149 75 75 9.549550 549951 75 650352 75 550752 75 551152 75 551552 75 551952 75 552351 75 662750 75 553149 75 75 9.653648 553946 75 554344 75 554741 76 555139 76 555536 76 665933 76 76 .556329

540653 541061 9.541468 541S75 542281 542688 543094 643499 543905 544310 644715 545119 9..545524 545928 546331

680 680 679 679 678 678 677 677 676 676 675 675 674 674 673 673 672 672
671 671 670 670 669 669

10.463025 462618 462208 461798 461389 460980 460571 460163


4597.55

160
1.59

58 57 56 55 54 53 52

459347 51 458939 5(J 10.458532 49 458125 48 457719 i7 457312 46 456906 45


45051>1

456095 455690 455285 454381


10.45'i476

44 43 42
41

668 668 667 667 666 666 665 665

m
664 663 663 662 662
661 661

656726 557121 76 76 9.557617


/o

76 76 76 76 76 76 76 77 9729861 77
1

.557913

668308 558702 659097 669491 669886 660279 560673 561066


Cotang.
1

660 660 659 659 659 658 658 657 657 656 656 655 655
1

454072 453669 453265 452862 452460 452057 451655 451253 450851 10.450450 450049 449648 449248 448848 448448 448048 447649 447250 446851 10.446452 446054 445656 445259 444861 444464 444067 443671 443275
4^12879

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16

15 14 13 12
11

10

9 10.442483 8 442087 7 441692 6 441298 5 440903 4 440509 3 440115 2 439721 1 439327 438934 _JL Tane.
1

M.

70

l)#-i'ri'tt

15

38
M.
1

(20 Degrees.;
Hine
D.
1

a TABLE OF LOGARITHMIC
1

Cdsiiie

1).

Tane.

D.

C.tana.

2 3 4
5 6 7 8 9 10

IS 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

9.534052 534399 534745 535092 535438 535783 536129 536474 536818 537163 537507 9.537851 538194 538538 538880 539223 539565 539907 540249
.540590

578 577 577 577 576 576 575 574


.574
"573

573 572 572 6T1 571 570 570 569 569 568
,568

540931 21 9.541272 22 541613 23 541953 24 542293 25 542632 26 542971 27 543310 28 543649 29 543987 30 54i325 31 9.544663 32 545000 33 545338 34 545674 35 546011 36 546347 37 546683 38 5470 39 547354 40 547689 41 9 548024 42 548359 43 548693 44 549027 45 549360
1

20

567 567 566 566 565 565 564 564 563 563 562 562
561 561

46 47 48 49 50
51

.549693

52 53
54

55 56 57 58 59
f30

550026 550359 550692 551024 9.551356 551687 552018 552349 552680 553010 553341 553670 551000 554329
CnAur

560 560 559 559 558 558 557 557 556 556 555 555 554 554 653 553 552 552
5.52

551 551

550 550 549 549 548


1

9.972986 972940 972894 972848 972802 972755 972709 972663 972617 972570 972524 9.972478 972431 972385 972338 972291 972245 972198 972151 972105 972058 9.972011 971964 971917 971870 971823 971770 971729 971682 971635 971588 9.971540 971493 971446 971398 971351 971303 971256 971208 971101 971113 9.971066 971018 970970 970922 970874 970827 970779 970731 970683 970635 9.970586 970538 970490 970442 970394 970345 970297 970249 970200 970152
Sine
1

9.561066 561459 561851 562244 562636 563028 563419 663811 564202 664592 564983 77 9..565373 78 565763 78 566153 78 566542 78 566932 567320 78 78 567709 78 568098 568486 79 568873 78 78 9.569261 569648 78 570035 78 570422 78 570809 78 78 571195 571581 79 571967 79 79 572352 572738 79
77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77
79 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 79
9. 57*3 123

655 654

654 653 653 653 652 652


651 651

650 650 649 649 649 648 648 647 647 646 646 645 645 645 644 644 643 643 642 642 642
641 641

10.438934 -60" 438541 59 438149 58 437756 57 437364 56 436972 55 436581 54 436189 53 435798 52 435408 51 4.35017 50 10.434627 49 434237 48 433847 47 433458 46 433068 45 432680 44 432291 43 431902 42 431514 41 431127 40 10.430739 39 430352 38 429965 37 429578 36 429191 35 428805 34 428419 33 428033 32 427648 31 427262 30

80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80
81 81 81 81 81

573507 573892 574276 574660 575044 575427 575810 576193 576576 9.576958 577341 577723 578104 578486 578867 579248 579629 580009 580389 9.580769 581149 581528 581907 582286 582665 583043 583422 683800 684177
Cotang.

640 640 639 039 639 638 638 637 637 636 636 636 635 635 634 634 634 633 633 632 632 632 631 631 630 630 629 629
1

10.426877 426493 426108 425724 425340 424950 424573 424190 423807 423424 10.423041 422659 422277 421896 421514 421133 420752 420371 419991 419611 10.419231 418851 418472 418093 417714 417335 416957 416578 416200 415823
Tung.
1

29 28 27 26 25

24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10

9 8 7 6 6

4 3 2
1

M.
1

Degrees.

SINES
M.
I

AND TANGENTS.
\

(21 Degrees.;
Tati)r
|

39

Sine

D.

Cosine

D.

9.654329 554658 1 554987 2 555315 3 555643 4 555971 5 6 556299 7 556626 556953 8 9' 557280 10 557600 9..557932 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

548 548 547 547 646 546 545 645 544 544 543
.543

5582.58

558583
5.58909

559234 559558 559883 560207 560531 20 560855 21 9.561178 561501 22 23 561824 562146 24 25 562468 26 562790 27 .563112 28 563433 563755 29 30 564075 31 9.564396 32 564716 33 565036 31 565356
:i5

.565076

543 542 542 541 541 540 540 539 539 538 638 637 637 636 536 636 635 535 534 534 633 533 532 532
531
.531

36 37 38
.'}9

5659V5 566314 566632


.566951

531

40
41

42 43 44 45 46
i7
4>'

49 50
62 53 54 55 56 57 58
59

60

567269 9.567587 567904 668222 568539 568856 569172 569488 569804 670120 670436 9.570751 571066 571380 571695 572003 572323 572636 57295C 573263 673575

530 530 529 629 528 528 628 527 527 626 626 625 525 524 524 623 623 523 622 522 521 621

9.970152 81 970108 81 970055 81 970006 81 969957 81 969909 81 969860 81 969811 81 969762 81 969714 81 969665 81 9.969616 82 969567 82 969518 82 969469 82 969420 82 969370 82 969321 82 969272 82 969223 82 969173 82 9.969124 82 969075 82 969025 82 968976 82 968926 83 968877 83 968827 83 968777 83 968728 83 968678 83 9.968628 83 968578 83 968528 83 968479 83 968429 83 968379 83 968^29 83 968278 83 968228 84 968178 84 9.968128 84 968078 84 968027 84 967977 84 967927 84 967876 84 967826 84 967775 84 967725 84 967674 84 9.967624 84 967573 84 967.522 85 967471 85 967421 85 96737C 85 967319 85 967268 85 967217 85 967166 85
I

9.584177 584555 584932 685309 585686 586062 586439 586815 587190 587566 687941 9.588316 588691 589066 589440 589814 590188 590562 590935
.'^91308

629 629 628 628 627 627 627 626 626 625 625 625

10.416823 415445
41,5068

414691 414314 413938


413.561

624 624 623 623 623 622 622 622


621 621 620 620 619 619 618 618 618 617

591681 9.592054 592426 592798 593170 593542 593914 594285 594656 695027 695398
9..59.5768

596138
596.508

596878 597247 697616 597985 598354 598722 599091 9.599459 599827 600194 600562 600929
60129(5

617 617 616 616 616 615 616 616 614 614 613 613 613 612 612
611 Oil 611

601602 002029 602395 602761 9.603127 603493 003858 004223 604588 604953
60.5317

605682 606046 6064 lU


Cula,,,.
I
I

610 610 610 609 609 609 608 608 607 607 607 006 606

413185 412810 412434 412059 10.411684 411309 410934 410500 410186 409312 409438 409065 408692 408319 10.407946 407574 407202 406829 406458 406086 405715 405344 404973 404602 10.404232 403862 403492 403122 402753 402384 402015 401646 401278 400909 10.400541 400173 399806 399438 399071 398704 398338 397971 397605 397239 10.396873 396507 396142 395777 395412 395047 394683 394318 393954 393590
'I'aiifj.

59 58 57 56 65 54 53 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19,

18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11

10 9 8 7 6 6

4 3 2
1

08

1).

40

(22 Degrees.;
1

a TAK/.K OF LOGARITHMIC
1

IT
"TT
1

8ine

D.

Cosine

D.

Tang.

D.

Colanc.

2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9
10
ii

12 13 14 15 16

17 18
19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35
36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

573575 673888 574200 574512 574824 575136 575447 575758 576069 576379 576689 9.576999 577309 677618 577927 578236 578545 578853 579162 579470 579777 9.580085 580392 580699 581005 581312 581618 581924 582229 582535 582840 9.583145 583449 583754 584058 584361 684665 584968 585272 685574 585877 9.586179 586482 586783 587085
9.

621 620 520 519 519 519 618 518

517 517 616 516 516 515 515 614 514 513 513 513 512 tl2
511 511 511 510

9.967166 967115 967064 967013 966961 966910 966859 966808 966756 966705 966653 9.966602 966550 966499 966447 966395 966344 966292 966240 966188 966136 9 966085 966033 965981 965928
96.5876

85 85 85 85 85 85 86 85 86 86 86 86 86
S6 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87

610 509 609 609 508 508 507 607 606 606
^06

965824 965772 965720 965668 965615 9.965563


96.5511 96.5458 96.5406

87 87
88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89
1 1

.587386

506 505 604 504 503 603 503 602 602


501 501 501

52 53 54 55 56
5<7

58 59 60

587688 587989 588289 588590 588890 9.589190 689489 589789 590088 590387 590686 690984 591282 691580 691878
Co.-iiie
1

500 600 499 499 499 498 498 497 497 497 496 496
1

965353 965301 965248 965195 965143 965090 9.965037 964984 964931 964879 964826 964773 964719 964666 964613 964560 9.964607 964454 964400 964347 964294 964240 964187 964133 964080 964026
Sine 6T

9.606410 606773 607137 607500 607863 608225 608588 608950 609312 609674 610036 9.610397 610769 611120 611480 611841 612201 612661 612921 613281 613641 9.614000 614359 614718 615077 615435 615793 616151 616509 616867 617224 9 617582 617939 618295 618652 619008 619364 619721 620076 620432 620787 9.621142 621497 621852 622207 622561 622915 623269 623623 623976 624330 9.624683 625036 625388 625741 626093 626445 626797 627149 627501 627852
Cotan^.
1

606 606 606 606 604 604 604 603 603 603 602 602 602
601 601 601

600 600 600 699 599 598 598 598 697 597 697 596 596 696 695 595 595 594 594 594 593 693 593 592 592 592 591
591

590 590 690 589 689 689 688 588 688 587 687 587 586 686 586 685 585
1

10.393590 393227 392863 392500 392137 391776 391412 391050 390688 390326 389964 10.389603 389241 388880 388520 388169 387799 387439 387079 386719 386369 10.386000 385641 385282 384923 384565 384207 383849 383491 383133 382776 10.383418 382061 381705 381348 380992 380636 380279 379924 379568 379213 10.378858 378503 378148 377793 377439 377085 376731 376377 376024 375670 10.375317 374964 374612 374259 373907 373555 373203 372851 372499 372148
Tang.
1

60 59 58 67 66 55 64 53 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 46 44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37 36 36 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5

4
3 2
1

1_

M.
[

r>ei<r

SI\r:S M.
Sine
D.

