of the
Ptttti^rsttg of
Dwitto
ELEMENTS
A)']VffLEGENDRE,
BY DAVID BREWSTER,
LL. D.
BY CHARLES DAVIES,
A'JTHOU OF ARITHMETIC, ALGEBRA, PRACTICAL OEOMETRY, ELKMXNTS OF
!
NEW YORK:
PUBLISHED BY
No.
51
CO.
1851.
^V 673 605301
DA VIES'
COURSE OF MATHEMATICS.
DAVIES' FIRST LESSONS IN
ARITHMETICFor Beginners.
use of Academies and Schools.
DAVIES
KEY TO
DAVIES' UNIVERSITY
KEY TO
DAVIES'
ELEMENTARY ALGEBRABeing
DAVIES'
Sci
KEY TO
DAVIES'
same time
ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA.
The reasoning
is
ELEMENTARY GEOMETRY.This
strictly rigorous.
DAVIES'
plied to the
DAVIES' BOURDON'S ALGEBRA Including Sturm's Theorem Being an abridgment of the Work of M. Bourdon, with the addition of practical example^. DAVIES' LEGENDRE'S
Sines.
GEOMETRY
and
TRIGONOMETRYBeing
an abridgment of the work of M. Legendre, with the addition of a Treatise on Mensuration OF Planes and Solids, and a Table of Logarithms and Logarithmic
DAVIES'
With a description and plates of the Theodolite, Compass, PlaneTable, and Level; also, Maps of the Topographical Signs idopted by the Engineer Department an explanation of the method of surveying ihe Public Lands, and an Elementary Treatise on Navigation.
SURVEYING
DAVIES' ANALYTICAL
IN of
;
GEOMETRY Embracing
the
Equations of
Space also, the discussion of the General Equation of the second degree, and Surfaces of the second order.
DAVIES* DESCRIPTIVE
icAL Projections.
GEOMETRY With
application to Sphe
SHADOWS
New York
'
PREFACE
TO THE AMERICAN EDITION.
to
The
form,
translation of Legendre's
is
Geometry under
its
present
fully
assumes
in
making
work of such
de
It is
The
propositions of
Geometry are
difficulty
in
comprehend
the intellectual
it is
one
o!
the
PREFACE.
Besides the alterations in the enunciation of the
made
The propo
Book
V.,
circle
may be made
infinite
number of
is
sides
becomes a
circle,
and
this
prmciple
made
monstrations in
Book
VIII.
Book II.,on
work.
Very considerable
in the
alterations
manner of
Spherical Trigonometry.
geometry
CONTENTS
BOOK
The
principles,
1.
BOOK
Raiios and Proportions,
II.
**
BOOK
The
Circle and the
III.
Measurement of Angles,
...

41
57
BOOK
The
IV.
Problems relating
Fourth Book,
....
68
98
BOOK
V.

109
BOOK
Planes and Sohd Angles,
....VII.
VIII.
VI.
l^*
BOOK
Polyedrons,
*'^'^
BOOK
The
three round bodies,
T>
BOOK
Of Spherical
IX.
.
i^^
APPKNUIX.
llie regular Polvedrons,
205
CONTENTS.
PLANE TRIGOr^OMETRY.
207

Trigonometrical Lines,
208
Tan215
&c.
223 224
228
231
by Logarithms,
....
235
237
238
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
First principles,
Quadrantal Triangles,
...

246
252
255
257
by Logarithms,
250
MENSURATION.
Mensuration of Surfaces,
Mensural! on of Solids
.
474
285
AN INBEX
8H0WING THE PROPOSITIONS OF LEGENDRE WHICH CORRESPOND TO THE PRINCIPAL PROPOSITIONS OF THE FIRST SIX BOOKS OP EUCLID.
Euclid.
Legendre.
Euclid.
Legendre.
Euclid.
Legendre.
15
Book
jProp.
I.
Book
4 Prop. 5 5 Cor. of
6
I.
Cor. 2. of 33 Prop. 33 5
34
27 Prop. 30 28
26 Prop. 28 29
31
S
5 5
)
Book IV.
?1 12 10
1
1 35 1 36 37 Cor. 2 of 2 38 Cor. 2. of 2
}
Cor. of
Cor. 2.
iQ
&3.
r^
28 30
8 13 14
15 Cor.
1.
Book IV.
35 36
3 4
4
&2.
15 Sch. of ^^
4 47
2
11
Book
VI.
1
5
I
16 17 18 19
Cor.of25 25
13 13
7
Book
II.
4
12 13
8 13 12
Cor. 1. of 4 Cor. of 6
20
21
1
2
3
15
Book
III.
Book
Prop. Cor. of Cor. of Cor. of
III.
3 10 11 12
6 7
4 5
6
18
19'
14 14
201
8
14 15
19
J
22
25
29 30
Cor. 1. of 32
Cor. 2. 4. of 20
&
14 15 18
8 2
9 18 18
Cor. of
151
251
5
22 26
20
21 Cor. of
20
261
?l\
DEPAHiMENT
FP
li
jLOGY
.'TED
BY
Professor A.
COLL IAN
r
iOfii.
)
UNIVERSr.Y
ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY.
BOOK
THE
I.
PRINCIPLES.
Definitions.
1.
Geometry
is
the science
which has
for
its
ooject the
measurement of extension.
Extension has three dimensions, length, breadth, and height,
or thickness.
line is length without breadth, or thickness. extremities of a line are called points : a point, therefore, has neither length, breadth, nor thickness, but position only. straight line is the shortest distance from one point to 3. another. 4. Every line which is not straight, or composed of straight
2.
The
lines, is
a curved
line,
E
Thus,
broken
lines
;
AB
ACDB
line,
A.
The word
Ime
5.
;
lin^^ when used alone, will designate a scraight and the word curve, a curved line. A surface is that which has length and breadth, without
height or thickness.
6.
plane
is
a surface, in which,
if
two
points be
assumed
lie
at pleasure,
wholly
in the surface.
7. Every surface, which is not a plane surface, or composed of plane surfaces, is a curved surface, solid or body is that which has length, breadth, and 8. thickness ; and therefore combines the three dimensions of extension
10
9.
GEOMETRY.
When
two
straight lines,
each other, their incHnation or opening is called an angle, which is greater or less as the lines are more or less inclined or opened. The
point of intersection
angle,
is
_^,
and the
angle
lines
AB, AC,
are
its
sides.
The
the vertex
the letter at
sometimes designated simply by the letter at sometimes by the three letters BAC, or CAB, the vertex being always placed in the middle.
is
;
Angles, like
all
subtraction, multiplication,
and
division.
Thus the angle is the sum of and the anthe two angles DCB, gle is the diiTerence of the two angles DCE, BCE.
DCE
BCE
DCB
^
15
10.
When
a straight line
AB
meets another
the adjacent
straight line
CD,
so as to
make
angles BAC, BAD, equal to each other, each of these angles is called a right angle ; and the
line
AB is
said to be perpendicular to
CD.
11.
less
than a^>
;
right angle,
an acute angle
and
every angle
angle,
is
DEF,
an obtuse angle.
12. Two lines are said to be parallel, when being situated in the same plane, they cannot meet, how far soever, either way, both of them be produced.
13.
all
A plane figure is
a plane terminated on
ciarved.
sides
is
If the lines are straight, the space they enclose called a rectilineal figure, or polygon, and the
lines themselves,
The polygon
;
a triangle
of three sides, the simplest of all, is called that of four sides, a quadrilateral; that of five, a
pentagon; that of six, a hexagon; that of seven, a heptagon: that of eight, an octagon ; that of nine, a nonagon; that of ten, a decagon ; and that of twelve, a dodecagon.
BOOK
I.
11
15.
Xn
.
;
equa^ equal
16.
is one which has its three sides one which has two of its sides a scalene triangle, one which has its three sides unequal. A rightangled triangle is one which
equilateral triangle
isosceles
an
triangle,
The side opposite the has a right angle. is called the hypothenuse. Thus, in the triangle ABC, rightangled at A, the side BC is the hypothenuse. 17. Among the quadrilaterals, we distinguish
right angle
The
sqiuircy
which has
its
sides equal,
and
its
an
gles rightangles.
ThQ
gles,
rectangle^
which has
its
its
without having
sides equal.
The
has
its
The rhombus, or lozenge^ which has without having its angles right angles.
its
sides equal,
And
lastly,
are parallel.
"
two of whose
sides
18.
tices of
diagonal is a line which joins the vertwo angles not adjacent to each other.
diagonals.
19.
An
;
equal
equal.
20.
equilateral polygon is one which has all its sides an equiangular polygon, one which has all its anglea
Two
polygons are mutually equilateral, when they have each to each, and placed in the same order
12
that
to say,
geomi:try.
is
following their perimeters in the same diis equal to the first side of the other, the second of the one to the second of the other, the third to the third, and so on. The phrase, mutually equiangular, has a corresponding signification, with respect to the
rection, the
first
when
angles.
In both cases, the equal sides, or the equal angles, are named homologous sides or angles.
An axiom
is
a selfevident proposition.
theorem is a truth, which becomes evident by means of a train of reasoning called a demonstration, problem is a question proposed, which requires a solu
lion,
lemma
is
The common name, proposition, is applied indifferently, to . theorems, problems, and lemmas. A corollary is an obvious consequence, deduced from one or
several propositions. scholium is a remark on one or several preceding propositions, which tends to point out their connexion, their use, their restriction, or their extension. hypothesis is a supposition, made either in the enunciation of a proposition, or in the course of a demonstration.
to be
employed.
The
sign
is
B, the expression
A<B
used.
To
is
signify that
;
used
is greater than B, the expression the smaller quantity being always at the vertex of Mie
A>B
angle.
The The
sign
sign
is
called plus
called
it
:
is
minus
it
and B; represents the sum of the quantities represents their difference, or what remains after B is taken from B + C, or + C B, signifies that A and ; and C are to be added together, and that B is to be subtracted
A B
Thus,
A + B,
BOOK
The
sign
I.
13
thus,
indicates multiplication
A x B represents
,
and B. Instead of the sign x a point is sometimes employed thus, A.B is the same thing as A x B. The same product is also designated without any intermediate sign, by AB but this expression should not be employed, when there is any danger of confounding it with that of the line AB, which expresses the distance between the points A and B. The expression A X (B f C D) represents the product oi A by the quantity B + C D. If A + B were to be multiplied by A B + C, the product would be indicated thus, (Af B) x (A B + C), whatever is enclosed within the curved lines, being
the product of
; ;
considered as a single quantity. number placed before a line, or a quantity, serves as a thus, SAB signifies that multiplier to that line or quantity the line AB is taken three times ^ A signifies the half of the angle A. The square of the line AB is designated by AB^; its cube by AB\ What is meant by the square and cube of a line, will be explained in its proper place. The sign ^ indicates a root to be extracted ; thus s/%
means
the squareroot of 2
\^
oi
the product of
and B.
Axioms,
1. Things which are equal to the same thing, are equal to each other. 2. If c(uals be added to equals, the wholes w'ill be equal. 3. If equals be taken from equals, the remainders will be
equal.
4.
If equals
be added
to unequals, the
wholes
will
be un
equal.
5. If equals be taken from unequals, the remainders will be unequal. 6. Things which are double of the same thing, are equal to
each other. 7. Things which are halves of the same thing, are equal to each other. 8. The whole is greater than any of its parts. 9. The whole is equal to the sum of all its parts. 10. All right angles are equal to each other. 1 1 From one point to another only one straight line can be drawn. 12. Through the same point, only one straight line can be drawn which sha,ll be parallel to a given line. 13. Magnitudes, which being applied to each other, coincide (hroughout their whole extent, are equal.
J4
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
I.
THEOREM.
tlin
IJ
one straight line meet another straight line, the sum of two adjacent angles will he equal to two right angles.
Let the
line
straight line
DC
meet the
straight
AB
ACD +
DCB, be equal to two right angles. At the point C, erect CE perpendicular to AB. The angle ACD is the sum of the an^
the angle
therefore is + the three angles ACE, ECD, DCB: but .he first of these three angles is a right angle, and the other two make up the right angle hence, the sum of the two an; gles and DCB, is equal to two right angles.
gles
the
ACE, ECD:
ACD DCB
sum of
ECB
ACD
1.
Cor,
the other
DCB,
is
a right angle
Cor. 2.
to
If the line
For, since is perpendicular to AB, the J3 c angle must be equal to its adjacent angle DCB, and both of them must be right is a angles (Def. 10.). But since must also be a right angle right angle, its adjacent angle is equal to the angle ACE, (Cor. 1.). Hence the angle (Ax. 10.) therefore AB is perpendicular to DE. Cor. 3. The sum of all the successive
DE
ACD
angles,
is
BF,
is
equal to two right angles for their sum equal to that of the two adjacent an
gles.
BAC, CAF.
PROPOSITION
7
II.
THEOREM.
straight lines, which have two points common, coincide with each other throughout their whole extent, and form one and
Vie
same straight
line
be the two common place it is evident tliat the two lines must coincide entirely oetween A and B, for otherwise there would be two straight lines between A and B, which is impossible (Ax. 11). Sup
Let
and
points.
In the
first
KT'B
BOOKL
AC
15
pose, however, that on being produced, these lines begin to From separate at C, the one becoming CD, the other CE. the ight angle the point C draw the Hne CF, making with
will is a straigiit line, the angle since is a straight be a right angle (Prop. I. Cor. 1.); and since will likewise be a right angle. Hence, the lino, the angle (Ax. 10.); which can is equal to the angel angle and coincide thereonly be the case when the lines
ACF.
Now,
ACD
FCD
ACE
FCE
FCD
FCE CD CE
which have two points A and B common, cannot separate at any point, when produced hence they form one and the same straight line.
;
PROPOSITION
III.
THEOREM.
If a straight line meet two other straight lines at a common point, making the sum of the two adjacent angles equal to tii>o right angles, the two straight lines which are met, will form one and the same straight line.
line
CD
their
meet the
two
lines
AC, CB,
at
common
eqjal to be the
point C,
DCA, DCB,
;
aT
CB
AC
and
CB
line.
For, if CB is not the prolongation of AC, let CE be that probeing straight, the sum of the longation: then the line angles ACD, DCE, will be equal to two right angles (Prop. 1.). But by hypothesis, the sum of the angles ACD, DCB, is also must be equal equal to two right angles therefore, + from each, to + DCB; and taking away the angle equal to the angle DCB, which there remains the angle and CB coincide can only be the case when the lines
ACE
ACD
DCE
hence,
the
IV.
same
straight line.
THEOREM.
When two
straight lines intersect each other, the opposite or vertical angles, which they form, are equal.
i6
GEOMETRY.
AB
and
Let
lines,
DE
be two straight^
intersecting each other at C ; then will the angle be equal to the angle ACD, and the angle to
ECB
ACE DE
'D B^ For, since the straight line is met by the straight line AC, the sum of the angles ACE, ACD, is equal to two right angles (Prop. L) and since the straight line AB, is met by the straight line EC, the sum of the angles and ECB, is equal to two right angles: hence the sum + is equal to the sum (Ax. 1.). Take away from both, the com+ mon angle ACE, there remains the angle ACD, equal to its opposite or vertical angle (Ax. 3.). Scholium, The four angles formed about a point by two straight lines, which intersect each other, are together equal to four right angles : for the sum of the two angles ACE, ECB, is equaj^ to two right angles ; and the sum of the other two, ACD, r^CB, is also equal to two right angles : therefore, ihe sum of the four is equal to four right angles. In general, if any number of straight lines CA, CB, CD, &:c. meet in a point C, the ^ sum of all the successive angns ACB,BCD, DCE, ECF, FCA, will be equal to four right angles for, if four right angles were lormed about the point C, by two lines perpendicular to each other, the same space would be occupied by the four right angles, as by the successive angles ACB, BCD, DCE, ECF, FCA.
the angle
;
DCB.
ACE ECB
ECB
PROPOSITION
V.
THEOREM.
^
[ftwo triangles have two sides and the included angle of ihe one., equal to two sides and the included angle of the other each tc each, the two triangles will he equal
ED be equal
;
gle
EDF, be
placed upon
shall fall upon B, and the so that the point side on the equal side is equal ; then, since the angle to the angle A, the side will take the direction But
BAC,
ED
BA DF
AC
BOOK
AC
I.
therefore, the point F will fall on C, an<] ; I)F is equal to (Ax. 11.): the third side EF, will coincide with the third side is equal to the triangle frlierefore, the triangle
BC
EDF
BAG
(Ax. 13.). Cor. When two triangles have these three things equal, namely, the side ED=BA, the side DF=AC, and the angl D=A, the remaining three are also respectively equal, namely \he aide EF=BC, the angle E^^B, and the angle
F=C
PROPOSITION
VI.
THEOREM.
{ftwo triangles have two angles and the included side of the ona, equal to two angles and the included side of the other, each to
each, the two triangles will be equal.
to the angle
EDF
to the triangle
BAC.
^
let
^ ^
the side be placed For on its equal BC, the point E falling on B, and the point F on is equal to the angle B, the side C; then, since the angle will be found will take the direction BA; and hence the point somewhere in the line BA. In like manner, since the angle will take the direction F is equal to the angle C, the line will be found somewhere in the line CA. CA, and the j)oint Hence, the point D, falling at the same time in the two straight lines and CA, must fall at their intersection A: hence, the two triangles EDF, BAC, coincide with each other, and are therefore equal (Ax. 13.).
to apply the
EF
ED
FD
BA
Cor. Whenever, in two triangles, these three things are equal, E=B, the angle F=C, and the included side EF equal to the included side BC, it may be inferred that the remaining three are also respectively equal, namely, the angle D=A, the side ED=BA, and the side DF=AC.
Scholium. Two triangles are said to be equal, when being applied to each other, they will exactly coincide (Ax. 13.). Hence, equal triangles have their like parts equal, each to each, since those parts must coincide with each other. The converse of this [)roposition is also true, namely, that two triangles which have all the parts of the one equal to the parts of the other, t^dck
18
GEOMETRV
to
I
eachy are equal ; for they may be applied to each other, and he equal parts will mutually coincide.
PROPOSITION
The sum of any two
Let
VII.
THEOREM.
third side.
ABC be
a triangle
its sides,
sum of two of
For the
straight line
AB
the short
est distance
and
(Def. 3.)
hence
AC + CB
is
greater
than
AB,
PROPOSITION
VIII.
THEOREM.
If from
to the
sum
triangle, two straight lines he draw7t extremities of either side, their sum will he less than the of the two other sides of the triangle.
gle
to
Let any point, as O, be taken within the trianBAC, and let the lines OB, OC, be drawn
the extremities of either side, as
BC
then
BO
m D:
OD + DC
Again,
BO
is
DC<BA + AC.
BD + DC
;
BD<BA + AD:
it
BO + OC<BD + DC. add DC to each, and we have BD+ But has just been found that BO + OC<
still
AC DC ^ BO + OC<BO+
therefore,
PROPOSITION
THEOREM.
[f two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of trie other, each to each, and the included angles unequal, the third sides will he unequal ; and the greater side will helong to the triangle which has the greater included angle.
l)e
ihe
A>D;
EF.
BC>
= D;
take
AG = DE,
The
BOOK
triangle
I.
19
construction, they sides, (Prop. is equal to EF. Now, there may be three V.) therefore falls without cases in the proposition, according as the point
is
GAC
equal to
DEF,
since,
by
CG
the triangle
ABC,
or upon
its
it.
First Case.
line
The
straight line
AB<AI + IB;
same
therefore,
thing,
GC + AB<AG + BC.
;
AB
from the one side, and its equal AG from the other and there remains GC<BC (Ax. 5.) but we have found GC=EF,
therefore,
BC>EF.
fall
Second Case. If the point G on the side BC, it is evident that GC, or its equal EF, will be
shorter than
BC
(Ax.
8.).
B
Lastly, Thij^d Case, fall within the triangle
if
G^
the point
BAC, we
shall
have, by the preceding theorem, + from + BC ; and, taking from the other, the one, and its equal
AG
GC<AB
AG
AB GC<BCorBC>EF.B
Conversely, if two sides Scholium. BA, AC, of the triangle BAC, are equal to the two ED, DF,of the triangle EDF,
BC of greater than the third side EF of the second then will the angle BAC of the first triangle, be greater of the second. than the angle For, if not, the angle BAC must be equal to EDF, or less than it. In the first case, the side BC would be equal to EF, (Prop. V. Cor.) ; in the second, CB would be less than EF ; but either of these results contradicts the hypothesis: therefore, BAC is greater than EDF.
each to each, while the third side
the
first
triangle
is
EDF
PROPOSITION
X.
THEOREM.
triangles have the three sides of the one equal to the three [f two sides of the other, each to each, the three angles will also 'be equals each to each, and the triangles themselves will be equal.
GEOMETRY.
Let the side
ihe side
side
DF=AC
the angle
E=B,
E C were greater than A, while the sides ED, DF, were equai to BA, AC, each to each, it would follow, by the last proposition, that the side EF must be greatei than BC and if the angle D were less than A, it would follow, that the side EF must be less than BC but EF is equal to BC, by hypothesis therefore, the angle D can neither be greater nor less than A therefore it must be equal to it. In the same manner it may be shown that the angle E is equal to B, and the angle F to C hence the two triangles are equal (Prop.
For,
if
= C.
D=A, the
the angle
TB
VI. Sch.). Scholium. It may be observed that the equal angles lie op posite the equal sides thus, the equal angles and A, lie op posite the equal sides EF and BC.
:
PROPOSITION
In an
XI.
THEOREM
equal sides
are equal.
be equal to the side AC ; then be equal to the angle B. For, jcn the vertex A, and D the middle point of the base BC. Then, the triangles BAD, DAC, will have all the sides of the one equal to those of the other, each to each for BA is equal to AC,^ by hypothesis ; AD is common, and BD is equal
I^et the side
BA
will the
angle
by construction therefore, by the last proposition, the angle B is equal to the angle C. Cor. An equilateral triangle is likewise equiangular, that is to say, has all its angles equal. Scholium. The equality of the triangles BAD, DAC, proves to ADC, also that the angle BAD, is equal to DAC, and hence the latter two are right angles therefore, the line drawn from the vertex of on isosceles triangle to the middle point of its hase, is peiyendicular to the base, and divides the angle at the
to
:
DC
BDA
any
side
may be assumed
hase ; and the vertex is, in that case, the vertex of the opposite angle. In an isosceles triangle, however,
BOOK
that side
is
I.
31
is
not equal
PROPOSITION
XII.
THEOREM.
Conversely, if two angles of a triangle are equal, the sides opjjc site them are also equal, and the triangle is isosceles.
Let the angle ABC be equal to the angle ACB then will the side AC be equal to the side AB. For, if these sides are not equal, suppose AB Then, take BD equal to AC, to be the greater.
and draw CD. Now, in the two triangles BDC, BAC, we have BD=AC, by construction the angle B equal to the angle ACB, by hypothesis ;;By and the side BC common therefore, the two triangles, BDC, BAC, have two sides and the included angle in the one, equal to two sides and the included angle in the other, each to each hence they are equal (Prop. V.). But the part cannot be equal to the whole (Ax. 8.) hence, there is no inequality between the sides BA, AC therefore, the triangle
;
:
BAC
is
isosceles.
PROPOSITION
The greater gle ; and
XIII.
THEOREM.
side of every triangle is opposite to the greater anconversely, the gt^eater angle is opposite to the
greater side.
Let the angle C be greater than the angle then will the side AB, opposite C, be greater than AC, opposite B. For, make the angle BCD=B. Then, in the triangle CDB, we shall haveCD=BD (Prop.XIL). Now, the side AC + CD; but +
First,
AD + DB=AB:
< AD
AD CD =
therefore Secondly, Suppose the side then will the angle C, opposite to AB, be greater than the angle B, opposite to AC. For, if the angle C<B, it follows, from what has just been
AC<AB. AB>AC;
is
proved, that
AB<AC;
which
If
is
the angle C=B, then the side also contrary to the supposition. the angle C must be greater than
22
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
XIV.
THEOREM.
Fi'om a given point, without a straight line, only lar can be drawn to that line.
^^
perpendicu
Let
fine.
DE
the given
Let us suppose that we can draw two Produce either perpendiculars, AB, AC. of them, as AB, till BF is equal to AB, antJf !>
draw FC. Then, the two triangles CAB, CBF, will be equal: for, the angles CBA,
NF are right angles, the side CB is the side equal to BF, by coiAStiiiction ; therefore, the triangles are equal, and the angle (Prop. is a right angle, by hypothesis ; V. Cor.). But the angle therefore, BCF must likewise be a right angle. But if the adjacent angles BCA, BCF, are together equal to two right angles, must be a straight line (Prop. III.) from whence it follows, that between the same two points, A and F, two straight lines can be drawn, which is impossible (Ax. 11.): hence, two perpendiculars cannot be drawn from the same point to the
and
CBF
common, and
AB
ACB=BCF
ACB
ACF
same
straight line.
\
Scholium, At a given point C, in the line jj AB, it is equally impossible to erect two perpendiculars to that line. For, if CD, CE, were those two perpendiculars, the angles BCD, BCE, would both be right angles :^_ hence they would be equal (Ax. 10.); and would coincide with CE otherwise, a part would the line be equal to the whole, which is impossible (Ax. 8.).
CD
line,
a perpendicular he
to different
let
:
be
drawn
points
any oblique
line.
2d,
different sides of the perpendicular, cutting off equal distances on the other line, will be equal.
Any
two oblique
lines,
drawn on
Sd,
Of two
oblique
liices,
drawn
at pleasure, chat
which
is farther
from
BOOK
Let
1.
23
the given be the given point, the perpendicular, and AD, AC, AE, the obhque hnes. till BF Produce the perpendicular
line,
DE
AB
AB
is
equal to
First.
D^
to the
triangle
BCA,
CBF=CBA, the
side
side
CB common, and
^F
hence the third sides, CF and CA are equal (Prop. V. Cor.). But ABF, being a straight line, is shorter than ACF, which is a broken line (Def. 3.) therefore, AB, the half of ABF, is shorter than AC, the half of ACF; hence, the perpendicular is shorter than any oblique line.
BF=BA
Secondly. Let us suppose BC=BE; then will the triangle CAB be equal to the the triangle BAE for BC = BE,the side AB is common, and the angle CBA=ABE hence the sides AC and AE are equal (Prop. V. Cor.) therefore, two oblique,
;
lines,
Thirdly. In the triangle DFA, the sum of the lines AC, CF, (Prop. VIIL) thereis less than the sum of the sides AD, fore, AC, the half of the line ACF, is shorter than AD, the half of the line therefore, the oblique line, which is farther : from the perpendicular, is longer than the one which is nearer.
DF
ADF
Cor. \. The perpendicular measures the shortest distance of a point from a line.
Cor.
Tjore,
2.
From
the
same point
to the
same
;
two equal
ame
there could be should have at least two equal oblique lines on the side of the perpendicular, which is impossible.
straight lines
for, if
can be drawn
we
PROPOSITION
XVI.
THEOREM.
line^
a perpendicular
he
drawn to this line istf Every point of the petyendicular will he equally distant from the extremities of the line, 'id, Evejy point, without the perpendicular, will he unequally dis
tant
24
GEOMETRY.
Let AB be the given straight line, C the middle point, and ECF the perpendicular. First Since AC==CB, the two oblique lines AD, DB, are equally distant from the perpendicular, and therefore equal (Prop. XV.). So,
J
two oblique lines AE, EB, thej\^ AF, FB, andso on. Therefore every point
in the perpendicular is equally distant from the extremities and B. Secondly, Let I be a point out of the perpendicular. If lA and IB be drawn, one of these lines will cut the perpendicular in from which, drawing DB, we shall ;
have
and every point out of the perpendicular, is unequally distant from the extremities A and B. Cor. If a straight line have two points D and F, equally distant from the extremities A and B, it will be perpendicular to AB at the middle point C.
D DB=DA. But the straight line IB is less than ID+DB, ID + DB=ID + DA^IA; therefore, IB<IA; therefore,
PROPOSITION
XVII.
THEOREM.
If two right angled triangles have the hypothenuse and a side oj the one, equal to the hypothenuse and a side of the other, each to each, the remaining parts will also he equal, each to each, and
In the
triangles
two
right angled
BAG, EDF, let the hypothenuse AC=:DF, and the sideBA=ED: then will
the side
BC=EF, the angle 3 A=D, and the angle C=F. If the side BC is equal to EF,
triangles are equal (Prop. X.). these two sides to be unequal,
two
Now,
be possible, suppose
is
and that
BC
the greater.
On BC take BG=EF, and draw AG. Then, in the two triangles BAG, DEF, the angles B and E are equal, being right
BA=ED by hypothesis, and the side BG = EF by construction consequently, AG = DF (Prop. V. Cor.). But by hypothesis AC = DF; and therefore, (Ax. 1.) But the oblique line AC cannot be equal to AG, which lies nearer the perpendicular AB (Prop. XV.) therefore, BC and EF caj'not be unequal, and hence the angle A = D, and the angle C=F; and therefore, the triangles are equal (Prop. VI
angles, the side
.
AC=AG
Sch.).
BOOK
PROPOSITION
If
I.
25
XVIIl.
THEOREM.
two straight lines are perpendicular to a third line, they will be parallel to each other : in other words, they will never meet, how far soever either way, both of them be produced.
lines
AC, BD,
;
be perpendicular to AB then will they be parallel. O For, if they could meet in a point O, on either side of "D AB, there would be two perpendiculars OA, OB, let fall from the same point on the same straight line; which is impossible (Prop. XIV.).
PROPOSITION
XIX.
THEOREM.
If two straight lines meet a third line, making the sum of tne interior angles on the same side of the line met, equal to two
BAC, ABD,
together equal to
lines
From G,
the middle
point of
^ j^ perpendicular to EC. It will also be perpendicular to BD. For, the sum BAC + is equal to two right angles, by hypothesis ; the sum BAC + BAE js likewise equal to two right angles (Prop. I.) and taking away BAC from both, there will remain the angle BAE. Again, the angles EGA, BGF, are equal (Prop. IV.) therefore, the triangles and BGF, have each a side and two adjacent angles equal therefore, they are themselves equal, and the angle is equal to the angle GFB (Prop. VI. Cor.) but is a right angle by construction therefore, GFB is a right angle hence the two lines EC, BD, are perpendicular to
.j^^^
straight line
EGF,
ABD
ABD =
EGA
;
GEA
GEA
the
same
straight line,
parallel (Prop.
XVIIL).
2Q
Scholium.
straight lines
GEOiMETRY.
When two
AB, CD,
parallel
are met by a third line FE, the angles which are formed take particular names. Interior angles on the same side, are those which lie within the parallels, pand on the same side of the secant ]me : thus, 0GB, GOD, are interior angles on the same side ; and so also are the the angles OGA, GOC. Alternate angles lie within the parallels, and on different sides of the secant line AGO, DOG, are alternate angles and so also are the angles COG, BGO. Alternate exterior angles lie without the parallels, and on different sides of the secant line EGB, COP, are alternate exterior angles so also, are the angles AGE, FOD. Opposite exterior and interior angles lie on the same side of the secant line, the one without and the other within the parallels, but not adjacent thus, EGB, GOD, are opposite exterior and interior angles and so also, are the angles AGE, GOC. Cor. 1. If a straight line EF, meet two straight lines CD, AB, making the alternate angles AGO, GOD, equal to each other, the two lines will be parallel. For, to each add the angle 0GB; we shall then have, + + but is equal to two right angles (Prop. I.) ; hence + 4is equal to two right angles : therefore, CD, AB, are parallel. Cor. 2. If a straight line EF, meet two straight lines CD, AB, making the exterior angle equal to the interior and opposite angle GOD, the two lines will be parallel. For, to each add the angle 0GB: we shall then have + but hence, is equal to two right angles +
: : ; : ;
EGB
+ OGB
EGB 0GB
is
GOD + 0GB
equal to two
rigljt
angles; therefore,
CD, AB,
are parallel.
PROPOSITION XX. THEOREM. If a straight line meet two parallel straight lines, the sum of the interior angles on the same side will be equalto two right angles.
Let the parallels AB, CD, be met by the secant line FE then
:
will
gles.
0GB + GOD,
or
OGA +
right an
0GB GOD
equal
OGHfGOD
to
two
BOOK
;
1.
27
nght angles then IH and CD will be parallel (Prop. XIX.), and hence we shall have two lines GB, GH, drawn through the same point G and parallel to CD, which is impossible (Ax. 12.): hence, GB and GH should coincide, and 0GB + GOD is equal to two right angles. In the same manner it may be proved that OGA + GOC is equal to two right angles. Cor. 1. If 0GB is a right angle, GOD will be a right angle
also: therefore, every straight
li7ie
perpendicular
to
one of two
Cor.
2.
If a straight line
meet two
parallels,
and
FE
the
The sum
0GB
/
equal to two right angles. But^ is also equal to + two right angles (Prop. I.). Taking from each, the angle 0GB, and there remanis In the same manner
GOD
sum
OGB OGA
OGA=GOD.
we may prove
that
GOC=:OGB.
Cor.
site
3. If a straight line meet two parallel lines, the oppoexterior and interior angles will be equal. For, the sum
0GB + GOD is equal to two right angles. But the sum 0GB f EGB is also equal to two right angles. Taking from each the angle 0GB, and there remains GOD=EGB. In the same manner we may prove that AGE = GOC.
see that of the eight angles formed by a line lines obliquely, the four acute angles are equal to each other, and so also are the four obtuse angles.
Cor. 4.
We
cutting
two
parallel
lines
Let the line EFmeet the two CD, IH, making the sum
of the interior angles OGH, GOD, less than two right angles then will IH and CD meet if sufficiently produced. For, if they do not meet they are parallel (Def. 12.). But they are not parallel, for if they were, the sum of the interior angles OGH, GOD, would be equal to two rignt angles (Prop. XX.), whereas it is less Dy hypothesis hence, the lines IH, CD, are not parallel, and will therefore rneet if sufficiently produced.
:
28
Co7\
that
It is
GEOMETRY.
side of
is
GOD,
evident that the two lines IH, CD, will meet on on which the sum of the two angles OGH, less than two right angles
EF
PROPOSITION
XXII.
THEOREM.
Two
each other.
Let and be parallel to the third line they parallel to each other. Draw perpendicular to EF, and cutting AB, CD. Since AB is parallel to__ EF, PR will be perpendicular to AB (Prop.E E XX. Cor. 1.) and since is parallel to EF, PR will for a like reason be perpen C
CD
AB
EF
then are
PQR
;
l\
3?
CD
Q
1?
T>
dicular to
CD.
Hence
AB
and
CD
are.
J?L perpendicular to the same straight line ; hence they are parallel (Prop. XVIII.).
PROPOSITION
XXIII.
THEOREM.
Two parallels
Two
parallels
given, if through
and F, assumed
straight lines
lines will at
at pleasure, the
perpendicular to AB,these straight the same time be perpendicular to (Prop. XX. Cor. 1.) and we are now to show that they will be equal to each oth^*. If GF be drawn, the angles GFE, FGH, considered in refer
CD
ence to the parallels AB, CD, will be alternate angles, and Also, the therefore equal to each other (Prop. XX. Cor. 2.). straight lines EG, FH, being perpendicular to the same straight line AB, are parallel (Prop. XVIII.) and the angles EGF, GFH, considered in reference to the parallels EG, FH, will be alternate angles, and therefore equal. Hence the two triangles EFG, FGH, have a common side, and two adjacent angles in each equal ; hence these triangles are equal (Prop. VI.) ; therefore, the side EG, which measures the distance of the parallels AB and CD at the point E, is equal to the side FH, which measures the distance of the same parallels at the
;
point F.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XXIV.
I.
29
THEOREM.
If two angles have their sides parallel and lying rection, the two angles will he equal.
Let BAG and DEF be the two angles, having AB parallel to ED, and AC to EF; then will the angles be equal. For, produce DE, if necessary, till it meets AC in G. Then, since EF is parallel to GG, the angle DEF is equal to ^^ (Prop. XX. Cor. 3.); and since is parallel to AB, the angle DGG is equal to the angle DEF is equal to BAG (Ax. 1.).
DGG DG
BAG
hence
Scholium.
The
where the side EF lies in the same direction with AC, and ED in the same direction with AB, is necessary, because if FE were produced towards H, the angle DEH would have its sides parallel to those of the angle BAG, but would not be equal to it. In that case, DEH and BAG would be together equal to two right angles. For, DEH + DEF is equal to two right angles
is equal to (Prop. I.) but equal to two right angles.
;
DEF
BAG
hence,
DEH + BAG
is
PROPOSITION XXV.
In every triangle the
THEOREM.
equal
to
sum of
two
right angles.
gle
be any triangle then will the anbe equal to two right angles. For, produce the side CA towards D, and at the point A, draw AE parallel to BC. Then, smce AE, CB, are parallel, and GAD cuts them, the exterior angle DAE will be equal to its inte C rior opposite one ACB (Prop. XX. Cor. 3.) in like manner, since AE, CB, are parallel, and AB cuts them, the alternate angles ABC, BAE, will be equal hence the three angles of the triangle ABC make up the same sum as the three angles (]JAB, BAE, EAD hence, the sum of tlie three angles is equal
:
Let
ABC
G+A+B
AD
to
two
Cor.
their
L Two angles of a triangle being given, or merely sum, the third will be found by subtracting that sum from
two
right angles.
30
GEOMETRY.
Cor. 2. If two angles of one triangle a re respectively equal two angles of another, the third angles will also be equai, and the two triangles will be mutually equiangular.
to
Cor,
less,
for if there
In any triangle there can be but one right angle were two, the third angle must be nothing. Still can a triangle have more than one obtuse angle.
3.
Cor. 4. In every right angled triangle, the acute angles is equal to one right angle.
sum of
the
two
Since every equilateral triangle is also equiangular each of its angles will be equal to the third two right angles so that, if the right angle is expressed by unity, the angle of an equilateral triangle will be expressed byf.
Cor. (Prop. part of
5.
XL
Cor.),
Cor. 6. In every triangle ABC, the exterior angle is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles B and C. For, being parallel to BC, the part BAE is equal to the angle B, and the other part is equal to the angle C.
BAD
AE
DAE
^
TJie
PROPOSITION XXVI.
THEOREM.
sum of all the interior angles of a polygon, is equal to two right angles, taken as many times less two, as the figure has
sides.
Let ABCDEFG be the pioposed polygon. from the vertex of any one angle A, diagonals p^ AC, AD, AE, AF, be drawn to the vertices of
If
the opposite angles, it is plain that the poly^^ will be divided into five triangles, if it has seven sides ; into six triangles, if it has eight; and, in general, into as many triangles, less two, as the polygon has sides ; for, these triangles may be considered for a common vertex, and for bases, the as having the point
all
gon
several sides of the polygon, excepting the two sides which form It is evident, also, that the sum of all the angles the angle A. in these triangles does not differ from the sum of all the angles in the polygon : hence the sum of all the angles of the polygon IS equal to two right angles, taken as many times as there are triangles in the figure ; in other words, as there are units in the number of sides diminished by two.