AM) TANJ
1

Kivrs.
D.

(23 Degrees.;
Tang
D.
1

41
Cotai.g.
1

Cosine

"o" y.
1

59 1878

2 3

4 5
6 7

8
9 10
11

12 13 14
lo 16

17
18 19

20
21

22 23 24 Lo 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39

40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51 52

592176 592473 592770 693067 593363 593659 593955 594251 594547 594842 9.595137 595432 595727 596021 596315 596609 596903 597196 597490 597783 9.598075 598368 598660 598952 599244 599536 599827 600118 600409 600700 9.600990 601280 601570 601860 602150 602439 602728 603017 603305 603594 9.603882 604170 604457 604745 605032 605319 605606 605892 606179 606465
9 6067,51

496 495 495 495 494 494 493 493 493 492 492
491 491 491

490 490 489 489 489 488 488 487 487 487 486 486 485 485 485 484 484 484 483 483 482 482 482 481
481 481

53 54 55 56 57 5S 59 60
1

607036 607322 607607 607892 608177 608461 608745 609029 609313


Cosine
1

480 480 479 479 479 478 478 478 477 477 476 476 476 476 475 474 474 474

473 473 473

9.964026 963972 963919 963865 963811 963757 963704 963650 963596 963542 963488 9.963434 963379 963325 963271 963217 963163 963108 963054 962999 962945 9.962890 962836 962781 962727 962672 962617 962562 962508 962453 962398 9.962343 962288 962233 962178 962123 962067 962012 961957 961902 961846 9.961791 961735 961680 961624 961569 961513 961458 961402 961346 961290 9.961235 961179 961123 961067 961011 960955 960899 960843 96078^ 960730
Sine
1

9.627852 628203 628554 628905 629255 629606 629956 630306 630656 631005 631355 9.631704 90 632053 90 632401 90 632750 90 633098 90 633447 90 633795 91 634143 91 634490 91 634838 91 91 9.635185 635532 91 635879 91 636226 91 636572 91 636919 91 637265 91 637611 91 637956 91 638302 92 92 9.638647 638992 92 639337 92 92 639682 640027 92 640371 92 640716 92 641060 92 641404 92 641747 92 92 9.642091 92 642434 92 642V 77 93 643120 643-463 93 643806 93 93 644148 644490 93 644832 93 93 645174 93 9.645516 93 645857 93 646199 93 646540 93 646881 93 647222 93 647562 04 647903 94 648243 94 648583
89 89 89 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90
Coiane.

585 685 585 684 584 683 683 683 583 582 682 582
681 681 681

580 680 580 579 579


.579

578 578 578 677 677 677 677 576 676 576 575 676 576 574 574 674 573 573 573 572 672 572 672
671 571 571

10.372148 371797 371446 371095 370745 370394 370044 369694 309344 368995 368645 10.368296 367947 367599 367250 366902 366553 366205 365857 365510 365162 10.364815 364468 364121 363774 363428 363081 362735 362389 362044 361698 10.361353 361008 360663 360318 359973 359629 359284 358940 358596 358253 10.367909 357566 357223 356880 356537
3.56194

60 59 58 57 56 55

54 53 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11

570 570 670 669 669 569 669 668 668 568 667 567 667
.566

355852 355510 355168


3.54826

10
9

10.3.54484

354143 363801 bo3460 353119 352778 352438 352097 351757 351417


Tnnr.
,

8 7 6 6 4 3 2
1

l\l

66 Degrees.

42

(24 Deffrees.")
^;ine

a T/LBLE OF LOGARITHMIC
1

D.

Cosine

D.

Ta.ig.

D.

Cotang.

'IT 9.609313 609597 1 609880 2 610164 3 610447 4 610729 6 6 611012 7 611294 8 611576 611858 9 10 612140 11 9.612421 12 612702 13 612983 14 613264 15 613545 16 613825 17 614105 18 614385 19 614665 20 614944 21 9.615223 22 615502 23 615781 24 616060 25 616338 26 616616 27 616894 28 617172 29 617450 30 617727 31 9.618004 32 618281 33 618558 34 618834 35 619110 36 619386 37 619G62 38 619938 39 620213 40 620488 41 9.620763 42 621038 43 621313 44 621587 45 621861 46 622135 47 622409 48 622682 49 622956 50 623229 51 9.623502 52 623774 53 624047 54 e^4319 55 624591 56 624863 57 625135 58 625406 59 625677 60 625918
1

473 472 472 472


471 471

470 470 470 469 469 469 468 468 467 467 467 466 466 466 465 465 465 464 464 464 463 463 462 462 462
461 461 461 460 460 460

459 459 459 458 458 457 457 457 456 456 456 455 455 455 454 454 454 453 453 453 452 452 452
451
i

9.960730 960674 960618 960561 900505 960448 960392 960335 960279 960222 960165 9.960109 960052 959995 959938 959882 959825 959768 959711 959654 959596 9.959539 959482 959425 959368 959310 959253 959195 959138 959081 959023 9.958965 958908 958850 958792 958734 958677 958619 958561 958503 958445 9.958387 958329 958271 958213 058154 958096 958038 957979 957921 957863 9.957804 957746 957687 957628 957570 957511 957452 957393 957335 957276
Sine
1

94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97
97 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98

9.648583 648923 649263 649602 649942 650281 650020 650959 651297 651636 651974 9.652312 652650 652988 653326 653663 654000 654337 654674 655011 655348 9.655684 656020 656356 656692 657028 657364 657699 658034 658369 658704 9.659039 659373 659708 660042 660376 660710 661043 661377 661710 662043 9 662376 662709 663042 663375 663707 664039 664371 664703 665035 665366 9.665697 666029 666360 666691 667021 667352 667682 668013 668343 668672
Colang.
1

566 566 566 566 565 565 565 564 564 564 563 563 563 563 562 562 562 561 561 561 561 660 560 560 559 559 559 559 558 558 558 558 557 557 557 557 556 556 556 555 555 555

554 554 554 554 553 553 553 553 552 552 552
551 551 551 551 550 650 550 550
1

10.351417 351077 350737 350398 350058 349719 349380 349041 348703 348364 348026 10.347688 347350 347012 346674 346337 346000 345663 345326 344989 344652 10.344316 343980 343644 343308 342972 342636 342301 341966 341631 341296 10.340961 340627 340292 339958 339624 339290 338957 338623 338290 337957 10.337624 337291 336958 336625 336293 335961 335629 335297 334965 334634 10.334303 333971 333640
33.3309

60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 45

44 43 42
41

40 39
38 37 3G 35

34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

332979 332648 332318 331987 331657 331328


Tanp.

2
1

Cosine

|M.|

65 Degreea.


Sine
1

SIIV/:S

AND TANGENTS
Cosine
1

(25 Degrees
1

43
Cotang.
1

D.

D.

Tang.

D.

2 3

4
5
fi

7 8 9 10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 2o 26 27 28 29

20
31

32 33 34
35 36 37 38 39

40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

"~

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

9.625948 626219 626490 626760 627030 627300 627570 627840 628109 628378 628647 9.628916 629185 629453 629721 629989 630257 630524 630792 631059 631326 9.631593 631859 632125 632392 632658 632923 633189 633454 633719 633984 9.634249 634514 634778 635042 635306 635570 635834 636097 636360 636623 9.636886 637148 637411 637673 637935 638197 638458 638720 638981 639242 9.639503 639764 640024 640284 640544 640804 641064 641324 641584 641842
Conine

451 451 451 450 450 450 449 449 449 448 448 447 447

9.957276 957217
9571.58

957099 957040 956981 956921 956862 956803 956744 956684 9.956625


9.56566

447 446 446 446 446 445 445 445 444 444 444 443 443 443 442 442 442
441 441

956506 956447 956387 956327 956268 956208 956148 9560S9 9.956029 955969 955909 955849 955789 955729
95.5069

98 9.668673 98 669002 98 669332 98 669661 98 669991 98 670320 99 670049 99 670977 99 671.306 99 671634 99 671963 99 9.672291 99 672619 99 672947 99 673274 99 673602 99 673929 99 674257 100 674584 100 674910 100 675237 100 9.675564 100 675890 100 676216 100 676543 100 676869 100 677194 100 677520
100 100 100
101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101

5.50

549 549 549 548 548 548 548


541;

10.331327|60 330998 59 33060S 58 330339 57


3.">0009

440 440 440 439 439 439 438 438 438 437 437 437 437 436 436 436 435 435 435 434 434 434 433 483 433 432 432 432 431
1

955609 955548 955488 9.955428 965368 955307 955247


9.55186

955126 955065 955005 954914 954883 9 954823 101


9.54762 101 954701 101 954640 101 954579 101

954518 954457 954396 954335

102 102 102 102 9.54274 102


102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 103 103
,

9.954213 954152 954090 954029


9.53968

953906 953845 953783 953722


9536601
Sine
1

677846 678171 678496 9.678821 679146 679471 679795 680120 6S0444 680768 681092 681416 681740 9.682063 682387 682710 683033 683366 683679 684001 684324 684646 684968 9.685290 685612 685934 686255 686577 686898 687219
687.540

547 547 647 646 546 546 646 545 545 545 544 544 644 544 643 643 543 643 542 642 642 642
541 541 541
.541

329680 329351 329023 328694 328366 328037 10.327709 327381 327053 326726 326398 326071 325743 325416 325090 324763 10.324436 324110 323784 323457 323131 322806 322480 322154 321829

56 55 54 53 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40

39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 321.504 30

687861 688182
Coiang.

540 540 540 540 539 539 639 639 638 538 638 538 637 637 637 637 536 536 536 536 535 535 535 536 634 534
1

10.321179 320854 320529 320205 319880

29 28 27 26 25 319.556 24 319232 23 318908 22


318.584 21

318260 10.317937 317613 317290 316967 316644 316321

20
19 18 17 16 15

14

31.5999 13 31.5676 12 3153.54 11 315032 10

10.314710
314,388

314066 313745 313423 313102 312781 312460 312139

9 8 7 6 6 4

3 2
1

3U81S
Tang.

Jw.

64 Degrees.

44
M.
1

{''^G

Degrees.}
I^.
1

a table of LOGARiruMic
|

Si

le
1

Cosine

D.

T:....

I),

Co tang.

"TT 9.641842 642101


]

2 3 4 5
6 7 8

11

]2 i3 14 15 16

17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 35 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

642360 642618 642877 643135 643393 643650 643908 644165 644423 9.644680 644936 645193 645450 645706 645962 646218 646474 646729 646984 9.647240 647494 647749 648004 648258 648512 648766 649020 649274 649527 9.649781 650034 650287 650539 650792 651044 651297
651.549

431 431 431

430 430 430 430 429 429 429 428 428 428 427 427 427 426 426 426 425 425 425 424 424 424 424 423 423 423 422 422 422 422 421 421
421

42 43
14

45
16

47 48 49 50
51

651800 652052 9.652304 652555 652806 653057 653308 653558 653808 654059 654309
6.54558

52 53 51 55 56 57 58 59 60
1

9.654808 655058
65.5307

655556 655805 656054 656302 656551 656799 657047


Oo.'ine
'

420 420 420 419 419 419 418 418 418 418 417 417 417 416 416 416 416 415 415 415 414 414 414 413 413

9.953660 103 9.688182 953599 103 688502 'J53537 103 688823 953475 103 689143 953413 103 689463 953352 103 689783 953290 103 690103 953228 103 690423 953166 103 690742 953104 103 691062 953042 103 691381 9.952980 104 9.691700 952918 104 692019 952855 104 692338 952793 104 692656 952731 104 692975 952669 104 693293 952606 104 693612 952544 104 693930 952481 104 694248 952419 104 694566 9.952356 T04 9.694883 952294 104 695201 952231 104 695518 952168 105 695836 952106 105 696153 952043 105 696470 951980 105 690787 951917 105 697103 951854 105 697420 951791 105 697736 9.951728 105 9.6980.53 951665 105 698369 951602 105 698685 951539 105 699001 951476 105 699316 951412 105 699632 951349 106 699947 951286 106 700263 951222 106 700578 951159 106 700893 9.951096 106 9.701208 951032 106 701523 950968 106 701837 950905 106 702152 950841 106 702466 950778 106 702780 950714 106 703095 950650 106 703409 950586 106 703723 950522 107 704036 9.950458 107 9.704350 950394 107 704663 950330 107 704977 950266 107 705290 950202 107 705603 950138 107 705916 950074 IO7I 70622S 960010 lOT 706541 949945 1071 706854 949881 107 707166
Sine
1

534 534 534 633 533 533 533 533 532 532 532
631 531 631 531 631 530 530 630 630 629 629 629 629 629 628 628 628 528

10.311818 311498 311177 310857 310537 310217 309897 30957; 309258


3089.38

60 59
58 57 56

55
54
i

53 62
51
r>o

527 627 627 627 626 526 526 626 526 525 525 625 524 524 624 624 524 623 623 523 523 522 522 622 622 622
521 521 521 621 521

520

308619 10.308300 307981 307662 307344 307025 306707 306388 306070 305752 305434 10.305117 304799 304482 304164 303847 303530 303213 302897 302580 302264 10.301947 301631 301315 300999 300684 30036S 300053 299737 299422 299107 10.298792 298477 298163 297848 297534 297220 296905 296591 296277 295964 10.295650 295337 295023 294710 294397 294084 293772 293459 293146 292834
T.U..

49 48 47 46 45
44 43

42
41

40
39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18

17 16 15
14 13 12
11

10
9 8
7

6 5

3
2
1

Coiant,'.
1

<53

Degrees.

SINES

AM) T\NGE>T
Cosine
|

(27 Degrees /
Tang.
D.
Cotang.
,

4J
1

M
~0
1

Sin.

T)

D.

. (157047

2 3

657295 657542 657790


t,:8037

4
5
6 7 8 9 10
11

12 13 14
15

16 17
18 19

20
|21

22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43

44 45
46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 00
1

658284 658531 658778 659025 659271 659517 9.659763 660009 660255 660501 660746 660991 661236 661481 661726 601970 9.662214 662459 662703 662946 663190 663433 663677 663920 664163 664406 9.664648 664891 665133 665375 665617 665859 666100 606342 666583 666824 9.667065 667305 667546 667786 668027 66S267 668506 668746 668980 669225 9.669464 669703 669942 670181 670419 670658 670896 671134 671372 671609
CoMlii:

413 413 412 412 412 412


411 411 411

410 410 410 409 409 409 409 408 408 408 407 407 407 407 406 406 406 405 405 405 405 404 404 404 403 403 403 402 402 402 402
401

401 401 401

400 400 400


399 399 399 399 398 398 398
.397

397 397 897 396 396 396

9.949881 949816 949753 949688 949623 949558 949494 949129 949364 949300 949235 9.949170 949105 949040 948975 948910 948845 948780 948715 948650 948584 9.94S519 948454 948388 948323 948257 948192 948126 948060 947995 947929 9.947863 947797 947731 947665 947600 947533 947467 947401 947335 947269 9.947203 947136 947070 947001 946937 946871 946804 946738 946671 946604 9.94B538 946471 946404 946337 946270 946203 946136 946069 946002 945935
Sine
1

107 9.707166 107 707478 107 707790 108 708102 108 708414
108 108 108 103 108 108

108 108 108 108 108 108 109 109 109 109
109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 110 110

no
110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110

no no
111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111

111 111 111 111 112 112 112 112

112 112

708726 709037 709349 709660 709971 710382 9.710593 710904 711215 711525 711836 712146 712456 712766 713076 713386 9.713696 714005 714314 714624 714933 715242 715551 715860 716168 716477 9.716785 717093 717401 717709 718017 718325 718633 718940 719248 719555 9.719862 720169 720476 720783 721089 721396 721702 722009 722315 722621 9.722927 723232 723538 723844 724149 724454 724759 725065 725369 725674
Cotai.g.

620 520 520 520 519 519 519 519 619 518 518 518 618 618 647 617 617 617 516 516 516 516 516 515

^:5 51h 615 614 514 514 514 614 613 513 613 513 513 512 512 512 512 612
611 611 511 511
51]

10.293834 293522 292210 291898 291586 291274 290963 290651 290340 290029 289718 10.289407 289096 288785 288475 288164 287854 287544 287234 286924 286614 10.286304 286995 285686 285376 285067 284758

6o
fi9

f^ 57 56 55 54 53 52
51

60 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 48
41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 2844^19 33 284140 32 283832 31 283523 30 10.283215 29 282907 28 282599 27 28229 26 281983 95


28167.->

510 610 510 510 510 609 509 509 509 509 508 508 508 508

~
1

281367 281060 280752 280445 10.280138 279831 279524 279217 278911 278604 278298 277991 277685 277379 10.277073 276768 276462 276156 275851 275546 275241 274935 274631 274326
Tang.

24 23 22
21

20
19 18
I
1

16 15 14 13 12
11

10
9

8 7 6 5

4 3
2
1

|M.
1

62 Degrees.

46

(28 Degrees.;
1

a table or logarithmic
1

^
1

M.

Sine

n.

Cosine

Tiwa.

!>
1

Co.au..
!

2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9

iio
11

9.671609 67i847 672084 672321 672558 672795 673032 673268 673505 673741 673977
9.67^4213

396 395 395 395 395 394 394 304 394 393 393

12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19

674448 674684 674919


6751.55

393 392 392 392 392


391 391 391 391

675390 675624 675859 676094 676328 20 21 9.676562 676796 22 23 .677030 677264 24 677498 25 26 677731 27 677964 678197 28 678430 29 30 678683 31 9 678895 679128 32 679360 33 679592 34 679824 35 680056 36 680288 37 38 680519 680750 39 40 680982 41 9.681213 681443 42 681674 43 681905 44 682135 45 682365 46 682595 47 682825 48 6830.55 49 683284 50 51 9.683514 683743 02 683972 53 684201 54 684430 55 684658 56 684887 ,^7 58 685115 59 6S5343

390 390 390 390 389 389 389 388 388 388 388 387
.387

387 387 386 386 386 385 385 385 385 384 384 384 384 383 383 383 383 382 382 382 382 381
381 381 380

9.945935 945868 945800 945733 945666 945598 945531 945464 945396 945328 945261 9.945193 945125 945058 944990 944922 944854 944786 944718 944650 944582 9.944514 944446 944377 944309 944241 944172 944104 944036 943967 943899 9.943830 943761 943693 943624 943555 943486
94.3417

112 9.725674 112 725979 112 726284 726588 112 112 726892 112 727197 727501 112 727805 113 113 728109 113 728412 113 728716

508 508 607

113 9.729020 113 729323 113 729626 113 729929 113 730233 113 730535 730838 113 113 731141 113 731444 114 731746

114 9.732048 7.32351 114 114 732653 114 7329.55 114 733257 7335.58 114 733860 114 734162 114

734463 734764 114 9.735066 735367 114


114 114

507 507 507 507 506 506 506 506 506 505 505 505 605 505 504 504 504 604 504 503 503 503 503 503 502 502 502 502 502 502
601 501 501 501 501

"0.27432^ 60 274021 59 273716 58 27.3412 67 273108 66 272803 55 272499 54 272195 53 27! 891 52
271.588 51

271284 0.270980 270677 270374 270071 269767 269465 269162 268859 268556
10.267952 267649 267347 267045 266743 266442 266140 265838 265537 265236 10.264934 264633 264332 264031 263731 263430 263129 2B2829 262529 262229 10.261929 261629 261329 261029 260729 260430 260130

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42

41 2682.54 40

39 38

37 36 35 34 33 32
31

60

65.571
Cosine
1

380 380 380

943348 943279 943210 9.943141 943072 943003 942934 942864 942795 942726 942656 942587 942517 9.942448 942378 942308 942239 942169 942099 942029 941959 941889 941819
Su.
1

115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115

73.5668

115 115 115 115 115 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 117 117

735969 736269 736570 736871 737171 737471 737771 9.738071 738371 738671 738971 739271 739570 739870 740169 740468 740767 9.741066
741.365

741664 741962 742261 742559 742858 743156 743454 743752


Coliing.