Cor.
to
I.
The sum of
two
by 4
is
equal
2,
which amounts
to foui
BOOK
right angles
:
I.
31
the angles of a quadrilateral are ; a conclusion which sanctions the seventeenth Definition, where the four angles of a quadrilateral are asserted to be right angles, in the case of the rectangle and the square. The sum of the angles of a pentagon is equal to Cor. 2. two right angles multiplied by 5 2, which amounts to six right angles hence, when a pentagon is equiangular, each angle is equal to the fifth part of six right angles, or to  of one right
hence,
if all
equal, each of
them
will
be a right angle
angle.
The sum of the angles of a hexagon is equal to Cor. 3. 2 X (0 2,) or eight right angles hence in the equiangular hexagon, each angle is the sixth part of eight right angles, or ^ of one. Scholium. When this proposition is applied to polygons which have reentrant angles, each reentrant angle must be regarded as greater than two right angles. But to avoid all ambiguity, we shall henceforth limit our reasoning to polygons with salient angles, which might otherwise be named convex Every convex polygon is such that a straight line, polygons. drawn at pleasure, cannot meet the contour of the polygon in more than two points.
ABCD;
FG, be produced, in the same direction then will the sum of the exterior angles
a + b\c + d +/+ g, be equal
angles.
to four right
For, each interior angle, plus its ex+ a, is equal to two right angles (Prop. I.). But there are as many exterior as interior angles, and as many of each as there are sides of the polygon hence, the sum of all the interior and exterior angles is equal to twice as many right angles as the polygon has sides. Again, the sum of all the interior angles is equal to two right angles, taken as many times, less two, as the polygon has sides (Prop. XXVI.) ; that is, equal to twice as many right angles as the figure has sides, wanting Hence, the interior angles plus four right four right angles.
terior angle, as
82
GEOMETRY.
angles, is equal to twice as many right angles as the polygon has sides, and consequently, equal to the sum of the interior
angles plus the exterior angles. Taking from each the sum ol the interior angles, and there remains the exterior angles, equal to four right angles.
PROPOSITION XXVIII.
THEOREM.
Let
For,
ABCD be
draw
a parallelogram
then will
triangles
;
/\^
BD. The
ABD, DBC, have a common side BD and since AD, BC, are parallel, they have also the
\^ / ^3
angle (Prop. XX. Cor. 2.) and since AB, CD, are parallel, the angle hence the two triangles are equal (Prop. VI.) therefore the side AB, opposite the angle ADB, is equal to the side DC, opposite the equal angle and the third sides AD, BC, are equal: hence the op; posite sides of a parallelogram are equal. Again, since the triangles are equal, it follows that the angle is equal to the angle C ; and also that the angle composed of the two ADB, BDC, is equal to ABC, composed of hence the opposite angles the two equal angles DBC, : of a parallelogram are also equal. Cor, Two parallels AB, CD, included between two other divides the parallels AD, BC, are equal ; and the diagonal
;
ADB=DBC,
ABD=BDC
DBC
ADC
ABD
DB
be a quadrilateral, having opposite sides respectively equal, viz. BC ; then will these AB=DC, and Bides be parallel, and the figure be a parallelogram. For, having drawn the diagonal BD, the triangles ABD, BDC, have all the sides of the one equal to
Let
ABCD
its
AD =
BOOK
and the angle
I.
83
; therefore they are equal, opposite the side AB, is equal to DBC, (Prop. X.) ; therefore, the side is parallel to opposite is parallel to BC (Prop. XIX. Cor. 1.). For a like reason therefore the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.
ADB,
CD
AD
AB
CD
ABCD
Let
the
ABCD
be a quadrilateral, having
parallel
sides
then will the figure be a parallelogram. For, draw the diagonal DB, dividing
the quadrilateral into
since
two
triangles.
Then,
AB
is
parallel to
DC,
the alternate
angles
ABD, BDC,
XX.
Cor.
2.)
;
moreover,
;
DB is common, and the side AB=DC hence the triangle ABD is equal to the triangle DBC (Prop. V.) therefore, the side AD is equal to BC, the angle ADB = DBC, and consequently AD is parallel to BC hence the figure ABCD is a
the side
;
parallelogram.
Let ABCD be a parallelogram, AC and 3 DB its diagonals, intersecting at E, then will ~ AE=EC, and DE=EB.
Comparing
find
the triangles
ADE, CEB, we
XXVIIL),
and
the
AD=CB
;
(Prop.
DAE=ECB
equal
the angle (Prop, XX. Cor. 2.); hence those triangles are (Prop. VI.) hence, AE, the side opposite the angle
ADE=CBE,
EC,
ADE,
to
is
equal to
opposite
EBC
hence also
DE
is
equal
EB.
In the case of the rhombus, the sides AB, BC Scholium. being equal, the triangles AEB, EBC, have all the sides of the one equal to the corresponding sides of the other, and are therefore equal whence it follows that the angles AEB, BEC,
:
are equal, and therefore, that the cut each other at right angles.
S4
GEOMETRY.
BOOK
II.
1.
Ratio
is
by another quantity of the same kind. Thus, if A and B repr(;sent quantities of the same kind, the ratio of A to B is expressed by
magnitudes
The
ratios of
may
be expressed by numbers,
and
approximation
may be
any assignable difference. Thus, of two magnitudes, one of them may be considered to be divided into some number of equal parts, each of the same kind as the whole, and one of those parts being considered as an unit of measure, the magnitude may be expressed by the number of units it contains. If the other magnitude contain a certain number of those units, it also may be expressed by the number of its units, and the two quantities are then said to be commensurable. If the second magnitude do not contain the measuring unit an exact number of times, there may perhaps be a smaller unit which will be contained an exact number of times in each of the magnitudes. But if there is no unit of an assignable value, which shall be contained an exact number of times in each of the magnitudes, the magnitudes are said to be incommensurable. It is plain, however, that the unit of measure, repeated as many times as it is contained in the second ma^nitude, would always differ from the second magnitude by a quantity less than the unit of measure, since the remainder is always less than the divisor. Now, since the unit of measure may be made as small as we please, it follows, that magnitudes may be represented by numbers to any degree of exactness, or they will differ from their numerical representatives by less than any
assignable quantity.
Therefore, of two magnitudes, A and B, we may conceive to be divided into number of units, each equal <o A' then A X A': let B be divided into N number of equal units, each equal to A'; then B = x A'; and N being integral numbers. Now the ratio of A to B, will be the same as the ratio of X A' to X A'; that is the same as the ratio of to N, since A' is a common unit.
=M
BOOK
C
II.
35
In the same manner, the ratio of any other two magniludeg to being and may be expressed by P x x C, P and also integral numbers, and their ratio will be the same as that
C Q
ofPtoQ.
2.
1\
,
values that
to B, that
is equal to then A is
C/
to B is equal to the ratio four quantities have this relation to each other, they are said to be in proportion. To indicate that the ratio of to B is equal to the ratio of C to D, the quantities are usually written thus, B C D, and read, is to B as C is to D. The quantities which are compared together are called the terms of the proportion. The first and last terms are called the two extremes^ and the second and third terms, the two /neans. 3. Of four proportional quuiuities, the first and third are called the antecedents, and tiic ^econd and fourth the consequents ; and the last is said to be a fourth proportional to the other three taken in order. 4. Three quantities are in proportion, when the first has the same ratio to the second, that the second has to the third ; and then the middle term is said to be a mean proportional between the other two.
of
to
D.
When
to be in proportion by inversion, or the consequents are taken as antecedents, and the antecedents as consequents. 6. Magnitudes are in proportion by alternation, or alternately
5.
inversely,
when
is
compared
witli
7. Magnitudes are in proportion by composition, when the sum of the antecedent and consequent is compared either with
antecedent or consequent.
8. Magnitudes are said to be in proportion by division, when the difference of the antecedent and consequent is compared either with antecedent or consequent.
Equimultiples of two quantities are the products which from multiplying the quantities by the same number thus, X A, X B, are equimultiples of and B, the common multiplier being m.
9.
arise
10. Two quantities and B are said to be reciprocally proportional, or inversely proportional, when one increases in the same ratio as the other diminishes. In such case, either of them is equal to a constant quantity divided by the other, and their product is constant.
86
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
I.
THEOREM.
When four
two extremes
equal
to the
Let A, B, C, D, be four quantities in proportion, and P Q be their numerical representatives then will x
: ;
proportion
N O =_
M N M Q=
:
MP
there
Cor. If there are three proportional quantities (Def. 4.), the product of the extremes will be equal to the square of the
mean.
PROPOSITION
II.
THEOREM.
If the product of two quantities be equal to the product of two other quantities, two of them will be the extremes and the other two the means of a proportion.
then will M: :: P Q. the ratio which not to has to N, let P have to Q', a number greater or less than Q, the same ratio that : : P Q' ; then MxQ'=has to N; that is, let
Let
Mx Q=NxP
if
For,
P have
M N
NxP
is,
:
(Prop. L)
^
hence, Q'=:
'
Z^
III.
sequently,
M N
Q=rQ' and
:
MM
: : ;
but
Q=:Z^
con
Q.
PROPOSITION
THEOREM.
when taken
alternately.
Let M, N, P, Q, be the numerical representatives of four quanties in proportion ; so that : P : : Q. : P : Q, then will
Since
fore,
M N M N P
:
and
Q may
BOOK
PROPOSITION
[f there he four tional quantities,
IV.
II.
37
THEOREM.
having the antecedents the same in both, the consequents will he proportional,
Let and
then will
For,
N Q
:
M N M R
:
: :
:
P Q P S
:
:
by
^
alternation
M:P::N:Q,or
P O ^=^ M N
and
hence
M:P::R;S, or
S j^=p;
Tyi^o"
: :
or
N Q: R
:
S.
Cor. If there be two sets of proportionals, having an ante cedent and consequent of the first, equal to an antecedent and consequent of the second, the remaining terms will be proportional.
PROPOSITION
V.
THEOREM.
Let
For, from the
first
M N P Q N M Q P.
: :
then will
proportion
we
have
NxP=MxQ.
N
M x Q=N x P, or
But the products are the products of the x P and x extremes and means of the four quantities N, M, Q, P, and these products being equal,
M Q
N:M;:Q:P(Prop.II.).
PROPOSITION
VI.
THEOREM.
38
Let, as before,
GEOMETRY.
M, N,
:
first
MxQ=Nx.P, orNxP=MxQ;
it
Add each of the members of the from M.P, and we shall have,
But
equation
or
to,
or subtract
M.PN.P=M.PM.Q;
(MN)xP(PQ)xM.
PQ and M, the
MrbN
and P, maybe considered the two extremes, and two means of a proportion hence,
:
MN M FtQ
: : :
P.
PROPOSITION
VII.
THEOREM.
Let
M and N be
;
any two
:
:
quantities,
and
any
integral
number then
will
m.
m.Mim. N M N. M X N=m. N X M,
:
;
For
since the, quantities
or
;
m.
m.
N.
PROPOSITION
VIII.
THEOREM.
Of four
tiples
proportional quantities, if there be taken any equimulof the two antecedents, and any equimultiples of the two
Let M, N, P, Q, be the numerical representatives of four quantities in proportion ; and let and n be any numbers
x P ; hence, m. X 71. Q=7i. N x m. P, by multiplying both members of the equation by mxn. But m. and n. Q, inay be regarded as the two extremes, and n. N and m. P, as the means of a proportion hence, m. m. T n. Q. : n. ISi
:
M
;
M N
M
M
:
N m. P n. Q. P Q, we have M x
:
71.
:
Q=N
BOOK
PROPOSITION
IX.
11.
39
THEOREM.
Of four
same
and
the avir.
Let
For, since
And
since
or.
M N M P M P M N M P
:
:
P
7W
Q, and
71,
:
let also
then will
NdtTTi
:
Q72.
Q,
71,
MxQ=NxP.
Mx7i=Px7/i
Q7i
Therefore,
MxQdbMx7i=NxPPxm
Mx(Q7i)=Px(Nm):
hence
Nm
X.
(Prop.
II.),
PROPOSITION
If
THEOREM.
antece
sum
sum of all
the antecedents
Let
For, since
M M M M
N N N N
Q
:
R
:
S,
&c. then
wijl
MxN=MxN
PROPOSITION
XI.
THEOREM.
If two magnitudes he each increased or diminished by like parts of each, the resulting quantities will have the same ratio as the
magnitude's themselves.
40
GEOMETRY.
Let
and be
like
parts of each
then will
M N
:
MM m
i^ m
since
For,
it
is
obvious that
Mx(Ndb^\ ^NxCMdb^'j m/ m/
m
each
titles
is
equal to
M.Nrt!
II.).
PROPOSITION
XII.
THEOREM.
If four quantities are proportional^ their squares or cubes will also he proportional.
Let
then will
M N
:
P
:
:
and
For,
or,
MxQ=NxP, since M
M^ X Q^=N^ X P^ by M^ X Q^=N^ X P^ by ps Q2 M^ N^
M^ M3
N^ N3
Q, Qs P^ Q3 P3
: : :
and
therefore,
and
W :W
:
:'
it
Q^
that like
way
may be shown
powers or
PROPOSITION
i/ there be
XIII.
THEOREM.
two sets of proportional quantities, the p^'oducts of the corresponding terms will be proportional
Let and
Chen will
M N P Q T V R S MxR NxS PxT QxV MxQ=NxP R X V = S X T, we shall have MxQ RxV = NxP X SxT
: : :
BOOK
III.
41
BOOK
THE
CIRCLE,
III.
circumference of a circle is a points of which are equally distant from a point within, called the centre. The circle is the space terminated by A
1.
The
curved
this 2.
curved
line.*
straight line,
is
every line which, like AB, passes through the centre, and terminated on both sides by the circumference, is called a
diameter.
From the definition of a circle, it follows that all the radii are equal ; that all the diameters are equal also, and each double of the radius. 3. portion of the circumference, such as FHG, is called
an arc.
joins its
4.
FG, which
A
A A
segment
sector
is
is
chord.
arc DE, of the arc. 6. straight line is said to be inscribed in a circle, when its extremities are in the cir
the part of the circle included between an and the two radii CD, CE, drawn to the extremities
cumference, as AB. An inscribed angle is one which, like BAC, has its vertex in the circumference, and is
* Note. In common language, the circle is sometimes confounded with its circumference but the correct expression may always be easily recurred to if we bear in mind that the circle is a surface which has length and breadth, while the circumference is but a line.
:
In all cases, the same chord FG belongs to two arcs, FGH, FE(; t Note. and consequently also to two segments but the smaller one is always meant,
:
is
expressed.
42
GEOMETRY.
BAG,
has
its
three
And. generally, an inscribed figure is one, of which all the angles have their vertices in the circumference. The circle is then said to circumscribe such a figure. 7. A secant is a line which meets the circum^^ \ti ^^^ ferencc in two points, and lies partly within =^^ and partly without the circle. AB is a secant. 8. tangent is a line which has but one point in common with the circumference. is a tangent. ^ The point M, where tlie tangent touches the c circumference, is called the foint of contact.
CD
In like manner, two circumferences touch each other when they have but one point in
common.
9.
A
is
polygon
all
is
circle,
when
its
the circumference
circle
lygon.
PROPOSITION
I.
THEOREM.
and
its
Every diameter
equal parts.
a circle, and AB a diameter. be applied to AFB, their common base AB retaining its position, the curve line must fall exactly on the curve line AFB, otherwise there would, in the one or the other, be points unequally distant from the centre, which is contrary to tlie definition of a circle.
Let
AEDF be
Now,
if
the figure
AEB
AEB
BOOK
PROPOSITION
Every chord is
less
II
III.
43
THEOREM.
Let
have
or
AD be
to
its
any chord.
extremities.
Draw
CA, CD,
We
I.
AD<AC + CD (Book
AD<AB.
Cor,
Hence
circle
is its
PROPOSITION
III.
THEOREM.
circle in
more
For, if it could meet it in three, those three points would be equally distant from the centre ; and hence, there would be three equal straight lines drawn from the same point to the same straight line, which is impossible (Book I. Prop. XV.
Cor.
2.).
PROPOSITION
IV.
THEOREM.
In the same circle, or in equal circles, equal arcs are subtended by equal chords ; and, conversely, equal chords subtend equal arcs.
Note. When reference is made from one proposition to another, in the 8ame Book, the number of the proposition referred to is alone given but when the proposition is found in a different Book, the number of the Book is also
;
given.
41
GEOMETR\
If the radii AC, EO, are equal, and also the arcs then the chord
AMD, ENG;
will
AD
be equal
to
the
chord
EG.
For, since the diameters equal, the semimaybe applied circle exactly to the semicircle ENGF, and the curve line will coincide entirely with the curve line ENGF. But the part is equal to the part ENG, by hypothesis ; hence, the will fall on point is equal to the ; therefore, the chord
AMDB
AMDB
AMD
D
AD
chord EG. Conversely, supposing again the radii AC, EO, to be equal, if the chord is equal to the chord EG, the arcs AMD, will also be equal. For, if the radii CD, OG, be drawn, the triangles ACD, EOG, will have all their sides equal, each to each, namely, EO, CD = OG, and hence the triangles are themselves equal ; and, consequently, the angle ACD is equal EOG (Book I. Prop. X.). Now, placing the semicircle ADB on its equal EGF, since the angles ACD, EOG, are equal, it is plain that the radius CD will fall on the radius OG, and the point D on the point G therefore the arc is equal to the
AD
ENG
AC
AD=EG
arc
ENG
PROPOSITION
V.
AMD
THEOREM.
In the
same circle^ or in equal circles^ a greater arc is subtended by a greater chords and conversely, the greater chord subtends the greater arc.
Let the arc be greater than the arc then will the chord ; be greater than the chord AD. For, draw the radii CD, CH. The two sides AC, CH, of the triangle are equal to the two AC, CD, of the triangle ACD, and the angle is greater than ACD; hence, the third side is greater than the third side (Book I. Prop. IX.) ; thereic fore the chord, which subtends the greater arc, is the greater Conversely, if the chord is greater than AD, it will follow it on comparing the same triangles, that the angle
AH
AD
AH
ACH ACH
AH
AD
AH
ACH
BOOK
ACD
III.
45
(Bk. I. Prop. IX. Sch.) ; and hence that greater than ; since the whole is greater is greater than the arc than its part. The arcs here treated of are each less than the Scholium. semicircumference. If they were greater, the reverse property would have place ; for, as the arcs increase, the chords Thus, the arc is would diminish, and conversely. greater than AICBH, and the chord AD, of the first, is less of the second. than the chord
AH
AD
AKBD
AH
PROPOSITION
Tlie radius
VI.
THEOREM.
to
which
is
perpendicular
a chord,
and bisects
Let
AB
dius perpendicular to
AD =
DB, and the arc AG=GB. Then For, draw the radii CA, CB. the two right angled triangles ADC, CDB, will have AC = CB, and CD comhence, is equal to DB (Book Prop. XVII.). Again, since AD, DB, are equal, is a perpendicular erected from the middle of AB ; hence every point of this perpendicular must be equally distant from its two extremities A and B (Book I. Prop. X.VI.). Now, G is one of these points therefore AG, BG, are equal. is equal to the chord GB, the arc But if the chord A.G will be equal to the arc GB (Prop. IV.) hence, the radius CG, at right angles to the chord AB, divides the arc subtended Dy that chord into two equal parts at the point G. Scholium. The centre C, the middle point D, of the chord AB, and the middle point G, of the arc subtended by this chord, are three points of the same line perpendicular to the chord. But two points are sufficient to determine the position of a straight line hence every straight line which passes through two of the points just mentioned, will necessarily pass through the third, and be perpendicular to the chord. It follows, likewise, that the perpendicular liaised from the middle of a chord passes through the centre of the circle, and through the middle of the arc subtended by that chord. For, this perpendicular is the same as the one let fall from the centre on the same chord, since both of them pass through the centre and middle of the chord.
mon
I.
AD
CG
AG
46
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
VII.
THEOREM.
Through
three given points not in the same straight line^ one cvi cumference may always he made to pass, and hut one^
bisect these
by
the perpendiculars
say first, that DE and meet in some point O. For, they must necessarily cut each other, if they are not parallel. Now, if they were parallel, the line AB, which is perpendicular to DE, would also be perpendicular to FG, and the angle K would be a right angle (Book I. Prop. XX. Cor. 1.). But BK, the prolongation of BD, is a different line from BF, because the three points A, B, C, are not in the same straight line hence there would be two perpendiculars, BF, BK, let fall from the same point B, on the same straight hne, which is impossible hence DE, FG, will always meet in (Book I. Prop. XIV.) some point O.
DE,
FG,
FG we
:
will
And moreover, this point O, since it lies in the perpendicular DE, is equally distant from the two points, A and B (Book 1.
Prop. XVI.)
dicular
;
FG,
it is
and since the same point O lies in the perpenalso equally distant from the two points B and
;
hence the three distances OA, OB, 00, are equal therefrom the centre O, with the radius OB, will pass through the three given points A, B, C. We have now shown that one circumference can always be
:
made
in
the
same
straight line
we
through them. For, if there were a second circumference passing through the three given points A, B, C, its centre could not be out of the hne DE, for then it would be unequally distant from A and B (Book I. Prop. XVI.); neither could it be out of the line FG, for a like reason therefore, it would be in both the lines DE, FG. But two straight lines cannot cut each other in more than one point hence there is but one circumference which can pass through three given points.
; ;
circumferences cannot meet in more than two they have three common points, there would be two circumferences passing through the same three points which has been shown by the proposition to be impossible.
Cor.
Two
points
for, if
BOOK
PROPOSITION
III.
47
VIII.
THEOREM.
the
equally distant from the centre ; and of two less is at the greater distance from tlie
Suppose the chord Bisect these chords by the perpendiculars CF, CG, and draw the
First.
AB =
DE.
radii
CA, CD.
In the right angled triangles CAF, DCG, the hypothenuses CA, CD, are equal ; and the side AF, the half of AB, is equal to the side DG, the half hence the triangles are equal, of and CF is equal toCG (Book I. Prop. XVII.) ; hence, the two equal chords AB, DE, are equally distant from the centre. Secondly Let the chord be greater than DE. The will be greater than arc (Prop. V.) cut off from the former, a part ANB, equal to draw the chord AB, and let fall CF perpendicular to this chord, and CI perpendicular to AH. It is evident that CF is greater than CO, and* than CI (Book I. Prop. XV.) therefore, CF is still greater than CI. But CF is equal to CG, becauso the chords AB, In nee of two unequal DE, are equal hence we have chords, the less is the farther from the centre.
DE
AKH
AH DME DME
;
CO
CG>C1
PROPOSITION
IX.
THEOREM.
^ ,
A straight line
Let
radius
will
it
is
BD
CA,
be perpendicular
at its
rence.
For every oblique line CE, is longer than the perpendicular (Book I. Prop. XV.); hence the point E is without the circle ; therefore,
CA
A common
to
it
tangent (Def.
8.).
4b
GEOMETRY.
;
Scholium. At a given point A, only one tangent AD can be drawn to the circumference for, if another could be drawn, it would not be perpendicular to the radius CA (Book I. Prop. XIV. Sch.) hence in reference to this new tangent, the radius AC w^ould be an oblique line, and the perpendicular let fall from the centre upon this tangent would be shorter than CA hence this supposed tangent would enter the circle, and be a
;
secant.
PROPOSITION
X.
THEOREM.
Two parallels
cases.
parallels are se
If the
two
CH perpendicuchord MP. It will, at the same time be perpendicular to (Book I.Prop.XX.Cor. 1 .) therefore, the point will be at once the middle of the arc MHP, and of the arc (Prop. VI.); therefore, we shall have
cants,
lar
draw
the radius
to the
NQ
NHQ
the arc
MH^HP,
therefore
MHNH= HPHQ
NH =
in other
words,
When, of the two paralAB, DE, one is a secant, the other a tangent, draw the radius CH
of contact it will be perpendicular to the tangent (Prop. IX.), and also to its parallel MP. But, since is perpendicular to the chord MP, the point must be (Prop. the middle of the arc VI.) therefore the arcs MH, HP, included between the parallels AB, DE, are equal.
to the point
;
DE
CH
H MHP
If the two parallels DE, IL, are tangents, the one Third. H, the other at K, draw the parallel secant AB and, from what has just been shown, we shall have MH=HP, MK=KP; and hence the whole arc HMK=HPK. It is farther evident that each of these arcs is a semicircumference
at
;
BOOK
PROPOSITION
XI.
III.
49
THEOREM.
IJ two circles cut each other in two points^ the line which passes through their centres, will he perpendicular to the chord which joins the points of intersection, and will divide it into tw
equal parts.
For, let the line
AB
It will
be a
common
Now if a perpendicular
be erected from the middle of this chord, it will pass through each of the two centres C and D (Prop. VI. Sch.). But no more than one straight line can be drawn through two points ; hence the straight line, which passes through the centres, will bisect the chord at right angles.
PROPOSITION
XII.
THEOREM.
If the distance between the centres of two circles is less than tke sum of the radii, the greater radius being at the same tim^ less than the sum of the smaller and the distance between the centres, the two circumferences will cut each other.
For, to
make an
intersection
CD<AC
but also the greater radius AI)< ACiCD (Book I. Prop. VII.).
And, whenever the triangle CAD can be constructed, it is plain that the circles described from the centres each other in A and B.
I)
and D,
will cut
50
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
XIII.
THEOREM.
If the distance between the centres of two circles is equal to th^ sum of their radii, the two circles will touch each other e* *
nally.
Let
and
CA
The circles will evidently have the point common, and they will have no other; because, if they had two points common, the distance between their centres must be less than the sum of their radii.
PROPOSITION
XIV.
THEOREM.
If the distance between the centres of two circles is equal to the difference of their radiU the two circles will touch each other
internally.
Let C and be the centres at a distance from each other equal to CA. It is evident, as before, that they will have the point common : they can have no other; because, if they had, the greater radius must be less than the sum of
AD
AD
the radius and the distanceCD between the centres (Prop. XIL); which is contrary to the supposition.
AC
Cor, Hence, if two circles touch each other, either externally or internally, their centres and the point of contact will bo in the same right line.
All circles which have their centres on the right pass through the point A, are tangent to each other. For, they have only the point common, and it through the point A, be drawn perpendicular to AD, the straight line will be a common tangent to all the circles.
Scholium.
line
AE
AE
BOOK
PROPOSITION XV
In the
III.
51
THEOREM.
or in equal circles, equal angles having their on the circumference: and conversely, if the arcs intercepted are equal, the angles contained by the radii will also be equal.
same
circle^
Let
and
circles,
ACB=DCE.
Since the angles ACB, are equal, they may be placed upon each other ; and since their sides are equal, the will evidently fall on D, point and the point B on E. But, in must also that case, the arc fall on the arc for if the arcs did not exacdy coincide, there would, in the one or the other, be points unequally distant from is equal the centre ; which is impossible : hence the arc
First.
DCE,
AB
DE
AB
to
DE.
will be suppose the angle For, if these angles are not equal, suppose to be the greater, and let ACI be taken equal to DCE. From what has just been shown, we shall have AI : but, by hypothesis, is equal to ; hence AI must be equal to AB, or a part to the whole, which is absurd (Ax. 8.) : hence, the angle is equal to DCE.
we
AB=DE,
ACB
ACB
= DE
AB
DE
ACB
corresponding arc
to tlie
corresponding arc.
pt
GEOMETRY.
;
Suppose, lor example, that the angles ACB, DCE, are to each other as 7 is to 4 or, which is the same thing, suppose that the angle M, which may serve as a common measure, is contained 7 times in the angle ACB, and 4 times in DCE
partial angles ACm, mC/i, nCp^ &c., into whioh divided, being each equal to any of the four partial angles into which is divided ; each of the partial arcs Am, mn, np, (fee, will be equal to each of the partial arcs Da:, xy, &c. (Prop. XV.). Therefore the whole arc will be to the whole arc DE, as 7 is to 4. But the same reasoning would evidently apply, if in place of 7 and 4 any numbers whatever
The seven
ACB
is
DCE
AB
were employed hence, if the ratio of the angles ACB, DCE, can be expressed in whole numbers, the arcs AB, DE, will be to each other as the angles ACB, DCE. Scholium, Conversely, if the arcs, AB, DE, are to each other as two whole numbers, the angles ACB, DCE will be to each other as the same whole numbers, and we shall have ACB DCE AB DE. For the partial arcs. Am, mw, &c and Do:, xy, &c., being equal, the partial angles ACwi, mCw, (fee. and DCa;, xQy, &c. will also be equal.
;
K
Whatever
radii.
PROPOSITION
XVII.
THEOREM.
he the ratio of two angles, they will always be toxach other as the arcs intercepted between their sides ; the arcs being described from the vertices of the angles as centres with equal
be the greater and the less angle. Let the less angle be placed on the greater. If the propo
Let
ACB
iACD
not true, the angle be to the angle as the arc AB is to an arc greater or less than AD. Suppose this arc to be greater, and let it be represented by we shall thus have, the angle ; ACB angle : arc AB arc AO. Next conceive the arc
is
sition
ACB
will
ACD AO
^i
ACD
BOOK
AB
to
;
III.
53
be divided into equal parts, each of which is less than there will be at least one point of division between and O ; let I be that point ; and draw CI. The arcs AB, AI, will be to each other as two whole numbers, and by the preceding angle ACI arc AB theorem, we shall have, the angle Comparing these two proportions with each other, : arc AI. we see that the antecedents are the same hence, the consequents are proportional (Book II. Prop. IV.) ; and thus we find arc AI. : angle ACI : : arc But the arc the angle is greater than the arc AI ; hence, if this proportion is true, must be greater than the angle ACI on the the angle cannot be contrary, however, it is less ; hence the angle as the arc AB is to an arc greater than AD. to the angle By a process of reasoning entirely similar, it may be shown that the fourth term of the proportion cannot be less than ; itself ; therefore we have hence it is
DO
ACB
ACD
AO
AO
ACD
ACB
ACD
AD
AD
Angle
ACB
angle
ACD
arc
AB
arc
AD.
Cor, Since the angle at the centre of a circle, and the arc intercepted by its sides, have such a connexion, that if the one be augmented or diminished in any ratio, the other will be augmented or diminished in the same ratio, we are authorized to establish the one of those magnitudes as the measure of the as the meaother ; and we shall henceforth assume the arc sure of the angle ACB. It is only necessary that, in the comparison of angles with each other, the arcs which serve to measure them, be described with equal radii, as is implied in
AB
all
Scholium 1. It appears most natural to measure a quantity by a quantity of the same species and upon this principle it would be convenient to refer all angles to the right angle which, being made the unit of measure, an acute angle would be expressed by some number between and 1 an obtuse angle by some number between 1 and 2. This mode of expressing angles would not, however, be the most convenient in practice. It has been found more simple to measure them by arcs of a circle, on account of the facility with which arcs can be made equal to given arcs, and for various other reasons. At all events, if the measurement of angles by arcs of a circle is in any degree indirect, it is still equally easy to obtain the since, on direct and absolute measure by this method comparing the arc which serves as a measure to any an;
gle,
which
is
measure.
54
GEOMETRY.
Scholium 2. All that has been demonstrated in the last three propositions, concerning the comparison of angles with arcs, holds true equally, if applied to the comparison of sectors with arcs ; for sectors are not only equal when their angles are so,
respects proportional to their angles ; hence, two taken in the same circle, or in equal circles, are to each other as the arcs AB, AD, the bases of those sectors. h is hence evident that the arcs of the circle, which serve as a measure of the different angles, are proportional to the different sectors, in the same circle, or in equal circles.
but are in
all
sectors
ACB, ACD,
PROPOSITION
XVIII.
THEOREM.
An
inscribed angle is
Let
us
first
BAD
be an inscribed angle, and let suppose that the centre of the cir
BAD.
Draw
the
diameter AE, and the radii CB, CD. The angle BCE, being exterior to the triangle ABC, is equal to the sum of the two interior angles CAB, ABC (Book I. Prop. XXV. Cor. 6.) but the triangle BAC being isosceles, the angle CAB is equal to ABC hence the angle BCE is double of BAC. Since BCE lies at the centre, it is measured by the arc BE hence BAC will be measured by the half of BE. For a like reason, the angle CAD will be measured by the half of ED; hence BAC + CAD, or BAD will be measured by half of BE + ED, or of BED.
: ;
;
Suppose,
centre
will
in the
drawing the diameter AE, the angle BAE be measured by the half of BE the angle DAE by the half of DE hence their difference BAD will be measured by the half of BE minus the half of ED, or by the
:
half of
BOOK
III.
55
Cor.
;
1.
BEC, inscribed
equal because they are all measured by the half of the same arc BOC.
Cor, 2. semicircle
is
sured by half the semicircumference BOD, that is, by the fourth part of the whole circumference.
Cor. 3.
inscribed in a
segment greater than a semicircle, is an acute angle for it is measured by half of the arc
;
in a an obtuse angle for it is measured by half of the arc BAC, greater than a semicircumference.
less
than a semicircle,
is
Cor.
4.
The
opposite angles
A
:
and C, of
are together equal to two right angles for the anis measured by half the arc BCD, gle is measured by half the arc the angle hence the two angles BAD, BCD, taken together, are measured by the half of the circumference hence their sum is equal to two right angles.
an inscribed quadrilateral
ABCD,
BAD
;
BCD
BAD
56
GEOMETRY.
:
Let AB, CD, be two chords intersecting each other at E then will the angle AEC, or DEB, be measured by half of
AC+DB. Draw AF parallel to DC then will ihe arc DF be equal to AC (Prop. X.) and the angle FAB equal to the angle DEB (Book I. Prop. XX. Cor. 3.). But the angle FAB is measured by half the arc FDB (Prop. XVIIL); therefore, DEB is measured by half of FDB that is, by half of DB + DF, oi half of DB + AC. In the same manner might be proved tha the angle AED is measured by half of AFD + BC.
:
it
measured by half
its sides.
the diffe
BEC
and DF.
DE parallel to AC then will EC be equal to DF, and the angle BDE equal to the angle BAC. But BDE is measured by half the arc BE hence, BAC is also measured by half the arc BE that is, by half the difference of BEC and EC, or half the difference of BEC and DF.
Draw
:
the arc
is
measured by hnlj
its sides.
BOOK
Let
III.
57
BE be
AC
the chord.
From A, the point of contact, draw the diameter AD. The angle BAD is a right
angle (Prop. IX.), and is measured bythe ; half the semicircumference is measured by the half of angle + DAC, or BAC, is DC: hence, plus the measured by the half of half of DC, or by half the whole arc
AMD
DAC
BAD
AMD
AMDC.
It
gles
DAE, DAC,
AC,
CAE
is
measured by
half the
arc
included between
sides.
PROBLEM
To
Let
divide a
I.
ghen
be the given straight line. and B as centres, with the points a radius greater than the half of AB, describe two arcs cutting each other in the point ; will be equally distant from and B. Find,
AB
From
manner, above or beneath the line AB, iC a second point E, equally distant from the points and B ; through the two points and E, draw the line it will bisect the X<^ hne AB in C. For, the two points and E, being each equally distant from the extremities and B, must both lie in the perpendicular raised from the middle of AB (Book I. Prop. XVI. Cor.). But only one straight line can pass through two given points hence the line must itself be that perpendicular, which divides AB into two equal parts at the point C.
in like
''
DE
DE
58
GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
II.
At a given point,
Let
A be
BC
the
'^
given Hne.
B and C at equal disthen from the points B and C as centres, with a radius greater than t A. BA, describe two arcs intersecting each other in draw it will be the perpendicular required. For, the point D, being equally distant from B and C, must be in the perpendicular raised from the middle of BC (Book I. Prop. XVI.) and since two points determine aline, is that perpendicular.
Take
the points
tances from
AD
AD
Scholium. The same construction serves for making a right angle BAD, at a given point A, on a given straight line BC.
PROBLEM
From a given point,
Let A be the
line.
III.
to let fall
a perpen
point,
and
BD the straight
an
From the
a radius
point
arc cutting the line in the two points B and ; then mark a point E, equally distant from the points B and D, and draw it will be the perpendicular required. For, the two points and E are each equally distant from the points B and hence the line is a perpendiculai ; passing through the middle of (Book L Prop. Cor.)
AE
AE
BD
XVL
PROBLEM
At a point in a given
line, to
IV.
to
a givert
angle.
BOOK
Let
111.
60
A be
AB
IKL
the
given angle.
the vertex K, as a cenwith any radius, describe the arc IL, germinating in the tv^o From the ^ sides of the angle. B I point A as a centre, with a disthen tance AB, equal to Kl, describe the indefinite arc BO take a radius equal to the chord LI, with which, from the point B as a centre, describe an arc cutting the indefinite arc BO, in be equal to the given ; and the angle DAB will ; draw angle K. For, the two arcs BD, LI, have equal radii, and equal chords; hence they are equal (Prop. IV.) therefore the angles IKL, measured by them, are equal.
tre,
From
AD
BAD
PROBLEM
To divide a given
First.
arc, or
V.
Let
it
be required
arc points
in
AEB into two equal parts. From the A and B, as centres, with the same
;
radius, describe
C, draw
in it will bisect the arc the point E. For, the two points C and are each equally distant from the extremities and
:
CD
AB
of the chord
it
AB
hence the
line
A CD
bi
hence,
angles (Book I. Prop. XVI. Cor.) ~ in the point bisects the arc (Prop. VL).
AB
Secondly.
Let
it
ACB
into
two equal
parts.
We begin
AEB CD
;
by describing, from the vertex C which is then bisected as above. It will divide the angle ACB into two
equal parts.
the same construction, each of the halves divided into two equal parts ; and thus, by successive subdivisions, a given angle, or a given arc may be divided into four equal parts, into eight, into sixteen, and so on.
Scholium.
By
60
GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
VI.
to
draw a
line.
parallel to
a given straight
A be
BC
as a centre, with a radius greater than the shortest disto BC, describe the intance from definite arc ; from the point E as a centre, with the same radius, describe the arc
A EO
l^^
o
V.
AF
make
and draw AD this will be the parallel required. For, drawing AE, the alternate angles AEF, EAD, are evidently equal therefore, the lines AD, EF, are parallel (Book 1.
ED=AF,
Prop.
XIX. Cor.
1.).
PROBLEM VIL
Two
angles of a triangle being given,
to
DEC equal to one of the given angles, and the angle equal to the other the remaining angle HEF will be the third angle required because those three angles are together equal to two right angles (Book
gle
CEH
I.
Prop. I
and
XXV).
PROBLEM
VIII.
T\iw sides of a triangle, and the angle which they contain, being given, to describe the triangle.
Let the
gle.
lines
Having drawn
DE,
at the point
EDF
equal to the given angle then take DG=B, and draw triangle required (Book L Prop. V.).
;
II
DH=C,
GH DGH
will
be
BOOK
III.
ei
PROBLEM
A
side
IX.
The two angles will either be both adjacent to the given side, or the one adjacent, and the other opposite ; in the latter case, find the third angle (Prob. VII.) ; and the two adjacent angles will thus be known : draw the straight line DE equal to the given side at the point D, make EDF equal to one of the adjacent angles, and at E, equal to the other ; the two lines DF, EG, will will be the triangle required and other in ;
^
an angle an angle cut each (Book I.
DEG
DEH
Prop. VI.).
PROBLEM
X.
to describe the
triangle
sides.
equal to the side from the point E as a centre, with a radius equal to the second side B, as a cendescribe an arc from tre, with a radius equal to the third Side C, describe another arc inter;
Draw DE
D
;
F draw DF,
EF
and
DEF will
I.
be the triangle
required (Book
Prop. X.).
Scholium. If one of the sides were greater hanthe sum of the other two, the arcs would not intersect eich other : but the solution will always be possible, when the sum of two sides, any
how
taken,
is
62
GEOMETRY.
PROBI.EM
XI.
Two sides
B
it
be the given
is
sides,
and
cases.
a right
angle, or
the angle
obt" ^se,
make
take ; from the as a centre, with a radius equal to the given side B, describe an arc cutting
in
EDF=C; point E
EF
:
DE=A
DF ^
be
F; draw
then
DEF will
the triangle required. In this first case, the side B must be greater than ; for the angle C, being a right angle, or an obtuse angle, is the greatest angle of the triangle, and the side opposite to it must, therefore, also be the greatest (Book I. Prop. XIII.).
A)
If the angle C is greater than A, the same construction will again ap
Bh
Secondly.
acute,
ply,
and
and
DEF will
be the triangle
required.
But if the angle C is acute, and the side B less than A, then the arc described from the centre E, with the radius EF=B, will cut in two points F and the side G, lying on the same side of hence there will be two triangles
DF
DEF, DEG,
blem.
either of
which wiU
Scholivm. If the arc described with E as a centre, should be tangent to the line DG, the triangle would be right angled, and there would be but one solution. The problem would be
impossible in all cases, if the side dicular let fall from E on the line
B were
DF.
less
BOOK
PROBLEM
III.
63
XII.
The adjacent sides of a parallelogram, with the angle which the^ contain, being given, to describe the parallelogram
Let
A and B
be the given
;
sides,
and
at the
make the angle take ; describe two arcs, the one from F as a centre, with a radius FG=DE, the other from E as a centre, with to the point a radius Ct wrhprp fhpcA nrrc intprsprt G, where these arcs intersect
EDF
DF=B
^
Ai
1 bh
i
'
EG=DF;
h
_
/
Zil_
by construction (Book I. Prop. XXIX.) formed with the given sides and the given angle.
For, the opposite sides are equal,
figure is a parallelogram
;
:
Cor, If the given angle is a right angle, the figure will be a rectangle ; if, in addition to this, the sides are equal, it will be a square.
PROBLEM
To find
the centre
XIII.
Take three points, A, B, C, any wnere in the circumference, or the arc draw AB, BC, or suppose them to be drawn bisect those two lines
; ;
by
the perpendiculars DE, the point O, where these perpendiculars meet, will be the centre
FG
The same
construc
making a circum;
ference pass through three given points A, B, C and also for describing a circumference, in which, a given triangle
ABC
shall
be inscribed.
04
GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
Through a given point,
to
XIV.
to
draw a tangent
a given
circle.
AD
lies in the circumIf the given point erence, draw the radius CA, and erect perpendicular to it : will be the tangent required (Prop. IX.).
'
AD
If the point
join
line
lies
without the
;
circle,
centre, with the radius OC, describe a circumference intersecting the given cir
cumference
in
B draw AB
;
this will
be
beFor, drawing CB, the angle ing inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle (Prop. XVIII. Cor. 2.) ; therefore is a perpendicular at the extremity of the radius CB ; therefore it is a tan
CBA
AB
gent.
lies without the circle, there Scholium, When the point evidently be always two equal tangents AB, AD, passing through the point they are equal, because the right angled
will
CBA, CDA, have the hypothenuse CA common, and the side CB = CD; hence they are equal (Book I. Prop. XVII.); hence AD is equal to AB, and also the angle CAD to CAB. And as there can be but one line bisecting the angle BAC, it
triangles
follows, that the line which bisects the angle formed tangents, must pass through the centre of the circle.
by two
PROBLEM
To
XV.
Let ABC be the given triangle. Bisect the angles A and B, by the lines AO and BO, meeting in the point O from the point O,
;
let
fall
OE,
all
be equal.
For,
by construe
BOOK
tion,
III.
65
AFO
have the angle DAO=OAF, the right angle ADO = hence the third fengle AOD is equal to the third AOF (Book I. Prop. XXV. Cor. 2.). Moreover, the side AO is common to the two triangles AOD, AOF and the angles adjacent hence the triangles themselves are to the equal side are equal equal (Book I. Prop. VI.) and DO is equal to OF. In the same manner it may be shown that the two triangles BOD, BOE,
we
;
is equal to therefore the three are equal therefore ; perpendiculars OD, OE, OF, are all equal. as a centre, with the radius OD, Now, if from the point a circle be described, this circle will evidently be inscribed in the triangle ; for the side AB, being perpendicular to the radius at its extremity, is a tangent ; and the same thing is true of the sides BC, AC. Scholium. The three lines which bisect the angles of a triangle meet in the same point.
;
OD
OE
ABC
PROBLEM
On a given
XVI.
straight line to describe a segment that shall contain ; that is to say, a segment such, that all the angles inscribed in it, shall be equal to the given angle.
a given angle
Let
AB
line,
and
K
Produce
'J?
;
DBE = C;
dicular to
D at the point B, make the angle draw BO perpendicular to BE, and GO perpenAB, through the middle point G and from the point
AB
towards
; :
O, where these perpendiculars meet, as a centre, with a distance OB, describe a circle the required segment will be
AMB.
For, since radius OB, it half the arc
is a perpendicular at the extremity of the a tangent, and the angle ABF is measured by (Prop. XXL). Also, the angle AMB, being an inscribed angle, is measured by half the arc hence we have hence all the angles inscribed in the segment are equal to the given angle
BF
is
AKB
AKB
AMB=ABF=EBD==C AMB
GEOMETRY.
Scholium. If the given angle were a right angle, the required segment would be a semicircle, described on AB as a diameter.
PROBLEM
XVII.
To find the numerical ratio of two given straight lines, these being supposed to have a common measure.
Let
line&
AB
and
CD
be the given lines. AB cut off a part equal to the less as possible for example, twice,
;
From the line CD, cut off a part equal to the remainder BE, as many times as possible once, for example, with the remainder DF. From the first remainder BE, cut off a part equal to the second DF, as many times as possible once, for example, with the remainder BG. From the second remainder DF, cut off a part equal
; ;
U
Iq. times as possible. i Continue this process, till a remainder occurs, which ^ is contained exactly a certain number of times in the preceding one.
to
BG the
third, as
many
remainder will be the common measure of the and regarding it as unity, we shall easily find the values of the preceding remainders and at last, those of the two proposed lines, and hence their ratio in numbers. Suppose, for instance, we find GB to be contained exactly twice in FD BG will be the common measure of the two proposed lines. Put BG=1 we shall have FD=2 but EB contains FD once, plus GB therefore we have EB=3 CD contains EB once, plus FD therefore we have CD = 5: and lastly, AB contains CD twice, plus EB therefore we have AB = 13 hence the ratio of the hnes is that of 13 to 5. If the line CD were taken for unity, the line AB would be '/ if AB were taken for unity, CD would be j%
Then
this last
proposed
lines
Scholium.
The method
just explained
is
the
employed
bers
:
common
divisor of
has no need, therefore, of any other demonstration. far soever the operation be continued, it is possible that no remainder may ever be found, which shall be contained an exact number of times in the preceding one. When this happens, the two lines have no common measure, and are said to be incommensurable. An instance of this will be seen afterit
How
BOOK
III.
wards, in the ratio of the diagonal to the side of the square. In those cases, therefore, the exact ratio in numbers cannot be found but, by neglecting the last remainder, an approximate ratio will be obtained, more or less correct, according as the operation has been continued a greater or less number of times.
;
PROBLEM
Two
XVIII.
angles being given, to find their common measure, if they have one, and hy means of it, their ratio in numbers.
Let
gles.
and
With equal radii describe the arcs CD, EF, to serve as measures for the angles ; proceed afterwards in the comparison of the arcs CD, EF, as in the last problem, since an arc may be cut off from an arc of the
radius, as a straight line
same
from a straight line. We shall thus arrive at the common measure of the arcs CD, EF, if they have This ratio will be one, and thereby at their ratio in numbers. the same as that of the given angles (Prop. XVII.) and if DO is the common measure of the arcs, DAO will be that of the
;
angles.
an angle
According to this method, the absolute value of be found by comparing the arc which measures If the arc CD, for example, is it to the whole circumference. to the circumference, as 3 is to 25, the angle A will be /j of four right angles, or if of one right angle. It may also happen, that the arcs compared have no common measure in which case, the numerical ratios of the angles will only be found approximatively with more or less correctness, according as the operation has been continued a greater
Scholium,
may
or less
number of times.
/
68
GEOMETRY
BOOK
OF
IV.
1. Similar figures are those which have the angles of the one equal to the angles of the other, each to each, and the sides about the equal angles proportional. 2. Any two sides, or any two angles, which have like positions in two similar figures, are called homologous sides or
angles.
3. In two different circles, similar arcs, sectors, or segments, are those which correspond to equal angles at the centre. Thus, if the angles are equal, and the arc BC will be similar to DE, the sector to thie sector DOE, and the segment whose chord is BC, to the seg
BAG
is
DE.
rectilineal figure,
is
The
base of
is
any
supposed to stand. 5. The altitude of a triangle is the perpendicular let fall from the vertex of an angle on the opposite side, taken as a base. Thus, AD is the altitude of the
the figure
triangle
BAG
'
6. The altitude of a parallislogram is the perpendicular which measures the distance between two opposite sides taken as bases. Thus, EF is the altitude of the parallelo
J)
E
!<
gram DB.
7.
^
A
b
JIJ
The
D E
pendicular
sides.
drawn between
its
two
parallel
Thus,
EF
is
zoid
8.
DB.
The area and surface of a figure, are terms very nearly synonymous. The area designates more particularly the sup'irficial content of the figure. The area is expressed num( ri
BOOK
cally
IV.
69
by the number of times which the figure contains some other area, that is assumed for its measuring unit. 9. Figures have equal areas, when they contain the same measuring unit an equal number of times. 10. Figures which have equal areas are called equivalent. The term equal, when applied to figures, designates those which are equal in every respect, and which being applied to each other will coincide in all their parts (Ax. 13.) : the term equivalent implies an equality in one respect only : namely, an
equality between the measures of figures. may here premise, that several of the demonstrations are grounded on some of the simpler operations of algebra,
We
which are themselves dependent on admitted axioms. Thus, if we have A=B + C, and if each member is multipHed by the same quantity/M, we may infer that + CxM; in like manner, if we have, A=B + C, and C, and if the equal quantities are added together, then expunging the f C and C, which destroy each other, we infer that A4D=B + E, and so of others. All this is evident enough of itself but
AxM=BxM
D=E
of difficulty, it will be useful to consult some agebraical treatise, and thus to combine the study of the two sciences.
in cases
PROPOSITION
I.
THEOREM.
Let
the
AB
:
two parallelograms
ABCD,
and since they are supposed to have the same altitude, their upper bases DC, FE, will be both situated in one straight line parallel to AB. Now, from the nature of parallelograms, we have AD=BC, and AF=BE; for the same reason, we have DC=AB, and FE=AB hence DC=FE hence, if DC and FE be taken away from the same line DE, the remainders CE and DF will be equal hence it follows that the triangles DAF, CBE, are mutually eqilateral, and consequently equal (Book I. Prop. X.). But if from the quadrilateral ABED, we take away the triangle ADF, there will remain the parallelogram ABEF and if from the same quadrilateral ABED, we take away the equal triangle CBE, there will remain the parallelogram ABCD
;
:
ABEF
70
GEOMETRY.
Hence these two parallelograms ABCD, ABEF, which have the same base and ahitude, are equivalent.
Cor, Every parallelogram is equivalent to the rectangle which has the same base and the same altitude.
PROPOSITION
Every triangle
is
II.
THEOREM.
and
the
same
altitude.
Let ABCD be a parallele,,^j;^^^ gram, and ABE a triangle, y having the same base AB, / \ jT^"^^. and the same altitude then / \ / ^""^>^.^^^ will the triangle be half the _f
H D
j
G
I
C
/
J3 parallelogram. For, since the triangle and the parallelogram have the same altitude, the vertex of the triangle, will be in the line EC, par
FA
^
i
1
^^^
allel
to
the base
parallel to
AD.
AB. Produce BA, and from E draw EF The triangle FBE is half the parallelogram
FC, and the triangle FAE half the parallelogram FD (Book I. Prop. XXVIII. Cor.). Now, if from the parallelogram FC, there be taken the parand allelogram FD, there will remain the parallelogram AC if from the triangle FBE, which is half the first parallelogram,
:
there be taken the triangle FAE, half the second, there will remain the triangle ABE, equal to half the parallelogram AC. Cor 1 Hence a triangle is half of the rectangle ABGH, for : which has the same base AB, and the same altitude the rectangle is equivalent to the parallelogram (Prop. I. Cor.).
.
ABE
AH
ABGH
ABCD
Cor. 2. All triangles, which have equal bases and altitudes, are equivalent, being halves of equivalent parallelograms.
PROPOSITION
III.
THEOREM.
,
are
to
BOOK
Let
IV.
n
D
ABCD, AEFD,
be two rectanaltitude
common
AD
they are to
AB, AE.
Suppose, first, that the bases are L_l E B commensurable, and are to each other, If AB be divided into 7 for example, as the numbers 7 and 4 equal parts, AE will contain 4 of those parts at each point of
:
division erect a perpendicular to the base; seven partial rectangles will thus be formed, all equal to each other, because all
will have the same base and altitude. The rectangle will contain four: contain seven partial rectangles, while as 7 is to 4, or as is to hence the rectangle The same reasoning may be applied to any other is to AE. hence, whatever be that ratio, ratio equally with that of 7 to 4 if its terms be commensurable, we shall have
ABCD
ABCD
AEFD AEFD
AB
ABCD
AEFD
AB
AE.
Suppose, in the second place, that the bases AB, AE, are incommensurable it is to be shown that we shall still have
:
ABCD
For
if
AEFD
first
AB
AE.
EI
not, the
the same, the fourth must be greater or less A than AE. Suppose it to be greater, and that we have
OB
ABCD
:
AEFD
AB
AO.
Divide the line AB into equal parts, each less than EO. There will be at least one point I of division between E and O from this point draw IK perpendicular to AI the bases AB, AI, will be commensurable, and thus, from what is proved
:
above,
we
shall
have
ABCD ABCD
the
:
AIKD
AB
AB
:
AI.
AEFD
AO.
In these two proportions the antecedents are equal ; hence consequents are proportional (Book II. Prop. lY.) ; and
find
we
AIKD
But
AEFD
AI
;
AI
AO
:
hence, if this proportion is correct, the rectangle must be greater than AIKD on the contrary, however, it is less ; hence the proportion is impossible ; therefore cannot be to AEFD, as AB is to a line greater than
is
AO
greater than
AEFD
ABCD
AE
72
GEOMETRY.
;
Exactly in the same manner, it may be shown that the fourth term of the proportion cannot be less than AE therefore it is
equal to
AE.
ratio of the bases,
altitude, are to
ABCD, AEFD,
bases
two rectangles
AB, AE.
PROPOSITION
IV.
THEOREM.
Any
Let
angle,
ABCD, AEGF,
be two rectangles
:
:
ABCD
AEGF
AB.AD
AF.AE.
5
B
CD, till they The two rectangles ABCD, AEHD, having the same almeet
in
H.
are to each other as their E : in like manner the two rectangles AEHD, AEGF, having the same altitude AE, thus we have the : are to each other as their bases AD, two proportions,
titude
AD,
bases AB,
AE
AF
:
AB
AD
AE, AF.
Multiplying the corresponding terms of these proportions together, and observing that the term may be omitted, since it is a multiplier of both the antecedent and the consequent, we shall have
AEHD
:
ABCD
AEGF
ABxAD
AExAF.
Scholium. Hence the product of the base by the altitude may be assumed as the measure of a rectangle, provided we understand by this product, the product of two numbers, one of which is the number of linear units contained in the base, the other the number of linear units contained in the altitude. This product will give the number of superficial units in the surface because, for one unit in height, there are as many superficial units as there are linear units in the base; for two units in height twice as many ; for three units in height, three times as
;
many, &c.
Still this
measure
is
it
supposes
BOOK
ir.
73
that the area of any other rectangle is computed m a similar manner, by measuring its sides with the same linear unit a second product is tlius obtained, and the ratio of the two products is the same as that of the rectangles, agreeably to the
;
proposition just demonstrated. contains three For example, if the base of the rectangle units, and its altitude ten, that rectangle will be represented
10, or 30, a number which signifies nothing while thus isolated ; but if there is a second rectangle B, the base of which contains twelve units, and the altitude seven, this second rectangle will be represented by the number 12x7
by the number 3 x
hence be entitled to conclude that the two and therefore, if rectangles are to each other as 30 is to 84 the rectangle A were to be assumed as the unit of measurement in surfaces, the rectangle B would then have ^ for its absolute measure, in other words, it would be equal to  of a super
84
and
we
shall
ficial unit.
It is
simple, to
the unit
lect that
square, whose side is In this case the unit of length. the measurement which we have regarded merely as relative, becomes absolute : the number 30, was measured, now for instance, by which the rectangle represents 30 superficial units, or 30 of those squares, which have each of their sides equal to unity, as the diagram exhibits. In geometry the product of two lines frequently means the same thing as their rectangle, and this expression has passed into arithmetic, where it serves to designate the product of two unequal numbers, the expression square being employed to designate the product of a number multiplied by itself. The arithmetical squares of 1, 2, 3, &c. are 1, 4, 9, &c. So likewise, the geometrical square constructed on a double line is evidently four times greater than the square on a single one on a triple line it is nine times great
er,
&c.
74
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
V.
THEOREM.
equal
to the
is
its altitude.
ABCD is equivalent p
13
has the same base AB, and the same altitude BE (Prop. I. Cor.) but this rectangle is measured by AB (Prop. IV. Sch.); therefore, AB x BE is equal to the area of the parallelogram ABCD. Cor, Parallelograms of the same base are to each other as their altitudes and parallelograms of the same altitude are to each other as their bases for, let B be the common base, and C and the altitudes of two parallelograms
:
ABEF, which
xBE
then,
BxC:BxD::C:D,
the bases, and
(Book
the
II.
Prop. VII.)
altitude,
common
AxC BxC
:
B.
And parallelograms, generally, are to each other as the products of their bases and altitudes.
PROPOSITION
The area of a triangle
is
VI.
THEOREM.
product of its base by half
equal
to the
its altitude.
For, the triangle is half of the parallelogram ABCE, which has the same base BC, and the same altitude (Prop. II.) but the area of the parallelogram is equal to BC X (Prop. V.) ; hence that of the triangle must be iBC x AD, or BC x i AD.
ABC
AD
AD
triangles of the same altitude are to each other as and two triangles of the same base are to eacn other as their altitudes. And triangles generally, are to each other, as the products of their bases and altitudes.
Cor,
Two
their bases,
BOOK
PROPOSITION
The area of a trapezoid
VII.
IV.
75
THEOREM.
is equal to its altitude multiplied by ike half sum of its parallel bases,
Jjet
tude,
AB
alti
then
be equal to'!EFxi(AB + CD). Through I, the middle point of the side BC, draw KL parallel to the opposite side
;
AD
^ and produce DC till it meets KL. In the triangles IBL, ICK, we have the side IB=IC, by and BL construction; the angle LIB = CIK; and since are parallel, the angle IBL^ICK (Book I. Prop. XX. Cor. 2.); hence the triangles are equal (Book I. Prop. VI.) therefore, is equivalent to the parallelogram ADKL, the trapezoid
CK
;
ABCD
IBL and KCI are equal, the side BL=CK: hence, AB + CD =AL + DK=:2AL hence AL is the half sum of the bases AB, CD hence the area of the trapezoid ABCD, is equal to the altitude
;
and is measured by EF x AL. But we have AL=DK; and since the triangles
EF
multiplied
is
by
the half
:
sum of
the bases
AB, CD, a
result
which
expressed thus
ABCD=EF x ^?^. H
Scholium. If through I, the middle point of BC, the line IH will also be the be drawn parallel to the base AB, the point middle of AD. For, since the figure AHIL is a parallelogram, as also DHIK, their opposite sides being parallel, we have
AH=IL,
equal,
It
we already have IL=IK; therefore, AH=DH. may be observed, that the line HI=AL is equal
';
may
also
be ex
pressed by EF x HI it is therefore equal to the altitude of the trapezoid multiplied by the line which connects the middle points of its inclined sides.
76
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
VIII.
THEOREM.
If a line is divided into two parts, the square described on ih whole line is equivalent to the sum of the squares described on the parts, together with twice the rectangle contained by the parts.
Let
AC
be the
line,
and
then,
is
draw FG parallel to AC, and BH parallel to AE. The square ACDE is made up of four parts the first ABIF is the square described on AB, since we made AF= AB the second IDGH is
;
:
AB
^ P
'
'
'
on IG, or
BC
AE
to
and
AB=AF,
the difference
therefore to EF, since the lines are parallel equal to a square described on BC. And those two squares being taken away from the whole square, there remains the two rectangles BCGI, EFIH, each of which is measured by AB X BC hence the large square is equivalent to the two small squares, together with the two rectangles.
;
BC, and
is
DG
AEAF,
the difference,
AC AB
for since
A B C we have AC==
to
must be equal
;
which gives
BC=EF
but
IG
is
equal
IGDH
Cor. If the line AC were divided into two equal parts, the two rectangles EI, IC, would become squares, and the square described on the whole line would be equivalent to four times the square described on half the line.
Scholium. This property is equivalent to the property demonstrated in algebra, in obtaining the square of a binominal which is expressed thus : (a + bf=d''\2ah^h\
PROPOSITION
The square described on
to the
IX.
THEOREM.
hy the
BOOK
lyCt
IV.
;
77
then
Gis
\C\
:
or
take
AE
Xi
AC
to BI,
HK
IL
P
E
the square
EFLK.
The two rectangles CBIG, GLKD, x BC ; take are each measured by them away from the whole figure A. ABILKEA, which is equivalent to AB^f BC^ and there will evidently remain the square
AB
ACDE;
is
(aby=a'2ab + b\
THEOREM.
the difference
PROPOSITION
The rectangle contained by
lines, is lines.
X.
the
sum and
of two
lines
then, will
(AB+BC)
ABIF, ACDE produce
;
(ABBC)=AB2BC^.
squares
the pro;
p,
AB
&
till
duced part
is equal to BC and complete the rectangle AKLE. of the rectangle EK, The base is the sum of the two lines AB, BC ; its altitude AE is the difference of the
BK
AK
therefore the rectangle ; C B equal to (AB + BC) x (AB BC). But this rectangle is composed of the two parts is equal to the rectangle EDGF, + ; and the part is equal to DE, and because is to EF ; hence equal to f EDGF. These two parts make up the square ABIF minus the square DHIG, which latter is equal to a square described on BC hence wc have
lines
is
same
AKLE
ABHE
BHLK BH ABHE
BHLK
BK
AKLE
(AB+BC) X (ABBC)=AB2BC2.
Scholium, This proposition is equivalent to the algebraical formula, (a+6) x (a^b)=a^h\
78
GEOMETRY,
PROPOSITION
The square described on
angle
is
XI.
THEOREM.
equivalent to the
Let the triangle ABC be right angled at A. Having described squares on the three sides, let fall from A, on the hypothenuse, the perpendicular AD, which produce to E; and draw the diagonals AF, CH. The angle ABF is made up of the angle ABC, together with the right angle CBF the angle CBH is made up of the same angle ABC, together with the right angle hence the angle ABF is equal to HBC. But we have AB=BH, being sides of the same square and BF=BC, for the same reason
;
ABH
therefore the triangles ABF, HBC, have two sides and the included angle in each equal ; therefore they are themselves
equal (Book
I.
Prop. V.).
The
triangle
ABF
is
altitude
BD
(Prop.
II.
The
:
triangle
HBC
;
is
in like
manner
half of the
AH
right angles,
AC and AL form one and the same straight line parallel to HB (Book I. Prop. III.) and consequently the triangle HBC,
and the square AH, which have the common base BH, have also the common altitude AB hence the triangle is half of the
;
square.
ABF has already been proved equal to the trihence the rectangle BDEF, which is double of the triangle ABF, must be equivalent to the square AH, which is double of the triangle HBC. In the same manner it may be
The
triangle
;
angle
HBC
proved, that the rectangle is equivalent to the square AI. But the two rectangles BDEF, CDEG, taken together, make up the square BCGF therefore the square BCGF, described on the hypothenuse, is equivalent to the sum of the squares ABHL, ACIK, described on the two other sides ; in other words, BC^zzrABHAC^.
:
CDEG
BOOK
IV.
79
Cor. 1. Hence the square of one of the sides of a right angled triangle is equivalent to the square of the hypothenuse diminished by the square of the other side ; which is thus ex
pressed
AB2=:BC2AC2.
shown
;
Cor, 2. It has just been valent to the rectangle altitude BF, the square base is to the base
AH
is
equi
BC
BDEF but by reason of the common BCGF is to the rectangle BDEF as the BD therefore we have
;
BC2
Hence
the
AB2
BC
BD.
square of the hypothenuse is to the square of one of the sides about the right angle, as the hypothenuse is to the segment adjacent to that side. The word segment here denotes that part of the hypothenuse, which is cut off by the perpenthus BD is the segment dicular let fall from the right angle and DC is the segment adjacent to adjacent to the side AB might have, in like manner, the side AC.
: ;
We
BC2
Cor. 3.
AC2
BC
CD.
The
rectangles
same
fore
altitude, are to
BDEF, DCGE, having likewise the each other as their bases BD, CD. But
AH, AI
;
there
we have AB^
AC^
BD
DC.
Hence the squares of the two sides containing the right angle, are to each other as the segments of the hypothenuse which lie adjacent to those sides.
Cor. 4. Let be a square, and its xi diagonal the triangle being right angled and isosceles, we shall have AC^=AB + BC'^=2AB^: hence the square described on the diagonal AC, is double of the square described
:
ABCD
AC
ABC
G
i^
on
the side
AB.
^
y
This property may be exhibited more plainly, by drawing parallels to BD, through the points A and C, and parallels to AC, through the points B and D. A new square will thus be formed, equal to the square of AC. Now evidently contains eight triangles each equal to ABE ; and contains four such triangles hence is double of ABCD. Since we have AC^ AB^ 2 1 by extractmg the square roots, we shall have AC AB : n/2 1 hence, the diagonal of a square is incommensurable with its side ; a pro perty which will be explained more fully in another place.
EFGH
80
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
XII.
THEOREM.
In every triangle, the square of a side opposite an acute angle is less than the sum of the squares of the other two sides, by twice the rectangle contained by the base and the distance from the acute angle to the foot of the perpendicular let fall from the opposite angle on the base, or on the base produced.
perpendicular to the base ABC be a triangle, and then will AB^^AC^+BC^2BC x CD. There are two cases. Fii^st. When the perpendicular falls within
Let
;
AD
CB
the triangle ABC, we have BD=:BC CD, and consequently BD^^BCHCD^ 2BC X CD (Prop. IX.). Adding AD^ to each, and observing that the right angled triangles ABD, ADC, give AD^+BW=AB\ and AD2+CD2=AC2, we have AB^^BCH
AC22BCxCD.
Secondly,
falls
_ ^
=CD
to both,
When the perpendicular without the triangle ABC, we have BC and consequently
;
AD
BD
BD2=CDH
Adding AD^
BC22CD X BC
(Prop. IX.).
2BCxCD.
we
find, as before,
AB2=BC2+AC2
PROPOSITION
XIII.
THEOREM.
In every obtuse angled triangle, the square of the side opposite the obtuse angle is greater than the sum of the squares of the other two sides by twice the rectangle contained by the base and the distance from the obtuse angle to the foot of the perpendicular let fall from the opposite angle on the base produced.
Let
dicular to
ACB be a triangle, C the obtuse angle, and AD perpei>BC produced then will AB2=AC2+BCH2BC x
;
fall
within the
for, if
it fell
at
E, there would be in the triangle ACE, the right angle E, and the obtuse angle C, which is impossible (Book I. Prop. XXV. Cor. 3.)
:
BOOK
hence the perpendicular
falls
IV.
81
without
and we have
BD=BC
+ CD. From
in
BD^=BC2 + CDH2BC x CD
(Prop. VIII.). Adding AD to both, and reducing the sums as the last theorem, we find x CD.
AB^^BCH ACH2BC
;
Scholium. The right angled triangle is the only one in which the squares described on the two sides are together equivalent to the square described on the third for if the angle contained by the two sides is acute, the sum of their squares will be greater than the square of the opposite side ; if obtuse, it will be less.
Let
ABC
AE
line
drawn
to the mid
On BC,
AD.
AC^rrAEHEC^2EC x ED.
And by Prop. XI
1
1.
AB2AEMEB2+2EBxED.
Hence, by adding, and observing that we have
b^
EB
and
EC
ED
are equal,
side.%
ABH BC2=r2AEH2BE2.
The
triangle
ADC
ADH DC2=r:2AE
gives, in like
manner. 4 2DE2.
that
Adding the corresponding members together, and observing BE and DE are equal, we shall have
AB+ADHDC2+BC^z=:4AEH4DE2.
is the square of 2AE, or of ; 4DE2 is the square (Prop. VIII. Cor.): hence the squares of the sides ans together equivalent to the squares of the diagonals.
But 4AE^
>f
BD
AC
S2
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION XV. THEOREM.
[fa
line he
drawn
it
will divide
liCt
allel to
ABC
be a
triangle,
;
and
:
DE
:
the base
BC
then will
:
AD
altitude, since
DB
AE
EC.
Draw BE and DC. The two triangles BDE, DEC having the same base DE, and the same
both their vertices
lie in
a line
Cor.
2.).
The
triangles
vertex is E, have the same altitude, and are to each other as their bases (Prop. VI. Cor.) ;
hence
we
have
ADE
The
hence
triangles
also the
BDE
AD
DB.
;
same
altitude,
to
ADE
AD
Cor.
:
:
DEC
DB
:
AE
EC.
;
But the triangles BDE, DEC, are equivalent we have (Book II. Prop. IV. Cor.)
:
and therefore,
AE
:
EC.
:
1.
AE + EC AE, or AB BD AC CE.
:
AD
AC
AD + DB AD AE and also AB
: ;
: :
Cor. 2. If between
of parallels
line."
_
:
J
:
two straight lines AB, CD, any number AC, EF, GH, BD, &c. be drawn, those straight cut proportionally, and we shall have AE CF
:
EG
FH
GB
HD.
OE
: :
be the point where AB and In the triangle OEF, the line being drawn parallel to the base EF, we shall have OF CF, or CF. In the triangle OF OGII, we shall likewise have
CD AC
OE AE
AE
:
OF
:
FH,orOE
of the
It
OF
OE EG
EG
:
FH.
And by reason
OF,
:
common
ratio
OE
:
:
those
:
AE
:
CF
so on
;
EG
FH.
may
:
be proved
:
in the
same manner, that EG FH GB HD, and the lines AB, CD, are cut proportionally by the EF, GH, &c.
hence
oarallels
AC,
BOOK
PROPOSITION
y
IV.
XVI.
THEOREM.
In the triangle
ABC,
:
let
:
the line
DE
be drawn, making
to
AD
lel
BC.
Then, by the preceding theorem, we shall AO OC. But by hypotheDB DB AE EC hence we sis, we have AD AE EC,orAO AE OC must have AO OC EC an impossible result, since AO, the one antecedent, is less than its consequent AE, and OC, the other antecedent, is greater than its consequent EC. Hence the parallel to BC, drawn from the point I), cannot differ from DE hence DE is that parallel.
to
it.
have
AD
;
conclusion would be true, if the prowere the proposed one. For portion AB AC this proportion would give AB AC CE AE. AE, or
Scholium.
:
The same
: :
AD
AE
BD
AD
AD
AD
AE
PROPOSITION
The
XVII.
THEOREM.
line which bisects the vertical angle of a triangle^ divides the base into two segments^ which are proportional to the adjacent
sides.
I
ACB,
let
AD
:
:
BD
parallel
CD
meets
AD
till
it
AB CE j BA
^
AC.
AD
CE
:
hence
(Prop.
we have
XV.)
*
the
proportion
:
:
BD
:
But the
celes
for,
have the angle ACE I. Prop. XX. Cor. but, by hence the an2 3.) gle ACE=z:AEC, and consequently AE=:AC (Book I. Prop. XII.). In place of AE in the above proportion, substitute AC, id we shall have BD DC AB AC.
DC
= DAC, and
the angle
&
84
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
XVIII.
THEOREM.
Two equiangular
triangles have their homologous sides projyor tionalf and are similar.
Let ABC, CDE be two triangles which have their angles equal each to each, namely, BAC=:CDE, and ACBnDEC then the homologous sides,
ABC=DCE
CD
or the sides adjacent to the equal angles, will be proportional, so that we shall
have
BC
CE
AB
AC
DE.
Place the homologous sides BC,
line
;
CE
in the
same
straight
and produce the sides BA, ED, till they meet in F. Since BCE is a straight line, and the angle BCA is equal to CED, it follows that AC is parallel to DE (Book I. Prr)p. XIX. Cor. 2.). In like manner, since the angle ABC is equal to
DCE,
IS
the line
AB
is
parallel to
DC. Hence
the figure
ACDF
;
hence
ting
we have BC
CE
:
CD
AF,
BC
BC CE
:
CE
;
BA
is
CD.
CD
parallel to
BF
which may
and
we
:
FD DE or putting AC in BC CE AC DE.
; : : :
And
ratio
finally, since
:
BC
CE, we have
AC
DE
BA
CD.
BAC, CED, have their homologous sides proportional. But two figures are similar when liiey have their angles equal, each to each, and their homologous sides proportional (Def. 1.) consequently the equianguThus the equiangular triangles
;
lar triangles
BAC, CED,
are
two
similar figures.
Cor. For the similarity of two triangles, it is enough that they have two angles equal, each to each since tlien, the third will also be equal in both, and the two triangles will be equiangular.
;
BOOK
Scholium.
IV.
similar triangles, the
;
85
Observe, that
in
homolo
ACB
the side is homologous to ; in like are homologous, because opposite to the manner, and equal angles ABC, DCE. When the homologous sides are determined, it is easy to form the proportions
being equal to
DEC,
AB
DC
AC
DE
AB
DC
AC
DE
BC
CE.
In the two triangles BAC, DEF, suppose we have BC EF AB DE : : AC DF then will the
: : :
:
triangles
ABC,
DEF
gles
equal,
namely,
A=D, B=E,
the angle
C=F.
At
the point E,
make
will be ; the third FEG=B, and at F, the angle will be equal to the third A, and the two triangles ABC, equiangular (Book I. Prop. XXV. Cor. 2.). Therefore, by the
last
EFG=C
: :
G EFG
;
we shall have BC EF AB EG but, by we have BC EF AB DE; hence EG =DE. AC By the same theorem, we shall also have BC EF FG and by hypothesis, we have BC EF AC DF hence FG=DF. Hence the triangles EGF, DEF, having their
theorem,
:
:
hypothesis,
I.
Prop. X.). But by construction, tlie ABC are equiangular hence and gular and similar.
:
triangles
EGF
and
DEF
ABC
triangles, equality
two propositions, it appears that in the angles is a consequence of proportionality among the sides, and conversely ; so that either of those conditions sufficiently determines the similarity of two triangles. The case is different with regard to figures of more than three sides : even in quadrilaterals, the proportion between the sides may be altered without altering the angles, or the angles may be altered without altering the proportion between the sides ; and thus proportionality among the sides cannot be a consequence of equality among the angles of two
Scholium
1.
By the
last
among
It is evident, for
example, thai
86
GEOMETRY.
EF
parallel to
BC, the angles of are made equal to those of ABCD, though the proportion between the sides is different ; and, in like manner, without changing the four sides AB, BC, CD, AD, we can make the point B approach or recede from it, which will change the
by drawing
the quadrilateral
AEFD,
angles.
Scholium
2.
propositions,
which
in strict
ness form but one, together with that relating to the square oi the hypothenuso, are the most important and fertile in results of any in geometiy : they are almost sufficient of themselves for every application to subsequent reasoning, and for solving every problem. The reason is, that all figures may be divided
and any triangle into two right angled triangles. Thus the general properties of triangles include, by implicainto triangles,
tion, those
of
all figures.
Two
triangles, which have an angle of the one equal to an angle of the othei\and the sides containing those angles proportional, are similar.
the angles
DEF,
;
let
A
:
D
:
then, if
trian
AB
lel
DE
AC
DF,
the
two
Take AG^DE, and draw GH paralto BC. The angle AGH will be equal
the angle
3.)
;
to
ABC (Book I. Prop. XX. and the triangles AGH, ABC, will be equiangular AG AC AH. But by hypohence we shall have AB AC DF and by construction, DE thesis, we have AB AG=DE: hence AHDF. The two triangles AGH, DEF, have an equal angle included between equal sides therefore
Cor
: :
AGH
is
similar to
ABC
there
DEF
is
also similar to
ABC.
BOOK
PROPOSITION
IV
87
XXI.
THEOREM.
Two
perpendicular
to
Let
BAG, EDF,
EF,
be two triangles.
AB is parallel to DE, and ABC will be equal to DEF (Book I. Prop. XXIV.) if AC is parallel to DF, the angle ACB will be equal to DFE, and also BAC to EDF hence the triangles
First. If the side
BC
to
the angle
ABC, DEF,
If the side
I
AB, and
will
the side
DE perpenDF to AC,
is
;
of the quadribe right angles and since all the four angles are together equal to four right angles (Book I. Prop. XXVI. Cor. 1.), the remaining two I AH, C GIDII, will be together equal to two right 13 angles. But the two angles EDF, IDII, are also equal to two hence the angle EDF is equal to lAH or BAC. right angles In like manner, if the third side EF is perpendicular to the third side BC, it may be shown that the angle DFE is equal to C, and
two angles
and
AIDH
DEF
to
the
and
similar.