600 500 600 500 500 499 499 499 499 499 499 498 498 498 498 498 49? 497 497 497 497 497 496
1

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19

18 17 16 15 14 13 12 2.59831

259532 11 259233 10 '9 10.258934 258635 8 258336 7 258038 6 257739 5 257441 4 257142 3 256844 2
256.546
1
1

2562481
Tanj:.

Li

JJ

61 Dcgrcea

SINES
M.
Sine
D.

A^D

TANGENTS
|

(29 Degrees.;
Tang.
D.
1

47
Ci.tang.
1

Cosine

D.

"o" 9.685571 I 685799 2 686027 3 08C254 4 686482 5 686709 6 686936 7 687163 8 6S7389 9 687616 10 687843 nl 9.688069 12 688295 13 688521 14 688747 15 688972 16 689198 17 689423 IS 689648 19 689873 20 690098
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

9.690.323 690.548

690772 690996 691220 691444 691668 691892 692115 692339


9.692.562

32 33 34 35 36 37 38

692785 693008 693231 693453 693676 693898 694120 39 694342 40 694564 41 9.694786 42 695007 43 695229 44 69.5450 45 695671 46 69.5892 47 696113 48 696334
49 50
51
6965.54

380 379 379 379 379 378 378 378 878 377 377 377 377 376 376 376 376 375 375 375 375 374 374 374 374 373 373 373 373 372 372 372 371 371 371 371 370 370 370 370 369 369 309 369 368 368 368 368

9.9418191 117 9.743752 941749 117 744050 941679 117 744348 941609 117 744645 941539 117 744943 941469 117 745240 941398 117 745538 941328 117 745835 941258 117 746132 941187 117 746429 941117 117 746726 9.941046 118 9.747023 940975 118 747319 940905 118 747616 940834 118 747913 748209 940763 118 748505 940693 118 748801 940622 118 940.551 118 749097 749393 940480 118 749689 940409 118

9.940338 940267 940196 940125 940054 939982 939911 939840 939768 939697 9.939625 939554 939482 939410 939339 939267 939195 939123 939052 938980 9.938008 938836 938763 938691 938619

118 9.749985 750281 118 750576 118 750872 119 751167 119 751462 119 7517.57 119 7.52052 119 752347 119 7.52642 113 119 9.7.52937 753231 119 753526 119 753820 119 7.54115 119 7.54409 120 7.54703 120 7.54997 120 755291 120 75.5585 120

496 496 496 496 496 496 495 495 495 495 495 494 494 494 494 494 493 493 493 493 493 493 492 492 492 492 492 492 491
491 491

10.2.56218 60

255950 59 255652 58
25.5355 57

255057 254730 254402 254165 2538G8 2535V 253274 10.252977 252681 252384 252087 251791 251495 251199 250903 250607
;i.5031i

56 55 54 53 52
51

60 49 48 47 40 45
4^1

43 42
41

491 491 491

120 9.755878 7.56172 120 756465 120 756759 120 757052 120 938.547 120 757345 938475 120 757638
121 121 121

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
I

696775 9.696995 697215 697435 697654 697874 698094 698313 698532 698751 698970
Cosine

367 367 367 367 366 366 366 366 365 365 365 365 364

938402 938330 938258 9.938185

938040 937967 937895 937822

121 938113! 121 121 121 121 121 9377491 121 937676 121 937604 121

937531 121
Sine
1 1

757931 758224 758517 9.758810 759102 759395 759687 759979 760272 760564 760856 761148 761439
Cotang.
1

490 490 490 490 490 490 489 489 489 489 489 489 488 488 488 488 488 488 487 487 487 487 487 487 486 486 486
1

10.250015 249719 249424 249128 248833 248538 248243 247948 247653 247358 10.247063 246769 246474 246180 245885 245591 245297 245003

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 Q

2'14709 21

244415 10.244122 243828 243535 243241 242948 242655 242362 242069 241776 241483 10.241190 240898 240605 240313 240021
2.39728

239436 239144 238852 238561


Tang.
.1

8 7 6 5 4 3 2
1

M.

60 Degr ees.

48
M.|
Sine

(30 Degrees.)
1

a table of
|

LOGAnirit.Hir:
D.

D.

Cosine

D.

Tane.

.....
1

2 3

9.698970 699189 699407 699626


69984-1

4
5 6 7 8 9 10

700062 700280 700498 700716 700933 701151 11 9.701368 701585 12 701802 13 702019 14 702236 15 702452 16 17 702669
18 19

364 364 304 364 363 363 363 363 363 362 362 362 362 361 361 361
361

702885'

20
21

703101 703317

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35
36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48
49 50
51 52

53 54 56 56 57 68 59 150

9.703533 703749 703964 704179 704395 704610 704825 705040 705254 705469 9 705683 705898 706112 706326 706539 706753 706967 707180 707393 707606 9.707819 708032 708245 708458 708670 708882 709094 709306 709518 709730 9 709941 710153 710364 710575 710786 710997 711308 711419 711629 711839
j

360 360 360 360 350 359 359 359 359 358 358 358 358 357 357 357 357 356 356 356 356 355 355 355 355 354 354 354 354 353 353 353 353 353 352 352 352 352
351 351 351 351

350 350
I

9.937531 937458 937385 937312 937238 937165 937092 937019 936946 936872 936799 9.936725 936652 936578 936505 936431 936357 936284 936210 936136 936062 9.935988 935914 935840 935766 935692 935618 935543 935469 935395 935320 9.935246 935171 935097 935022 934948 934873 934798 934723 934649 934574 9.934499 934424 934349 934274 934199 934123 934048 933973 933898 933822 9.933747 933671 933596 933520 933445 933369 933293 933217 933141 933066
i"-'
1
1

121 9.7614391

122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122

122 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 123

123 123 123 124 124 124 124 124 124 124

761731 762023 762314 762606 762897 763188 763479 763770 764061 764352 9.764643 764933 765224 765514 765805 766095 766385 766675 766965 767255 9.767545 767834 768124 768413 768703 768992 769281 769570 769860 770148

124 9.770437 770726 124 771015 124 771303 124 771592 124 771880 124 772168 125 772457 125 772745 125 773033 125 125 9.773321 773608 125 773896 125 774184 125 774471 125 774759 125 775046 125 775333 125 775621 126 126 775908
126 9.776105 126 776482 126 776769 777055 126 777342 126 777628 126 126 777915 126 778201 126 77848t 126 778774
Cuiany.
1 1

486 10.2385011 601 486 238269 591 486 237977 58 486 237686 57 485 237394 56 485 237103 55 485 236812 54 485 23652] 53 485 236230 52 485 235939 51 484 235648 50 484 10.235357 49 484 235067 48 484 234776 47 484 234486 46 484 234195 45 484 233905 44 483 233615 43 483 233325 42 483 233035 41 483 232745 40 483 10.232455 39 483 232166 38 482 231876 37 482 231587 36 482 231297 35 482 231008 34 482 230719 33 482 230430 32 481 230140 31 481 229852 30 481 10.229563 29 481 229274 28 481 228985 27 481 228697 26 481 228408 25 480 228120 24 480 227832 23 480 227.543 22 480 227255 21 480 226967 20 480 10.226679 19 226392 18 479 226104 17 479 225816 16 479 225529 15 479 225241 14 479 224954 13 479 224667 12 479 224379 11 478 224092 10 478 478 10.223805 9 223518 8 478 223231 7 478 22294: 6 478 222658 5 478 222372 4 477 22208.'! 3 477 221790 2 477 22151'. 477 2212261 477
I
1

Co-illL'

'
1

''
1

59 Dujtirc*

SllSKS
M.
Sine
D.

AND TANGENTS
Cosine
{

^ (31 Defrrees 'J

49
Cotang.
1

D.

Tiuijr.

D.

"(T 9 711839
1

2 3

4
5 6 7 8 9
11

12 13
14

15 16 17 18 19

0
21

22

23
24

25 2B 27 28 29 30
31

32 33
34 3f
31)

3/ 8 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

"~

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

/ 12050 712260 712469 712679 712889 713098 713308 713517 713726 75 3935 9.714144 714352 714^61 714769 714978 715186 715394 715602 715809 716017 9.716224 716432 716639 716846 717053 717259 717466 717673 717879 718085 9.718291 718497 718703 718909 719114 719320 719525 719730 719935 720140 9.720345 720549 720754 72Q958 721162 721366 721570 721774 721978 722181 9.722385 722588 722791

350 350 350 349 349 349 349 349 348 348 348 348
.347

347 347 347 347 346 346 346 346 345 345 345 345 345 344 344 344 344 343 343 343 343 343 342 342 342 342
341 341 341 341

72299-*

723197 723400 723603 723805 724007 724210


C'o!-iiie

'

340 340 340 340 340 339 339 339 339 339 338 338 338 338 337 337 337 337
1

9.933066 932990 932914 932838 932762 932685 932609 932533 932457 932380 932304 9.932228 932151 932075 931998 931921 931845 931768 931691 931614 931537 9.931460 931383 931306 931229 931152 931075 930998 930921 930843 930766 9.930688 930611 930533 930450 930378 930300 930223 930145 930067 929989 9.929911 929833 929755 929677 929599 929521 929442 929364

126 9.778774 127 779060 127 779346 127 779632 127 779918 780203 127 127 780489 780775 127 127 781060 781346 127 127 781631 127 9.781916 782201 127 782486 128 128 782771 783056 128 128 783341 783626 128 783910 128 128 784195 784479 128
128 9.784764 785048 128 785332 128 785616 129 785900 129 786184 129 786468 129 786752 129 787036 129 787319 129

129 9.787603 787886 129 788170 129 788453 129 788736 129 789019 130 130 789302 130 789585 789868 130 130 790151 130 9.790433 790716 130 130 790999 130 791281 791.563 130

477 477 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 475 475 475 475 475 475 475 475 474 474 474 474 474 474 473 473 473 473 473 473 473 472 472 472 472 472 472 472
471 471 471 471 471 471 471 471

10.221226 220940 220654 220368 220082 219797 219511 219225 218940 218654 218369 10.218084 217799 217514 217229 216944 216659 216374 216090 215805 215521 10.215236 214952 214668 214384 214100 213816 213532 213248 212964 212681

60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51 50

49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40
39"

38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

130 130 131 29286 131 929207 131 131 131 131 131 131 131 131 131 131
131
1
1

9.929129 929050 928972 928893 928815 928736 928657 928578 928499 928420
Sine

791846 792128 792410 792692 792974 9.793256 793538 793819 794101 794383 794664 794945 795227 795508 795789
Cotang.