Scholium. In the case of the sides being parallel, the homologous sides are the parallel ones in the case of their being perpendicular, the homologous sides are the perpendicular ones. Thus in the latter case DE is homologous with AB, DF with AC, and EF with BC. The case of the perpendicular sides might present a relative position of the two triangles different from that exhibited in the diagram. But we might always conceive a triangle DEF to be constructed within the triangle ABC, and such that Its sides should be parallel to those of the triangle compared with ABC and then the demonstration given in the text would
:
apply.
88
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION XXII. THEOREM.
In any triangle, if a
lines
drawn from
line he drawn parallel to the base, then, all the vertex will divide the base and the par
allel into
proportional parts.
Let be parallel to the base BC, and the other lines drawn as in the figure ;
then will
DE
DI
BF
IK
DI
FG
KL
: :
GH.
For, since
triangles
lar
;
is
parallel to
BF, the
:
ADI and ABF are equianguand we have DI BF AI AF and since iK is parallel to FG, we have in like manner AI AF
:
IK
FG
:
In the same manner we shall find IK and so with the other segments hence the line is divided at the points I, K, L, in the same proportion, as the base BC, at the points F, G, H.
: :
have DI
BF FG
IK
AI FG.
;
AF
being
common, we
shall
KL
GH
DE
Cor.
Therefore
if
BC
were divided into equal parts at the DE would also be divided into equal
PROPOSITION
XXIII.
THEOREM.
Iffrom the right angle of a right angled triangle, a perpendicular he let fall on the hypothenuse ; then, 1st. The two partial triangles thus formed, will he similar to each other, and to the whole triangle. 2d. Either side including the right angle will be a mean proportional between the hypothenuse and the adjacent segment. Sd. The perpendicular will be a mean proportional between the two segments of the hypothenuse.
BAG be a right angled,triangle, and hypothenuse BC. First. The triangles BAD and BAG have the common angle B, the right angle BDA=BAC, and therefore the
Let
to the
AD
perpendicular
third angle of the one, equal to the third angle C, of the other (Book
I.
BAD
Prop.
XXV. Cor
are
2.)
two
triangles
equiangular
BOOK
similar.
IV.
89
In the same
manner
it
may
;
gles
are similar
BAD, BAG,
homologous sides are proportional. But BD in the small triangle, and BA in the large one, are homologous sides, because
they lie opposite the equal angles BAD, BGA ; the hypothenuse BA of the small triangle is homologous with the hypothenuse BG of the large triangle hence the proportion BD BA BG. By the same reasoning, we should find BA AG BG hence, each of the sides AB, AG, is DC AG a mean proportional between the hypothenuse and the segment adjacent to that side.
: ; : : : :
: :
Thirdly.
comparing
:
homologous
sides,
hence, the perpendicular is a mean proportional between the segments BD, DG, of the hypothenuse.
; : : :
DG
AD
Scholium. Since BD AB AB : BG, the product of the extremes will be equal to that of the means, or AB^=BD.BG. For the same reason we have AG=DG.BG therefore ABf
;
AG2=BD.BG + DG.BG= (BD + DG).BG=BG.BG=BG2; the square described on the hypothenuse BG is equivalent
the squares described
or
to
we again
arrive at the property of the square of the hypothenuse, by a path very diflerent from that which formerly conducted us to it and thus it appears that, strictly speaking, the property of the square of the hypothenuse, is a consequence of the more general property, that the sides of equiangular triangles are proportionul. Thus the fundamental propositions of geometry are reduced, as it were, to this single one, that equiangular triangles have their homologous sides proportional.
:
It
by deducing
are led back to some proposition already proved. In fact, the chief characteristic of geometrical theorems, and one indubitable proof of their certainty is, that, however we combine them together, provided only our reasoning be correct, the results we obtain are always perfectly accurate. The case would be different, if any proposition were false or only approximately true : it would frequently happen that on combining the propositions together, the error would increase and become perceptible. Examples of this are to be seen in all the demonstrations, in which the reductio ad absurdum is employed. In such demonstrations, where the object is to show that two quantities are equal, we proceed by showing that if there existed the smallest
we
^0
GEOMETRY.
inequality between the quantities, a train of accurate reasoning would lead us to a manifest and palpable absurdity; from which we are forced to conclude that the two quantities are
equal.
Cor, If from a point A, in the circumference of a circle, two chords AB, AC, be drawn to the extremities of a diameter BC, the triangle C BAG will be right angled at (Book III. Prop. XVIII. Cor. 2.) hence, first, the perpendicular AT) is a mean 'proportional between the two segments BD, DC, of the diameter or what is the same, AD^rrBD.DC. Hence also, in the second place, the chord AB is a mean proportional between the diameter BC and the adjacent segment BD, or, what is the same, AB:= BD.BC. In like manner, we have
^ ^
hence AB^ AC^ BD DC and comand AC^, to BC^, we have AB^ BC^: BD BC, and AC2 BC^ DC BC. Those proportions between the squares of the sides compared with each other, or with the square of the hypothenuse, have already been given in the third and fourth corollaries of Prop. XL
AC^^CD.BC
paring
AW
/\
Two
triangles having an angle in each equal, are to each other as the rectangles of the sides which contain the equal angles.
In the two triangles ABC, ADE, let the angle the angle ; then will the triangle
A be
equal to
ABC
ADE
the
AB.AC
AD.AE.
triangles
the
comsame
and consequently are each other as their bases (Prop. VI. Cor.) that is,
:
ABE ADE
:
AB
AD.
In like manner,
ABC
ABE
AC
AE.
Multiply together the corresponding terms of these proportions, omitting the common term ; we have
ABE
:
ABC
ADE
AB.AC
AD.AE.
BOOK
IV.
91
Hence the two triangles would be equivalent, if the Cor. rectangle AB.AC were equal to the rectangle AD.AE, or if
AD
to
AE
AC
if
DC
BE.
Tbo
to
on their homologous
Let
gles,
^
Q
the angle
B=E.
Then, first, by reason of the equal angles A and D, according to the last proposition, we shall have
ABC
And
DEF
AB.AC
:
DE.DF.
:
AB AC
there will result
DE
DF
AC
AC
;
:
DF,
multiplying the terms of this proportion by the corresponding terms of the identical proportion,
: : :
:
DF,
:
AB.AC
Consequently,
DE.DF
AC^
:
DF.
ABC
DEF
AC^
DP.
Therefore, two similar triangles ABC, DEF, are to each other as the squares described on their homologous sides AC, DF, or as the squares of any other two homologous sides.
Two
similar polygons are composed of the same number of tnangles, similar each to each, and similarly situated.
92
Let
the
GEOMETRY.
ABODE, FGHIK,
angle A, in
From any
polygon
ABCDE,
FGHIK, draw
FH, FI
gles.
diagonals
These polygons being similar, the angles ABC, FGH, which are homologous, must be equal, and the sides AB, BC, must also be proportional to FG, GH, that is, BC : : : (Def. 1.). Wherefore the triangles ABC, FGH, have each an equal angle, contained between proportional sides ; hence they are similar (Prop. XX.) therefore the angle is equal to GHF. Take away these equal angles from the equal angles BCD, GHI, and there remains ACD=FHI. But since the triangles ABC, FGH, are similar, we have : BC ; and, since the polygons : : are similar, BC : HI ; hence : : : HI. But the angle ACD, we already know, is equal to FHI ; hence the triangles ACD, FHl. have an equal angle in each, included between proportional sides, and are consequently similar (Prop. XX.). In the same manner it might be shown that all the remaining triangles are similar, whatever be the number of sides in the polygons proposed therefore two similar polygons are composed of the same number of triangles, similar, and similarly situated.
GH
AB
FG
BCA
:
GH
AC
FH
GH
CD
AC
FH
CD
Scholium. The converse of the proposition is equally true If two polygons are composed of the same number of triangles similar and similarly situated^ those two polygons will be similar.
:
GHI,
AB
the
ABC = FGH, BCA = GHF, ACD = FHI hence BCD= CDE=HIK, &c. Moreover we shall have FG BC GH AC FH CD HI, ifec; hence
:
likewise
:
and
portional
BOOK
First. Since, by the nature of similar figures,
IV.
93
we have AB
BC
GH
FG CD HI,
:
of equal ratios
ante
that the
sum of the
cedents AB + BC + CD, &c., which makes up the perimeter of the first polygon, is to the sum of the consequents FG + + HI, &c., which makes up the perimeter of the second polygon, as any one antecedent and therefore, as the side AB is to its coris to its consequent responding side FG (Book II. Prop. X.).
GH
Since the triangles ABC, FGH are similar, we AC^ FIP (Prop. FGH have the triangle ABC XXV.) ; and in like manner, from the similar triangles ACD, FHI, we shall have ACD FHI AC^ FH^ therefore, by reason of the common ratio, AC^ FH^ we have
Secondly.
shall
:
: :
By
the
ACD
and so on,
if
FHI
ADE
there were
more
triangles.
this series
we conclude that the sum of the antecedents ABC 4 ACD + ADE, or the polygon ABCDE, is to the sum of the consequents FGH + FHI + FIK, or to the polygon FGHIK, as one antecedent ABC, is to its consequent FGH, or as AB^ is to FG^ (Prop. XXV.) hence the areas of similar polyof equal ratios,
;
tlie
Cor. If three similar figures were constructed, on the three sides of a right angled triangle, the figure on tlie hypothenuse would be equivalent to the sum of the other two for the three figures are proportional to the squares of their homologous sides ; but the square of the hypothenuse is equivalent to the sum of the squares of the two other sides hence, <fcc.
:
segments of two chords, which intersect each other in a are reciprocally proportional.
circle^
04
GEOMETRY.
Let the chords
AB
and
:
AO
Draw AC and BD. BOD, the angles at O
CD DO
intersect at
: :
then will
OC
OB.
In the triangles
ACO,
are equal, being vertiis equal to the angle D, becal ; the angle cause both are inscribed in the same segment (Book III. Prop. XVIII. Cor. 1.) ; for the same reason the angle CrrzB ; the triangles are therefore similar, and the homologous sides give the proportion
AO DO
:
the rectangle Therefore Cor. under the two segments of the one chord is equal to the rect angle under the two segments of the other.
from the same point without a circle^ two secants he drawn terminating in the concave arc, the whole secants will he recip' rocally proportional to their external segments.
Let the secants OB, OC, be drawn from the point
then will
OB
OC
OD
OA.
For, drawing AC, BD, the triangles OAC, common ; likewise the have the angle angle B C (Book lU. Prop. XVIII. Cor. 1.); these triangles are therefore similar ; and their homologous sides give the proportion,
OBD
OB
Cor.
OC
OD
OA.
Hence
the rectangle
OA.OB
is
equal
to the rectangle
OC.OD.
Scholium. This proposition, it may be observed, bears a great analogy to the preceding, and differs from it only as the two chords AB, CD, instead of intersecting each other within, The following proposition cut each other without the circle. may also be regarded as a particular case of the proposition
just
demonstrated.
BOOK
IV.
95
and a secant
a mean
secant
and
its
external segment.
From
OA, and
or
the secant
OC
be
be drawn
then will
:
OC
For, drawing
OA AD
OA
OD,
OA==OC.OD.
OAD, OAC, have the angle O common also the angle OAD, formed by a tangent and a
chord,
lias for its measure half of the arc AD (Book III. Prop. XXI.) and the angle C has the same measure hence the angle OAD =
;
:
therefore the
two
and
AO
In the triangle
BAC,
let
AD bisect the
angle
then will
AB.ACAD + BD.DC.
Describe a circle through the three points A, B, C produce till it meets the circumference, and draw CE.
;
AD
gle
triangle BAD is similar to the trianEAC for, by hypothesis, the angle BAD = EAC; also the angle B=E, since
The
AC
the
hence these triangles are similar, and homologous sides give the proportion BA AE AD . AC hence BA.AC=AE.AD but + DE, and multiplying each of these equals by AD, we have AE.AD = AD^+ AD.DE; now AD.DE=BD.DC (Prop. XXVIII.); hence,
;
:
AE=AD
finally,
BA.AC=ADHBD.DC.
96
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION XXXII. THEOREM,
In ever]/ triangle, the rectangle contained hy two sides is equivalent to the rectangle contained by the diameter of the cirrumscribed circle, and the perpendicular let fall upon the third
side.
and
In the triangle ABC, let be drawn perpendicular to BC ; let EC be the diameter of the circumscribed circle then
;
AD
will
AB.AC=AD.CE.
For, .drawing AE, the triangles ABD, AEC, are right angled, the one at D, the other at A: also the angle ; these triangles are therefore similar, and they give the proportion AB and : ;
B=E
:
CE
AD AC
:
hence
AB.AC=CE.AD.
Cor. If these equal quantities be multiplied by the same quantity BC, there will result AB.AC.BC=CE.AD.BC ; now AD.BC is double of the area of the triangle (Prop. VI.) therefore the product of three sides of a triangle is equal to its area multiplied by twice the diameter of the circumscribed circle. The product of three lines is sometimes called a solid, for a reason that shall be seen afterwards. Its value is easily conceived, by imagining that the lines are reduced into numberab and multiplying these numbers together.
;
It may also be demonstrated, that the area of equal to its perimeter multiplied by half the radius of the inscribed circle. For, the triangles AOB, BOfC, AOC, which have a comijion vertex at O, have for theip^ommon altitude the radius of the inscribed circle hence the sum of these triangles will be equal to the sum of the bases AB, BC,
Scholium.
a triangle
is
A(
OD;
multiplied by half the radius is equal to the hence the area of the triangle perimeter multiplied by half the radius of the inscribed circle
',
ABC
BOOK
IV.
91
In the quadrilateral
ABCD, we
shall
have
The
has for
angle
its
and the
both
other, half of
AD
the angle
ADB=BCI,
inscribed in the same segment hence the triangle is similar to the triangle IBC, and we have the proportion CI : : BC ; hence AD.BC =CI.BD. Again, the triangle ABl is similar to the tf iangle ; for the arc being equal to CO, if be added to each of them, we shall have the arc hence the angle ABI is equal to also the angle BAI to BDC, because they are in
AOB
ABD
BD
AD
BDC
AD
AO=DC
;
OD
;
DBC
: :
scribed in the same segment hence the triangles ABI, DBC, are similar, and the homologous sides give the proportion :
AB
BD
AI
CD;
hence
AB.CD=AI.BD.
and observing that
results obtained,
we
shall
have
AD.BC+AB.CD=AC.BD.
98
GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM L
To
divide a given straight line into
given
line
lines.
Let
it
AB
tremity A, draw the indefinite straight line and taking AC of any magnitude, apply )t five times upon join the last point ; of division G, and the extremity B, by the straight line GB then draw CI parallel to GB AI will be the fifth part of the line ^ AB and thus, by applying AI five times upon AB, the Hne AB will be divided into five equal parts. For, since CI is parallel to GB, the sides AG, proportionally in C and I (Prop. XV.). But part of AG, hence AI is the fifth part of AB,
AG
AG
^
AB, are
is
cut
AC
the fifth
Secondly.
"Let
it
be proline
AB
to
mto
parts proportional
lines
the given
nite
P,
Q,
R.
Through A, draw
Hne
the indefi
P, the
AG
make
and through the points C, D, draw CI, DF, parallel to EB the line AB will be divided into parts AI, IF, FB, proportional to the given lines P, Q, R.
;
For, by reason of the paraLcls CI, DF, EB, the parts AI, and by IF, FB, are proportional to the parts AC, CD, ; construction, these are equal to the given lines P, Q, R.
DE
BOOK
IV.
99
PROBLEM
To find a
II.
Draw
nite lines
the
two
indefi
and
take
;
DE DB=B; DC = C
and through
;
B, draw BX AC DX will be the fourth proportional required for, since BX is parallel to AC, we have the proportion DC DX now the first three terms of this proDA DB
;
: :
portion are equal to the three given lines the fourth proportional required.
consequently
DX
is
Cor. A third proportional to two given lines A, B, may be found in the same manner, for it will be the same as a fourth proportional to the three lines A, B, B.
PROBLEM
IIL
lines
A and B.
Upon
line
DF, take
DF, as a diameter, describe the semicircle at the point E, ; erect upon the diameter the perpenmeeting the circumfedicular rence in will be the mean ; proportional required. For, the perpendicular EG, let fall from a point in the circumference upon the diameter, is a mean proportional between DE, EF, the two segments of the diameter (Prop. XXI II.
EG G EG
Cor.)
lines
andB.
PROBLEM
To
IV.
divide a given line into two parts, such that the greater part
shall be
and
the
other part.
100
I^et
GEOMETRY.
AB
be the given
line.
AF=AD
AD
AD
DE
:
also,
because
AF
AB
extremes for
Scholium.
AF=AD, we have ABADr=:FB hence FB AD or AF whence, by exchanging the the means, AB AF AF FB.
; : ;
: :
AB=AD=AF
:
This sort of division of the line AB is called diextreme and mean ratio the use of it will be perceived in a future part of the work. It may further be observed, that the secant AE is divided in extreme and mean ratio at the point D for, since AB=DE, we have AE DE
vision in
: ;
DE
AD.
PROBLEM
V.
to
draw a
line so thai
Let
lel
BCD
Through
to
be the given angle, and the given point. the point A, draw paral
AE
;
CD, make
BE = CE,
and through
this will
BAD
BOOK
IV.
VI.
101
PROBLEM
Let
ABCD
its
be
AB
its
:
base,
DE
alti
tude
between
DE
find
AB
then will the tional ; square described upon XY be equivalent to the parallelogram
XY
ABCD.
For,
by
construction,
;
AB
XY
XY
DE
therefore,
XY^= AB.DE
and XY^
lent.
but AB.DE is the measure of the parallelogram, that of the square ; consequently, they are equiva
Secondly.
Let
:
given triangle,
AD
its
altitude
mean
proportional between BC and be the half of AD, and let that mean ; the square dewill be equiscribed upon valent to the triangle ABC. : : : ^AD, it follows that XY= For, since BC : BC.iAD ; hence the square described upon is equivalent
XY
XY
XY
XY
XY
to
the triangle
ABC.
PROBLEM
VII.
Upon a given
line, to describe
lent to
ABFC
let
AX
be that fourth proportional ; a rectangle constructed with the lines will be equiand
AD
AX
valent to the rectangle ABFC. : ; : For, since AB.AC ; hence the rectangle angle ABFC.
AD
AB
AC
AX,
it
follows that
AD. AX =
ADEX
is
102
GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
VIII.
To find two
lines
tivo
whose ratio shall he the same as the ratio oj rectangles contained by given lines.
lines
Let A.B, CD, be the rectangles contained by the given A, B, C, and D. Find X, a fourth proportional to the three j. lines B, C, D then will the two lines A and X have the same ratio to each other as the ^^ rectangles A.B and CD. For, since B C D X, it follows that ^ C.D=B.X hence A.B A.B B.X Xi A X.
;
'
CD
Cor,
Hence
upon the given lines A and C, the lines A and C, so that A have
to
you
will then
A.X=C2,
A2
:
or
:
A2.X=A.C2; hence
C2
X.
IX.
PROBLEM
To find a
Let
ABCDE
first
Draw
CE
CDE
;
D, draw DF parallel to CE, and meetAE produced draw CF: the polygon ABCDE will be equivalent to the polygon ABCF, which has one side
ing
than the original polygon. common, For, the triangles CDE, CFE, have the base they have also the same altitude, since their vertices and F, are situated in a line parallel to the base : these triangles are therefore equivalent (Prop. IL Cor. 2.). Add to each of them the figure ABCE, and there will result the polygon ABCDE, equivalent to the polygon ABCF. The angle B may in like manner be cut off, by substituting for the triangle the equivalent triangle AGC, and thus
less
CE
DF
the pentagon
ABC ABCDE
will
tri
angle
for,
GCF.
applied to every other figure
its
;
sides,
one
trianiijle will
BOOK We
IV.
103
have already seen that every triangle may Scholium. be changed into an equivalent square (Prob. VI.) ; and thus a square may always be found equivalent to a given rectilineal figure, which operation is called squaring the rectilineal figure, or finding the quadrature of it. The problem o( the quadrature of the circle, consists in finding a square equivalent to a circle whose diameter is given.
PROBLEM
To find the
X.
side of a square which shall he equivalent to the or the difference of two given squares.
sum
Let
and
given squares.
First. If it is required to find a square equivalent to the sum of these squares, draw the two indefinite lines ED, EF, at right angles to each other; take A, and
ED =
EG=B;
quired.
draw
DG:
this will
re
For the triangle being right angled, the square described upon is equivalent to the sum of the squares upon
DEG
DG
ED
and EG.
Secondly. If it is required to find a square equivalent to the difference of the given squares, form in the same manner the right and angle take ; equal to the shorter of the sides
FEH
a centre, with a radius GH, equal to the other side, describe an arc cutting the square in described upon will be equivalent to the difference of the squares described upon the lines A and B. For the triangle is right angled, the hypothenuse GH=A, and the side GE = B; hence the square described upon EH, is equivalent to the difference of the squares A
;
GE G as
EH
EH
GEH
andB.
Scholium. square may thus be found, equivalent to the of any number of squares ; for a similar construction which reduces two of them to one, will reduce three of them to two, and these two to one, and so of others. It would be the same, if any of the squares were to be subtracted from the sum ot
sum
104
GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
XI.
shall he to
line to
I^et
AC
lines.
square, and
given
EF=M, FG=N;uponEG
as a diameter describe a semicircle, and at the point F erect the perpendicular FH. From the point H, dravi^ the chords HG, HE, v^rhich produce
indefinitely
:
be the side of the square required. ; III will For, by reason of the parallels KI, GE, we have HI : : : HG; hence, : HK^ : : HE^ : HG^: but in the right angled triangle EHG, the square of is to the square of as the segment EF is to the segment (Prop. XL Cor. 3.), or as is to hence : N. But HK^ : : : therefore the square described upon HI is to the ; square described upon as is to N.
EG
upon the first, take equal to the side AB and through the point K draw KI parallel
HK
of
to
HE
HK
HP
N
;
HG
HE
HK=AB
FG
HP
AB
PROBLEM XIL
Upon a given
line, to describe
a polygon similar
to
a given
polygon.
line,
AD;
make
at
the
point
the angle
GFH =
BAC, and
at the point
will cut each the lines FH, be a triangle similar to ABC. In the same manner upon FH, homologous to AC, describe the triangle FIH similar to ADC ; and upon FI, homologous to AD, The polygon describe the triangle FIK similar to ADE.
the angle
other in H, and
GH
FGHHC
XXVI.
will
be similar to
ABCDE,
as required.
For, these
of triangles,
two polygons are composed of the same number which are similar and similarly situated (Prop.
Sch.).
BOOK
PROBLEM
Two
IV.
10^
XIII.
similar figures being given, to describe a similar figure to their sum or their difference.
figures.
Let A and B be two homologous sides of the given Find a square equivalent to the
to the difference of the squares described upon A and B let be tiie side of that square ; then vi^ill in the figure required,
sum or
is
homologous
in the
given
last
The
figure itself
may then
problem.
be constructed on X, by the
For, the similar figures are as the squares of their homologous sides ; now the square of the side is equivalent to the sum, or to the difference of the squares described upon the homologous sides and B ; therefore the figure described upon the side is equivalent to the sum, or to the difference of the
upon the
sides
and B.
PROBLEM
To
describe
XIV.
a figure similar to a given figure, and bearing tlie given ratio ofmtoN.
to it
Let be a side of the given figure, the homologous side of the figure required. The square of must be to the square of is to A, as hence will be found by (Prob. XL), and knowing X, the rest will be
X N
:
106
GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
XV.
To
construct
a figure similar
to the
figure P,
and equivalent
to
the figure
Q.
Find M, the side of a square equivalent to the figure P, and IS, the side of a square equivaLet be lent to the figure Q. a fourth proportional to the three
given
lines,
M, N,
AB
upon
it
will also
be equiva
Q.
figure described upon the side X, we have X^ but by construction, AB X N, M2 N^; hence P Y M^ N^. But by
;
For, calling
Y the
: :
AB2
: : : : or AB2 : X2 : construction also, M2=P and N2=:Q; therefore P : : P hence the figure is similar to the Q; consequently figure P, and equivalent to the figure Q.
:
Y=Q;
PROBLEM
XVI.
To construct a rectangle equivalent to a given square, and having the sum of its adjacent sides equal to a given line.
Let
AB
equal to the
sum of
the sides
Upon AB
cle
;
draw
the line
DE
C
it,
at a distance
AD from
A. 1?B equal to the side of the given square C ; from the point E, where the parallel cuts the circumference, draw EF perpendicular to the diameter ; AF and FB will be the sides of the rectangle required. For their sum is equal to AB and their rectangle AF.FB is hence equivalent to the square of EF, or to the square of that rectangle is equivalent to the given square C.
;
AD
Scholium. To render the problem possible, the distance AD must not exceed the radius that is, the side of the square C must not exceed the half of the line AB.
;
BOOK
PROBLEM
To
IV.
107
XVII.
construct a rectangle that shall he equivalent to a given square, and the difference of whose adjacent sides shall he
to
equal
a given
line.
Suppose
of the sides.
AB the
difference
the given line AB as a diamedescribe a semicircle : at the extremity of the diameter draw the tangent AD, equal to the side of the square C ; through the point and the centre draw the secant DF ; then will and DF be the adjacent sides of the rectangle required. For, first, the difference of these sides is equal to the diameter EF or AB ; secondly, the rectangle DE, DF, is equal to AD^ (Prop. XXX.) hence that rectangle to the given square C.
Upon
ter,
DE
is
equivalent
PROBLEM
To find
tile
XVIII.
common measure, if there is one, between the diagonal and the side of a square.
be any square whatits
Let
ever, and
ABCG AC
must
diagonal.
We
CA,
first
apply
CB
upon
contained purpose, let the semicircle DBE be described, from the centre C, with the radius CB. It is evident that CB is contained once in AC, with the remainder the result of the first operation is therefore the quotient 1, with the remainder AD, which latter must now be compared with BC, or its equal AB. might here take AF = AD, and actually apply it upon AB we should find it to be contained twice with a remainder but as that remainder, and those which succeed it, conas often as it there. For this
may be
AD
We
; :
108
GEOMETRY.
tinue diminishing, and would soon elude our comparisons by their minuteness, this would be but an imperfect mechanical method, from which no conclusion could be obtained to determine whether the lines AC, CB, have or have not a common measure. There is a very simple way, however,
of avoiding these decreasing lines, and obtaining the result, by operating only upon lines which remain always of the same magnitude. The angle ABC being a right angle, AB is a tangent, and 4E a secant drawn from the same point so that AB AB : AE (Prop. XXX.). Hence in the second operation, when is compared with AB, the ratio of AB to AE may be taken instead of that of to AB now AB, or its equal CD, is contained twice in AE, with the remainder ; the result of the second operation is therefore the quotient 2 with the remainder AD, which must be compared with AB. Thus the third operation again consists in comparing with AB, and may be reduced in the same manner to the comparison of AB or its equal CD with AE from which there will again be obtained 2 for the quotient, and for the remainder. Hence, it is evident that the process will never terminate ;
;
AD
AD
AD
AD
AD
AD
nal
and therefore there is no common measure between the diagoand the side of a square a truth which was already known by arithmetic, since these two lines are to each other \/2 1 (Prop. XI. Cor. 4.), but which acquires a greater degree of
:
: : :
clearness
by
BOOK V
100
BOOK
V.
^K
Definition,
A Polygon,
lateral triangle
which
is
at
is
Regular polygons may have any number of sides the equiis one of three sides ; the square is one of foiu*.
PROPOSITION L THEOREM.
Two
ABCDEF,
abcdefi
are two regular hexagons. The sum of all the angles is the same in both figures,being in each equal to eight right angles (Book I. Prop. XXVI. Cor. 3.). The angle is the sixth part of that sum ; so is the angle a : hence the angles and a are equal ; and for the same reason, the angles B and b, the angles C and c, (fee. are equal. Again, since the polygons are regular, the sides AB, BC, CD, &c. are equal, and likewise the sides ab, bc^ cd, &c. (Def.) ; it is plain that ab : : BC : be : : : cd, 6lc. ; hence the two figures in question have their angles equal, and their homologous sides proportional ; consequently they are similar (Book IV. Def. 1.).
AB
CD
The perimeters of two regular polygons of the same Cor. number of sides, are to each other as their homologous sides,
and their surfaces are to each other as the squares of those (Book IV. Prop. XXVIL).
Scholium.
sides
The angle of a
no
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
THEOREIVL
II.
Any
regular polygon
may
and
circuni'
Let ABCDE &c. be a regular polygon describe a circle through the three points A, B, C, the centre being O, and OP the perpendicular let fall from it, to the middle point of BC draw AO and
:
OD.
If the quadrilateral
OPCD
be placed
_
!P
;
the angle
OPC = OPB,
side PC will apply to B besides, from the nature of the polygon, the angle PCD = PBA hence CD will take the direction BA and since CD =
:
each being a right angle hence the its equal PB, and the point C will fall on
;
BA,
the point
will fall
will
therefore equal to ; and consequently the circle which passes through the three points A, B, C, will also pass through the point D. By the same mode of reasoning, it might be shown, that the circle which passes tlirough the three points B, C, D, will also pass through the point and so of all the rest : hence the circle ; which passes through the points A, B, C, passes also through the vertices of all the angles in the polygon, which is therefore inscribed in this circle.
entirely coincide.
The
distance
OD
is
AO
reference to this circle, all the sides AB, BC, CD, they are therefore equally distant from the centre (Book III. Prop. VIII.) hence, if from the point with the distance OP, a circle be described, it will touch the side BC, and all the other sides of the polygon, each in its middle point, and the circle will be inscribed in the polygon, or the polygon described about the circle.
Again,
in
Scholium 1. The point O, the common centre of the in scribed and circumscribed circles, may also be regarded as the centre of the polygon ; and upon this principle the angle is called the angle at the centre, being formed by two radii tlrawn to the extremities of the same side AB. Since all the chords AB, BC, CD, &c. are equal, all the angles at the centre must evidently be equal likewise ; and therefore the value of each will be found by dividing four right an
gles
AOB
by the number of
BOOK V.
Scholium 2. To inscribe a regupolygon of a certain number of sides in a given circle, we have only to divide the circumference into as many equal parts as the polygon has sides for the arcs being equal, the chords AB, BC, CD, &c. will hence likewise the also be equal
lar
:
Ill
triangles
,,;_ ^^
^^r
;
"
ABCDEH,
PROPOSITION
III.
PROBLEM.
To
diameters AC, BD, cuteach other at right angles join their extremities A, B, C, D the figure ABCD will be a square. For the angles AOB, BOC, &c. being equal, the
ting
;
:
Draw two
chords
also equal
<fec.
ABC, BCD,
being
BCO
we
;
have hence
BC
BO
q/*2, is to unity.
PROPOSITION
In a given
circlet ^o inscribe
IV.
PROBLEM.
ral triangle.
112
GEOMETRY!
Suppose the problem solved, and that AB is a side of the inscribed hexagon the radii AO, OB being drawn, the triangle AOB will be equilateral.
;
is the sixth For, the angle part of four right angles ; therefore, taking the right angle for
AOB
unity,
of the same triantogether equal to 2 =1 ; and being mutually equal, each of them must be equal to  hence the triangle equilateral ; therefore the side of the inscribed hexagon
gle, are
ABO, BAO,
ABO
is
is
equal
to the radius.
Hence to inscribe a regular hexagon in a given circle, the radius must be applied six times to the circumference ; which will bring us round to the point of beginning. And the hexagon being inscribed, the equilateral triangle may be formed by joining the vertices of the alternate angles.
ABCDEF
ACE
Scholium. The figure ABCO is a parallelogram and even hence the sum of the a rhombus, since ; squares of the diagonals AC^+BO^ is equivalent to the sum of the squares of the sides, that is, to 4AB, or 4B0* (Book IV. Prop XIV. Cor.) and taking away BO from both, there will BO3 remain AC2=3B02; hence AC^ 1, or AC : BO : v'S : 1 ; hence the side of the inscribed equilateral triangle is to the radius as the square root of three is to unity.
AB=:BC=CO=AO
PROPOSITION
In a given circle,
to inscribe
V.
PROBLEM.
and
also
BOOK
Divide the radius AO in extreme and mean ratio at (Book IV. Prob. the pomt IV.) take the chord AB equal the greater segment fo A.B will be the side of the regular decagon, and will re
V,
113
OM
AO
:
OM
:
OM AM
:
or, since
AM
=0M, AO
;
AB
AB AB
since the triangles ABO, AMB, have a common angle A, included between proportional sides, they are similar (Book
IV. Prop. XX.). Now the U'iangle OAB being isosceles, hence but AB must be isosceles also, and ; hence the triangle = is isosceles. also being exterior to the isosceles trianAgain, the angle gle BMO, is double of the interior angle O (Book I. Prop. XXV. Cor. 6.) but the angle AMB=:MAB ; hence the triangle OAB is such, that each of the angles OAB or OBA, at its hence the three base, is double of O, the angle at its vertex angles of the triangle are together equal to five times the angle O, which consequently is the fifth part of the two right angles, hence the arc AB is the tenth part or the tenth part of four of the circumference, and the chord AB is the side of the regular decagon. 2d. By joining the alternate corners of the regular decagon, the pentagon ACEGI will be formed, also regular. 3d. AB being still the side of the decagon, let AL be the the arc BL will then, with reference to side of a hexagon the whole circumference, be } hence the chord BL yV, or yV will be the side of the regular polygon of fifteen sides, or pentedecagon. It is evident also, that the arc CL is the third of CB. Scholium. Any regular polygon being inscribed, if the arcs subtended by its sides be severally bisected, the chords of those semiarcs will form a new regular polygon of double the number of sides thus it is plain, that the square will enable us to inscribe successively regular polygons of 8, 16, 32, &c. sides. And like manner, by means of the hexagon, regular polygons of 12j 24, 48, &c. sides may be inscribed by means of the decagon, polygons of 20, 40, 80, &c. sides by means of the pentedecagon, polygons of 30, 60, 120, &c. sides. It is further evident, that any of the inscribed polygons will be less than the inscribed polygon of double the number of sides, since a part is less than the whole.
MB OM
AB=BM BMO
= OM
AMB
AMB
114
GEOMETRl.
PROPOSITION
VI.
PROBLEM.
regular inscribed polygon being given, to circumscribe a sim ilar polygon about the same circle.
CD, &c.
by
will
these tangents,
intersections,
their
form
the
regular
circumscribed
polygon
similar
to
GHIK
Since
&c.
IC
the middle point of the arc BTA,and the middle point of the equal arc BNC, it follows, that BT=:BN ; or that the vertex B of the inscribed polygon, is at the middle point of the arc NBT. will pass Draw OH. The line through the point B. For, the right angled triangles OTH, OHN, having the comis
OH
the side OT=:ON, must be equal Prop. XVH.), and consequently the angle TOHi= passes through the middle point HON, wherefore the line B of the arc TN. For a like reason, the point I is in the prolongation of OC ; and so with the rest.
OH
But, since
GH
is
parallel to
AB, and HI
;
:
to
BC,
the angle
GHI=ABC (Book I. Prop. XXIV.) in like manner BCD and so with all the rest hence the angles of
;
:
HIKrr.
the cir
cumscribed polygon are equal to those of the inscribed one. And further, by reason of these same parallels, we have OB, and HI BC AB OB therefore AB HI BC. But AB=:BC, therefore GH=HI. For tho same reason, HI = IK, <fec.; hence the sides of the circumscribed polygon are all equal hence this polygon is regulai and similar to the inscribed one.
:
OH
OH
GH GH
Cor.
1.
Reciprocally,
if
GHIK
&c. were given, and the inscribed one ABC &c. were required to be deduced from it, it would only be necessary to
BOOK'V.
draw from
lines
115
straight
the angles G,
OG, OH, &c. meeting the circumference in the points then to jom those points by the chords A, B, C, &c.
;
An this would form the inscribed polygon. easier solution of this problem would be simply to join the points of contact T, N, P, &;c. by the chords TN, NP, &c. which likewise would form an inscribed polygon similar to the circumscribed one.
AB, BC, &c.
;
Cor. 2. Hence we may circumscribe about a circle, any regular polygon, which can be inscribed within it, and conversely.
Cor.
3.
It is plain that
of
PROPOSITION
PROBLEM.
circle and regular circumscribed polygon being given, it is required to circumscribe the circle by anotlier regular polygon having double the number of sides.
Let the
square octagon.
circle
:
whose centre
CDEG
it is
FA,
through the middle points c, rf, a, b, draw tangents to the circle, and produce them till they meet the sides of the square
then will the figure
and
ApH^/B &c.
be a regular octagon. For, having drawn P^, Pa, let the quadrilateral P^^^B, be applied to the quadrilateral PB/a,
so that PB shall fall on PB. Then, since the angle c?PB is equal to the angle BPa, each being half a right angle, the line Vd will fall on its equal Pa, and the point d on the point a. But the angles Vdg, Pa/, are right angles (Book HI. Prop. IX.) hence the line dg will take the direction af. The angles PB^, PB/, are also right angles hence will take the direction B/^; therefore, the two quadrilaterals will coincide, and the point g will fall at/; hence, B^=:B/, dg=af, and the angle
;
dJg'B
= B/z. By
rals
applying in a similar manner, the quadrilatePB/a, PFAa, it may be shown, that afah, fB:=zFh, and
116
GEOMETRY.
equal (Book III. Prob. XIV. Sch.), it follows that fh^ which is twice /a, is equal to^, which is twice /B. In a similar manner it may be shown that hfznhi, and the angle Fit=Fha, or that any two sides or any two angles of the octagon are equal hence the octagon is a regular polygon (Def.). The construction which has been made in the case of the square and the octagon, is equally applicable to other polygons.
:
Cor It is evident that the circumscribed square is greater than the circumscribed octagon by the four triangles, Cnp, kDgf hEff Git ; and if a regular polygon of sixteen sides be circumscribed about the circle, we may prove in a similar way, that the figure having the greatest number of sides will be the least and the same may be shown, whatever be the number of sides of the polygons : hence, in general, any circumscribed regular polygon^ will he greater than a circumscribed regular polygon
PROPOSITION
VIII.
THEOREM.
Two
be formed, the one circumscribed about a circle, the other inscribed in it, which shall differ from each other by less than
any assignable
Let
less
surface.
the given surface. Bisect AC, a fourth part of the circumference, and then bisect the half of this fourth, and
than
proceed
in this
manner, always
arc
found whose chord AB is than Q. As this arc will be an exact part of the circumference, if we apply chords AB, BC, CD, &c. each equal to AB, the last will terminate at A, &c. in and there will be formed a regular polygon
is
less
ABCDE
the circle.
Next, describe about the circle a similar polygon abcde &c. (Prop. VI.) : the difference of these two polygons will be less than the square of Q. For, from the points a and b, draw the lines aO, bO,, to the centre and B, as was : they will pass through the points
BOOK
shown
in Prop. VI.
V.
117
to
Draw
I,
also
OK
and be perpendicular to it (Book 111. Produce AO to E, and draw BE. Prop. VI. Sch.). Let P represent the circumscribed polygon, and p the inthen, since the triangles aOb, AOB, are like scribed polygon parts of P and p, we shall have P p (Book 11. Prop. XL) AOB aOb But the triangles being similar, OA', or 0K. Oa aOb AOB Oa' 0K. Hence, P p Again, since the triangles OaK, EAB are similar, having
:
it
will bisect
AB in
Oa
OK"*
: : :
AE
: :
? P
But P
AE^
:
EB,
Pp
;
AE'*
AE'EB',
AB^
:
than the square described on the diameter AE (Prop. VII. Cor.); therefore P p is less than the square dethat is, less than the given square on Q hence scribed on AB the difference between the circumscribed and inscribed polygons may always be made less than a given surface.
is less
Cor.
1.
A circumscribed
number of sides, is greater than the circle, because the circle makes up but a part of the polygon and for a like reason, the But by increasing inscribed polygon is less than the circle. the number of sides of the circumscribed polygon, the polygon is diminished (Prop. VII. Cor.), and therefore approaches to and as the number of sides of an equality with the circle
;
the inscribed polygon is increased, the polygon is increased (Prop. V. Sch.), and therefore approaches to an equality with the circle. Now, if the number of sides of the polygons be indefinitely increased, the length of each side will be indefinitely small,
and
the
to
represent their For, if they are not ultimately equal, let smallest difference. Now", it has been proved in the proposition, that the difference between the circumscribed and inscribed polygons, can that is, less than be made less than any assignable quantity henee th^ difference between the polygons is equal to D, jmd less than D at the same time, which is absurd : therefore, Jme polygons are ultimately equal. But when they are equal to each other, each must also be equal to the circle, since the circumscribed polygon cannot fall within the circle, nor the
:
it.
118
GEOMETRY.
Cor. 2. Since the circumscribed polygon has the same number of sides as the corresponding inscribed polygon, and smce the two polygons are regular, they will be similar (Prop. I.) and therefore when they become equal, they will exactly coincide, and have a common perimeter. But as the sides of the circumscribed polygon cannot fall within the circle, nor the sides of the inscribed polygon without it, it follows that the perimeters of the polygons will unite on the circumference of the circhy and become equal to it.
;
sides of the inscribed polygon and the polygon coincides with the circle, the line 01, drawn from the centre O, perpendicular to the side of the polygon, will become a radius of the circle, and any portion of the polygon, as ABCO, will become the sector OAKBC, and the part of the perimeter AB + BC, will become
Cor.
3.
When
the
number of
is
indefinitely increased,
the arc
AKBC.
PROPOSITION
The area of a regular polygon
IX.
THEOREM.
is equal to its perimeter, multiplied by half the radius of the inscribed circle.
The
be measured by
triangle
OHI, by
HIxiON:
but
hence the two triangles taken together will be measured by And, by con(GPI + HI)xiOT.
ON^OT;
same operation for the other triangles, it will appear that the sum of them all, or the whole polygon, is measured by the sum of the bases or the perimeter of the polygon, muhiplied into the radius of the inscribed circle.
tinuing the
GH,
HI, &c.
hall
^OT, or
Scholium.
else than the
The
perpendicular
the sides
it is
of the inscribed circle is nothing fall from the centre on one of sometimes named the apot^em of the polygon.
radius
let
OT
BOOK
PROPOSITION
V.
119
X.
THEOREM.
the
same num
each other as the radii of the circumscribed circles, and also, as the radii of the inscribed circles ; and their areas are to each other as the squares of those radii.
Let
gon,
AB
OA
circle,
to
;
AB,
let
manner, be a side of the other polygon, o its centre, oa and od the radii of the circumscribed and the
inscribed circles.
the
The perimeters of
:
two polygons are to each other as the sides AB and ah (Book IV. Prop. XXVII.) but the angles A and a are equal, so also are the being each half of the angle of the polygon angles B and h hence the triangles ABO, abo are similar, as are likewise the right angled triangles ADO, ado; hence
;
;
AB
do hence the perimeters of the ab ao polygons are to each other as the radii AO, ao of the circumscribed circles, and also, as the radii DO, do of the inscribed
: :
:
AO
DO
circles.
The surfaces of these polygons are to each other as the squares of the homologous sides AB, ab ; they are therefore likewise to each other as the squares of AO,ao,the radii of the circumscribed circles, or as the squares of OD, od^,the radii of the inscribed circles.
PROPOSITION XL THEOREM.
Tlie circumferences
of circles are
to
and
of their radii.
;.20
GEOMETRY.
is
Let us designate the circumference of the circle whose radius CA by circ, CA and its area, by area CA it is then to be
; :
shown
that
circ,
area
CA CA
cir^c,
area
OB OB
CA
CA^
OB, and
:
that
OB^
number of
their
two regular polygons of the same Then, whatever be the number of sides, perimeters will be to each other as the radii CA and OB
sides.
(Prop. X.). Now, if the arcs subtending the sides of the polygons be continually bisected, until the number of sides of the polygons shall be indefinitely increased, the perimeters of the polygons will become equal to the circumferences of the circumscribed circles (Prop. VIII. Cor. 2.), and we shall have
circ,
CA
circ.
OB
CA
OB.
Again, the areas of the inscribed polygons are to each other as CA2 to OB^ (Prop. X.). But when the number of sides of the polygons is indefinitely increased, the areas of the polygons become equal to the areas of the circles, each to each, (Prop. VIII. Cor. 1.) hence we shall have
;
area
CA
area
OB
CA^
OB^.
DE
radii
AC,
DO
sectors
radii.
O (Book IV. Def. 3.) AB is to the whole circumference described with the radius AC (Book III. Prop. XVII.) and O is to the four right angles, as the arc DE is to
:
arcs
AB, DE,
OD
BOOK
they form part
their radii
:
V.
121
AC,
DO
hence
:
arc
AB
;
arc
DE
AC
DO.
For a hke reason, the sectors ACB, DOE are to each other which again are as the squares of their as the whole circles
radii
;
therefore
sect,
ACB
sect.
DOE
XII.
AC^
DO^.
PROPOSITION
The area of a
circle is
THEOREM.
Let
centre
will
ACDE
is
area
For, inscribe in the circle anyregular polygon, and draw perpendicular to one of its sides. Then the area of the polygon will be equal to ^OF, multiplied by the perimeter (Prop. IX.). Now, let the number of sides of the polygon be indefinitely increased by continually bisecting the arcs which subtend the sides : the perimeter will then become equal to the circumference of the circle, the perpendicular OF will become equal to OA, and the area of the polygon to the area of the circle (Prop. VIII. Cor. 1. But the expression for the area 3.). will then become area ; JOA x circ. consequently, the area of a circle is equal to the product of half the radius into the circumference.
OF
&
0A=
OA
Cor. 1. The area of a sector is equal to the arc of that sector multiplied by half its radius.
circle as
is
to the
to the
is
whole whole
circumference ABD (Book III. Prop. XVII. Sch. 2.), or as is to ABD X ^AC. But the whole circle is equal to ABD x ^AC hence the sector
AMBx^AC

ACB
is
measured by AMB x
AC
A
122
Cor, 2.
circle
GEOMETRY.
Let the circumference of the whose diameter is unity, be denoted
then, because circumferences are each other as their radii or diameters, we shall have the diameter 1 to its circumference TT, as the diameter 2CA is o the circumference whose radius is CA,
:
by n
to
t.iat is, 1
7f
2CA
circ.
CA,
there
CA=7tx 2CA. Multiply both terms by iCA we have iCA x circ. C =71 X CA^ or area CA=7t x CA^ hence the
ibre circ.
;
:
area of a circle is equal to the product of the square of its radius by the constant number rr, which represents the circumference whose diameter is 1, or the ratio of the circumference to the diameter. In like manner, the area of the circle, whose radius is OB, will be equal to tt x OB^*; but ^ x CA^ tt x OB^ : CA^ OB^ ; hence the areas of circles are to each other as the squares oj their radii, which agrees with the preceding theorem.
:
Scholium. have already observed, that the problem of the quadrature of the circle consists in finding a square equal in surface to a circle, the radius of which is known. it
We
Now
has just been proved, that a circle is equivalent to the rectangle contained by its circumference and half its radius and this rectangle may be changed into a square, by finding a mean proportional between its length and its breadth (Book IV. Prob. III.). To square the circle, therefore, is to find the circumference when the radius is given and for effecting this, it is enough to know the ratio of the circumference to its radius, or its diameter. Hitherto the ratio in question has never been determined except approximatively but the approximation has been carried so far, that a knowledge of the exact ratio would afford no real advantage whatever beyond that of the approximate ratio. Accordingly, this problem, which engaged geometers so deeply, when their methods of approximation were less perfect, is now degraded to the rank of those idle questions, with which no one possessing the slightest tincture of geometrical science will occupy any portion of his time. Archimedes showed that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter is included between 3^ and 3 ; 1 ence 3j or ^^ affords at once a pretty accurate approximation to the number above designated by tt and the simplicity of this first approximation has brought it into very general use. Metius, for the same number, found the much more accurate value ff . At last the value of 7t, developed to a certain order of decimals, wasfoundbyother calculators to be 3. 141 5920535897932, <fcc.i
;
;
BOOK
V.
123
and some have had patience enough to continue these decimals to the hundred and twentyseventh, or even to the hundred and fortieth place. Such an approximation is evidently equivalent to perfect correctness the root of an imperfect power is in no case more accurately known. The following problem will exhibit one of the simplest elementary methods of obtaining those approximations.
:
PROPOSITION
XIII.
PROBLEM.
that of a simi
lar polygon circumscribed, being given ; to find the surfaces of the regular inscribed and circumscribed polygons having
double the
number of sides.
Let
AB
;
inscribed polygon
EF, parallel
to
AB, a
cle.
polygon
If the
AM
tangents AP, BQ, be drawn, will be a side of the inscribed polygon, having twice the num= 2PM ber of sides ; and AP + or PQ, will be a side of the similar circumscribed polygon (Prop. VI. Cor. 3.). Now, as the same construction will take place at each of the angles equal to ACM, it will be sufficient to consider by itself, the triangles connected with it being evidently to each other as the whole polygons of which they form part. Let A, then, be the surface of the inscribed polygon whose side is AB, B that of the similar circumscribed polygon ; A' the surface of the
AM
PM
ACM
polygon whose side is AM, B' that of the similar circumscribed polygon A and B are given we have to find A' and B'. First. The triangles ACD, ACM, having the common vertex A. are to each other as their bases CD, they are likewise to each other as the polygons A and A', of which they form part hence A A' : CD : CM. Again, the triangles CAM, CME, having the common vertex M, are to each other as their bases CA, CE they are likewise to each other as the polygons A' and B of which they form part hence A' B CA CE. But since AD and are parallel, we have CD CA CE; hence A A' A' B hence the polygon A', one of those required,isamean proportional between
:
CM
CM
ME
:
the
VA x B.
: ;
124
Secondly.
ing
GEOMETRY
The altitude CM becommon, the triangle CPM is
but since
:
to the triangle
PE
gle
CM
CE
(Book
:
:
IV.
: : :
:
XVIL)::CD
CA
:
A A CPM +
: :
each other as the polygons B' and B, of which they form part hence B' B 2A A+A'. Now A' has been already determined this new proportion will
to
:
serve for determining B', and give us B' =:? ; and thus by A'
means of the polygons A and B it is easy to find the polygons A' and B', which shall have double the number of sides.
A+
To find
the
to the
Let the radius of the circle be 1 the side of the inscribed square will be V2 (Prop. III. Sch.), that of the circumscribed square will be equal to the diameter 2 ; hence the surface of the inscribed square is 2, and that of the circumscribed square is 4. Let us therefore put A=2, and B=:4 by the last proposition we shall find the inscribed octagon A' =r V8=2.8284271, 1 P and the circumscribed octagon B'=^T^r= 3.3 137085. The
; ;
mscribed and the circumscribed octagons being thus determined, we shall easily, by means of them, determine the polygons having twice the number of sides. have only in this
We
;
B=3.3137085
2
we
shall find
A'
These poly
gons of 16 sides will in their turn enable us to find the polygons of 32 and the process may be continued, till there remains no longer any difference between the inscribed and the circumscribed polygon, at least so far as that place of decimal? where the computation stops, and so far as the seventh place, *n this example. Being arrived at this point, we shaH infer
BOOK
since
V.
125
that the last result expresses the area of the circle, which,
it must always lie between the inscribed and the circum scribed polygon, and since those polygons agree as far as a certain place of decimals, must also agree with both as far as
the
same
place.
have subjoined the computation of those polygons, carried on till they agree as far as the seventh place of decimals.
Nnmber
of sides
Inscribed polygon.
We
4
8 16 32 64 128
....
.
...
2.0000000 2.8284271 3.0614674 3.1214451 3.1365485 3.1403311 3.1412772 3.1415138 3.1415729 3.1415877 3.1415914 3.1415923 3.1415925 3.1415926
.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....
Circumscribed poljigon.
4.0000000 3.3137085 3.1825979 3.1517249 3.1441184 3.1422236 3.1417504 3.1416321 3.1416025 3.1415951 3.1415933 3.1415928 3.1415927 3.1415926
The area of the circle, we infer therefore, is equal to 3.1415926. Some doubt may exist perhaps about the last decimal figure, owing to errors proceeding from the parts omitted but the calculation has been carried on with an additional figure, that the final result here given might be absolutely correct even to the last decimal place. Since the area of the circle is equal to half the circumference multiplied by the radius, the half circumference must be 3.1415926, when the radius is 1 ; or the whole circumference must be 3.1415926, when the diameter is 1 : hence the ratio of the circumference to the diameter, formerly expressed by n^ is equal to 3.1415926. The number 3.1416 is the one generally used
126
GEOMETRY.
BOOK VL
PLANES AND SOLID ANGLES.
Definitions,
1.
straight line
all
pendicular to
in the plane.
line.
\^ perpendicular to a plane^ when it is perthe straight lines which pass through its foot Conversely, the plane is perpendicular to the
is
the point in
line is parallel to
plane, to
tlie
a plane, when it cannot meet that whatever distance both be produced. Conversely,
parallel to the line.
plane
is
are parallel to each other, when they cannot meet, to whatever distance both be produced.
3.
Two planes
The angle or mutual inclination of two planes is the quangreater or less, by which they separate from each other this angle is measured by the angle contained between two lines, one in each plane, and both perpendicular to the common intersection at the same point. This angle may be acute, obtuse, or a right angle. If it is a right angle, the two planes are perpendicular to
4.
tity,
;
each other.
5. A solid angle is the angular space ineluded between several planes which meet
S
y/%
at the
same
point.
p.
Thus, the solid angle S, is formed by the union of the planes ASB, BSC, CSD,
yy
yy
"VZ"^^
/"/C
/\ / \
DSA.
//
^ii
^
/
1^
BOOK
PROPOSITION
I.
VI.
127
THEOREM.
and partly
out of it.
For, by the definition of a plane, when a straight line has two points common with a plane, it lies wholly in that plane.
To discover whether a surface is plane, it is neScholium. cessary to apply a straight line in different ways to that surface, and ascertain if it touches the surface throughout its whole
extent.
PROPOSITION
II.
THEOREM.
T\vo straight lines, which intersect each other, lie in the same plane, and determine its position,
lines
which
conceived in which AB found if this plane be turned round AB, until it pass through the point C, then the line AC, which has two of its points A and C, in this plane, lies wholly in it hence the position of the plane is determined by the single condition of containing
; ;
the
two
straight lines
AB, AC.
Cor.
1.
triangle
ABC,
Cor, 2. Hence also two parallels AB, CD, determine the position of a plane for, drawing the secant EF, the plane of the two straight lines AE, F, is that of the parallels AB, CD.
;
PROPOSITION
III.
THEOREM.
If two planes cut each other, their common intersection will be a straight line.
128
GEOMETRY.
Let the two planes AB, CD, cut Draw the straight Hne EF, joining any two points E and F in the common section of the two planes.
each other.
This
line will
lie
'1>T<1
wholly
in the plane
AB, and
CD
..."'^
(Book 1. Def. 6.) therefore it will be n both planes at once, and consequently
is
their
common
intersection.
D
PROPOSITION
IV.
THEOREM.
If a straight line he perpendicular to two, straight lines at their point of inter section, it will he perpendicular to the plane of
those lines.
Let
then. will
AP
Through P, draw in the plane MN, any straight line as PQ, and through any point of this line, as Q, draw BQC, so that BQ shall be equal to QC (Book IV. Prob. V.) draw AB, AQ, AC. The base BC being divided into two equal parts at the point
;
Q, the triangle
BPC
will give
PCHPB2=2PQ2+.2QC2.
The
triangle
BAC will
first
Taking the
that
tiie
triangles
equation from the second, and observing are both right angled at
P, give
AC2PC2=AP2,
we
shall
AB^PB^^AP^;
have
AP2 + AP2 = 2 AQ22PQ2. Therefore, by taking the halves of both, we have ' PQ^ or AQ2= PQ' AP2= hence the triangle APQ is right angled at P hence pendicular to PQ.
AQ
APH
;
AP is per
BOOK
may be
VI.
129
Thus it is evident, not only that a straight line Scholium, perpendicular to all the straight lines which pass through its foot in a plane, but that it always must be so, whenever it is perpendicular to two straight lines drawn in the plans ; which proves the first Definition to be accurate.
Cor,
line
1.
;
The perpendicular
therefore
it
AQ
AP is shorter than any oblique measures the true distance from the point
A to
the plane
MN.
'^'^
Cor, 2, At a given point P on a plane, it is impossible to erect more than on,e perpendicular to that plane ; for if there could be two perpendiculars at the same point P, draw through these two perpendiculars a plane, whose intersection iwith the is plane ; then these two perpendiculars would be perpendicular to the line PQ, at the same point, and in the same plane, which is impossible (Book I. Prop. XIV. Sch.). It is also impossible to let fall from a given point out of a plane two perpendiculars to that plane ; for let AP, AQ, be these two perpendiculars, then the triangle would have two right angles APQ, AQP, which is impossible.
MN PQ
APQ
PROPOSITION
V.
THEOREM.
Iffrom a point without a plane^ a perpendicular he drawn to the plane, and oblique lines be drawn to different points,
\st.
Any
two oblique lines equally distant from the perpendicular two oblique lines unequally distant from the perpen
will he equal,
2d,
Of any
dicular, the
more distant
Let
AP
be perpendicular to
AB, AC, AD, the plane ; oblique lines equally distant from the perpendicular, and
MN
AE
will
will
a line
more remote
;
then
AB=AC=AD
be greater than
and
AE
we
angles,
suppose the distances PB, PC, 15 PD, to be equal to each other, the triangles APB, APC, APD, will have in each an equal angle contained by two equal sides therefore they will be equal ; hence the hypothenuses, or the oblique lines AB, A(/, AD, will be equal to each other. In like
;
130
GEOMETRY.
PE
manner,
is greater than if the distance or its equal PB, the oblique hne will evidently be greater than AB, or its
AE
PD
equal AD. Cor. All the equal oblique lines, AB, AC, AD, &c. terminate in the circumference BCD, described from P the foot of the perpendicular as a centre therefore a point being given out of a plane, the point P at which the perpendicular let fall
;
from
plane,
ABP is called the inclination of the which inclination is evidendy plane equal with respect to all such lines AB, AC, AD, as are equally distant from the perpendicular ; for all the triangles ABP, ACP, ADP, &c. are equal to each other.
Scholium,
The
angle
oblique line
AB
to the
MN
PROPOSITION
VI.
THEOREM.
Iffrom a point without a plane, a perpendicular be let fall on the planCf and from the foot of the perpendicular a perpendicular be drawn to any line of the plane, and from the point of intersection
line be
drawn
to the first
perpendicular
to the line
of the plane.
Let
plane
BC
AP
NM,
BC. Take DB=DC. and draw PB, PC, AB, AC. Since DB=DC, the obdicular to
lique line
PB=PC:
line
;
to the perpendicular
V. Cor.) therefore two of its points A and D equally distant from the extremities B and C therefore AD is a perpendicular to BC, at its middle point D (Book I. Prop. XVI. Cor.).
;
BOOK
VI.
131
Cor, It is evident likewise, that BC is perpendicular to the plane APD, since BC is at once perpendicular to the two
straight lines
AD, PD.
The two lines AE, BC, afford an instance of two which do not meet, because they are not situated in the same plane. The shortest distance between these lines is the straight line PD, which is at once perpendicular to the line AP and to the line BC. The distance PD is the shortest distance between them, because if we join any other two points, such as A and B, we shall have AB>AD, AD>PD; therefore
Scholium.
lines
AB>PD.
The two lines AE, CB, though not situated in the same plane, are conceived as forming a right angle with each other, because and the line drawn through one of its pohits parallel to BC would make with each other a right angle. In the same manner, the line and the line PD, which represent any two straight lines not situated in the same plane, are supposed to form with each other the same angle, which would be formed
AE
AB
by
AB
and a
PD
of the points of
AB.
PROPOSITION
VII.
THEOREM.
to
same
Let the
parallel;
lines
if
ED, AP, be
is
AP
perpen
dicular
to the
plane
NM,
then will be also perpendicular to it. Through the parallels AP, DE, pass a plane ; its intersection with the plane will be PD in the plane draw BC perpendicular to PD, and draw AD. By the Corollary of the preceding Theorem, BC is perpendicular to the plane is a right ; therefore the angle angle but the angle is also a right angle, since AP is perpendicular to PD, and parallel to AP (Book I. Prop. XX. Cor. 1.) ; therefore the line is perpendicular to the two straight lines DP, ; consequently it is perpendicular to their plane (Prop. IV.)
;
ED
MN MN
APDE EDP DE
DB
BDE
DE
MN
132
Cor,
1.
GEOMETRY.
Conversely,
if the
they will be parfor if they be not so, draw through the point D, a line parallel to AP, this parplane
allel
;
MN,
allel
will
be perpendicular
to the plane
MN
therefore
through the same point more than one perpendicular might be erected to the same plane, which is impossible (Prop. IV. Cor. 2.).
and B, parallel to a third C, are parconceive a plane perpendicular to the line C ; the lines A and B, being parallel to C, will be perpendicular to the same plane ; therefore, by the preceding Corollary, they will be parallel to each other. The three lines are supposed not to be in the same plane ; otherwise the proposition would be already known (Book L Prop. XXII.).
Cor, 2.
allel to
Two lines A
;
each other
for,
PROPOSITION
VIII.
THEOREM.
line
^ a straight line
NM
is parallel to
a straight
drawn in a plane,
it
NM.
the line AB, which the plane ABDC, could meet the plane MN, this could only be in some point of the line CD, the common intersection of the two cannot meet CD, since they are parallel planes but hence it is parallel to ; hence it will not meet the plane that plane (Def. 2.).
For,
if
lies
in
AB
MN
PROPOSITION IX
THEOREM.
Two
planes which are perpendicular to the same straight line are parallel to each other.
BOOK
Let the planes
VI.

133
NM, QP,
be per
M_
...
pendicular to the line AB, then will they be parallel. For, if they can meet any where, let O be one of their common
points,
P
P
t^
V
1^
AB
plane
perpendicular to the drawn through its foot in that plane for the straight line and OB same reason AB is perpendicular to BO ; therefore are two perpendiculars let fall from the same point O, upon the same straight line which is impossible (Book I. Prop. XIV.); therefore the planes MN, PQ, cannot meet each other ; consequently they are pai'allel.
is
MN,
\ \
"\
"
\ n
;
OA
OA
PROPOSITION
X.
THEOREM.
parallel.
Let the
parallel planes
NM,
QP, be
intersected
by the plane
parallel.
EH
section
EF, GH, be
For, if the lines EF, GH, lying in the same plane, were not parallel, they would meet each other when produced ; therefore, the planes MN, PQ, in which those
lines lie, would also meet and hence the planes would not be
;
parallel.
PROPOSITION
XI.
THEOREM
fftwo planes are parallel, a straight line which is perpendicular to one, is also perpendicular to the other.
34
GEOMETRY.
MN, PQ,
and
;
Let
planes,
lar to
let
NM
AB
QP. Having drawn any line BC in the plane PQ, through the lines AB and BC, draw a plane ABC, interpendicular to
\ ^Q in the secting the plane ; (Prop. X.) but the line intersection will be parallel to AB, being perpendicular to the plane MN, is perpendicular to (Book the straight line therefore also, to its parallel ;
MN
AD
.\
;
AD
BC
AD
BC
being perpendicular to any line BC, drawn through its foot in the plane PQ, is consequently perpendicular to that plane (Def. 1.).
I.
Prop.
XX.
Cor.
1.):
hence the
line
AB
PROPOSITION
XII.
THEOREM.
Let
MN, PQ,
:
planes,
lel lines
then will For, through the parallels EG, FH, draw the plane EGHF, intersecting the parallel planes in EF and GH. The intersections EF, GH, are parallel to each other (Prop. X.) ; so likewise are therefore the figure EG, ; is a parallelogram ; con
EG =FH
FH EGHF
Cor.
sequently,
EG =FH.
it
:
Hence
;
where equidistant
were perpendicular to the suppose would also be perpendicular to it the parallel plane (Prop. YII.), and the two parallels would likewise be perpen(Prop. XL) ; and being parallel, they dicular to the plane will be equal, as shown by the Proposition.
EG
PQ
FH
MN
BOOK VI.
PROPOSITION
XIII.
135
THEOREM.
have their sides
If two angles, not situated in the same plane^ parallel and lying in the same direction^ those angles will he equal and their planes will he parallel.
CAE
and DBF.
Make AC=BD,
AE=
and draw CE, DF, AB, CD, EF. Since AC equal and parallel to is
;
BF
C
A/
\
:=^.E
is BD, the figure a parallelogram therefore is equal and parallel to AB. For a similar reason, EF is equal and par;
ABDC
CD
N
\
\
B P \ a parallelogram, and the side CE is equal and paiallel to DF; therefore the triangles CaE, DBF, have their corresponding sides equal ; therefore the angle
AB
is
\;^
CEFD
CAE
DBF.
Again, the plane ACE is parallel to the plane BDF. For suppose the plane drawn through the point A, parallel to BDF, were to meet the lines CD, EF, in points different from C and E, for instance in G and then, the three lines AB, GD, FH, would be equal (Prop. XII.) but the lines AB, CD, EF, arc already known to be equal; hence CD=GD, and FH==EF, which is absurd hence the plane ACE is parallel to BDF.
Cor, If two parallel planes MN, are met by two other planes CABD, EABF, the angles CAE, DBF, formed by the mtersections of the parallel planes will be equal ; for, the intersection is parallel to BD, and to BF (Prop. X.) ; therefore the angle DBF.
PQ
AC
AE
CAE =
PROPOSITION
XIV.
THEOREM.
[f three straight lines, not situated in the same plane, are equal and parallel, the opposite triangles formed by joining the extremities of these lii^ will he equal, and their planes will he
parallel
136
Let AB,
lines.
GEOMETRY.
CD, EF, be
is
the
Since
AB
equal
and
parallel to
CD,
the figure
ABDC is a parallelogram ; hence the side AC is equal and parallel to BD. For a ike reason the sides AE, BF, are equal and parallel,
as also the
CE,
;
DF
therefore
AB to meet
;
M,
RS,
at the points
the line
CD
:
to
^t^. nxv^"
D
AE
Draw
EB
CF
FD.
AD meeting
;
the plane
^An,
/^^r"
:
PQ
GF,
in
the intersections EG, BD, of the parallel planes PQ, RS, by the plane ABD, are
parallel
in like
BD
R ^
AG
:
(Prop. X.)
therefore
:
AE
the ratio
EB
GD
parallel,
AG
PROPOSITION
XVI.
THEOREM.
If a line is perpendicular to a plane, every plane passed through the perpendicular, will also he peipeyjjcular to the plane.
BOOK
VI.
137
Let AP be perpendicular to the plane then will every plane passing through AP be perpendicu
NM
lar to
Let
planes
NM. BC be
AB,
MN
draw
DE perpendicular to BP
MN,
will
then
to
the line
lar to
the plane
be perpendiculines
BC,
lars
DE
PA, PD,
angle of the two planes AB, (Def. 4.) therefore, since that angle is a right angle, the two planes are perpendicular to each
;
MN
other.
Scholium, When three straight lines, such as AP, BP, DP, are perpendicular to each other, each of those lines is perpendicular to the plane of the othei two, and the three planes are perpendicular to each other.
PROPOSITION
XVII.
THEOREM.
If two planes are perpendicular to each other, a line drawn in one of them perpendicular to their common intersection, wiU be perpendicular to the other plane.
Let the plane be perpendicular to then if the line ; be perpendicular to the intersection BC, it will also be perpendicular to the plane NM. For, in the plane draw B\. perpendicular to PB ; then, because the planes are perpendicuis a right anlar, the angle gle ; therefore, the line is perpendicular to the two straight lines PB, ; therefore it is perpendicular to their plane (Prop. IV.).
NM
AB
AP
MN
PD
w
L^
yE
APD
AP
W
MN
PD
if at
Cor, If the plane AB is perpendicular to the plane MN, and a point P of the common intersection we erect a perpendicular to the plane MN, that perpendicular will be in the plane AB ; for, if not, then, in the plane AB we might draw AP per
138
pendicular to
time,
GEOMETRY.
PB the common intersection, and this AP, at the would be perpendicular to the plane MN; therefore at the same point P there would be two perpendiculars to the plane MN, which is impossible (Prop. IV. Cor. 2.).
same
PROPOSITION
Ij
XVIII.
THEOREM.
two planes are perpendicular to a third plane, their common intersection will also he perpendicular to the third plane.
AB, AD, be
;
per
NM
AP
NM.
MN
m
yE
AD
D \A^
iN
PROPOSITION
XIX.
THEOREM.
,
If a solid angle is formed by three plane angles the sum of any two of these angles will be greater than the third.
tion only
IS
The proposition requires demonstrawhen the plane angle, which compared to the sum of the other
two, is greater than either of them. Therefore suppose the solid angle S to be formed by three plane angles ASB, ASC, BSC, whereof the angle ASB is the greatest; we are to show that
ASB<ASC + BSC.
In the plane
straight line
angle
BSD=BSC,
draw
the
SC = SD
the are
draw AC, BC. The two sides BS, SD, are equal
angle equal; therefore
to the two BS, SC ; therefore the triangles BSD, BSC, But taking + ; from the one side, and from the other its equal BC, there
BSD=BSC
BD=BC.
AB<AC BC
Bi;
re
BOOK VI.
mains
139
are equal to tho
AD<AC.
SC
;
The two
sides
is
AS, SD,
two AS,
therefore the
angle
AD ASD<ASC
shall
AC
Adding BSI)=BSC, we
ASC + BSC.
PROPOSITION XX. THEOREM.
The sum of the plane angles which form a solid angle less than four right angles.
Cut the
solid
is
always
angle
S by any plane
in that plane,
ABCDE
draw
lines
from O, a point
/A
/^/
1\
to the several
AO, OB, OC, OD, OE. /// \ The sum of the angles of the triangles /'^/ \\ /X^.L i..\i> ASB, BSC, &c. formed about the vertex /.''' S, is equal to the sum of the angles of an Al ''i eqiial number of triangles AOB, BOC, &c. A.\" y"xo
1
But
at the
Nv
angles ABO, OBC, equal to ABC, is less than the sum of the angles ABS, SBC (Prop. XIX.) ; in the same manner at the point C we have + + SCD; and so with all the angles of the polygon ABCDE: whence it follows, that the sum of all the angles at the bases of the triangles whose vertex is in O, is less than the sum of the angles at the bases of the triangles whose vertex is in S hence to make up the deficiency, the sum of the angles formed about the point O, is greater than the sum of the angles formed about the point S. But the sum of the angles about the point is equal to four right angles (Book I. Prop. IV. Sch.) ; therefore the sum of the plane angles, which form the solid angle S, is less than four
the
sum of the
// \
\l
BCO OCD<BCS
right angles.
Scholium. This demonstration is founded on the supposition is convex, or that the plane of no one surface produced can ever meet the solid angle ; if it were other wise, the sum of the plane angles would no longer be limited, and might be of any magnitude.
that the solid angle
PROPOSITION
XXI.
THEOREM.
If two solid angles are contained by three plane angles which are equal to each othei , each to each, the planes of the equal angles
will he equally inclined to each other
140
GEOMETRY.
ASC=DTF,the
anthe
inclination of the
ASB,
planes
ASC from the point O, at which the perpendicular meets the plane, draw OA, OC perpendicular to SA, SC ;
plane
;
draw AB,
the plane
BC
next take
;
TE=SB
draw
EP perpendicular to
perpendicular
DTF
TF lastly, draw DE, EF. The triangle SAB is right angled at A, and the triangle TDE at D (Prop. VI.) and since the angle ASB = DTE we have SBA==TED. Likewise SB=TE; therefore the triangle SAB is equal to the triangle TDE; therefore SA=TD,and AB = DE. In like manner, maybe shown, that SC=TF, and BC=EF. That granted, the quadrilateral SAOC is equal to the quadrilateral TDPF: for, place the angle ASC upon its equal DTF; because SA=TD, and SC=TF, the point A will fall on D,
respectively to
TD,
:
it
on
and
fall
at the
on
PD
OC on PF wherefore the point O AO will be equal to DP. But the the hypotriangles AOB, DPE, are right angled at O and P thenuse AB^DE, and the side AO=DP: hence those trianTD, and
in like
manner
will fall
(Book
I.
OAB =
The
;
PDE
two
each other.
of the right It must, however, be observed, that the angle angled triangle AOB is properly the inchnation of the two planes ASB, ASC, only when the perpendicular BO falls on for if it fell on the other side, the same side of SA, with SC the angle of the two planes would be obtuse, and the obtuse angle together with the angle A of the triangle OAB would make two right angles. But in the same case, the angle of the two planes TDE, TDF, would also be obtuse, and the obtuse angle together with the angle D of the triangle DPE, would make two right angles ; and the angle A being thus always equal to the angle at D, it would follow in the same manner that the inclination of the two planes ASB, ASC, must be equal to that of the two planes TDE, TDF.
;
BOOK
angles, respectively equal to
the equal or
VI
141
each other, and if at the same time homologous angles are disposed in the same manner in the two solid angles, these angles will be equal, and they We have will coincide when applied the one to the other. already seen that the quadrilateral SAOC may be placed upon thus placing SA upon TD, SC falls upon TF,i its equal TDPF and the point O upon the point P. But because the triangh s
;
are equal, OB, perpendicular to the plane ASC, equal to PE, perpendicular to the plane ; besides, those perdendiculars lie in the same direction therefore, the point B will fall upon the point E, the line SB upon TE, and the two sohd angles will wholly coincide. This coincidence, however, takes place only when we suppose that the equal plane angles are arranged in the same manner in the two solid angles for if they were arranged in an inverse order, or, what is the same, if the perpendiculars OB, PE, instead of lying in the same direction with regard to the planes ASC, DTP, lay in opposite directions, then it would be impossible to make these solid angles coincide with one another. It would not, however, on this account, be less true, as our Theorem states, that the planes containing the equal angles must still be equally inclined to each other; so that the two solid angles would be equal in all their constituent parts, without, however, admitting of superposition. This sort of equality, which is not absolute, or such as admits of superposition, deserves to be distinguished by a particular name we shall call it equality by symmetry. Thus those two solid angles, which are formed by three plane angles respectively equal to each other, but disposed in an inverse order, will he called angles equal by symmetry or simply symmetrical angles. The same remark is applicable to solid angles, which are formed by more than three plane angles thus a solid angle, formed by the plane angles A, B, C, D, E, and another solid angle, formed by the same angles in an inverse order A, E, D, C, B, may be such that the planes which contain the equal angles are equally inclined to each other. Those two solid angles, are likewise equal, without being capable of superposition, and are called solid angles equal by symmetry, or symmetrical solid
AOB, DPE,
is
TDF
angles.
f)erly exist, all figures
plane figures, equality by symmetry does not prowhich might take this name being absoutely equal, or equal by superposition ; the reason of which is, that a plane figure may be inverted, and the upper part taken indiscriminately for the under. This is not the case with solids
;
Among
In
which the
third dimension
may
be taken
in
two
different
directions.
112
GEOMETRY.
BOOK
VII.
POLYEDRONS.
Definitions.
1.
The name
is
given
every solid terminated by planes or plane faces; which planes, it is evident, WiW themselves be terminated by straight
to
lines.
2.
The common
is
polyedron
3.
The
intersection of two adjacent faces of a called the side^ or edge of the polyedron. prism is a solid bounded by several parallelograms,
at
33
&
construct this solid, let be any polygon ; then if in a plane parallel to ABODE, the lines FG, GH, HI, &c. be drawn equal and parallel to the sides AB, BO, OD, &c. thus if in the next equal to forming the polygon place, the vertices of the angles in the one plane be joined with the homologous vertices in the other, by straight lines, AF, BG, BOHG, &c. will be parallelograms, OH, &c. the faces and ABCDEK, the solid so formed, will be a prism. 4. The equal and parallel polygons ABODE, FGHIK, are called ihe bases of the prism; the parallelograms taken together constitute the lateral or convex surface of the prism ; the equal straight lines AF, BG, OH, &c. are called the sides, or edges oj
To
ABODE
FGHIK
ABODE
ABGR
the
prism,
The altitude of a prism is the distance between its two bases, or the perpendicular drawn from a point in the upper base to the plane of the lower base.
5.
BOOK
6.
VII.
143
prism
is
rights
when
the skies
;
are
perpendicular to the planes of the bases and then each of them In eveiy other case the is equal to the altitude of the prism. prism is oblique^ and the altitude less than the side. prism is triangular^ quadrangular, pentagov.al, hex 7. agonal, &c. when the base is a triangle, a quadrilateral, a pentagon, a hexagon, &c. 8. prism whose base is a parallelogram, and A^hich has all its faces parallelograms, is named a
is
rectangular
when
all
Among
rectangular parallelopipedons,
we
by
10.
pyramid
is
a solid formed by
several triangular planes proceeding from the same point S, and terminating in the different sides of the same polygon
ABCDE.
The polygon
;
ABCDE
is
called the
base of the pyramid, the point S the vertex and the triangles ASB, BSC, CSD, &c. form its convex or lateral surface
n.
the
plane parallel to the base, the remaining solid ABCDEc?, is called a truncated pyramid, or the frustum of a pyramid. 12. The altitude of a pyramid is the perpendicular let fall from the vertex upon the plane of the base, produced if necessary. pyramid is tnangular, quadrangular, &c. according 13. as its base is a triangle, a quadrilateral, &c. 14. pyramid is regular, when its base is a regular polygon, and when, at the same time, the perpendicular let fall from the vertex on the plane of the base passes through the centre of the base. That perpendicular is then called the ojcis of the pyramid. 15. Any line, as SF, drawn from the vertex S of a regular pyramid, perpendicular to either side of the polygon which forms its base, is called the slant height of the pyramid. 16. The diagonal of a polyedron is a straight line joining the vertices of two solid angles which are not adjacent to each
other.