470 470 470 470 470 470 470 469 469 469 469 469 469 469 468 468
t

10.212397 212114 211830 211547 211264 210981 210698 210415 210132 209849 10.209507 209284 209001 208719 208437 208154 207872 207590 207308 207026 10.206744 206462 206181 205899 205617 205336 205055 204773 204492 204211

20
19 18

\7
16 15 14 13 12 .1 10

9 8 7 6 5

4
3 2
1

T-s1

\^\

58 Degrees

t>i)

(3 2 Degrees.)
1

a TAKLF OF roOARirilAlK)
j

"m"

Sii.e
1

i>.

Cosine

D.

Tanfj.

D.
i

Coianfi.

"o" 9.724-210
1

2 3 4 6
6 7

8 9
10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44
45 46

47
48 49 50
51

52 53 64 55 56 57 58 59 60

724412 724614 724816 725017 725219 725420 725622 725823 726024 726225 9.726426 726626 726827 727027 727228 727428 727628 727828 728027 728227 9.728427 728626 728825 729024 729223 729422 729621 729820 730018 730216 9.730415 730613 730811 731009 731206 731404 731602 731799 731996 732193 9.732390 732587 732784 732980 733177 733373 733569 733765 733961 734157 9.734353 734549 734744 734939 735135 735330 735525 735719 735914 736 09
1

337 337 336 336 336 336 335 335 335 335 335 334 334 334

9. 9284^^0

182 928342 132 928263 132 928183 132 928104 132

334 334 333 333 833 333 333 332 332 332 332
331
.S31

331 331

330 330 330 330 330 329 329 329 329 829 328 328 828 328 328 327 327 327 327 327 326 326
.326

928025 927946 927867 927787 927708 927629 9.927549 927470 927390 927310 927231 927151 927071 926991 926911 920831 9.92675] 926671 926591 926511 926431 926351 926270 926190 926110 926029 9.925949 925868 925788 925707 925626 925545 925465 925384 925303 925222 9.925141 925060 924979 924897 924816 924735
9246.54

132 132 132 132 132 132

182 188 133 188 183 133 183 133 133 138
133 183 133 134 134 134 134 134 134 134

9.79578y 796070 796351 796632 796913 797194 797475 797755 798036 798316 798596 9.798877
7991.57

184 134 134 134 134 185


1.35

799437 799717 799997 800277 800557 800836 801116 801396 9.801675 801955 802234 802513 802792 803072 803351 808630 803908 804187 9.804466 804745 805023 805802 805580
80.5859

135 135 185 185 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136
136
1.36

326 325 325 325 325 325 324 324 324


1

924572 924491 924409 9.924328 924246 924164 924083 924001 923919 923837 923755 923678 92859
Sine
1

136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137


i

806187 806415 806693 806971 9.807249 807527 807805 808088 808361 808638 808916 809193 809471 809748 9.810025 810302 810580 810857 811134 811410 811687 811964 812241 812517
Cotang.
1

468 468 468 468 468 468 468 468 467 467 467 467 467 467 467 466 466 466 466 466 466 466 466 465 465 465 465 465 465 465 465 464 464 464 464 464 464 464 463 463 463 463 463 463 463 463 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 461
461 461 461 461
461

10.204211,60' 203980 59 203649 58 203308 57 203087 56 202806 55 202525 54 202245 58 201964 52

201684 201404 10.201123 200843 200563 200283 200003


199443 199164 198884 198604 10.198825 198045 197766 197487 197208 196928 196649 196870 196092 195813

51

50
49

48
47

46 45 199 723 44

48 42
41

40 39 88 37 36 35
8^

33 32
31

30

10.195.5.34 29 1952,55 28

194977 194698 194420 194141 193863 193585


193029 10.192751 192478 192195 191917 191639 191362 191084 190807 190529

27 26 25 24 23 22 20
19 18 17 16 15 14 18 12
11

19.3807 21

VM52
10.189975
189098; 180420!

10 9 8
7

189143 188866 188590 188313 188036 187759 187183


I'atif?.
1

6 5 4 3 2
1

'

zi

Cosine
1

M.
1

57 Kegrt'Hs.

.si\.>

AM/ TANGENTS.
Cosine
|

(^33

Dcgives
D-

51
Cotan?.
1

M.

Sine

n.

D.

Tang

"0"
2 3 4
fi

9 736109

~32r
324 324 323 323 323 323 323 322 322 322 322 322
321 321 321 321 321

6 7 8 9 10

n
12 i3 14 15 IG
17

18 19

2G
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
iO
41

736303 736498 736692 736886 737080 737274 737467 737661 737855 738048 y 738241 738434 738627 738820 739013 739206 739398 739590 739783 739975 9.740167 740359 740550 740742 740934 741125 741316 741508 741699 741889 9.742080 742271 742462 742652 742842 743033 743223 743413 743302 743792 9.743982
744171 7443G1

320 320 320 320 320 319 319 319 319 319 318 318 318
318 318 317 317 317 317 317 316 316 316 316 316 315 315 315 315 315 314 314 3L4 314 314 313 313 313 313 313 312 312 312
1

9.923591 923509 923427 923345 923263 923181 923098 923016 922933 922851 922768 9 922686 922603 922520 922438 922355 922272 922189 922106 922023 921940 9.921857 921774 921691 921607 921524 921441 921357 921274 921190 921107
.

137 9.812517 812794 137 S13070 137 813.347 137 813623 137 813899 137 814175 137 814452 137 814728 137 815004 137 138 815279
138 9.81.5555 815831 138 816107 138 816382 138 816658 138 816933 138 817209 138
1.38

461 461 461

138 138 139 139 139


1.39

139 139
1.39

139 139
1.39

817484 817759 818035 9.818310 818585 818860 819135 819410 819684 819959 820234
820.508

460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 459 459 459 459 459 459 459 459
459 458 458 458 458 458 458 458 458 458 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 455 455 455 455 455 455 455 455 455 454

820783

744550 744739 744928 47 745117 48 745306 49 745494 50 745683 51 9.745871 52 746059 53 746248 54 746436 55 746624 5r. 746812 746999 /^^ '5S 747187 59 747374 747562 60_
Cosine

42 43 44 45 46

9.921023 920939 920856 920772 920688 920604 920520 920436 920352 920268 9.920184 920099 920015 919931 919846 919762 919677 919593 919508 919424 9.9L9339
919254!

139 9.821057 140 821332 140 821606 140 821880 140 822154 140 822429 140 82270.3 140 822977 140 823250 140 823.524

10.187482 187206 186930 180653 186377 186101 185825 185548 185272 184996 184721 10.184445 1S4169 183893 183618 183342 183067 182791 182516 182241 181965 10.181690 181415 181140 180865 180590 180316 180041 179766 179492 179217 10.178943 178668 178394 178120 177846 177571 177297 177023

60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43
4;2

41

40
39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30

29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 1767.50 21 17G476 20
19 18 17 16 15

140 9.823798 140 824072 140 824345


141 141 141 141 141 141 141

919169 919085 919000 918915 918830 918745 918659 918574


Sine
1

141 141 141 141 141

142 142 142 142 142


1

824619 824893 825166 825439 825713 825986 826259 9.826532 826805 827078 827351 827624 827897 828170 828442 828715 828987
Ooiaiig.
1

454 454 454


4.54
1

10.176202 175928 175655 175381 175107 174834 174561 174287 174014 173741 10.173468 173195 172922 172649 172376 172103 171830
1715.58

14
13 12 11

10
9

8 7 6 5 4
3 2

171285 171013
Tang.
1

u
M.

56

Df-sif'^s.

5ii

(34
1

Dcg rees.;
D.
1

a TABLK OF
|

L(.i.\l.!T!t.MlC

M.

Sine

Cosine

D.

Tang.

D
454 454 454 454 454 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452
451 451 451 451 451 451 451 451 451 451

Cotan.
1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11

12 13 14 15
Ifi

17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

62 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

9.747562 747749 747936 748123 748310 748497 748683 748870 749056 749243 749429 9.749615 749801 749987 750172 750358 750543 750729 750914 751099 751284 9.751469 751654 751839 752023 752208 752392 752576 752760 752944 753128 9 753312 753495 753679 753862 754046 754229 754412 754595 754778 754900 9.755143 755326 755508 755690 755872 756054 756236 756418 756600 756782 9.756963 757144
7570-26

312 312 312 311 311 311 311


311

757507 757688 757869 758050 758230 758411 758591


Cosine
1

310 310 310 310 310 309 309 309 309 309 308 308 308 308 308 308 307 307 307 307 307 306 306 306 306 306 305 305 305 305 305 304 304 304 304 304 304 303 303 303 303 303 302 302 302 302 302
301 301 301 301 301 301
1

9.918574 918489 918404 918318 918233 918147 918062 917976 917891 917805 917719 9.917634 917548 917462 917376 917290 917204 917118 917032 916946 916859 9.916773 916687 916600 916514 916427 916341 916254 916167 916081 915994 9.915907 915820 915733 915646 915559 915472 915385 915297 915210 915123 9.915035 914948 914860 914773 914685 914598 914510 914422 914334 914246 9.914158 914070 913982 913894 913806 913718

142 9.828987 142 829260 142 829532 142 829805 142 830077 142 830349 142 830621 143 830893 143 831165 143 831437 143 831709

10.171013 170740 170468 170195 169923

60 59 58 57 56 169651 55 169379 54
53 52
51

143 9.831981 143 832253 143 832525 143 832796 143 833068 143 833339 1-^ 833611 144 833882 144 834154 144 834125

169107 168835 168563 168291 10.168019 167747 167475


167-^04

50

49 48 17
16

144 9.834696 144 834967 144 835238 144 835509 144 835780 144 836051 144 836322 145 836593 145 836864 145 837134 145 9.837405 145 837675 145 837946 145 838216 145 838487 145 838757 145 839027 145 839297 145 839568 146 839838
146 9.840108 840378 146 840647 146 840917 146 146 841187 146 841457 146 841726 146 841996 146 842266 147 842535

450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 449 449 449
44-9

147 9.842805 147 843074 147 843343 147 843612 843882 147 147 844151 91.'^.630 147 844420 913541 147 844689 913453 147 844958 913365 147 845227
tiine
1

449 449 449 449 449 449 449 448 448 448 448 448 448
!

166932 166661 166389 166118 165846 165575 10.165304 165033 164762 164491 164220 163949 163678 163407 163136 162866 10.162595 162325 162054 161784 161513 161243 160973 160703 160432 160162 10.159892 159622 159353 159083 158813 158543 158274 158004 157734 157465 10.157195 156926 156657 156388 156118 155849 155580
155311 155042 154773
T:;ns.'.