144
17.
GEOMETRY.
Two
poiyedrons are similar
when they
are contained
similar planes, similarly situated, and having like inclinations with each other.
PROPOSITION
I.
THEOREM.
is
oj
base multiplied by
its altitude.
Let
will
ABCDEK
convex
its
surface
(AB + BC + CD + DE + EA)xAF.
For, the convex surface is equal to the all the rectangles AG, BH, CI, DK, EF, which compose it. Now, the altitudes AF, BG, CH, &c. of the rectangles, are equal to the altitude of the prism. Hence, the sum of these rectangles, or the convex surface of the prism, is equal to (AB + BC + + + EA) x that is, to the perimeter of the base of the prism multi;
sum of
CD DE
AF
plied
by
its altitude.
Cor,
bases.
If
two
same
altitude, their
con*
their
vex surfaces
will be to
PROPOSITION
II.
THEOREM.
AH
be intersected by
;
NP, SV
NOPQR, STVXY
parallel
;
ABGF
these
ST, NO, are included between the parallels NS, OT, which are sides of the prism hence NO is equal to ST. For like reasons, the sides OP, PQ, QR, &c. of the section NOPQR, are equal to the sides TV, VX, XY, &c. of the sec
same
sides,
tion
STVXY,
each
to each.
And
since
BOOK
VII.
145
the equal sides are at the same time parallel, it follows that the angles NOP, OPQ, &c. of the first section, are equal to the angles STV,TVX, &,c, of the second, each to each (Book VI. Prop. XIIL). Hence the two sections NOPQR, STVXY, ire equal polygons.
if
drawn
PROPOSITION
III.
THEOREM.
its
bas
2d.
The edges and the altitude will be divided proportionally. The section will be a polygon similar to the base.
SABCDE,
;
of which SO is the altitude, be cut by the plane abcde then will Sa : SA : So : SO, and the same for the other
:
ABCDE.
Fi7'st.
AB, ab, by a third plane SiVB will also be parallel (Book VI. Prop. X.) hence the triangles SAB, Sab are similar, and we have SA Sa SB S6 for a similar reason, we have SB S6 SC Sc and so on. Hence the edges SA, SB, SC, &c. are cut proportionally in a, 6, c, &c. The altitude SO is likewise cut in the same proportion, at the point for BO and bo are parallel, therefore we have SO So SB Sb.
tions
;
: : :
Secondly. Since ab is parallel to AB, be to BC, cd to CD, &c. is equal to ABC, the angle bed to BCD, and so on (Book VI. Prop. XIIL). Also, by reason of the similar trangles SAB, Sab, we have ab : SB : S6 ; and by reason of the similar triangles SBC, Sbc, we have SB : S^ : BC :
the angle abc
AB
be
hence
AB
ab
BC
be
we might
likewise have
: cd, and so on. BC : be : : Hence the polygons ABCDE. abcde have their angles respectively equal and their homologous sides proportional ; hence they are similar.
CD
146
GEOMETRY.
Cor, L Let SABCDE, SXYZ be two pyramids, having a common vertex and the
altitude, or having their bases situated in the same plane if these pyramids are cut by a plane parallel to the plane of their bases, giving the sections abcde, xyz, then will the sections ahcde.xyz^heto each other as the bases ABODE,
;
same
XYZ.
For, the polygons ABODE, abcde, being similar, their siirfaces are as the squares of the homologous sides AB, ab ; but SA^ Sa^ : : : abcde ab : : : Sa; hence xyz : : SX^ : Sx\ But since For the same reason, :
AB
SA
ABODE
XYZ
XYZ
S : ; abc and xyz are in one plane, we have likewise SA abcde : SX 8x (Book VI. Prop. XV.) ; hence ; xyz ; hence the sections abcde, xyz, are to each othei as the bases ABODE, XYZ.
: :
ABCDE
ABODE, XYZ,
at equal
made
be equivalent likewise.
PROPOSITION
IV.
THEOREM.
is equal to the perimeof its base multiplied by half the slant height.
For, since the pyramid is regular, the point O, in which the axis meets the base, is the centre of the polygon
ABCDE
(Def. 14.)
SAO, SBO,
:
the bases and perpendiculars are equal and since the hypolhenuses are equal it may be proved in the same way that all the sides of the right pyramid are
equal. The triangles, therefore, which form the convex surface of the prism are all equal to each other. But the area of either of these triangles, as ESA, is equal
BOOK
to
is
VII.
147
multiplied by half the perpendicular SF, which its base the slant height of the pyramid : hence the area of all the triahg'.es, or the convex surface of the pyramid, is equal to the perimeter of the base multiplied by half the slant height.
EA
'Gov, The convex surface of the frustum of a regular pyraIS equal to half the perimeters of its upper and lower bases multiplied by its slant height. Ppr since the section abcde is similar to the base (Prop. 111.), is a regular polygon (Def. 14.), it and since the baste follows that the sides ea, ab, be, cd and de are all equal to each other. Hence the convex surface of the frustum ABCDEc? is formed by the equal trapezoids EAae, AB6a, <&c. and the perpendicular, distance between the parallel sides of either of these trapezoids is equal to Ff the slant height of the frustum. But the area of either of the trapezoids, as AEea, is equal to i(EAf ea) xF/ (Book IV. Prop. VII.) : hence the area of all of them, or the convex surface of the frustum, is equal to half the perimeters of the upper and lower bases multiplied by the
mid
ABCDE
slant height.
PROPOSITION
V.
THEOREM.
If the three planes which form a solid angle of a prism, are equal to tfie three planes which form the solid angle of another prism, each to each, and are like situated, the two prisms will he equal
to edf;h other.
be equal to the base abcde, the paralList the base lelogram ABGF equal to the parallelogram ab^, and the parequal to bchg; then will the prism ABCDEK allelogram be equal to the prism abcdek.
ABCDE
BCHG
ABCDE
upon its equal abcde these two But the three plane angles which form
;
148
GEOMETRY.
the solid angle B, are respectively equal to the three plane angles, which form the solid angle b, namely, ABCr=a/)c, =gbc ; they are also similarly situated . ABGznabgf and
GBC
hence the solid angles B and b are equal (Book VI. Prop. XXI, It Sch.) and therefore the side BG will fall on its equal bg. is likewise evident, that by reason of the equal parallelograms ABGF, abgfi the side GF will fall on its equal gf, and in the same manner on gh hence, the plane of the upper base, FGHIK will coincide with the plane fghik (Book VI. Prop. II.).
;
GH
7c
:b
be
.
But the two upper bases being equal to their corresponding lower bases, are equal to each other hence HI will coincide with hi, IK with xk, and KF with Af; and therefore the lateral
faces of the prisms will coincide : therefore, the coinciding throughout are equal (Ax. 13.).
two prisms
right prisms, which have equal bases and equal alis equal to ab, and For, since the side will be equal to the altitude to bg, the rectangle be equal to bghc ; and abgf; so also will the rectangle thus the three planes, which form the solid angle B, will be equal to the three which form the solid angle 6. Hence the
Cor,
Two
BG
AB ABGF BGHC
equal.
PROPOSITION
VI.
THEOREM.
By
ABCD, EFGH,
and their sides are parallel it remains only to show, that the same is true of any two opposite lateral faces, such as AEHD, BFGC. Now is equal and parallel to BC, because the figure is a par
AD
ABCD
BOOK
DAE
VII.
149
allelogram ; for a like reason, is parallel to BF ; hence the angle is equal to the angle CBF, and the planes DAE, CBF, are parallel (Book VI. Prop. XIII.) hence also the parallelogram is equal to the parallelogram CBFG. In the same way. it might be shown that the opposite parallelograms ABFE, DCGH, are equal and parallel.
;
AE
DAEH
1. Since the parallelopipedon is asoHd bounded by six whereof those lying opposite to each other are equal and parallel, it follows that any face and the one opposite to it, may be assumed as the bases of the parallelopipedon.
Cor.
planes,
The diagonals of a parallelopipedon bisect each For, suppose two diagonals EC, AG, to be drawn both through opposite vertices is equal and parallel to since CG, the figure is a parallelogram hence the diagonals will mutually bisect each other. In the same manner, EC, we could show that the diagonal and another bisect each other ; hence the four diagonals will mutually bisect each other, in a point which may be regarded as the centre of the parallelopipedon.
Cor, 2.
other.
:
AE
AEGC
,
AG
EC
DF
Scholium. If three straight lines AB, AE, AD, passing through the same point A, and making given angles with each other, are known, a parallelopipedon may be formed on those lines. For this purpose, a plane must be passed through the extremity of each line, and parallel to the plane of the other two that is, through the point B a plane parallel to DAE, through a plane parallel to BAE, and through E a plane parallel to BAD. The mutual intersections of these planes will form the parallelopipedon required.
;
PROPOSITION
TTie
VII.
THEOREM.
two triangular prisms into which a parallelopipedon is divided by a plane passing through its opposite diagonal edges, are equivalent.
150
GEOMETRr.
Let the parallelopipedon ABCDH be 11 divided by the plane BDHFpassin^through ^^^^^7^ then will the triangular its diagonal edges 'St^^^^, /,'[}>. prism ABDH be equivalent to the trian^[i..^ gular prism BCDH. p\ /''C^i^ Through the vertices B and F, draw the / w^^'/f^ planes Bat/c, Yehg, at right angles to the lL^^\ / side BF, the former meeting AE, DH, CG, A^W^^/^LX / the three other sides of the parallelopipejlr* '*\ don, in the points a, d, c, the latter in e, A, \//\'^^'\y C S^^^^^ g the sections Ba<ic, Yehg, will be equal parallelograms. They are equal, because they are formed by planes perpendicular to the same straight line, and consequently parallel (Prop. II.) they are parallelograms, because aB, dc, two opposite sides of the same section, are formed by the meeting of one plane with two parallel planes ABFE, DCGH. For a like reason, the figure BaeFis a parallelogram', so also are BF^c, cdhg, adhe, the other lateral faces of the sohd ^adeg; hence that solid is a prism (I)ef. 6.) and that pri^m is right, because the side BF is perpendicular to its base. But the right prism ^adcg is divided by the plane into two equal right prisms Badh, Bcdh for, the bases Bdd,^cdy of these prisms are equal, being halves of the same parailelogram, and they have the common altitude BF, hence they are equal (Prop. V. Cor.). It is now to be proved that the oblique triangular prism ABDH will be equivalent to the right triangular prism Bddh \ and since those prisms have a common part ABDh, it will only be necessary to prove that the remaining parts, namely, '''^' '' the solids BaAD^, FeEH/i, are equivalent. Now, by reason of the parallelograms ABFE, rtBFe, the sides AE, ae, being equal to their parallel BF, are equal to each and taking away the common part Ae, there remains other Aa = Ee. In the same manner we could prove T)d=llh. Next, to bring about the superposition of the two solids BaADd, FeEH/i, let us place the base Feh on' its eqiiial B^: the point e falling on a, and the point h on c?, the' sides eEy^AH, will fall on their equals aA, dD^ because they are perpendicuHence the two solids in question lar to the same plane Bad. hence the oblique prism will coincide exactly with each other BADH, is equivalent to the rigfit one Badh. In the same manner might the oblique prism BCDH, be
:
//r^^
'
a^] //\
BH
''
'
proved equivalent to prisms Badhy Bcdh, tude BF, and since same parallelogram
right
are equal, since they have the same altitheir bases Bad, Bdc, are halves of the Hence the two trian(Prop. V. Cor.).
BOOK
VII.
151
gular prisms BADH, BDCG, being equivalent to the equal rifijht prisms, are equivalent to each other.
Cor, Eveiy triangular prism ABDHEF is half of the paraldescribed with the same solid angle A, and ielopipedon ihe same edges AB, AD, AE.
AG
PROPOSITION
VIII.
THEOREM.
If two parallelopipedons have a common base, and their upper bases in the same plane and between the same parallels, they
will be equivalent.
Let the parallelopipedons AG, AL, have the common base AC, and their upper bases EG,
MK,
will
in the
same
the
plane,
and between
parallels
same
;
then they be equivalent. There may be three ^ ^ cases, according as EI is greater, less than, or equal to, EF but the demonstration is In the first place, then we shall show that the same for all. the triangular prism AEIMDH, is equal to the triangular prism BFKLCG. to GF, the angle AEl Since AE is parallel to BF, and
;
HL,
EK
HE
and Also, since To are each equal to AB, they are equal to each other. hence the each add FI, and there will result EI equal to (Bk. I. Prop. V), and triangle AEI is equal to the triangle But the parthe paralellogram to the parallelogram FL. (Prop. VI) is equal to the parallelogram allelogram are hence, the three planes which form the solid angle at respectively equal to the three which form the solid angle at
and
HEA=GFB.
EF
IK
FK
EM
BFK
AH
OF
F, and being like placed, the triangular prism to the triangular prism BFKL.
AEIM
is
equal
But if the prism AEIM is taken away from the solid AL, there will remain the parallelopipedon BADCL ; and if the prism BFKL is taken away from the same solid, there will remain the parallelopipedon BADCG ; hence those two paral lelopipedons BADCL, BADCG, are equivalent.
152
GEOMETRY
PROPOSITION
IX.
THEORExM.
Two
and
the
same
alti'
tiion
allelopipedons
altitude, their
AG,
AL
same
upper bases
same
sides
EF and AB
;
be
IK and AB
hence
EF
equal and parallel to IK; for a like reason, GF is equal and parallel to
LK.
IM,
Let the sides EF, GH, be produced, and likewise KL, by their intersections they form the parallelogram NPPQ this parallelogram will evidently be equal to either
till
;
of the bases EFGH, IKLM. Now if a third parallelopipedon be conceived, having for its lower base the parallelogram ABCD, and for its upper, the third parallelopipedon will be equivalent to the parallelopipedon AG, since with the same lower base, their upper bases lie in the same plane and between the same parallels, GQ, FN (Prop. VIII.). For the same reason, this third parallelopipedon will also be equivalent to the parallelopipedon hence the two parallelopipedons AG, AL, which have the same base and the same altitude, are equivalent.
NOPQ
AL
PROPOSITION
X.
THEOREM.
he changed into an equivalent rectangular parallelopipedon having the same altitude and an
BOOK
be the parLet allelopipedon proposed. From the points A, B, C,
VII.
153
AG
D,drawAI,BK,CL,DM,
perpendicular tothe plane of the base you will thus
;
form
the
don
AL
parallelopipeequivalent to
Hence
is
if
the
a rectangle, be a rectangular parallelopipedon equivalent to AG, and consequently the parallelopipedon required. But if is not a rectangle draw and perpendicular to CD, and IP and NP perpendicular to the base ; you will then have the solid ABNOIKPQ, which will be a rectangular parallelopipedon for by construction, the bases ABNO, and IKPQ are rectangles so also are the lateral faces, the edges AI, OQ, <fec. being perpendicular to the plane of the base hence the solid AP is a rectangular parallelopipedon. But the two parallelopipedons AP, may be conceived as having the same base ABKl and the same altitude hence the parallelopipedon AG, which was at first changed into an equivalent parallelopipedon AL, is again changed into an equivalent rectangular parallelopipedon AP, having the same altitude AI, and a base equivalent to the base ABCD.
base
ABCD AL will AO
ABCD
BN
OQ
mQ
AL
AO
ABNO
PROPOSITION
XI.
THEOREM.
TiVO rectangular parallelopipedons, which have the same bas5, are to each other as their altitudes.
'
154
GEOMETRY.
will they
AG, AL, have the same base BD^ be to each other as their altitudes AE, AT. First, suppose the altitudes AE, AI, to be e X to each other as two whole numbers, as 15 is Divide AE into 15 equal to S, for example. parts whereof AI will contain 8 and through q.
J^et the parallelopipedons
I
hen
2",
y, z, &c. the points of division, draw planes These planes will cut parallel to the base.
.^
^

the solid
M
K
all equal to each other, because they have 55 equal bases and equal altitudes equal bases, y so
MIKL, made
parallel to
of a prism, is equal to that ^g" base (Prop. II.), equal altitudes, because the altitudes are the equal divisions Ax, xy, yz, But of those 15 equal parallelopipedons, 8 are con&;c. tained in hence the solid is to the solid as 15 is to is to the altitude AI. 8, or generally, as the altitude Again, if the ratio of to AI cannot be exactly expresfsed numbers, it is to be shown, that notwithstanding, we shall
the base
ABCD
AL
AG AE
AL
AE
have
solid
AG
:
solid
AL
: :
AE
:
AI."
For,
if this
proportion
sol,
is
we
have
AG
sol>
AL
AE
AO
into equal parts, such that each shall be less than there will be at least one point of division m, between and I. Let P be the parallelopipedon, whose base is ABCD, and altitude ; since the altitudes AE, Atw, are to each other
Divide
AE
01
km
as the
shall
:
have
:
AG
:
AE
:
Am.
:
But by hypothesis,
sol
therefore,
we have
sol
AG
AL
P
;
AE
:
AO
solKL
AO
Am.
But .\0 is greater than Am hence if the proportion is correct, On the contrary, howthe solid AL must be greater than P. ever, it is less hence the fourth term of this proportion
:
sol
AG
sol
AL
AE
;
x,
cannot possibly be a line greater than AI. By the same mode of reasoning, it might be shown that the fourth term cannot be hence rectangular therefore it is equal to AI less than AI parallelopipedons having the same base are to each other as
;
their altitudes.
BOOK
PROPOSITION
VII.
155
XII.
THEOREM.
Two
rectangular parallelopipedons, having the same altitude are to each other as their bases.
E
.K
K
fl
AE
each other as
AC, AN.
Having placed
solids
by the
side of
each
PQ
you
J^I
A
O
13
X)
of
the
parallelopipedons
AG, AK. The two solids AG, AQ, having the same
base
like
AEHD are to each other as their altitudes AB, AQ f in manner, the two solids AQ, AK, having the same base AOLE, are to each other as their altitudes AD, AM. Hence we have the two proportions,
sol, sol.
AG AQ
sol.
sol.
AQ AK
AB
AO,
AD
AM.
Multiplying together the corresponding terms of these proportions, and omitting in the result the common multiplier sol,
AQ
we
But
shall
have
50/.
AG
sol.
AK
ABxAD
represents the base ; resents the base ; hence two rectangular parallelopipedons of the same altitude are to each other as their bases.
AB X AD
AMNO
PROPOSITION
XIII.
THEOREM.
Any two
rectangular parallelopipedons are to each other as tht products of their bases by their altitudes^ that is to say, as the products of their three dimensions.
156
GEOMETRY.
For, having placed the two AG, AZ, so that their surfaces have the common angle BAE, produce the planes necessary for completing the third parallelopisolids
pedon
AK
AG ABCD
sol
AK
AMNO.
But the two parallelopipedons having the same base AMNO, are to each other as their altitudes AE, AX hence we have
AK, AZ,
sol
AK
sol
AZ
AE
AX.
Multiplying together the corresponding terms of these proportions, and omitting in the result the common multiplier sol.
AK
we
shall
50/.
have
AG
soLAZ
ABCDxAE
and
AMNO x AX.
put
AM
ABCD
:
:
AMNO,
:
AB x AD
and
sol.AG
other,
sol.AZ
ABxADxAE AOxAMxAX.
parallelopipedons
are to each
Scholium.
the
We'
measure of a rectangular parallelopipedon, the product of its base by its altitude, in other words, the product of its
three dimensions.
In order to comprehend the nature of this measurement, it necessary to reflect, that the number of linear units in one dimension of the base multiplied by the number of linear units in the other dimension of the base, will give the number of superficial units in the base of the parallelopipedon (Book IV. For each unit in height there are evidently Prop. IV. Sch.). ns many sohd units as there are superficial units in the base. Therefore, the number of superficial units in the base multiplied by the number of linear units in the altitude, gives the number of solid units in the parallelopipedon. If the three dimensions of another parallelopipedon are valued according to the same linear unit, and multiplied together in the same manner, the two products will be to each other as
is
BOOK
VII.
157
the solids, and will serve to express their relative magniude. The magnitude of a solid, its volume or extent, forms what is called its solidity / and this word is exclusively employed to designate the measure of a solid : thus we say the solidity of a rectangular parallelopipedon is equal to the product of its base by its altitude, or to the product of its three dimensions. As the cube has all its three dimensions equal, if the side is the solidity will be 1 x 1 x 1=:1 : if the side is 2, the solidity 1,
;
:
will be 2 X 2 X 2=8 if the side is 3, the solidity will be 3 x 3 x 3 = 27 and so on hence, if the sides of a series of cubes are to each other as the numbers 1, 2, 3, &c. the cubes themselves or their soHdiiies will be as the numbers 1, 8, 27, &lc. Hence it is, that in arithmetic, the cube of a number is the name given to a product which results from three factors, each equal to
;
this
number.
it were proposed to find a cube double of a given cube, the side of the required cube would have to be to that of the given one, as the cuberoot of 2 is to unity. Now, by a geo
If
metrical construction, it is easy to find the square root of 2 ; but the cuberoot of it cannot be so found, at least not by the simple operations of elementary geometry, which consist in employing nothing but straight lines, two points of which are known, and circles whose centres and radii are determined. Owing to this difficulty the problem of the duplication of the cube became celebrated among the ancient geometers, as well as that of the trisection of an angle^ which is nearly of the same species. The solutions of which such problems are susceptible, have however long since been discovered ; and though less simple than the constructions of elementary geometry, they are not, on that account, less rigorous or less satisfactory.
equal
of a parallelopipedon, and generally of any prisma to the product of its base by its altitude.
first
For, in the
place,
any parallelopipedon
is
equivalent to
a rectangular parallelopipedon, having the same altitude and an equivalent base (Prop. X.). Now the solidity of the latter is equal to its base multiplied by its height hence the solidity of the former is, in like manner, equal to the product of its base
;
by
its
altitude.
In the second place, any triangular prism is half of the parallelopipedon so constructed as to have the same altitude and a double base (Prop. VII.). But the solidity of the latter is equal
1^8
to
GEOMETRY
its base multiplied by its altitude ; hence that of a triangular prism is also equal to the product of its base, which is half thai of the parallelopipedon, multiplied into its altitude. ^n the third place, any prism may be divided into as many triangular prisms of the same altitude, as there are triangles capable of being formed in the polygon which constitutes Us base. But the solidity of each triangular prism is equal to its bdse multiplied by its altitude; and since the altitude is the sarrie for all, it follows that the sum of all the partial prisms mu'st'be equal to the sum of all the partial triangles, which constitiite
their bases, multiplied by the common altitude. 'Heiice the solidity of any polygonal prism, is equal to the
its base by its altitude. Comparing two prisms, which have the same altitude, 'products of their bases by their altitudes will be as the.
product of
^
Co?;.^
the
bases sir^ply ; hence two prisms of the same altitude are to each other as their bases. For a like reason, two prisms of the same base are' to each other as their altitudes. And when neither their bases npr their altitudes are equal, their solidities will be to
eachi other as the products of their bases
and
altitudes.
PROPOSITION XV.
./li
THEOREIVL
equivalent bases
and equal
>iff;
^lidity.
Let SABC,
.ent bases
!)e
Srt6c,
let their
eqo'^a
their
ABC, abc, be situated in the same plane, and let Al common altitude. If they are not equivalent, let ^abt
BOOK
:
VII.
159
be the smaller and suppose Ka to be the altitude of a prism, for its base, is equal to their difference. which having Divide the altitude into equal parts Aa:, xy^ yz, &c. each less than Aa, and let k be one of those parts through the points of division pass planes parallel to the plane of the bases the corresponding sections formed by these planes in the two pyramids will be respectively equivalent, namely DEF to dej^ GHI to ghi^ &c. (Prop. III. Cor. 2.). This being granted, upon the triangles ABC, DEF, GHI, &c. taken as bases, construct exterior prisms having for ed^es the in like manner, on parts AD, DG, GK, &c. of the edge SA bases def^ ghi^ klm, 6lc. in the second pyramid, construct interior prisms, having for edges the corresponding parts of Sa. It is plain that the sum of all the exterior prisms of the pyramid SABC w^ill be greater than this pyramid and also that the sum of all the interior prisms of the pyramid Sabc will be less than this pyramid. Hence the difference, between the sum of all the exterior prisms and the sum of all the interior ones, must be greater than the difference between the two pyramids tliem
ABC
AT
selves.
the bases ABC, ahc, the second exteprism DEFG is equivalent to the first interior prism rfe/*a, beca.use they have the same altitude A*, and their bases DEF, for like reasons, the third exterior prism deff are equivalent GHI,K.and the second interior prism ghi'd are equivalent the fourth exterior and the third interior and so on, to the last in ^ach series. Hence all the exterior prisms of the pyramid SABC, excepting the first prism ABCD, have equivalent corresponding ones in the interior prisms of the pyramid ^abc hence the prism ABCD, is the difterence between the sum of all the exterior prisms of the pyramid SABC, and the sum of the interior prisms of the pyramid Sabc. But the difference betweeri th^se two sets of prisms has already been proved to be greater than that of the two pyramids which latter difference we supposed to be equal to the prism aABC hence the prism ABCD, must be greater than the prism aABC. But in reality it is less for they have the same base ABC, and the altitude Ax of the first is less than Aa the altitude of the second. Hence the supposed inequality between the two pyramids cannot exist hence the two pyramids SABC, Sabc, having equal altitudes and equivalent bases, are themselves equivalent.
rior
160
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
XVI.
THEOREM.
Evp.ry triangular pyramid is a third part of the triangulai prism having the same base and the same altitude.
Let FABC be a triangular pyramid, ABCDEF a triangular prism of the same base and the
j^
q
same
altitude
the
pyramid
will
Cut
off the
pyramid
FABC
from the
FAC
be considered as a quadrangular pyramid, whose vertex is F, and whose base the parallelogram ACDE. is Draw the diagonal CE ; and pass the plane FCE, which will cut the quadrangular pyramid into two triangular ones FACE,FCDE. These two triangular pyramids have for their common altitude the perpendicular let fall from F on the plane ACDE ; they have equal bases, the triangles ACE, CDE being halves of the same parallelogram ; hence the two pyramids FACE, FCDE, But the pyramid FCDE and the are equivalent (Prop. XV.). pyramid FABC have equal bases ABC, DEF; they have also the same altitude, namely, the distance between the parallel planes ABC, DEF hence the two pyramids are equivalent. Now the pyramid FCDE has already been proved equivalent to FACE
hence the three pyramids FABC, FCDE, FACE, which compose the prism ABCDEF are all equivalent. Hence the pyramid FABC is the third part of the prism ABCDEF, which has the same base and the same altitude. Cor, The solidity of a triangular pyramid is equal to a third part of the product of its base by its altitude.
PROPOSITION
The
solidity
XVII.
THEOREM.
BOOK
Let
VII.
161
SABCDE be a pyramid. Pass the planes SEE, SEC, through the diagonals EB, EC ; the polygonal pyramid SABCDE will be divided into several triangular pyramids all having the same altitude SO. But each of these pyramids is measured by multiplying its base ABE, BCE, or CDE, by the third part of its altitude SO (Prop. XVI. Cor.) hence the sum of these triangular pyramids, or the polygonal pyramid SABCDE w ill be measured by the sum of the triangles ABE, BCE, CDE, or the polygon ABCDE, multiplied by one third of SO ; hence every pyramid is measured by a third part of the product of its base by its altitude.
;
Cor. 1. Every pyramid is the third part of the prism which has the same base and the same altitude.
Cor. 2. Two pyramids having the other as their bases.
same
altitude are to
each
havmg
Cor. 4. Pyramids are to each other as the products of their bases by their altitudes.
Scholium. The solidity of any polyedral body may be computed, by dividing the body into pyramids ; and this division may be accomplished in various ways. One of the simplest is to make all the planes of division pass through the vertex of one solid angle ; in that case, there will be formed as many partial pyramids as the polyedron has faces, minus those faces which form the solid angle whence the planes of division
proceed.
PROPOSITION
XVIII.
THEOREM.
If a pyramid be cut by a plane parallel to its base, the frustum that remains when the small pyramid is taken away, is equivalent to the sum of three pyramids having for their common
altitude the altitude of the frustum, and for bases the lower base of the frustum, the upper base, and a mean proportional
;;
162
GEOMETRY.
ing the same altitude and an equivalent base with the pyra
mid
bses
kSABCDE.
The two
as
;
may
be
regarded
situated in the
same plane
in
which case, the plane abed, if produced, will form in the triangular pyramid a section fgh situated at the same distance above the common plane of the bases and therefore the section jfg/i will be to the section afecf/e as the base FGH is to the base ABD (Prop. III.), and since the bases are equivalent, the sections will be so likewise. Hence the pyramids Sabcde, Tfgh are equivalent, for their altitude is the same and their bases are equivalent. The whole pyramids SABCDE, TFGH are equivalent for the same reason hence the frustums ABDdab, FGKhfg are equivalent hence if the proposition can be proved in the single case of the frustum of a triangular pyramid, it will be true of every
;
other.
Let FGH/i^ be the frustum of a triangular pyramid, having parallel bases through the three points F, g^ H, pass the plane F^H it will cut off from the frustum the triangular pyramid gFGH. This pyramid has for its base the lower of the frustum ; its altitude base likewise is that of the frustum, because the vertex g lies in the plane of the upper base fgh. This pyramid being cut off, there will
;
FGH
pyramid quadrangular remain the gfhOFf whose vertex is g, and base /AHF.
it
rangular pyramid into two triangular pyramids gFfHf gfltillatter has for its base the upper base gfh of the frustum and fo** its altitude, the altitude of the frustum, because its verThus we already know two of tex rl lies in the lower base. tliC three pyramids which compose the frustum.
Now, if ^K be It remains to examine the third ^FfH. drawn parallel to /*F, and if we conceive a new pyramid KF/H, having K for its vertex and Ffll for its base, these two pyramids will have the same base FfH they will also have the same altitude, because their vertices g and K lie in the line gK, parallel to F/, and consequently parallel to the
;
BOOK
plane of the base
the
/,
:
VII.
163
hence these pyramids are equivalent. But pyramid KF/H may be regarded as having its vertex in and thus its altitude will be the same as that of the frustum
as to its base FKH, Mve are now to proportional between the bases
show
that this
is
mean
angles
FGH and fgh. Now, the triFHK,^/i, have each an equal angle F=/; hence FHK fgh FKxFH fgxfh (Book IV. Prop. XXIV.)
: : :
FK==^, hence
:
FHK
We
have
also,
fgh
: :
:FR
FG
:
fh.
FHG
hence,
FHK
FK or fg.
FGH,^/t
give
FG:/^::FH:/A;
or the base is a mean proportional between the two bases FGH, fgh. Hence the frustum of a triangular pyramid is equivalent to three pyramids whose common altitude is that of the frustum and whose bases are the lower base of the frustum, the upper base, and a mean proportional between the
FGH FHK
FHK
FHK
fgh;
two bases.
homologous
CBDP
as
BC^
For, since the prisms are similar, the planes which conC C tain the homologous solid angles B and b, are similar, like placed, and equally inclined to each other (Def. 17.) : hence the solid angles B and 6, are equal (Book VI. Prop. XXI. Sch.). If these solid angles be applied to each other, the angle cbd w'lW coincide with CBD, the side ba with B A, and the prism cbdp will take the position Bcdp. From A draw perpendicular to the common base of the prisms : then will the plane be perpendicular to the plane of the com
AH
BAH
164
GEOMETRY.
ah
Prop. XVI.). Through a, in the plane perpendicular to
BAH.
BH then will ah also be perpendicular to the base (Book VI. Prop. XVII.) ; and
BDC
AH, ah
of the
will
be the altitudes
two prisms.
ABH,B/i, and of the
parallelograms
AC, ac,
: :
we have
AH
base
ah
AB
:
cz6
BC
he.
similar,
:
we
hd"
have
BCD
base bed
BC^
lience,
base
ahf
BCD
base bed
AH^
ah^.
AH, and
: :
the consequents by
and
we have
base
BCDxAK
:
base bed x ah
is
AH^
ah\
But the
solidity of a
prism
;
XIV.) prism bedp AH^ ah^ : BC^ BCDP or as the cubes of any other of their homologous sides.
the altitude (Prop.
prism
bc\
Whatever be the bases of similar prisms, the prisma be to each other as the cubes of their homologous sides. For, since the prisms are similar, their bases will be similar polygons (Def. 17.) and these similar polygons may be divided into an equal number of similar triangles, similarly placed (Book IV. Prop. XXVI.) therefore the two prisms may be divided into an equal number of triangular prisms, having their and therefore, equally inclined faces similar and like placed (Book VI. Prop. XXI.) hence the prisms will be similar. But these triangular prisms will be to each other as the cubes of their homologous sides, which sides being proportional, the
Cor,
will
;
: ;
is, the polygonal prisms, will be to each other as the cubes of their homologous sides.
Two
homologous
sides.
BOOK
VII.
\0b
For, since the pyramids are similar, the sohd angles at the vertices will be contained by the same number of similar planes, like placed, and equally inchned to each other (Def. 17.). Hence, the solid angles at the vertices may be made to coincide, or the two pyramids
may
S common.
In that position, the bases ABCDE, abcde^ A.i be parallel ; because, since the homologous faces are similar, the angle Sab is equal to SAB, and She to SBC ; hence the plane ABC is parallel to the plane abc (Book VI. Prop. XIII.). This being proved, let SO be the perpendicular drawn from the vertex S to the plane ABC, and o the point where this perpendicular meets the plane abc: from what has already been
will
shown,
we
shall
:
have
: :
SO
So
SA
:
Sa
:
AB
AB
:
ab (Prop.
ab.
III.)
and consequently,
But the bases
ABCDE
AB^
ABCDE x^SO abcde x^So Now ABCDE x^SO the solidity of the
: :
AB^
ab\
is
pyramid
SABCDE,
and abcde X 1^0 is that of the pyramid Sabcde (Prop. XVII.) nence two similar pyramids are to each other as the cubes of their homologous sides.
General Scholium,
chief propositions of this Book relating to the solidity ol polyedrons, may be exhibited in algebraical terms, and so recapitulated in the briefest manner possible. Let B represent the base of a prism ; its altitude : the solidity of the prism will be B x H, or BH. Let B represent the base of a pyramid ; its altitude : the solidity of the pyramid will be B x ^H, or x ^B, or ^BH. represent the altitude of the frustum of a pyramid, Let
The
H H
A and B VAB will be the mean probetween those bases and the solidity of the frustum
; ;
willbe^Hx(A + B+N/AB).
In
fine, let
P and p
;
A
V
represent the solidities of two similar and , two homologous edges then we
:
A}
a^
i08
GEOMETRY.
BOOK
VIII.
BODIES.
cylinder is the solid generated by the revolution of a 1. rectangle ABCD, conceived to turn about the immoveable
side
AB.
In this movement, the sides AD, BC, continuing always perpendicular to AB, describe equal circles DHP, CGQ, which are called the bases of the cylinder^ the side at the same time describing the convex surface. The immoveable line AB is called the axis
CD
of the cylinder.
Every
section
KLM, made
is
in the cylinder,
a circle equal to either of the bases ; for, whilst the rectangle ABCD turns about AB, the hne KI, perpendicular to AB, describes a circle, equal to the base, and this circle is nothing else than the section made perpendicular to
at right angles to the axis,
I.
through the axis, is a rectangle double of the generating rectangle ABCD. cone is the solid generated by the revolution of a right2. angled triangle SAB, conceived to turn about the immoveable
section
Every
PQG, made
side
SA.
H ^ii
In this movement, the side AB describes a circle BDCE, named the base of the cone ; the hypothenuse SB describes the convex
surface of The point S is named the vertex of the the axis or the altitude, and SB conCf the side or the apothem. Every section HKFI, at right angles to every section SDE, the axis, is a circle through the axis, is an isosceles triangle
the cone.
SA
double of the generating triangle SAB. 3. If from the cone SCDB, the cone SFKH be cut off by a plane parallel to the base, the remaining solid CBHF is called a truncated cone, or the frustum of a con
BOOK We
BH
may
conceive
it
VIIL
167
to
and trapezoid ABHG, whose angles the side AG. The immoveable line altitude of the frustum^ the circles BDC,
is its
be generated by the revolution of a G are right angles, about A AG is called the axis or
HEK,
are
its
bases,
and
side. theii
4. Tw^o cylinders, or two cones, are similar, when axes are to each other as the diameters of their bases. 5. If in the circle ACD, which forms the base of a cylinder, a polygon be mscribed, a right prism, constructed on this base ABODE, and equal in altitude to the cylinder, is said to be inscribed in the cylinder, or the cylinder to be circumscribed about the prism. The edges AF, BG, OH, &c. of the prism, being perpendicular to the plane of the base, are evidently included in the convex surface of the cylinder ; hence the prism and the cylinder touch one another along these
ABODE
edges.
6. In like manner, if is a polygon, circumscribed about the base of a cylinder, a right prism, constructed on this base ABOD, and equal in altitude to the
ABOD
cylinder,
is
be inscribed
in the prism.
Let M, N, &c. be the points of contact AB, BO, &c. and through the points M,N,&c. let MX, NY, &c. be drawn
in the sides
;
Ak
perpendicular to the plane of the base: these perpendiculars will evidently lie both in the surface of the cylinder, and in that of the circumscribed prism hence they will be their lines of
contact.
7. If in the circle ABODE, which forms the base of a cone, any polygon be inscribed, and from the vertices A, B,
ABODE
0, D, E, lines be drawn to S, the vertex of the cone, these lines may be regarded as the sides of a pyramid whose base is the polygon and vertex S. The sides of this pyramid are in the convex surface of the cone, and the pyramid is said to be inscribed in the cone.
ABODE
168
8.
GEOMETRY.
The
sphere
is
The sphere may be conceived to be generated by the revolution of a semicircle DAE about its diameter or the surface described in this movement, by the curve
DE
DAE, will have all its points equally distant from its centre C. 9. Whilst the semicircle revolving round its di
DAE
ameter
sphere
;
DE,
describes
the
any circular sector, as DCF or'FCH, describes a solid, which is named a spherical
10.
sector.
radius of a sphere is a straight line drawn from the centre to any point of the surface the diameter or axis is a line passing through this centre, and terminated on both sides by the surface. All the radii of a sphere are equal all the diameters are equal, and each double of the radius. 11. It will be shown (Prop. VII.) that every section of the sphere, made by a plane, is a circle this granted, a great circle is a section which passes through the centre ; a small circlet is one which does not pass through the centre. 12. plane is tangent to a sphere, when their surfaces have but one point in common. 13. zone is a portion of the surface of the sphere included
; ; :
The
between two
tliese
parallel planes,
which form
its
bases.