45

44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11

10 9 8 7
6 5 4 3 2
1

Colani;

^r

55 Dfgroes.

SINES

AND TANGENTS.
1

(36
Tanc.

Dejrj-eeS.)
D.
Cotaii!.'.
1 '

o3

Mj

Sine

D.

Cosine

'
1

I).

^l
1

2 3

4
5 6 7 8
9 10
11

12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31 32

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

9.758591 758772 758952 759132 759312 759492 759672 759852 760031 760211 760390 9.760569 760748 760927 761106 761285 761464 761642 761821 761999 762177 9.702356 762534 762712 762889 763067 763245 763422 763600 763777 763954 9.764131 764308 764485 764662 764838 765015 765191 765367 765544 785720 9.765896 766072 766247 766423 766598 766774 766949 767124 767300 767475 9.767649 767824 767999 768173 768348 768522 768697 768871 769045 769219
]"" Cosine

301 300 300 300

9.913365 913276 913187 913099


<J13010

300 300 299 299 299 299 299 298 298 298 298 298 298 297 297 297 297 297 296 296 296 296 296 296 295 295 295 295 295 294 294 294 294 294 294 293 293 293 293 293 293 292 292 292 292 292
291 291 291 291 291

290 290 290 290 290 290

912922 912833 912744 912655 912566 912477 9.912388 912299 912210 912121 912031 911942 911853 911763 911674 911584 9.911495 911405 911315 911226 911136 911046 910956 910866 910776 910686 9.910596 910506 910415 910325 910235 910144 910054 909963 909873 909782 9.909691 909601 909510 909419 909328 909237 909146 909055 908964 908873 9.908781 908690 908699 908507 908416 908324 908233 908141 908049
Sine

147 9.846227 845496 147 845764 148 846033 148 846302 148 846570 148 846839 148 847107 148 148 847376 847644 148 847913 148
148 9.848181 848449 149 848717 149 848986 149 849254 149 849522 149 849790 149 850058 149 850326 149 860593 149
149 9.850801 861129 149 861396 150 851664 150 851931 150 852199 150 852466 150 862733 150 853001 150 863268 150

150 9.853536 863802 150 854069 150


151 151 151 151 151 151 151

151 151 151 151 152 152 152 152 152 152

152 152 152 152 153 153 153 153 153 907958' 153
1

854336 854603 854870 856137 856404 865671 855938 9.856204 866471 866737 857004 857270 857537 867803 858069 858336 858602 9.858868 859134 859400 859666 859932 860198 860464 860730 860995 861261
1

448 448 448 448 448 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 443

10.154773 154504 154236 163967 163698 163430

60 59 58 67 56 55 153101 54 152893 63 152624 52


1.62366 51

162087 10.161819 151561 151283 151014 150746 150478 160210 149942 149676 149407 10.149139 148871 148604 148336 148069
147801 147634 147267 146999 146732

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37
36 36 34 33 32
31

10.146466 146198 146931 146664 146397 145130 144863 144596 144329 144062 10.143796 143629 143263 142996 142730 142463 142197

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18

443 443 443 443 443 443 443 443 443 443
i

141931 141664 11 141398 10 10.141132 9 140866 8 140600 7 140334 6 140068 5 139802 4 139636 3 139270 2 139005 1 138739
Tang.
f
1

17 16 15 14 13 12

Cmang.

M.
|

54 Degrees.

16

64
ai.

[3G Degrees.)
Pino
1

a T VBLK OF
1

LOGARITlI.niC
D.
i

D.

Cosine

D.

Tans.

Cotane.

~o" 9.769219
1

3 4 6
6
7

8
U 10
IJ

1* 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 00

769393 769506 769740 769913 770087 770260 770433 770606 770779 770952 9.771125 771298 771470 771643 771815 771987 772159 772331 772503 772675 9.772847 773018 773190 773351 773533 773704 773875 774046 774217 774388 9.774558 774729 774899 775070 775240 775410 775580 775750 775920 776090 9.776259 776429 776598 776768 776937 7^7106 777275 777444 777613 777781 9 777950 778119 778287 778455 778624 778792 778960 779128 779295 779463
Gobi lie

290 289 289 289 289 289 288 288 288 288 288 288 287 287 287 287 287 287 286 286 286 286 286 286 285 285 285 285 285 285 284 284 284 284 284 284 283 283 283 283 283 283 282 282 282 282 282 281 281 281
281 281 2S1

9,9079581 153 907866 153 907774 153 907682 153 907590 153 907498 153 907406 153 907314 154 907222 154 907129 154 907037 154 9 906945 154 906852 154 906760 154 906667 154 906575 154 906482 154 906389 155 906296 155 906204 155 906111 165 9.906018 155 905925 155 905832 155 305739 155 905645 155 905552 155 905459 155 905366 156 905272 156 905179 156 9.905085 156 904992 156 904898 156 904804 156 904711 156 904617 156 904523 156 904429 157 904335 157 904241 157 9.904147 157 904053 157 903959 157

280 280 280 280 280 280 279 279


1

903864 903770 903676 903581 903487 903392 903298 9.903203 903108 903014 902919 902824 902729 902634 902539 902444 902349
Sine

157

157 157 157 157 168 158


158 158 158 158 158 168 158 159 159 159

9.861261 861527 86 1702 862058 862323 862589 862854 863119 863385 863650 863915 9.864180 864445 864710 864975 865240 805505 865770 866035 866300 866564 9.866829 867094 867358 867623 867887 868152 868416 868680 868945 869209 9.869473 869737 870001 870265 870529 870793 871057 871321 871585 871849 9.872112 872376 872640 872903 873167 873430 873694 873957 874220 874484 9.874747 875010 875273 875536 875800 876063 876326 876589 876851 877114
(Jotilllg.

443 443 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 441 441 441 441 441 441 441
441 441 441 441 441

10.138739 138473 138208 137942 137677


137411 137146 136881 136615 136350 136085 10.135820 136555 136290 135025 134760 134495 J 34230 133965 133700 133436 10.133171 132906 132642 132377 132113 131848 131584 131320 131055 130791 10.130527 130263 129999 129735 129471 129207 128943 128679 128415 128151 10.127888 127624 127360 127097 126833 126570 126306 126043 125780 125516 10.125253 124990 124727 124464 124200 123937 123674 123411 123149 122886
1

60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 62
51

50 49 48 47 46 45

44 43 42
41

40
39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 438 438 438 438 438 438 438 438

30
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10

9 8 7 6 5

4
3 2
1

ZA

Ta.if..

M.

53 Decrees.

JINES

iND TANGENTS.
1

^^37
TuiiK.

Degrees
D.
Cot.ur.2.
1

55
1

T
1

M.

Sine

T).

Csine

D.

2 3

4
5

6 7 8
9 10

U
12

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 31 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42
43

44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

9.779463 779631 779798 779966 780133 780300 780467 780G34 780801 780968 781134 9.781301 781468 781634 781800 781966 782132 782298 782464 782630 7S2796 9.782961 783127 783292 783458 783623 783788 783953 784118 784282 784447 9.784612 784776 784941 785105 785269 785433 785597 785761 785925 786089 9 786252 78G416 786579 786742 786908 787069 787232 787395 787557 787720 0.787883 788045 788208 788370 788532 788694 788856 789018 789180 789342
.

279 279 279 279 279 278 278 278 278 278 278 277 277 277 277 277

277 276 276 276 276 276 276 275 275 275 275 275 275 274 274 274 274 274 274 273 273 273 273 273 273 272 272 272 272 272 272
271 271 271 271 271 271 271

270 270 270 270 270 270 269

9.902349 902253 902158 902063 901967 901872 901776 901681 901585 901490 901394 9.901298 901202 901106 901010 900914 900818 900722 900620 900529 900433 9.900337 900240 900144 900047 899951 899854 899757 899660 899564 899467 9.899370 899273 899176 899078 898981 898884 898787 898689 898592 898494 9.898397 898299 898202 898104 898006 897908 897810 897712 897614 897516 9.897418 897320 897222 897123 897025 896926 896828 896729 896631 896532

159 9.877114 159 877377 159 877640 159 877903 159 878165 159 878428 159 878691 159 878953 159 879216 159 879478 160 879741 160 9.880003 160 880205 160 880528 160 880790 160 881052 160 881314 160 881576 160 881839 160 882101
161

161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 162

162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 163
163 163 163 163 163 163 163 163 163 163

164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164
1

882363 9.882625 882887 883148 883410 883672 883934 884196 884457 884719 884980 9.885242 885503 885765 886026 886288 886549 886810 887072 887333 887594 9.887855 888116 888377 888639 888900 889100 889421 889682 889943 890204 9.890465 890725 890986 891247
891.507

438 438 438 438 438 438 438 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 434 434 434 434

10.12:886 "60 122623 59 122360 58 122097 57 121835 56

121572 121309 121047 120784 120522 120259 10.119997 119735 119472 119210 118948 118686 118424 118161 117899 117637 10.117375 117113 116852 116590 116328 116066

55 54 63 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40
39 38

37 36 35 34 11.5804 33 115543 32 115281 31 115020 30 10.114758 29 114^197 28 1 14235 27 113974 26 113712 25 113451 24 113190 23 112928 22 112667 21 112406 20
19 18

891768 892028 892289 892549


892810'
Cotang.

434 434 434 434 434 434 434


1

10.112145 111884 111623 111361 111100 110840 110579 110318 110057 109796 10.109535 109275 109014 108753 108493 108232 107972 107711 107451 107190
Tang.

17 16 15 14 13 12
11

10 9 8

r
6 5

4
3 2
1

Co-siiie

Sme

:"

S2 Dtgrees

56
M.
1

(3a Dej^rees.;
t*ine
^).

a TABLE OF LOOARJTHMIC
1

Cosine

D.

Tan-

D.