One
of
planes may be tangent to the sphere ; in which case, the zone has only a single base. spherical segment is the portion of the solid sphere, 14. included between two parallel planes which form its bases. One of these planes may be tangent to the sphere in which case, the segment has only a single base. 15. The altitude of a zone or of a segment is the distance between the two parallel planes, which form the bases of the zone or segment. Note. The Cylinder, the Cone, and the Sphere, are the three round bodies treated of in the Elements of Geometry.
BOOK
VIII.
169
PROPOSITION
llie
I.
THEOREM.
equal
to the .circumference of
is
base multiplied by
its altitude.
Let CA be the radius of the its given cylinder's base, and circumference altitude the whose radius is CA being represented by circ. CA, we are to show that the convex surface of the cylinder is equal to circ. CA
xH.
Inscribe in the circle any regular polygon, BDEFGA, and
on this polygon a right prism having its altitude equal to H, the altitude of the cyhnThe convex der this prism will be inscribed in the cylinder. surface of the prism is equal to the perimeter of the polygon, (Book VII. Prop. I.). Let now multiplied by the altitude the arcs which subtend the sides of the polygon be continually bisected, and the number of sides of the polygon indefinitely increased the perimeter of the polygon will then become equal to circ. CA (Book V. Prop. VIII. Cor. 2.), and the convex surface of the prism will coincide with the convex surface of the cylinder. But the convex surface of the prism is equal to the perimeter of its base multiplied by H, whatever be the number of sides hence, the convex surface of the cylinder is equal to the circumference of its base multiplied by its altitude.
j'.onstruct
:
PROPOSITION
T/w
solidity
II.
THEOREM.
to the
of a cylinder
is
equal
its
altitude.
170
GEOMETRY.
on
this
polygon a right
its
prism having
altitude equal
:
H, the
this
in the cylinder.
The
solidity of the
area of the polygon multiplied by the altitude (Book VIL Prop. XIV.). Let now the number of sides of the polygon be indefinitely increased the solidity of the new prism will still be equal to its base multiplied by its altitude. But when the number of sides of the polygon is indefinitely increased, its area becomes equal to the area CA, and its perimeter coincides with circ. CA (Book V. Prop. VIII. Cor. 1. 2.) ; the inscribed prism then coincides with the cylinder, since their altitudes are equal, and their convex surfaces perpendicular to the common base hence the two solids will be equal ; therefore the solidity of a cylinder is equal to the product of its base by its altitude.
:
&
Cor,
I.
their bases
Cylinders of the same altitude are to each other as ; and cylinders of the same base are to each other
as their altitudes.
Cor. 2. Similar cylinders are to each other as the cubes of their altitudes, or as the cubes of the diameters of their bases.
For the bases are as the squares of their diameters ; and the cylinders being similar, the diameters of their bases are to each other as the altitudes (Def. 4.) ; hence the bases are as the squares of the altitudes ; hence the bases, multiplied by the altitudes, or the cylinders themselves, are as the cubes of the altitudes.
Scholium, Let R be the radius of a cylinder's base ; the the surface of the base will be nJR^ (Book V. Prop. .X:il. Cor. 2.) ; and the solidity of the cylinder will be ^iR^xH or 7r.R9.H.
altitude
:
BOOK
VIII.
ITl
PROPOSITION
The convex surface of a cone
III.
THEOREM.
is
bascy multiplied
Let the
circle
ABCD
S
be the
base of a cone,
SO
side
:
SA
then will its convex surface be equal to arc. OAx^S A. For, inscribe in the base of the cone any regular polygon
ABCD,
and on this polygon as a base conceive a pyramid to be constructed having S for its vertex this pyramid will be a regular pyramid, and will be inscribed
;
in the cone.
one of the sides of the inscribed pyramid is equal to the perimeter of the polygon which forms its base, multiplied by half the slant height SG (Book VII. Prop. IV.). Let now the number of sides of the inscribed polygon be indefinitely increased the perimeter of the inscribed polygon will then
S,
to
;
From
become equal
to ciix. OA, the slant height SG will become equal to the side SA of the cone, and the convex surface of the pyramid to the convex surface of the cone. But whatever be the number of sides of the polygon which forms the base, the convex surface of the pyramid is equal to the perimeter of the base multiplied by half the slant height : hence the convex surface of a cone is equal to the circumference of the base multiplied by half the side. the radius of its Scholium. Let L be the side of a cone, base ; the circumference of this base will be 2^.R, and the surface of the cone will be 27iR x ^L, or nRh,
PROPOSITION
IV.
THEOREM.
Hie convex surface of the frustum of a cone is equal to its side multiplied by half the sum of the circumferences of its two
bases
172
Let
cone
:
GEOMETRY.
BIADE
then will
its
equal to
AD x (^'>^OA+ctVc.CD^^
For, iascribe in the bases of the frustums two regular polygons of the same number of sides, and having
their
homologous sides
parpllel,
each
the vertices of the homologous angles maybe regarded as the edges of the frustum of a regular pyramid inscribed in the frustum of the cone. The convex surface of the frustum of the pyramid is equal to half the sum of the perimeters of its bases multiplied by the slant height fh (Book VII. Prop. IV. Cor.). Let now the number of sides of the inscribed polygons be indefinitely increased the perimeters of the polygons will become equal to the circumferences BIA, the slant height ; //iwill become equal to the side or BE, and the surfaces of the two frustums will coincide and become the same surface. But the convex surface of the frustum of the pyramid will still be equal to half the sum of the perimeters of the upper and lower bases multiplied by the slant height hence the surface of the frustum of a cone is equal to its side multiplied by half the sum of the circumferences of its two bases.
to each.
lines joining
:
The
EGD
AD
the middle point of AD, draw /KL paralD^, parallel to CO. Then, since A/, ZD, are equal, Ai, id, will also be equal (Book IV. Prop. XY. Cor. 2.) But since the circumfehence, KZ is equal to ^(OA + CD). rences of circles are to each other as their radii (Book V. Prop. XL), the circ, Yil=\{circ. 0A + arc. CD) therefore, the convex surface of a frustum of a cone is equal to its side multiplied hy the circumference of a section at equal distances from
Cor, Through
to
Z,
lel
AB, and
Zi,
the
two bases.
Scholium. If a line AD, lying wholly on one side of the line in the same plane, make a revolution around DC, x will have for its measure the surface described by
OC, and
AD
AD
/ circ.AO + circ.DC
y ^^ j^jy ^ ^.^^
^j^. ^^^
being perpendiculars, let fall from the extremities and from the middle point of AD, on the axis OC. and OC are produced till they meet in S, the For, if is evidently the frustum of a cone surface described by
AD
AD
BOOK VIII.
having
as
AO
and
DC
v i
Hence
be measuivd
we have said. This measure will always hold good, even when the point D falls on S, and thus forms a whole cone ; and also when the In is parallel to the axis, and thus forms a cylinder. line the first case DC would be nothing in the second, DC would be equal to AO and to IK.
AD
PROPOSITION
The
solidity
V.
THEOREM.
base multiplied by a third of
of a cone
is
equal
to its
its altitude.
Let
radius of its base, and let the area of the base be designated : it is to be proved that by area
OA the
OA
is equal to area x ^SO. Inscribe in the base of the cone any regular polygon ABDEF, and join the vertices A, B, C, &c. with the vertex S of the cone ; then will
OA
regular pyramid having the same vertex as the cone, and having for its base the polygon ABDEF. The solidity of this pyramid is equal to its base multiplied by one third of its altitude (Book VII. Prop. XVII.). Let now the number of sides of the polygon be indefinitely increased the polygon will then become equal to the circle, and the pyramid and cone will coincide and become equal. But the solidity of the pyramid is equal to its base multiplied by one third of its altitude, whatever be the number of sides of the polygon which forms its base : hence the solidity of the cone is equal to its base multiplied by a third of its altitude.
:
Cor. A cone is the third of a cylinder having the same base and the same altitude whence it follows, 1. That cones of equal altitudes are to each other as their
;
bases
2.
to
altitudes
3.
174
GEOMETRY.
Cor, 2. The solidity of a cone is equivalent to the solidity of a pyramid having an equivalent base and the same altitude (Book VII. Prop. XVIL).
its altibe the radius of a cone's base, Scholium, Let tude the solidity of the cone will be nR^ x H, or ^tiR^H.
;
PROPOSITION
The
solidity
VI.
THEOREM
solidities
of the frustum of a cone is equal to the sum of the of three cones whose common altitude is the altitude of the frustum, and whose bases are, the upper base of the frustum, the lower base of the frustum, and a mean proportional between them.
Let
solidity
cone, and
i^ X
OP X (AO^+DPH AO X DP).
For, inscribe in the lower and upper bases two regular polygons having the same number of sides, and having their homologous sides parallel, each to each. Join the vertices of the homologous angles and there will then be inscribed in the frustum of the cone, the frustum of a regular pyramid. The soHdity of the frustum of the pyramid is equivalent to three pyramids having the common altitude of the frustum, and for bases, the lower base of the frustum, the upper base of the frustum, and a mean proportional between them (Book VII. Prop. XVIII.). Let now, the number of sides of the inscribed polygons be indefinitely increased: the bases of the frustum of the pyramid will then coincide with the bases of the frustum of the cone, and the two frustums will coincide and become the same solid. Since the area of a circle is equal to R^.tt (Book V. Prop. XII. Cor. 2.), the expression for the solidities of the frustum will \)ecome
for the
first
pyramid
AO X PD.Tt
Hence ^nOP X
x PD.tt ; since J OP x proportional between OA.^r and PD'.n the solidity of the frustum of the cone is measured bv
is
AO
mean
(OAHPDH AO X PD).
BOOK Vlll.
PROPOSITION
VII.
175
THEOREM.
is
Every
section of a sphere,
made by a plane,
circle.
be a section, made by a Let plane, in the sphere whose centre is C. perpenFrom the point C, draw
AMB
CO
;
and diffedicular to the plane rent lines CM, CM, to different points of the curve AMB, which terminates
the section.
AMB
The
oblique lines
are
equal, being radii of the sphere ; hence (Book VI. they are equally distant from the perpendicular Prop. V. Cor.) ; therefore all the lines OM, OM, OB, are equal is a circle, whose centre is O. consequently the section
CO
AMB
1. If the section passes through the centre of the sphere, radius will be the radius of the sphere ; hence all great circles are equal.
Cor
its
Cor, 2.
their
Two
for
is
common
diameter.
Cor.
into
3. Every great circle divides the sphere and its surface two equal parts for, if the two hemispheres were sepa:
rated and afterwards placed on the common base, with their convexities turned the same way, the two surfaces would exactly coincide, no point of the one being nearer the centre than any point of the other.
Cor. 4. The centre of a small circle, and that of the sphere, are in the same straight line, perpendicular to the plane of the email circle.
Small circles are the less the further they lie from Cor. 5. the centre of the sphere ; for the greater is, the less is the chord AB, the diameter of the small circle AMB.
CO
Cor. 6. An arc of a great circle may always be made to pass through any two given points of the surface of the sphere for the two given points, and the centre of the sphere make three points which determine the position of a plane. But if the two given points were at the extremities of a diameter, these two points and the centre would then lie in one straight line, and an infinite number of great circles might be made to pass through the two given points.
;
176
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
VIII.
THEOREM.
its
extremity
is
tangent
Let
extremity A. plane being assumed, and OM, AM, being drawn, the angle will be a right angle, and hence the distance will be greater than OA. Hence the point lies without the sphere and as the same can be shown for every other point of the plane FAG, this plane can have no point but common to it and the surface of the sphere hence it is a tangent plane (Def. 12.)
to the radius
Any
point
M in
OA,
at
its
this
0AM
OM
;
Scholium. In the same way it may be shown, that two spheres have but one point in common, and therefore touch each other, when the distance between their centres is equal to the sum, or the difference of their radii in which case, the centres and the point of contact lie in the same straight line.
;
PROPOSITION
IX.
LEMMA.
If a regular semipolygon be revolved about a line passing through the centre and the vertices of two opposite angles, the surface described by its perimeter will be equal to the axis multiplied by the circumference of the inscribed circle.
Let the regular semipolygon ABCDEF, be revolved about the line AF as an axis then will the surface described by its perimeter be equal to AF multiplied by the circumference of the inscribed circle. From E and D, the extremities of one of
:
fall
the perpendiculars
EH,
tre
;
1)1,
circle
BOOK
VIII.
in
(Prop. IV. Sch.). been shown to be equal to DE x circ. But since the triangles EDK, ONM, are similar (Book IV.
NM
Prop.
circ.
XXL),
;
ED
EK or HI
may
ON NM, or as
:
circ.
ON
NM
hence
equal to
Cor,
The
ter, as
EDC,
is
DE
DC ED
ON
equal to
HP x circ. ON.
PROPOSITION
X.
THEOREM.
product of its diameter by a great circle.
is
equal
to the
the circumference of
Let ABODE be a semicircle. Inscribe in any regular semipolygon, and from the centre O draw OF perpendicular to one of
it
the sides.
Let the semicircle and the semipolygon be revolved about the axis AE the semicircumference will describe the surface of a sphere (Def 8.) and the perimeter of the semipolygon will describe a surface which has for its measure x circ. OF (Prop. IX.), and this will be true whatever be the number of sides of the poBut if the number of sides of the polygon be indefilygon. nitely increased, its perimeter will coincide with the circumference ABODE, the perpendicular OF will become equal to OE, and the surface described by the perimeter of the semipolygon will then be the same as that described by the semicircumference ABODE. Hence the surface of the sphere is equal to AE x circ. OE.
:
ABODE
AE
of
Cor. Since the area of a great circle is equal to the product its circumference by half the radius, or one fourth of the
78
GEOMETRY.
S2}here
diameter (Book V. Prop. XII.), it follows that the surja^e of a is equal to four of its great circles: that is, equal to 47r.OA'^ (Book V. Prop. XII. Cor. 2.). Scholium
1.
is equal of a great circle. For, the surface described by any portion of the perimeter of the inscribed polygon, as BC + CD, is equal to xciVc. OF (Prop. IX. Cor.). But when the number of sides of the polygon is indefinitely increased, BC + CD, becomes the arc BCD, OF becomes equal to OA, and the surface described by BC + CD, becomes the surface of the zone described by the arc BCD hence the surface of the zone is equal to x circ. OA.
to its altitude
mul
EH
EH
Scholium 2. When the zone has but one base, as the zone described by the arc ABCD, its surface will still be equal to the altitude multiplied by the circumference
AE
of a great
circle.
Scholium 3. Two zones, taken in the same sphere or in equal spheres, are to each other as their altitudes ; and any zone is to the surface of the sphere as the altitude of the zone is to the
diameter of the sphere.
PROPOSITION
,
XI.
LEMMA.
If a triangle and a rectangle having the same base and the same altitude, turn together about the common base, the solid described by the triangle will be a third of the cylinder described by the
rectangle.
be the triangle, and BE the rectangle fall the perpendicular AD: the cone described by the triangle ABD is the third part of the cylinder described by the rectan
Let
ACB
On
gle
AFBD
(Prop.
Cor.)
also the
the third pa*; of the cylinder de ^ scribed by ^ne rectangle hence the sum of the two ; cones, or the solid described by ABC, is the third part of the two cylinders taken together, or of the cylinder described by
ADC
ADCE
the rectangle
BCEF.
BOOK
If the perpendicular
VIII.
179
AD
falls
without
ABC
two cones described by ABD and ACD but at the same time, the cylinder described by BCEF will be the difference Hence of the two cylinders described by AFBD and AECD. the solid, desciibed by the revolution of the triangle, will still DC a third part of the cylinder described by the revolution of the rectangle having the same base and the same altitude.
;
Scholium, The circle of which AD is radius, has for its measure n x AD^ hence tj x AD^ x BC measures the cylinder described by BCEF, and ^n x AD^ x BC measures the solid described by the triangle ABC.
;
PROPOSITION
XII.
LEMMA.
If a triangle he revolved about a line drawn at pleasure through its vertex, the solid described by the triangle mill have for its measure, the area of the triangle multiplied by two thirds of lite
Let
CAB
be the
triangle,
and
CD
it
revolves.
Produce the side AB till it meets the axis CD in D from the points A and B, draw AM, BN, perpendicular to the axis, and CP perpendicular to DA produced.
;
The
angle
solid
described by the
;
tri
CAD is measured by \n x AM^ X CD (Prop. XI. Sch.) the solid CBD measured by ^n x BN^ x CD
is
]vtx:N^
described by the triangle
;
by ABC,
measure i7r(AM2BN^) x CD. To this expression another form may be given. From I, the middle point of AB,draw IK perpendicular to CD and through B, draw BO parallel to CD: we shall have + BN = 2IK (Book IV. Prop. VII.) and BN=AO hence (AM(. BN) X (AMNB), or AM^BN2=2IK x AO (Book IV. Prop X.). Hence the measure of the solid in question is ex pressed by
; ;
AM
AM
;
f^xIKxAOxCD.
180
GEOMETRY.
perpendicular to
AB,
the triangles
ABO
hence
but
AO CP AB CD AO x CD = CP x AB
:
: ;
CP X AB
is
ABC
hence
we have
A0xCD2ABC;
hence the
triangle
solid described
by
the
by f TT same
circ,
ABC is also measured X ABC X IK, or which is the thing, by ABC x aVc. IK,
being equal to 2n x IK.
Q'
the solid described by the
IK
Hence
revolution of the triangle Jias for its measure the area of this triangle multiplied by two thirds of the circumference traced by I, the middle point of the base.
ABC
M:x:]sr
dicular
will be
ABxCI,
and the
^n x
ABC x
IK will become fyrxABx IK X CI. But the triangles ABO, CIK, are similar, and
give the proportion
or
MN
AB BO
: :
solid
IK; hence ABxIK=MNxCI; hence the described by the isosceles triangle ABC will have for its
: :
CI
measure
l^txCPxMN
that
is,
equal
to
the square of the perpendicular let fall on the base^ into the distance between the two perpendiculars let fall on the axis.
Scholium.
position that
The
produced will meet the axis but the results would be equally true, though AB were parallel to the axis. Thus, the cylinder described by AMNB is equal to tt.AM^.MN; the cone described by is equal to ^tt.AM^.CM, and the cone described by BCN to ^ttAM^ CN. Add the first two solids and take away the third we shall have the solid described by ABC equal to tt.AM^. (MN + iCN): and since =MN, this expression is reducible to yr.AM^.fMN, or fn.CP.MN which agrees
AB
ACM
iCM
CN CM
BOOK
PROPOSITION
[f
VIII.
18J
XIII.
LEMMA.
a regular semipolygon be revolved about a line passing through the centre and the vertices of two opposite angles, the solid described will be equivalent to a cone, having for its base the inscribed circle, and for its altitude twice the axis about which the semipolygon is revolved.
FABG be revolved
FG
then, if
01 be
OF
circle.
is meaNow, the solid described by sured by fTt OPJtMN (Prop. XII. Cor.) ; the solid described by the triangle has for its measure I^OPxFM, the solid described by the triangle OBC, has for its measure f tiOP x NO, and since the same may be shown for the solid described by each of the other triangles, it follows that the entire solid described by the semipolygon is measured by ^OI2.(FM + + + + QG),or l^OPxFG; which is also equal to ^jiOP x 2FG. But tt.OP is the area of the inscribed circle (Book V. Prop. XII. Cor. 2.) : hence the solidity is equivalent to a cone whose base is area 01, and
OAB
OFA
MN NO OQ
altitude
2FG.
PROPOSITION
,
XIV.
THEOREM.
a
T%e
solidity
of a sphere
182
GEOMETRY.
a Inscribe in the semicircle regular semipolygon, having any number of sides, and let 01 be the radius of the circle inscribed in the polygon.
If the semicircle and semipolygon be revolved about EA, the semicircle will describe a sphere, and the semipolygon a solid which has for its measure fjiOPx (Prop. XIII.) ; and this will be true whatever be the number of sides of the polygon. But if the number of sides of
ABCDE
EA
the polygon be indefinitely increased, the semipolygon will become the semicircle,
E
01
will
become
equal to
OA, and
become the sphere hence the solidity of the sphere is equal to fTiOA^xEA, or by substituting 20A for EA, it becomes I^.OA^ X OA, which is also equal to 47r0A2 x ^OA. But 4n.0A^
is equal to the surface of the sphere (Prop. X. Cor.) hence the solidity of a sphere is equal to its surface multiplied by a
:
third of
its
radius.
.
Scholium 1 The solidity of every spherical sector is equal to the zone which forms its hase^ multiplied by a third of the radius. For, the solid described by any portion of the regular polygon, as the isosceles triangle OAB, is measured by fyrOF x AF and when the polygon becomes the circle, (Prop. XII. Cor.)
;
becomes the sector AOB, 01 becomes equal to OA, and the solid described becomes a spherical sector. But its measure then becomes equal to fyr.AO^ x AF, which is equal But 27r.AO is the circumference of a to 27T.AO X AF X yAO. great circle of the sphere (Book V. Prop. XII. Cor. 2.), which being multiplied by AF gives the surface of the zone which forms the base of the sector (Prop. X. Sch. 1.): and the proof is equally applicable to the spherical sector described by the
the portion
circular sector is equal to the zone
OAB
BOC
which forms
hence, the solidity of the spherical sector its base, multiplitd by a third
of the radius.
R,
Scholium 2. Since the surface of a sphere whose radius is is expressed by 47rR^ (Prop. X. Cor.), it follows tliat the surfaces of spheres are to each other as the squares of their radii and since their solidities are as their surfaces mjltiplied by their radii, it follows that the solidities of spheres are to each other as the cubes of their radii^ or as the cubes of thei
;
diameters.
BOOK
will
VIII.
183
Scholium 3. Let R be the radius of a sphere its surface be expressed by 4iR, and its solidity by AnK' x ^R, or 7iR^. If the diameter is called D, we shall have R=D, and R^=:iD^ hence the solidity of the sphere may likewise be expressed by
;
:
of a sphere is to the whole surface of the circumscribed cylinder, including its bases, as 2 is to 3 ; and the solidities of these two bodies are to each other in the same ratio.
be a great circle of the Let the circumscribed q sphere and square if the semicircle are at the the half square same time made to revolve about the diameter PQ, the semicircle will generate the sphere, while the half square will generate the cylinder circum. scribed about that sphere. B of the cylinder is The altitude equal to the diameter PQ the base of the cylinder is equal to the great circle, since its diameter AB hence, the convex surface of the cylinder is is equal to equal to the circumference of the great circle muUiplied by its diameter (Prop. 1.). This measure is the same as that of the surface of the sphere (Prop. X.) hence the surface of the sphere
;
MPNQ
:
ABCD
PMQ
PADQ
AD
MN
convex surface of the circumscribed cylinder. But the surface of the sphere is equal to four great circles hence the convex surface of the cylinder is also equal to four great circles and adding the two bases, each equal to a great circle, the total surface of the circumscribed cylinder will be equal to six great circles ; hence the surface of the sphere is to the total surface of the circumscribed cylinder as 4 is to 6, or as 2 is to 3 which was the first branch of the Proposition. In the next place, since the base of the circumscribed cylinder is equal to a great circle, and its altitude to the diameter, the solidity of the cylinder will be equal to a great circle mulBut the solidity of the tiplied by its diameter (Prop. II.). sphere is equal to four great circles multiplied by a third of the radius (Prop. XIV.) in other terms, to one great circle multihence the plied by ^ of the radius, or by  of the diameter sphere is to the circumscribed cylinder as 2 to 3, and consequently the solidities of these two bodies are as their surfacer
is
equal
to the
184
Scholium.
;
GEOMETRY.
this
Conceive a polyedron, all of whose faces touch polyedron may be considered as formed ol pyramids, each having for its vertex the centre of the sphere, and for its base one of the polyedron's faces. Now^ it is evident that all these pyramids will have the radius of the sphere for their common altitude so that each pyramid will be equal to one face of the polyedron multiplied by a third of the radius hence the whole polyedron will be equal to its surface multithe sphere
:
third of the radius of the inscribed sphere. therefore manifest, that the solidities of polyedrons circumscribed about the sphere are to each other as the surfaces of those polyedrons. Thus the property, which we have shown to be true with regard to the circumscribed cylinder, is also true with regard to an infinite number of other bodies. might likewise have observed that the surfaces of polyplied
It is
by a
We
gons, circumscribed about the circle, are to each other as theii perimeters.
PROPOSITION
XVI.
PROBLEM.
If a circular segment he supposed to make a revolution about a diameter exterior to it, required the value of the solid which it
describes.
BMD revolve
;
about AC.
On
BE,
fall
the perpendiculars
DF
^
1).
CB, CD.
described by the sector
f^r
^C But the solid described by the isosceles triangle DCB has for its meahence the sohd described sure f7r.CI.EF (Prop. XII. Cor.) by the segment BMD=^.EF.(CB2 CP). ]Vow, in the righthence angled triangle CBI, we have CB^ CP=BP=iBD2 will have for its meathe solid described by the segment sure 7r.EF.lBD^ or itt.BD^.EF: that is one swth of n into
solid
is
The
BCD
measured by
CB^.EF
(Prop.
XIV. Sch.
BMD
the square of the chord, into the distance between the two perpendiculars let fall from the extremities of tht arc on the
axis.
is to Scholium. The solid described by the segment for its diameter, as ijr.BDlEF is has the sphere which to i^.BD^ or as EF to BD.
BMD
BD
BOOK
PROPOSITION
Every segment of a sphere
its
VIII.
185
XVII.
THEOREM.
the half
is
measured by
altitude, plus
sum
oj
bases multiplied by
its
the solidity
of a
is this
same
altitude.
Let BE, DF, be the radii of the two bases of the segment, EF its altitude, the segment being described by the revolution of the circular space about the axis FE. The solid described by the segment equal to ^tt.BD.EF is (Prop. XVI.) and the truncated cone described by the trapezoid is equal to i7r.EF.(BEH DF+ BE.DF) (Prop. VI.); hence the segment of the sphere, which is the sum of those two solids, must be equal to J7r.EF.(2BE2+2DF2+2BE.DF + BD?)
BMDFE
BMD
;
BDFE
But, drawing BO parallel to EF, we shall have BE, hence DO^DF^2DF.BE + BE2 (Book IV. Prop. IX.) and consequently BD2=B02+D02=EF2+DF2DF.BE+BE'^. Put this value in place of BD^ in the expression for the value of the segment, omitting the parts which destroy each other we shall obtain for the solidity of the segment,
;
DO=DF
an expression which
parts
the
1 ^^^"g ^he
sum of the bases multiplied by the altitude ; while the other iTT.EP represents the sphere of which EF is the diameter (Prop. XIV. Sch.) : hence every segment of a sphere, &c.
Cor. If either of the bases is nothing, the segment in quesbecomes a spherical segment with a single base ; hence any spherical segment, with a single base, is equivalent to half
tion
the cylinder having the same base and the same altitude, plus the sphere of which this altitude is the diameter.
General Scholium.
the radius of a cylinder's base, its altitude : the solidity of the cylinder will be ttR^ x H, or tiR^H. be the radius of a cone's base, Let its altitude : the solidity of the cone will be t^R^x H, or ^ttR^H. and B be the radii of the bases of a truncated cone, Let
Let
R be
R
186
GEOMETRY.
altitude
:
its
(AHBHAB). Let R be the radius of a sphere its solidity will be f Let R be the radius of a spherical sector, H the altitude
;
of
the zone,
which forms its base the solidity of the sector will be I^R^H. Let P and Q be the two bases of a spherical segment, H its
:
segment
will
be
Zj^.H+jtt.HI
piQ
If the spherical segment has but one base, the other being nothing, its solidity will be iFH+i^lP.
BOOK
IX.
Definitions.
1.
A spherical triangle
is
and are than a semicircumference. The angles, w^hich their planes form with each other, are the angles of the triangle. spherical triangle takes the name of rightangled, 2. isosceles, equilateral, in the same cases as a rectilineal triangle. spherical polygon is a portion of the surface of a sphere 3. terminated by several arcs of great circles. lune is that portion of the surface of a sphere, which is 4. included between two great semicircles meeting in a common
sides of the triangle,
less
dia.neter.
spherical wedge or ungula is that portion of the solid 5. sphere, which is included between the same great semicircles, and has the lune for its base. G. A spherical pyramid is a portion of the solid sphere, included between the planes of a solid angle whose vertex is The base of the pyramid is the spherical polygon the centre.
intercepted by the same planes. 7. The pole of a circle of a sphere is a point in the surface equally distant from all the points in the circumference of this circle. It will be shown (Prop. V.) hat every circle, great or small, has always two poles.
BOOK
PROPOSITION
I.
IX.
187
THEOREM.
is less
Let O be the centre of the sphere, and ACB the triangle draw the rad O A, OB,
;
ii
OC. Imagine the planes AOB, AOC, COB, to be drawn these planes will form
;
gles
triangle.
by AB, AC, BC, the sides of the spherical But each of the three plane anis
less
sum of
XIX.)
;
the other
THEOREM.
shortest path from one point to another, on the surface of a sphere, is the arc of the great circle which joins the two given points.
Let ANB be the arc of a great circle which joins the points A and B then will it be the shortest path between them. 1st. If two points N and B, be taken on the arc of a great circle, at unequal distances from the point A, the shortest distance from B to A will be greater than the shortest distance from N to A. For, about A as a pole describe a circumference CNP. the line of shortest distance from B to A must cross this circumference at some point as P. But the shortest distance from P to A whether it be the arc of a great circle or any other line, is equal to the shortest distance from N to A; for, by passing the arc of a great circle through P and A, and revolving it about the diameter passing through A, the point P maybe made to coincide with N, when the shortest distance from P to A will coincide with the shortest distance from N to A hence, the shortest distance from B to A, will be greater than the shortest distance from N to A, by the shortest distance from B to P. If the point B be taken without the arc AN, still making AB greater than AN, it may be proved in a manner entirely similar to the above, that the shortest distance from B to A will be greater than the shortest distance from N to A. If now, there be a shorter path between the points B and A, tlian the arc BDA of a great circle, let be a point of the short
; :
1S8
GEOMETRY.
draw MA. MB, arcs of est distance possible; then through equal to BM. By the last theorem, great circles, and take from each, and there will retake BD, the shortest path from B main < AM. Now, since is equal to the shortest path from B to D: hence if we supto and the other pose two paths from B to A, one passing through through D, they will have an equal part in each ; viz. the part equal to the part from B to D. from B to But by hypothesis, the path through is the shortest path from must be less than hence the shortest path from to B to the shortest path from to A, whereas it is greater since the arc is greater than hence, no point of the shortest distance between B and can lie out of the arc of the great
BDA<BMfMA; AD
BD BD = BM BM =
M M A
MA
DA A
circle
BDA.
PROPOSITION
III.
THEOREM.
circumference of a great
circle.
gle
Let ABC be any spherical trianproduce the sides AB, AC, till they meet again in D. The arcs ABD, ACD, will be semicircumferences, since two great circles always bisect each other (Book VIII. Prop. VII. Cor. 2.). But in the triangle BCD, we have the side BC<BD + CD (Prop I.); add AB+ACto both; we shall have AB+AC + BC<ABD + ACD,
;
thatistosay,lessthanacircumference.
PROPOSITION
The sum of all
IV.
THEOREM
trie
Take the pentagon ABCDE, for example. Produce the sides AB, DC, till they meet in F ; then since BC is less than BF+CF, the perimeter of the pentagon ABCDE will be less
than that of the quadrilateral AEDF. ^^ " ''A. Again, produce the sides AE, FD, till hence the pewe shall have they meet in G; is less than that of the tririmeter of the quadrilateral angle which last is itself less than the circumference of ; a great circle ; hence, for a still stronger reason, the perimeter of the polygon is less than this same circumference.
.
ED<EG+DG;
AEDF
AFG
ABCDE
BOOK
(.';
IX.
189
Scholium. Tjiis proposition is fundamentally the same as (Book VI. Prop. XX.) ; for, O being the centre )f the sphere, a sohd angle may be fFconceived as formed at O by the plane
"
angles AOB, BOC, COD,&c., and the sum of these angles must be less than four right angles ; which is exactly the proposition here proved. The demonstration here given is different from that of Book VI. Prop. XX. ; both, however, suppose that the polygon is convex, or that no side produced will cut the figure.
^ ^
ABCDE
PROPOSITION
The poles of a great
V.
THEOREM.
circle of a sphere^ are the extremities of that diameter of the sphere which is perpendicular to the circle ; and these extremities are also the poles of all small circles
it.
parallel to
Let
;
ED be perpendic;
DC
are quarters of the circumference. So likewise are all the arcs EA, EM, EB, &c. ; hence the points and E are each equally distant from all the points of the circumference hence, they are the poles of that circumference (Def. 7.). ; Again, the radius DC, perpendicular to the plane AMB, is perpendicular to its parallel FNG; hence, it passes through O the centre of the circle (Book VIII. Prop. VII. Cor. 4.) hence, if the oblique lines DF, DN, DG, be drawn, these obhque lines will diverge equally from the perpendicular DO,
AMB
FNG
and
will
themselves be equal.
190
the arcs are equal
circle
;
GEOMETRY.
FNG
hence the point D is the pole of the smaJ' and for like reasons, the point E is the other pole.
AMB to
which
brevity,
ter of the
usually
named
a quadrant ; and this quadrant at the same time makes a right angle with the arc AM. For, the line being perpendicular to the plane AMC, everyplane DME, passing through the line DC is perpendicular to the plane (Book VI. Prop. XVI.) hence, the angle of these planes, or the angle AMD, is a right angle.
DC
AMC
To
Cor,
nite arc
2.
MD perpendicular to AM
D
two points
;
rant
the poi^it
given arc AM, draw the indefitake equal to a quadwill be one of the poles of the arc or
;
MD
AM
pole required.
the distance of the point from each equal to a quadrant, the point will AM, and also the angles DAM, AMD,
if
is
will
be right angles. C be the centre of the sphere ; and draw the radii CA, CD, CM. Since the angles ACD, MCD, are right angles,
For, let
the line
hence
;
perpendicular to the two straight lines CA, perperpendicular to their plane (Book VI. Prop. is the pole of the arc IV,) hence the point ; and conse<uently the angles DAM, AMD, are right angles.
it
CD is
is
CM
AM
Scholium. The properties of these poles enable us to describe arcs of a circle on the surface of a sphere, with the same It is evident, for instance, that facihty as on a plane surface. by turning the arc DF, or any othei line extending to the same distance, round the point I), the extremity F will describe the round small circle and by turning the quadrant ;
FNG
DFA
BOOK
the point
circle
IX.
191
D,
its
extremity
AMB.
If the arc were required to be produced, and nothing through which it was to were given but the points A and pass, we should first have to determine the pole D, by the as intersection of two ar(5s described from the points A and
AM
found,
we
AM
;
from
same
AM
In fine, if it be required from a given point P, to let fall a find a point on the arc perpendicular on the given arc at a quadrant's distance from the point P, which is done by describing an arc with the point P as a pole, intersecting in S S will be the point required, and is the pole with which a perpendicular to may be described passing through the point P.
AM
AM
AM
PROPOSITION
VI.
THEOREM.
The angle formed by two arcs of great circles, is equal to the angle formed by the tangents of these arcs at their point of intersection, and is measured by the arc described from this point of intersection, as a pole, and limited by the sides, produced if
necessary.
Let the angle be formed by the two arcs AB, then will it be equal to the ; angle formed by the tangents AF, AG,
BAG
AC FAG A
of the arc
AB,
is
AO
OAC
AD
AE
DOE
DE
AOE
together,
angles of spherical triangles may be compared by means of the arcs of great circles described from their vertices as poles and included between their sides hence it is easy to make an angle of this kind equal to a given angle.
Cor.
The
192
Scholium.
GEOMETRY.
and
Vertical angles, such are equal ; for either of them is still the angle formed by the two planes ACB,
as
ACO
BCN
OCN.
It is farther evident, that, in the mtersection of two arcs ACB, OCN, the two adjacent angles ACO, OCB, taken together, are equal to two
right angles.
PROPOSITION
VII.
THEOREM.
Iffrom the vertices of the three angles of a spherical triangle, as poles, three arcs be described forming a second triangle, the vertices of the angles of this second triangle, will be respectively
poles of the sides of the first.
From the vertices A, B, C, as poles, let the arcs EF, FD, ED, be described, forming on the surface of the sphere, the triangle ; then will the points D, E, and F, be respectively poles of the sides BC,
DFE
AC, AB.
For, the point being the pole of the arc EF, the distance is a quadrant ; the point C being the pole of the arc DE, the distance CE is likeis removed the length of a wise a quadrant hence the point and C ; hence, it is the quadrant from each of the points It might be shown, by pole of the arc (Prop. V. Cor. 3.). the same method, that is the pole of the arc BC, and F that of the arc AB.
AE
E A
AC
of
ABC may be described by means described by means of ABC. Triangles so described are called polar triangles, or supplemental tnCor.
Hence
as
the triangle
is
DEF,
DEF
imgles.
BOOK
PROPOSITION
IX.
193
VIII.
THEOREM.
The same supposition continuing as in the last Proposition, each angle in one of the triangles, will be measured by a semicircumference, minus the side lying opposite to it in the othe^
triangle.
AB,
EH
AG
EH
GF
the same as hence the arc GH, which n.via; sures the angle A, is equal to a semicircumference minus the side EF. In like manner, the angle B will be measured by \circ, the angle C, by ^ circ. DE.
is
EH EF+GH
DF
},
property must be reciprocal in the two triangles, since each of them is described in a similar manner by means of the other. Thus we shall find the angles D, E, F, of the triangle DEF to be measured respectively by circ. BC,  circ. AC, AB. Thus the angle D, for example, is measured by ^ circ. the arc MI but Ml4BC=MC + BI=i circ. ; hence the arc MI, the measure of D, is equal to ^ circ. BC and so of all
this
And
the rest.
Scholium.
It
might be formed by the intersection of the three arcs DE, EF, DF. But the proposition immediately before us is apthe central triangle, ^ distinguished from the other three by the circumstance (see the last figure) that the two angles and lie on the same side of B ", the two B and on the same side of AC, and the two C au 1 F on the same side of AB.
plicable only to
which
is
194
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
IX.
THEOREM.
If around the vertices of the two angles of a given spherical triangle, as poles, the circumferences of two circles be described which shall pass through the third angle of the triangle; if then, through the other point in which these circumferences intersect and the two first angles of the triangle, the arcs of great circles be drawn, the triangle thus formed will have all its parts equal to those of the given triangle.