Cotang.
j

2 3

4
5 6 7 8 9 10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

62 53 64 55 56 57 58 59 60
I

9.789342 789504 789665 789827 789988 790149 790310 790471 790632 790793 790954 9.791115 791275 791436 791596 791757 791917 792077 792237 792397 792557 9.792716 792876 793035 793195 793354 793514 793673 793832 793991 794150 9.794308 794467 794626 794784 794942 795101 795259 795417 795575 795733 9.795891 796049 796206 796364 796521 796679 796836 796993 797150 797307 9.797464 797621 797777 797934 798091 798247 798403 798560 798716 798872
Cosine

269 269 269 269 269 269 268 268 268 268 268 268

9.89653-2

184 9.892810 896433 165 893070 896335 165 893331 165 896236 893591

267 267 267 267 267 267 266 266 266 266 266 266 265 265 265 265 205 265 264 264 264 264 264 264 264 263 263 263 263 263 263 263 262 262 262 262 262
261 261
261 261 261 261 261 261

260 260 260 260


1

896137 896038 895939 895840 895741 895641 895542 9.895443 895343 895244 895145 895045 894945 894846 894746 894646 894546 9.894446 894346 894246 894146 894046 893946 893346 893745 893645 893544 9.893444 893343 893243 893142 893041 892940 892839 892739 892638 892536 9.892435 892334 892233 892132 892030 891929 891827 891726 891624 891523 9.891421 891319 891217 891115 891013 890911 890809 890707 890605 890503
Sine
1

165 165 165 165 165 165 165


166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166

167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167
168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168
169 169 169 169 169 169 169 169 169 170

170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170
1

893851 894111 894371 894632 894892 895152 895412 9.895672 895932 896192 898452 896712 898971 897231 897491 897751 898010 9.898270 898530 89S7S9 899049 899308 899568 899827 900086 900346 900605 9.900804 901124 901383 901642 901901 902160 902419 902679 902938 903197 9.903455 903714 903973 904232 904491 904750 905008 905267 905526 905784 9.906043 906302 906560 906819 907077 907336 907594 907852 908111 908369
Colang.
1

434 434 434 434 434 434 434 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 432
4.32

10.107190 60 106930, 59 106669 58


106409!
.57

106149 56 105839 55 105629 54 105368 53 105108152


1048481 51

432 432 432 432


432

432 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 431 431 431 431 431 431
431

431 431 431 431 431


431

40 39 30 37 36 35 34 33 099914 32 099654 31 099395 30 10.099136 29 098876 28 098617 27 098358 26 098099 25 097840 24 097581 23 097321 22 097062 21 096803 20 10.096545 19 096286 18 096027 17 095768 16 095509 15 095250 14 094992 13 094733 IS 094471 11 0942 16J 10
l\j

104588 10 104328 104068 103808 103548 103288 103029 102769 102509 102249 101990 10.101730 101470 101211 100951 100092 100432 100173

50 49
48

47 46 45
44

43
4C 4'

0939'57

431 431 431 431 431 431 430 430

093308 093440 093181 092923 092664 092406 092148 091889 091631


Tang.
1

9 8 7 6 5
4 3 2
I

M
(

51

Degrees.

SINES
M
"~o" 9
1
.

AND TANGENTS.
C..>ine
1

(39 Degrees.)
Tai.ij.

.^im-.

l>1

1).

D.

C.tang.

79SS72
7990-^8
:

3 4 5 6
1

7 8 9
10
11

12 13 14 15 16

17
18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33
34 35

36
37

38 39 40
41

799184 799339 799495 799651 799805 799902 800117 800272 800427 9.800582 800737 800892 801047 801201 801356 801511 801665 801819 801973 9.802128 802282 802430 802589 802743 80289? 803050 803204 803357 803511 9.N03664 803817 803970 804123 804276 804428 804581 804734 804886
80.5039

200 260 260 259 259 259 259


2.59

259 258 258


2.58 2.58

9.890503 890400 890298 890195 890093 889990 889888 889785 889682 889579 889477 9.889374

170 9.908369
171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171

8S92n

889168 258 889064 888961 258 888858 257 888755 257 888651 257 888548 257 888444 257_ 257 9.888341 888237 256 888134 256 888030 256 887926 256 887822 256 887718 256 887614 256 887510 255 887406 2.55 255 9.887302 887198 255 2.55 887093 8S69S9 255 886885 2.54
2.58

172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 173

908628 908886 909144 909402 909660 909918 910177 910435 910693 910951 9.911209 911467 911724 911982 912240 912498 912756 913014 913271
913.529

430 430 430 430 430 430 430 430 430


4.30

10.0916311 60 0913721 59

173 9.913787 914044 173 914302 173 914.560 173 914817 173 91.5075 173 173 91.5332 915590 173 91.5847 173 916104 174

2.54 2.54 2.54 2.54

254
2.54

174 9.916362 174 916619 174 916877 174 917134 917391 174 8867.^0 174 917648 174 917905 8866T6 174 918163 88657 886466 174 918420 886362 175 918677
I

42 43 44 45 46 47 43 49 50
51

9.805191 805343
80.5495

253
2.53 2.53
1

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

805647 805799 80595 806103 806254 806406 806557 9.806709 806860 807011 807163 807314 807465 807615 807766 807917 808067
CDsiiie

253
2.53 2.53 2.53

9.886257 886152 886047 885942 885837 885732

252 252 252 252 252 252 252 251


251 251 251 251

176 9.918934 919191 175 919448 175 919705 175 919962 175 920219 175 88.5627 175 920476 885.522 175 920733 885416 175 920990 885311 176 921247

'

9.88.5205 176 9.921.503 885100 176 921760 884994 176 922017 884889 176 922274 922530 884783 176 884677 176 922787 884572 176 923044 884466 176 923300 92.3557 884360 176 923S13 884254 177
Sine
1

430 430 430 430 430 430 430 430 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 427 427

091114 090856 090598 090340 090082 089823 089565 089307 089049 10.088791 088533 088276 0880 IS 087760 087502 087244 086986 080729 086471 10.086213
08.5956

58 57

56 55 54 53
5^2

51 50

49 48
47 46 45 44

43 42
41

085698 085440 085183 084925 084668 3-3 084410 32 084153 31


08.3896 30 10.083638 29
083.381

40 39 38 37 36 35 34

28
2'i

083123 082866 082609 082352 082095 081837 081580 081323 10.081066 080809 080552 080295 080038 079781 079524 079267 079010 078753 10.078497 078240 077983 077726 077470 077213 076956 076700 076443 076187
Tn.

26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11

10

'9
8 7 6 5

4
3 2
1

_-
1

Cotang.
1

M.
1

50 Degrees.

58

(iO
Siii-e

Degrees.)
n.
1

a TABLE JP LOGARITHMIC
!

T
1
<>

M.

Co.-^iiie

Tane.

D.

Cotanp.

4
5 6 7 8 9 10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

52
r,o

54 55 56 57 58 59 60

9.80S067 808218 808368 808519 808669 808819 808969 809119 809269 809419 809569 9.809718 809868 810017 810167 810316 810465 810614 810763 810912 811061 9.811210 811358 811507 811655 811804 811952 812100 812248 812396 812544 9.812692 812840 812988 813135 813283 813430 813578 813725 813872 814019 9.814166 814313 814460 814607 814753 814900 815046 815193 815339 815485 9.815631 815778 815924 816069 816215 816361 816507 816652 816798 816943
Cosine

251 251 251

250 250 250 250 250 250 249 249 249 249 249 249 248 248 248 248 248 248 248 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 243 243 243 243 243 243 243 242 242 242 242

9.884254! 177 9.923813 884148 177 924070 884042 177 924327 883936 177 924583 883829 177 924840 883723 177 925096 883617 177 925352 883510 177 925609 883404 177 925865 883297 178 926122 883191 178 926378 9.883084 178 9.926634 882977 178 926890 882871 178 927147 882764 178 927403 882657 178 927659 882550 178 927915 882443 178 928171 882336 179 928427 882229 179 928683 882121 179 928940 9.882014 179 9.929196 881907 179 929452 881799 179 929708 881692 179 929964 881584 179 930220 881477 179 930475 881369 179 930731 881261 180 930987 881153 180 931243 881046 180 931499

9.880938 880830 880722 880613 880505 880397 880289 880180 880072 879963 9.879855 879746 879637 879529 879420 879311 879202 879093 878984 878875 9.878766 878656 878547 878438 878328 878219
8781091

180 9.931755 180 932010

180 180 180 180


181 181 181 181

181 181 181 181 181 181 182 182 182 182

877999 877890 877780


Sine
1

182 182 182 182 182 183 183 183 183 183

932266 932522 932778 933033 933289 933545 933800 934056 9.934311 934567 934823 935078 935333 935589 935844 936100 936355 936610 9.936866 937121 937376 937632 937887 938142 938398 938653 938908 939163
Colang.

427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425

10.076187 075930 075673 075417 075160 074904 074648 074391 074135 073878 073622 10.073366 073110 072853 072597 072341 072085 071829 071573 071317 071060 10.070804 070548 070292 070036 069780 069525 069269 069013 068757 068501 10.068245 067990 067734 067478 067222 066967 066711 066455 066200 065944 10.065689 065433 065177 064922 064667 064411 064156 063900 063645 063390 10.063134 062879 062624 062368 062113 061858 061602 061347 061092 060837
r:i..g.
1

60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11

10
8 7 6 r

4 3 2
I

M.
I

49 Degrees

SINES
M.
Sine
1

AND TANGENTg
Cosine
1

\^4\
ToTitr.

Degrees .)
D.

69
Cotang.
1

D.

D.

~0 9.816943
1

2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10
11

12 13

14 15 16 17
18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

52 53 54 65 56

57 58
59 60
1

817088 817233 817379 817524 817668 817813 817958 818103 818247 818392 9.818536 818681 818825 818969 819113 819257 819401 819545 819689 819832 9.819976 820120 820263 820406 820550 820693 820836 820979 821122 821265 9.821407 821550 821693 821835 821977 822120 822262 822404 822546 822688 9.822830 822972 823114 823256 823397 823539 823680 823821 823963 824104 9.824245 824386 824527 824668 824808 824949 825090 825230 825371 826511
Cosine

9.877780 877670 877560 877450 877340 241 877230 241 877120 241 877010 241 876899 241 876789 241 876678 241 240 9.876568 876457 240 876347 240 876236 240 876125 240 876014 240. 875904 240 875793 239 875682 239 875571 239 239 9.875459 87534S 239 875237 239 875126 239 875014 238 874903 238 874791 238 874680 238 874568 238 874456 238 238 9.874344 874232 238 874121 237 874009 237 873896 237 873784 237 873672 237 873560 237 873448 237 873335 236 236 9.873223 873110 236 872998 236 872885 236 872772 236 872659 236 872547 235 872434 235 872321 235 872208 235 235 9.872095 871981 235 871868 235 871755 234 871641 234 871528 234 871414 234 871301 234 871187 234 87 1 073 234
242 242 242 242
Sine
1

183 9.939163 183 939418 183 939673 183 939928 183 940183 184 940438 184 940694 184 940949 184 941204 184 941458 184 941714

184 9.941968 184 942223 184 942478 185 942733 185 942988
185 185 185 ^85 185

943243 943498 943752 944007 944262 185 9.944517 185 944771 185 945026
186 186 186 186 186 186 186
186 187
94,5281

187 187 187 187 187 187 187 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 190

945535 945790 946045 946299 946554 946808 9.947063 947318 947572 947826 948081 948336 948590 948844 949099 949353 9.949607 949862 950116 950370 950625 950879 951133 951388 951642 951896 9.952150 952405 952659 952913 953167
953421

953675
953929 954183 954437
Coiang.

425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 423 423 423 423 423 423

'0.060837 060582 060327 060072 059817 059562 059306 059051 058796 058542 058286 10.058032 057777 057522 057267 057012 056757 056502 056248 055993 055738 10.055483 055229 054974 054719
0.54465

60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51

50
49 48

47
46 45 44 43 42
41

054210 053955 053701 053446 053192 10.052937 052682 052428 052174 051919 051664 051410 051156 050901 050647 10.050393 050138 049884 049630 049375

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20

19 18 17 16 15 049121 14 048867 13 048612 12

048358 11 048104 10 10.047850 9 047595 8 047341 7 047087 6 046833 5 046579 4 046325 3 046071 2
04.5817
1

045563
Tang.
1

M.
|

43 Deprees.

60
M
1
1

(42 Degrees.)
Fine
D.
1

a TABLE OF LOG.\KITHMlC
|

Cosine

D.

Tanir.
1

!)

CV,I;,nc.

~0 9.825511
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 2G 27 28 29 30
31 32

33 34 35 36 37 38
39

40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48
19

825651 825791 825931 826071 826211 826351 826491 826631 826770 826910 9.827049 827189 827328 827467 827606 827745 827884 82S023 828162 828301 9.828439 828578 828716 828855 828993 829131 829269 829407 829545 829683 9.829821 829959 830097 830234 830372 830509 830646 830784 830921 831058 9.831195 831332 831469 831606 831742 831879 832015 832152 832288 832425 9.832561
8.32697

234 233 233 233 233 233 233 233 233 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232
231 231 231 231

231 231 231 230

52 53
54

56 56 57 58 59 60

832833 832969 833105 833241 833377 833512 833648 833783


t'osine
1

230 230 230 230 230 230 229 229 229 229 229 229 229 229 228 228 228 228 228 228 228 228 227 227 227 227 227 227 227 226 226 226 226 226 226 226

9.871073 870960 870846 870732 870618 870504 870390 870276 870161 870047 869933 9.8G9818 869704 869589 869474 869360 869245 869130 869015 868900 868785 9.868670 868555 868440 868324 868209 868093 867978 867862 867747 867631 9.867515 867399 867283 867167 867051 866935 866819 866703 866586 866470 9.866353 886237 866120 866004 865887 865770 865653 865536

190 9.954437 190 9.54691 190 954945 190 955200 190 955454 190 955707 190 955961 190 956215 190 956469
191 191
191 191 191 191 191 191 191

192 192 192


192 192 192 192 192 192 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 194 194 194 194 194

194 194 194 195 195 195 195 195 86.5419 195 865302 195
195 195 195 196 196 196 196
196|

9.865185 865068 864950 864833 864716 864598 864481 864363 864245 864127
Sine
1

196 196
1

956723 956977 9.957231 957485 957739 957993 958246 958500 958754 959008 959262 959516 9.959769 960023 960277 960531 960784 961038 961291 961545 961799 962052 9.962306 962560 962813 963067 963320 963574 963827 964081 964335 964588 9.964842 965095 965345 965602 965855 966109 966362 966616 966869 967123 9.967376 967629 967883 968136 968389 968643 968896 969149 969403 969656
Colaiii:.
I

423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423
423

10.0455631 60

423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422

045309 045055 044800 044546 044293 044039 043785 043531 043277 043023 10.042769 042515 042261 042007 041754 041500 041246 040992 040738 040484 10.040231 039977 039723 039469 039216 038962 038709 038455
037948 10.037694 037440 037187
0.36933

59
.58 .57

56 55
54

53 52
51

50

49 48
47

46 45 44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34
33 32

0,38201 31

30 29
28

036680 036426 036173


03,5919

27 26 25 24 23 22
21

035665 035412 10.035158 034905 034651 034398 034145

20

19 18 17 16 15 0.33891 14 033638 13 033384 12

033131 11 032877 10 10.032624 9


0.32371

032117 031864
03I61I

8 7 6 5
4 3
2

031357 031104 030851 030507 030344


r.u,.
1

N.

47 Dsgrees.

R
1

SINES
Sine
1

AND TANGENTS
Cosine
1
1

(43 Degrees.)
Tang.
1

8i
CotaiiR.
1

D.

n.|

D.

2 3
i

5
6

7
8 9 10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20
21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

44 45 46 47 48
49 50
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 68 69 eo

9.833783 833919 834054 834189 834325 834460 834595 834730 834865 834999 835134 9.835269 835403 835538 835672 835807 835941 836075 836209 836343 836477 9.836611 836745 836878 837012 837146 837279 837412 837546 837679 837812 9.837945 838078 838211 838344 838477 838610 838742 838875 839007 839140 9.839272 839404 839536 839668 839800 839932 840064 840196 840328 840459 9.840591 840722 840854 840985 841116 841247 841378 841509 841640 841771
Cosine
1

226 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 223 223 223 223 223 223 223 222 222 222 222 222 222 222 222 221 221 221 221 221 221 221 221 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 218 218 218 218 218 218
1

9.864127 864010 863892 863774 863650 863538 863419 863301 863183 863064 862946 9.862827 862709 862590 862471 662353 862234 862115 861996 861877 861758 9.861638 861519 861400 861280 861161 861041 860922 860802 860682 860562 9.860442 860322 860202 860082 859962 859842 859721 859601 859480 859360 9.859239 859119 858998 858877 858756 858635 858514 858393 858272 858151 9.858029 857908 857786 857665 857543 857422 857300 857178 857056 856934
1

196 9.969656 196 969909 197 970162 197 970416 197 970669 197 970922 197 971175 197 971429 197 971682 197 971935 198 972188 198 9.972441 198 972694 198 972948 198 973201 198 973454 198 973707 198 973960 198 974213 198 974466 199 974719 199 9.974973 975226 199 975479 199 975732 199 199 975985 976238 199 976491 199 199 976744

200 976997 200 977250 200 9.977503 200 9VV756 200 978009 200 978262 200 978515 200 978768 201 979021 979274 201 201 979527 979780 201 201 9.980033 980286 201 980538 201 980791 201 202 981044 981297 202 981550 202 981803 202 982056 202 982309 202 202 9.982562 982814 202 983067 202 983320 203 983573 203 983826 203 203 984079 984331 203 203 984584 984837 203

422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 421 421
421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421

10.030344 -60 030091 59 029838 58 029584 57 029331 56 029078 55 028825 54 028571 53 028318 52 028065 51 027812 50 10.027559 49 027306 48 027052 47 026799 46 026546 45 026293 44 026040 43 025787 42 025534 41 025281 40 10.025027 59 024774 38 024521 37 024268 36 024015 35 023762 34 023509 33 023256 32 023003 31 022750 30 10.022497 29 022244 28 021991 27 021738 26 021485 25 021232 24 020979 23 020726 22 020473 21 020220 20 10.019967 19 019714 18 019462 17 019209 10 018956 15 018703 14 018450 13 018197 12 017944 11 017691 10 10.017438 9 017186 8 016933, 7| 016680 6 016427 5 016174 4 015921 3 015669 2 015416 I
0l5l63i
Tar.g.
I 1

Sine
j

Cotane.

M.

46 Degrees.

62

{U
Sine

Degrees.;
I).

a TAliLF
(

-..

Lrt'GARITHMlC
1

i
2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9

Ci)<ine

D.

T;ui-j.

D.

Cotaiv.'.

10
11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20 2l 22 23
24 25 26

27
28 23 30
31

9.841771 841902 842033 842163 842294 842424 842555 842685 842815 842946 843076 9.843206 843336 843466 843595 843725 843855 843984 844114 844243 844372 9.844502 844631 844760 844889 845018 845147 845276 845405 845533 845662 9.845790
84,5919

218 218 218 217 217 217 217 217 217 217 217 216 216 216 216 216 216 216 215 215 215 215 215 215 215 215 215 214

32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39

40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

846047 846175 846304 846432 846560 846688 846816 846944 9.847071 847199 847327 847454
847582 847709

214 214 214 214 214 214 214 214 213 213 213 213 213 213 213 213
212

847836 847964 848091 848218 51 9.848345 848472 52 53 848599 848726 54 848852 55 56 848979 849106 57 843232 58 849359 59 60 849485
Cosine

212 212 212 212 212 212 212


211 211 211 211 211 211 211 211 211

9.856934 856812 856690 856568 856446 856323 853201 856078 855956 855833 855711 9.855588 855465 855342 855219 855096 854973 854850 854727 854603 854480 9.854356 854233 854109 853986 853862 853738 853614 853490 853366 853242 9.853118 852994 852869 852745 852620 852496 852371 852247 852122 851997 9.851872 851747 851622 851497 851372 851246 851121 850996 850870 850745 9.850619 850493 850368 850242 850116 849990 849864 849738 849611 849485
Sine
1

203 203 204 204 204

204 204 204 204 204 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 206 206 206 206 206 2a6 206 206 206 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 208 208 208 208 208 208 208 208 209 209 209 209 209 209 209 209 210 210 210 210 998737J 210 998989 210 999242 210 999495 999748 210 210 10. 000000
Col an;;.
Depre^fl.

9.984837 985090 985343 985696 985848 986101 986354 986607 986860 987112 987365 9.987618 987871 988123 988376 988Q29 988882 989134 989387 989640 989893 9.990145 990398 990651 990903 991156 991409 991662 991914 992167 992420 9.992672 992925 993178 993430 993683 993936 994189 994441 994694 994947 9.995199 995452 995705 995957 996210 996463 996715 996968 997221 997473 9.997726 997979 998231 998484

421

421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421

10.015163 014910 014657 014404 014152 013899 013646 013393 013140 012888 012635 0.012382 012129 011877 011624 011371 011118 010866 010613 010360 010107 10.009855 009602 009349 009097 008844 008591 008338 008086 007833 007580 10 007328 007075 006822 006570 006317 006064 005811 005559 005306 005053 10.004801 004548 004205 004043 003790 003537 003285 003032 002779 002527
10. 1102274

60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31

39 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21

20
19 18

17
16 15 14 13 12 11 10

y02021

001769 001516 001263 001011 000758 000505 000253 000000


Tang.

9 8 7 6 5

4 3
2
1

"1

|U.|

4.%

QA 529

U513
1851

Legendre, Adrien Marie Elements of geometry and trn gonometry

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