Let
ABC
CED,
DFC,
For,
AB is common
hence
these iYfo triangles have their sides equal, each to each. are now to show, that the angles opposite these equal sides are also equal. If the centre of the sphere is supposed to be at O, a solid by the three plane angle may be conceived as formed at angles AOB, AOC, ; hkewise another solid angle maybe conceived as formed by the three plane angles AOB, AOD, are equal BOD. And because the sides of the triangle to those of the triangle ADB, the plane angles forming the one of these solid angles, must be equal to the plane angles forming But in that case we have shown that the other, each to each. the planes, in which the equal angles lie, are equally inclined to each other (Book VI. Prop. XXI.) ; hence all the angles ot are respectively equal to those ot the spherical triangle
We
BOC
ABC
DAB
DBA=ABC, and ADB=ACB; hence the sides and the angles of the triangle ADB are equal to the sides and the angles of the triangle ACB.
the triangle
Scholium. The equality of these triangles is not, however, an absolute equality, or one of superposition for it would be impossible to apply them to each other exactly, unless they
;
were
isosceles.
already
havf!
shall
ACB, ADB,
symmetrical triangles.
BOOK
PROPOSITION
X.
IX.
196
THEOREM.
Two tmangles on
one are equal each to each.
the
same sphere, or on equal spheres, are equal when two sides and the included angle of the two sides and the included angle of the other
Suppose the side AB=EF, the side AC =EG, and the angle BAC=FEG
then will the two triangles be equal
in all their parts.
For, the triangle EFG may be placed on the triangle ABC, or on ABD symmetrical with ABC, just as two rectilineal triangles are placed upon each other, when they have an equal angle included between equal sides. Hence all the parts of the triangle EFG will be equal to all the parts of the triangle ABC that is, besides the three parts equal by hypothesis, we shall have the side BC=:FG, the angle ABC=EFG, and the angle ACB=EGF.
;
PROPOSITION
XI.
THEOREM.
sphere, or on equal spheres, are eqttal in all their parts, when two angles and the included side of the one are equal to two angles and the included side of the other, each to each.
For, one of these triangles, or the triangle symmetrical with may be placed on the other, as is done in the corresponding case of rectilineal triangles (Book I. Prop. VT.).
it,
PROPOSITION
XII.
THEOREM.
If two triangles on the same sphere, or on equal spheres, have all their sides equal, each to each, their angles ivill likewise be equal, each to each, the equal angles lying opposite the equal
sides.
106
GEOMETRY.
is
This truth
where
sides
was shown, that with three given AB, AC, BC, there can only be two
it
triangles
ACB, ABD,
differing as to the
and equal as to the magnitude of those parts. Hence those two triangles, having all their sides respectively equal in both, must either be
position of their parts,
absolutely equal, or at least symmetrically so ; in either of which cases, their corresponding angles must be equal, and lie opposite to equal sides.
PROPOSITION
XIII.
THEOREM.
In every isosceles spherical triangle, the angles opposite the equal sides are equal ; and conversely, if two angles of a spherical triangle are equal, the triangle is isosceles.
First. Suppose the side AB=AC; we shall have the angle C=B. For, if the arc AD be drawn from the vertex A to the middle point
of the base, the two triangles ABD, ACD, have all the sides of the one respectively equal to the corresponding sides of the other, namely, common, BD DC, and AB
will
AD
hence by the last Proposition, their angles will be equal therefore, B=C.
:
;
AC
Secondly. Suppose the angle B C ; we shall have the side For, if not, let AB be the greater of the two take and draw OC. The two sides BO, BC, are equal to the two AC, BC ; the angle OBC, contained by the first two contained by the second two. Hence the is equal to two triangles BOC, ACB, have all their other parts equal but by hypothesis, (Prop. X.) ; hence the angle OCB=:ABC which is ; hence we have the angle
AC=:AB.
BO=AC,
ACB
ABC = ACB
absurd hence it is absurd to suppose hence the sides AB, AC, opposite to the equal angles
;
and C,
are equal.
Scholium.
DAC, and
right angles
the angle
;
The same demonstration proves the angle BAD BDA=:ADC. Hence the two last are hence the arc drawn from the vertex of an isosceles
is
spherical triangle to the middle of the base, that base, and bisects the vertical angle.
at right angles
to
BOOK
IX.
i97
PROPOSITION
XIV.
THEOREM.
In any spherical triangle, the greater side is opposite the greater angle ; and conversely, the greater angle is opposite the greater
side.
Let the angle be greater than the angle B, then will BC be greater than AC ; and conversely, if BC is greater than AC, then will the angle be greater than B.
First Suppose the angle ; make the angle then we shall have (Prop. XIII.) : but greater than ; hence, putting DB in place of AD, have + DC, or
A>B AD=DB
BAD B AD + DC
we
is
AC
shall
DB
BOAC.
will be Secondly. If we suppose BC>AC, the angle greater than ABC. For, if were equal to ABC, we should have ; if BAC were less than ABC, we should then, as has just been shown, find BC<AC. Both those conclusions are false hence the angle is greater than ABC.
BAC
BAC
BC=AC
:
BAC
B be the two given triangles ; P and their polar Since the angles are equal in the triangles A and B, the sides will be equal in. their polar triangles P and Q but since the triangles P and are mutually (Prop. VIII.) evuilateral, they must also be mutually equiangular (Prop. and lastly, the angles being equal in the triangles P XII.)
Let
and
triangles.
:
and Q,
gles
A
B
and
follows that the sides are equal in their polar trianHence the mutually equiangular triangles A are at the same time mutually equilateral.
it
and B.
Scholium.
triangles
;
This proposition
is
in
proportionality among the sides. Nor is it difficult to account for the difference observable, in this respect, between spherical
and
rectilineal tr angles.
In the Proposition
now
before us
198
(SEOMETRY.
as well as in the preceding ones, which treat of the comparison of triangles, it is expressly required that the arcs be traced on the same sphere, or on equal spheres. Now similar arcs are hence, on equal spheres, two trito each other as their radii angles cannot be similar without being equal. Therefore it is not strange that equality among the angles should produce
;
equality
if the triangles were drawn upon unequal spheres there, the angles being equal, the triangles would be similar, and the homologous sides would be to
;
PROPOSITION
'
XVI.
THEOREM.
is less
The sum of
all the
than
first place, every angle of a spherical triangle is than two right angles : hence the sum of all the three is less than six right angles. Secondly, the measure of each angle of a spherical triangle is equal to the semicircumference minus the corresponding side of the polar triangle (Prop. VIII.) hence the sum of all the three, is measured by the three semicircumferences 7ninusihe sum of all the sides of the polar triangle. Now this latter sum is less than a circumference (Prop. III.) therefore, taking it away from three semicircumferences, the remainder will be greater than one semicircumference, which is the measure of two right angles hence, in the second place, the sum of all the angles of a spherical triangle is greater than two right angles.
For, in the
less
Cor, 1. The sum of all the angles of a spherical triangle is not constant, like that of all the angles of a rectilineal triangle ; it varies between two right angles and six, without ever arriving Two given angles therefore do not at either of these limits. serve to determine the third.
spherical triangle may have two, or even three of Cor. 2. angles right angles ; also two, or even three of its angles
its
obtuse.
BOOK
ABC
in
IX.
199
is birectangular, Cor. 3. If the triangle other words, has two right angles B and C, will be the pole of the base BC ; the vertex
will
be
quadrants
angle
ABC
will
will all
be right angles, and its sides quadrants. Two of the trirectangular triangles make half a hemisphere, four make a hemisphere, and the trirectangular triangle is obviously contained eight times in the surface of a sphere.
Scholium. In all the preceding observations, we have supposed, in conformity with (Def. 1.) that spherical triangles have always each of
their sides less than a
semicircumfollows that
ference
from which
it
any one of their angles is always For, if less than two right angles.
AB is less tlian a semicircumference, and AC is so likewise, both those arcs will require to be produced, before they can meet in D. Now the two angles ABC, CBD, taken together, are equal to two right angles hence the angle ABC itself, is less than two right angles. may observe, however, that some spherical triangles do exist, in which certain of the sides are greater than a semicircumference, and certain of the angles greater than two right angles. Thus, if the side AC is produced so as to form a whole circumference ACE, the part which remains, after subtracting the triangle ABC from the hemisphere, is a new triangle also designated by ABC, and having AB, BC, AEDC for its sides. Here, it is plain, the side AEDC is greater than the semicirand at the same tmie, the angle B opposite cumferencc to it exceeds two right angles, by the quantity CBD. The triangles whose sides and angles are so large, have been excluded by the Definition but the only reason was, that the solution of them, or the determmation of their parts, is always reducible to the solution of such triangles as are comprehended by the Definition. Indeed, it is evident enough, that if the sides and angles of the triangle AB(y are known, it will be easy to discover the angles and sides of the triangle which bears the same name, and is the difference between a hemisphere and the former triangle.
the side
We
AED
200
GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
XVII.
THEOREM.
Tlte surface
of a lune is to the surface of the sphere^ as the angle of this lune, is to four right angles, or as the arc which mea
Let be a lune then will its surface be to the surface of the sphere as the angle to four right angles, or as the arc to the circumference of a great circle.
;
AMBN
NCM NM
Suppose,
as
in the
first
some one
MNPQ
MN
AMNPQ
AMBNA
MN
MN
MN
Cor,
angles.
1.
Two
Cor, 2. It was shown above, that the whole surface of the sphere is equal to eight trirectangular triangles (Prop. XVI. Cor. 3.) ; hence, if the area of one such triangle is represented by T, the surface of the whole sphere will be expressed by 8T This granted, if the right angle be assumed equal to 1, the surface of the lune whose angle is A, will be expressed by 2AxT.
for,
4: A:
in
8T
2AxT
bounded by the planes
which expression,
is
Scholium,
The
IS
spherical ungula,
AMB, ANB,
to the
whole
is
to
BOOK
;
IX.
201
For, the lanes being equal, the spherical four right angles. ungulas will also be equal hence two spherical ungulas are to each other, as the angles formed by the planes which bound them.
PROPOSITION
XVIII.
THEOREM.
Two
angles having their sides AB=DE, and yet incapable of coinciding with each other we are to show that the surface IS equal to the surface DEF. Let P be the pole of the small circle passing through the three points A, B, C ;* from this point draw the equal arcs PA, PB, PC (Prop. V.) ; at the point F, make the angle DFQ=:ACP, the arc ; and draw DQ, EQ. The sides DF, FQ, are equal to the sides AC, CP ; the anare equal gle ACP hence the two triangles DFQ, in all their parts (Prop. X.) ; hence tlie side DQ=AP, and the angle DQF=APC. In the proposed triangles DFE, ABC, the angles DFE, ACB, opposite to the equal sides DE, AB, being equal (Prop. XII.). if the angles DFQ, ACP, which are equal by construction, be taken away from them, there will remain the angle QFE, equal Also the sides QF, FE, are equal to the sides PC, to PCB. CB ; hence the two triangles FQE, CPB, are equal in all their PB, and the angle CPB. parts hence the side
AC=DF, CB=EF,
ABC
FQ=CP
DFQ=
ACP
QE =
FQE =
the triangles DFQ, ACP, which have their sides respectively equal, are at the same time isosceles, and capable of coinciding, when applied to each other ; for having placed
Now,
AC
on
the equal sides will fall on each other, and thus the two triangles will exactly coincide : hence they are equal ; and the surface For a like reason, the and the surface surface hence we ;
its
equal
DF,
DQF=APC.
FQE=CPB,
DQE=:APB
* The circle which passes through the three points A, B, C, or which circumscribes the triangle ABC, can only be a small circle of the sphere for if it were a great circle, the three sides AB, BC, AC, would lie in one plane, and the triangle ABC would be reduced to one of its sides.
;
202
have
GEOMETRY.
DQF+FQEDQE=APC + CPBAPB,
;
or
DFE=:
are
ABC
ABC,
DEF
equal in surface.
might
The poles P and Scholium, within triangles ABC, lie DEF: in which case it would be requisite to add the three triangles
together, in or
der to make up the triangle DEF and in like manner, to ?dd the three
triangles
in
>Q^l
order to
:
ABC in all other respects, the demonstration and the result would still be the same.
PROPOSITION XIX. THEOREM.
// the circumferences of two great circles intersect each other on the surface of a hemisphere, the sum of the opposite triangles thus formed, is equivalent to the surface of a lune v)hose angle is equal to the angle formed by the circles.
intersect
BOD,
gle
is
then will the opposite triangles AOC, be equal to the lune whose an
BOD.
For, producing the arcs OB, OD, on the other hemisphere, till they meet in will be a semicircumN, the arc ference, and one also and taking from each, we shall have For a like reason, we have CO, and Hence, the two triangles AOC, BDN, have their three sides respectively equal ; they are therefore symmetrical ; hence they are equal in surface (Prop. XVIII.) ; but the sum of the triangles BDN, BOD, is equivalent to the lune OBNDO, whose angle is
OBN AOB
OB
BN=AO.
DN =
BD=AC.
BOD:
angle
is
hence,
AOC + BOD
is
BOD.
Scholium. It is likewise evident that the two spherical pyramids, which have the triangles AOC, BOD, for bases, are together equivalent to the spherical ungula whose angle is BOD.
BOOK IX.
PROPOSITION XX. THEOREM.
The surface of a spherical triangle
the
is
203
measured by
the excess of
sum of
its
Let ABC be the proposed triangle produce its sides till they meet the great circle
:
DEFG drawn at pleasure without the trianBy the last Theorem, the two triangles ADE, AGH, are together equivalent to the
gle.
lune whose angle is A, and which is measured by 2A.T (Prop. XVII. Cor. 2.).
Hence we have
ADE + AGH=2A.T
BGF+BID2B.T,
and and
But the sum of these by twice the triangle ABC, and the hemisphere is represented by 4T therefore, twice the triangle ABC is equal to 2A.T + 2B.T + 2C.T4 T; and consequently, once ABC = (A + B + C 2)T; hence every spherical triangle is measured by the sum of all its angles minus two right angles, multiplied by the trirectangular triangle.
triangles exceeds the hemisphere
;
CIH + CFE=:2C.T
Cor. 1. However many right angles there may be in the sum of the three angles minus two right angles,just so many trirectangular triangles, or eighths of the sphere, will the proposed triangle contain.
If the angles, for example, are each equal to ^ of a right angle, the three angles will amount to 4 right angles, and the sum of the angles minus two right angles will be represented by 4 2 or 2; therefore the surface of the triangle will be equal to two trirectangular triangles, or to the fourth part of the
ii04
GEOJNIETRY.
pyramids coincide, the pyramids themselves will evidently coincide, and likewise the solid angles at their vertices. From this, some consequences are deduced.
First. Two triangular spherical pyramids are to each other as their bases : and since a polygonal pyramid may always be divided into a certain number of triangular ones, it follows that any two spherical pyramids are to each other, as the polygons which form their bases.
Second.
we have merely
two
equal spheres, and the solid angles will be to each other as the spherical polygons intercepted between their planes or faces. The vertical angle of the trirectangular pyramid is formed by three planes at right angles to each other this angle, which may be called a right solid angle, will serve as a very natural unit of measure for all other solid angles. If, for example, the the area of the triangle is f of the trirectangular triangle, then the corresponding solid angle will also be  of the
:
PROPOSITION
XXI.
THEOREM.
The surface of a spherical polygon is measured hythe sum of all its angZes, minus two right angles multiplied hy the number oj sides in the polygon less two^ into the trirectangular triangle.
nals
From one of the vertices A, let diagoAC, AD be drawn to all the other ver
j^
tices ; the polygon will be divided into as many triangles minus two as it has sides. But the surface of each triangle is measured by the sum of all its an
ABCDE
""""^^"J
^^^
gles
minus two
tri
rectangular triangle ; and the sum of the angles in all the triangles is evidently the same as that of all the angles of the polygon; hence, the surface of the polygon is equal to the sum of all its angles,diminished by twice as many right angles as less two, into the trirectangular triangle. it has sides Scholium. Let s be the sum of all the angles in a spherical polygon, n the number of its sides, and the trirectangular triangle ; the right angle being taken for unity, the surface of the
^s^2
(712,)) T, or
(s2 7i+4)
APPENDIX,
THE REGULAR POLYEDRONS.
A regular polyedron is one whose faces are all equal regular polygons, and whose solid angles are all equal to each other. There are five such polyedrons. First, If the faces are equilateral triangles, polyedrons may be formed of them, having solid angles contained by three ol hence arise three regular those triangles, by four, or by five No other bodies, the tetraedron^ihQ octaedron^ the icosaedron. can be formed with equilateral triangles ; for six angles of such a triangle are equal to four right angles, and cannot form a solid angle (Book VI. Prop. XX.). Secondly. If the faces are squares, their angles may be arranged by threes : hence results the hexaedron or cube. Four angles of a square are equal to four right angles, and cannot form a solid angle. Thirdly. In fine, if the faces are regular pentagons, their angles likewise may be arranged by threes : the regular dodecaedron will result. can proceed no farther : three angles of a regular hexagon are equal to four right angles ; three of a heptagon are
:
We
greater.
Hence there can only be five regular polyedrons three formed with equilateral triangles, one with squares, and one with pen;
tagons.
Let which
dron.
ABC
is
be the equilateral triangle form one face of the tetraeAt the point O, the centre of this
to
;
triangle, erect
plane
ABC
S, so that
AS=AB;
SABC
will
draw SB, SC
pyramid
re
206
APPENDIX.
the perpendicular SO, and consequently equal (Book VI. Prop. V.). hence the four ; One of them faces of the pyramid SABC, are triangles, equal to the given triangle ABC. And the solid angles of this pyramid are all equal, because each of them is formed by three equal plane angles: hence this pyramid is a regular tetrae
moved from
SA=AB
dron.
be a given square. On the base ABCD, construct a right prism whose altitude AE shall be equal to the side AB. The faces of this prism v^ill evidently be equal squares ; and its solid angles all equal, each being formed w^ith three right angles hence this prism is a regular hexaedron or
Let
ABCD
It
E
C\
cube.
^
;
The
1. Any regular polyedron may be divided into as many regular pyramids as the polyedron has faces the common vertex of these pyramids will be the centre of the polyedron and at the same time, that of the inscribed and of the circumscribed sphere. 2. The solidity of a regular polyedron is equal to its surface multiplied by a third part of the radius of the inscribed
;
sphere.
regular polyedrons of the same name, are two simitheir homologous dimensions are proportional hence the radii of the inscribed or the circumscribed spheres are to each other as the sides of the polyedrons. 4. If a regular polyedron is inscribed in a sphere, the planes drawn from the centre, through the different edges, will divide the surface of the sphere into as many spherical polygons, all equal and similar, as the polyedron has faces.
3.
Two
lar solids,
and
APPLICATION OF ALGEBRA.
TO THE SOLUTION OF
GEOMETRICAL PROBLEMS.
problem is a question which requires a solution. A geometrical problem is one, in which certain parts of a geometrical figure are given or known, from which it is required to determine certain other parts.
to solve a geometrical problem by the given parts are represented by the first .etters of the alphabet, and the required parts by the final letters, and the relations which subsist between the known and
it
When
is
proposed
means of Algebra,
unknown
The
solu
when
die problem.
No general rule can be given for forming the equations. The equations must be independent of each other, and their number equal to that of the unknown quantities introduced (Alg. Art. 103.). Experience, and a careful examination of all the conditions, whether explicit or implicit (Alg. Art. 94,) will serve as guides in stating the questions to which may be added the following particular directions. 1st. Draw a figure which shall represent all the given parts, and all the required parts. Then draw such other lines as will establish the most simple relations between them. If an angle is given, it is generally best to let fall a perpendicular that shall lie opposite to it; and this perpendicular, if possible, should be drawn from the extremity of a given side. 2d. When two lines or quantities are connected in the same way with other parts of the figure or problem, it is in general, not best to use either of them separately ; but to use their sum, their difference, their product, their quotient, or perhaps another line of the figure with which they are alike connected. 3d. When the area, or perimeter of a figure, is given, it is sometimes best to assume another figure similar to the proposed, having one of its sides equal to unity, or some other known quantity. comparison of the two figures will often give a required part. will add the followmg problems.*
;
We
*
V)
The following problems arc selected from Hutton's Application of Alfrobri Geometry, and the examples in Mensuration from his treatise on thatsiibjjct
APPLICATION OF ALGEBRA
PROBLEM
In a right angled triangle
I,
BAG,
having given
the base
BA,
and
the
sum of
the hypothenuse
quired
to find the
it is re
Put BA=c=3, BC=:a:, and the thenuse and perpendicular equal to s=9
AC=y
sum of
the hypo
Then,
and
a:2=2/2+c^
1st equ:
From
and
x=sy
By
subtracting,
0=^2syc^
2sy=s^
x^
= s^2sy + y^
or
hence,
c^
c^
^^"2^ =4= AC
a;+4=9
or
Therefore
a;=5=BC.
II.
PROBLEM
In a right angled triangle, having given the hypothenuse,and tka sum of the base and perpendicular, to find these ttv^ sides
Put
BC = a = 5, B A =ar, AC =y
Then
and
x+y=s=l
first
From
or
equation
Hence,
or
2y^^2sy=d's^
or
f^"'/ 2
the square y^
By completing
or
sy\\s^=^a^
\$^
Hence
TO GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
III.
209
and perimeter,
to
find
Let
Put
ABCD
AC=c?=10,
perimeters 2a =28, or
AB + BC=a=14:
Then,
also put
AB=a;and BC=y.
xHy'=^
equations
and
From which
X'^y=a we
obtain,
y=^a: V^d^\a^=S
and
or 6,
x=^a=p V^d^ia^=Q
PROBLEM
or 8.
IV.
Having given
the base
the side of
to
find
Let
and
ABC
HEFG Put AB b, CD = a,
Hence,
or
abbx=ax
b: a:: x: a
x=
=
a\h
the side
PROBLEM
(n
V.
three perpendiculars
equilateral triangle, having given the lengths of the drawn from a point within, on the three dides: to determine the sides of the triangle.
an
210
Let
APPLICATIOJN OF
ALGEBRA
ABC be the equilateral triangle DE and DF the given perpendicuDraw lars let fall from D on the sides. DA, DB, DC to the vertices of the angles, and let fall the perpendicular CH on
DG,
Let DG^a, DE=6, and the base. DF=c put one of the equal sides
:
AB
^^^~
ij
^2x\
hence AH=a;,
and
equal to half
its
base
VL)
iBCxDE=a;x6
^AC X DF=a; x c
But the three
equal
to,
last triangles
;
make
the
first
hence,
x^ Vdr=ttx+hx\cx=^x{a\h\c)
;
or
therefore,
xV^a\h\c
a\h\c
V3
is equal to a; Remark. Since the perpendicular 3, it consequently equal io a\h\c: that is, the perpendicular let fall from either angle of an equilateral triangle on the opposite side, is equal to the sum of the three perpendiculars let
is
CH
fall
PROBLEM
VI.
In a right angled triangle, having given the base and the difference between the hypothenuse and perpendicular, to find the sides.
PROBLEM vn.
In a right angled triangle, having given the hypothenuse and difference between the base and perpendicular, to determine the triangle.
ilie
TO GEOMETRY.
PROBLEM
Vni.
in
211
a given
PROBLEM
IX.
In a triangle, having given the ratio of the two sides, togeth er with both the segments of the base made by a perp indlc ular from the vertical angle ; to determine the triangle.
PROBLEM
X.
In a triangle, having given the base, the sum of the other two and the length of a line drawn from the vertical angle to find the sides of the triangle. to the middle of the base
sides,
;
PROBLEM
XI.
In a triangle, having given the two sides about the vertical and terminating in the base ; to find the base.
angle, together with the line bisecting that angle
PROBLEM Xn.
To
lengths of
determine a right angled triangle, having given the two lines drawn from the acute angles to the mid
PROBLEM
XUI.
To determine a rightangled triangle, having given the perimeter and the radius of the inscribed circle.
PROBLEM
XIV.
To determine a triangle, having given the base, the perpendicular and the ratio of the two sides.
PROBLEM XV.
To determine a right angled triangle, having given hypothenuse, and the side of the inscribed square.
PROBLEM
XVI.
the
determine the. radii of three equal circles, described within and tangent to, a given circle, and also tangent to each other.
To
212
APPLICATION OF ALGEBRA
PROBLEM
XVII
In a right angled triangle, having given the perimeter and the perpendicular let fall from the right angle on the hypotheuuse, to determine the triangle.
PROBLEM xvni.
To determine a right angled triangle, having given the hypothenuse and the difference of two lines drawn from the two acute angles to the centre of the inscribed circle.
PROBLEM
XIX.
To
dicular,
determine a triangle, having given the base, the perpenand the difference of the two other sides.
PROBLEM XX.
To
two
sides.
PROBLEM
XXI.
To
lines sides.
drawn from
determine a triangle, having given the lengths of three the th'ee angles to the middle of the opposite
PROBLEM xxn.
In a triangle, having given the three sides, to find the radius of the inscribed circle.
PROBLEM xxm.
To determine a right angled triangle, havmg given the side of the inscribed square, and the radius of the inscribed circle.
PROBLEM XXIV.
To determine a right angled triangle, having given the hypothenuse and radius of the inscribed circle.
PROBLEM XXV.
To
determine a triangle, having given the base, the line and the diameter of the circum
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
213
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
Jn every triangle there are six parts: three sides and three These parts are so related to each other, that if a certain number of them be known or given, the remaining ones can be determined. Plane Trigonometry explains the methods of finding, by calculation, the unknown parts of a rectilineal triangle, when a sufficient number of the six parts are given. When three of the six parts are known, and one of them is a If the three side, the remaining parts can always be found. angles were given, it is obvious that the problem would be indeterminate, since all similar triangles would satisfy the conangles.
ditions.
has already been shown, in the problems annexed to Book rectihneal triangles are constructed by means of three given parts. But these constructions, which are called graphic methods, though perfectly correct in theory, would give only a moderate approximation in practice, on account of the imperfection of the instruments required in constructing them. Trigonometrical methods, on the contrary, being independent of all mechanical operations, give solutions with the utmost accuracy. These methods are founded upon the properties of lines called trigonometrical lines, which furnish a very simple mode of expressing the relations between the sides and angles of triangles. shall first explain the properties of those lines, and the principal formulas derived from them formulas which are of great use in all the branches of mathematics, and which even furnish means of improvement to algebraical analysis. shall next apply those results to the solution of rectilineal triIt
III.,
how
We
We
angles.
DIVISION OF
THE CIRCUMFERENCE.
I. For the purposes of trigonometrical calculation, the circumference of the circle is divided into 360 equal parts, called legrees each degree into 60 equal parts, called minutes and each minute into 60 equal parts, called seconds. The semicircumference, or the measure of two right angles contains 180 degrees ; the quarter of the circumference, usually denominated the quadrant, and which measures the right an;
;
gle,
II.
214
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
nated by the characters : , ', " : thus the expression 16 6' 15" represents an arc, or an angle, of 16 degrees, 6 minutes, and 15 seconds. III. The complement of an angle, or of an arc, is what remains after taking that angle or that arc from 90. Thus the complement of 25 40' is equal to 90 25 40'=:64 20' ; and 77o the complement of 12 4' 32" is equal to 90 12 4' 32"
55' 28".
In general, A being any angle or any arc, 90 A is the complement of that angle or arc. If any arc or angle be added to its complement, the sum will be 90. Whence it is evident
is greater than 90, its complement will 70 be negative. Thus, the complement of 160 34' 10" is 34' 10". In this case, the complement, taken positively, would be a quantity, which being subtracted from the given angle or arc, the remainder would be equal to 90. The two acute angles of a rightangled triangle, are together equal to a right angle they are, therefore, complements of each
other.
IV. The supplement of an angle, or of an arc, is what remains after taking that angle or arc from 180. Thus A being
any angle or arc, 180 A is its supplement. In any triangle, either angle is the supplement of the sum of the two others, since the three together make 180. If any arc or angle be added to its supplement, the sum will
be 180. Hence if an arc or angle be greater than 180, its supplement will be negative. Thus, the supplement of 200 20. The supplement of any angle of a triangle, or indeed is of the sum of either two angles, is always positive.
LINES.
arc,
on
MP
AT
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
The
secant of an arc
is
215
the centre of
the line
drawn from
tangent drawn through the other extremity. Thus CT is the secant of the arc AM, or of the angle ACM. The versed sine of an arc, is the part of the diameter intercepted between one extremity of the arc and the foot of the sine. Thus, AP is the versed sine of the arc AM, or the angle
ACM.
These four lines MP, AT, CT, AP, are dependent upon the arc AM, and are always determined by it and the radius ; they are thus designated
:
MP=sinAM, or sin ACM, AT=tangAM, or tang ACM, CT=isec AM, or sec ACM, APr=:versin AM, or versin ACM.
equal to a quadrant, from the VI. Having taken the arc and D draw the lines MQ, DS, perpendicular to the radius CD, the one terminated by that radius, the other termiproduced the lines MQ, DS, and CS, nated by the radius will, in like manner, be the sine, tangent, and secant of the arc MD, the complement of AM. For the sake of brevity, they
points
AD
CM
AM
CS
In general,
A = sin
(90
A=tang (90A),
cosec
A = sec
:
(90
A), A).
we have
CPM
is, by construction, equal to the triangle consequently CPrrMQ hence in the rightangled triangle CMP, whose hypothenuse is equal to the radius, the two hence, sides MP, CP are the sine and cosine of the arc the cosine of an arc is equal to that part of the radius intercepted between the centre and foot of the sine. The triangles CAT, CDS, are similar to the equal triangles hence they are similar to each other. From CPM, these principles, we shall very soon deduce the different relations which exist between the lines now defined before doing so, however, we must examine the changes which those lines undergo, when the arc to which they relate increases fiom zero
The
triangle
MQC
AM
CQM
to 180O.
The
angle
quadrant
the angle
BCE,
the angle
ECA.
216
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
VII. Suppose one extremof the arc remains fixed in A, while the other extremity, marked M, runs successively throughout the whole extent of the semicircumference, Irom to B in the direction
ity
ADB.
AM
is
is
at
A,
zero,
M,
P, are
confounded with the point A whence it appears that the sine and tangent of an arc zero, are zero, and the cosine and secant of this same arc, are each equal to the radius. Hence if R represents the radius ol the circle, we have
sin
cos
0=R, secO=R.
advances towards D, the sine increases, VIII. As the point and so likewise does the tangent and the secant; but the cosine, the cotangent, and the cosecant, diminish.
When
AM
gle
is
AD,
its
or
when
the arc
complement
;
the sine
MP
CMP,
or
or CP and the trianequal to the cosine having become isosceles, gives the proportion
is
MQ
:
MD,
MP
Hence
sin
CM
:
:
:
1
:
sin 45
V2, V2,
45=cos45o=^ = JRV2.
In this same case, the triangle CAT becomes isosceles and equal to the triangle CDS ; whence the tangent of 45 and its cotangent, are each equal to the radius, and consequently we
have
IX.
till
M arrives at D
The
arc
AM continuing
;
at
is
sine
is
dius,
Hence we have
cos90 = 0;
sin90=R,
and it may be observed, that these values are a consequence of the values already found for the sine and cosine of the arc zero ; because the complement of 90" being zero, we have
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
As
to the tangent,
;
tni
The
increases very rapidly as the point when this point reaches D, the tanexists no longer, because the lines AT, CD, cannot meet. This is expressed by saying that 90" is infinite ; and we write tang 90=: ao complement of 90'' being zero, we have
it
and
finally
Omtang
.
90.
Hence
cot
to advance from D towards B, and the cosines increase. Thus M'P' is the But the arc sine of the arc AM', and M'Q, or CP' its cosine. M'B is the supplement of AM', since AM' + M'B is equal to a
X. The point
M continuing
is drawn parallel to AB, semicircumference ; besides, if the arcs AM, BM', which are included between parallels, will evidently be equal, and likewise the perpendiculars or sines MP, M'P'. Hence, the sine of an arc or of an angle is equal to the sine of the supplement of that arc or angle.
M'M
The
arc or angle
has for
its
supplement 180
A:
hence
generally,
we
have
sin
A = sin
(180A.)
by
the equation
also be expressed
+ B)=sin (90^B),
equal
DM or
its
DM'.
XI. The same arcs AM, AM', which are supplements of each other, and which have equal sines, have also equal cobut it must be observed, that these cosines lie sines CP, CP' in diflferent directions. The line CP which is the cosine of the arc AM, has tiie origin ot us value at the centre C, and is estimated in the direction from C towards A while CP', the cosine of AM' has also the origin of its value at C, but is estimated in a contrary direction, from C towards B. Some notation must obviously be adopted to distinguish the one of such equal lines from the other and that they may both be expressed analytically, and in the same general formula^ it is necessary to consider all lines which are estimated in one direction as positive^ and those which are estimated in the conIf, therefore, the cosines which trary direction as negative. are estimated from C towards A be considered as positive, those estimated from C towards B, must be regarded as nega; ; ;
tive.
Hence, generally, we
cos
Kf=
cos (180
is
shall have,
^A)
that
is,
the cosine
of an arc or angle
supplement taken negatively. The necessity of changing the algebraic sign to correspond
218
ivith
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
the change of di]*ection the trigonometrical Hne, may be illustrated by the fol.n
AP
is
versin
Now when
to
comes AM' the versed sine AP, becomes AF, that is equal
AMrrR
AM
AM
cos 180=R.
For all arcs, such as AD'BN', which terminate in the third quadrant, the cosine is estimated from C towards B, and is consequently negative. At E the cosine becomes zero, and for all arcs which terminate in the fourth quadrant the cosines are estimated from C towards A, and are consequently positive. The sines of all the arcs which terminate in the first and second quadrants, are estimated above the diameter BA, while the third and fourth the sines of those arcs which terminate quadrants are estimated below it. Hence, considering the former as positive, we must regard the latter as negative.
XII. Let us now see what sign is to be given to the tangent falls above the line BA, of an arc. The tangent of the arc and we have already regarded the lines estimated in the direction as positive therefore the tangents of all arcs which terminate in the first quadrant will be positive. But the tangent of the arc AM', greater than 90, is determined by the These lines, howintersection of the two lines M'C and AT. ever, do not meet in the direction but they meet in the opposite direction AV. But since the tangents estimated in the direction are positive, those estimated in the direction must be negative: therefore, the tangents of all arcs ivhich terminate in the second quadrant will be negative. wiU When the point M' reaches the point B the tangent become equal to zero that is, tang 1 80 = 0.
AM
AT
AT
AT
AV
AV
When the point M' passes the point B, and comes into the position N', the tangent of the arc ADN'will be the line
AT
PLAICE TRIGONOMETRY.
219
hence, the tangents of all arcs which terminate in the third quadrant are positive. the tangent becomes infinite ; that is, At
tang 270^ 00. the point has passed along into the fourth quadrant will be the hne : hence, to N, the tangent of the arc the tangents of all arcs which terminate in the fourth quadrant
When
ADN'N
AV
are negative. The cotangents are estimated from the line ED. Those which are regarded as positive, and those which lie lie on the side on the side DS' as negative. Hence, the cotangents are positive in the first quadrant, negative in the second, positive in the is at B When the point third, and negative in the fourth. the cotangent is infinite ; when at E it is zero hence, 0. cot 1 80 =00 cot 270
DS
then the following table will show the signs of the trigonometrical lines in the different quadrants
2q
Sq
Sine Cosine
Tangent
Cotangent
+ + +
4
+
f
4q +
XIII. In trigonometry, the sines, cosines, 6ic. of arcs or angles greater than 180 do not require to be considered ; the angles of triangles, rectilineal as well as spherical, and the and sides of the latter, being always comprehended between 180. But in various applications of trigonometry, there is frequently occasion to reason about arcs greater than the semicircumference, and even about arcs containing several circumferences. It will therefore be necessary to find the expression of the sines and cosines of those arcs whatever be their
magnitude.
We generally consider the arcs as positive which are estimated from A in the direction ADB, and then those arcs must be regarded as negative which are estimated in the contrary
direction
AEB.
observe, in the first place, that two equal arcs AM, with contrary algebraic signs, have equal sines MP, PN, with contrary algebraic signs ; while the cosine CP is the same for
both.
We
AN
The equal tangents AT, AV, as well DS, DS', have also contrary algebraic
X the
arc,
we have
in general,
ain
x)=
(
x)=cos X
x)
x)
x = tang x = X
sin
cot
220
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
considering the arc AM, and its supplement AM', and what has been said, we readily see that,
sin (an arc)
By
recollecting
= sin
(its
supplement)
(its
arc)=
supplement)
supplement)
supplement).
(its
= cot
(its
S'
D
ir^y"^"'^
rences were added to any arc AM, it would still terminate exactly at the point M, and the arc thus increased would have the same sine as the arc ; hence if C represent a whole circumference or 360, we shall have sina:=sin (C + a;) sina;=sin
N
JSI'
q"^
\
f
j\
P'
AM
\
R
y\l V
(2C+x), &c.
E
is
The same
gent,
observation
aptan
plicable to the
cosine,
&c.
it
appears, that whatever be tne magnitude of x the its sine may always be expressed, with a proper sign, by the sine of an arc less than 180. For, in the first place, we may subtract 360 from the arc x as often as they are contained in it and y being the remainder, we shall have sin a;=sin y. Then if ?/ is greater than 180, make y=18042, and we have sin Thus all the cases are reduced sin z. to that in which the proposed arc is less than 180 ; and since we farther have sin (90 + a;) sin (90 x), they are likewise ultimately reducible to the case, in which the proposed arc is between zero and 90.
Hence
proposed
arc,
y=
XIV. The cosines are always reducible to sines, by means of the formula cos sin (90 A) or if we require it, by means of the formula cos sin (90 + A): and thus, if we can find the value of the sines in all possible cases, we can also find that of the cosines. Besses, as has already been shown, that the negative cosines are separated from the positive cosines by the diameter all the arcs whose extremities fall on the right side of DE, having a positive cosine, while those wliose extremities fall on the left have a negative cosine. Thus from 0 to 90 the cosines are positive from 90 to 270 they are negative from 270 to 360 they again become positive and after a whole revolution they assume the same values as in the preceding revolution, for cos (360 + a:)=cosa:.
A=
A=
DE
R
221
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
From
sines
these explanations,
it
and cosines of the various arcs which are multiples of the quadrant have the following values
sm
sin
0^
90
=R =R
=R
180^=0
270=
450 810
sin
sin
sin
sin
630=
&c.
cos 0=:R COS 180= cos 360 cos 540= cos 720 R
=R
=
= = =
&c.
And
have
generally,
sin
shall
cos (2A:+1) . 90 0, cos 4A . 90=R, . 90=R, cos (4^ + 2) . 90= R. What we have just said concerning the sines and cosines renders it unnecessary for us to enter into any particular detail respecting the tangents, cotangents, &c. of arcs greater than 180 ; the value of these quantities are always easily deduced from those of the sines and cosines of the same arcs as we shall see by the formulas, which we now proceed to
I
2/:.90=0,
.
90=R,
explain.
SINES, COSINES,
XV. The
sine of
an arc
For the radius C A, perpendicular to the chord MN, bisects this chord, and likewise the arc ; hence MP, the
MAN
MA, is
half the
chord
the arc
MN
which subtends
the double of
MAN,
MA.
The chord which subtends
the sixth part of the circumference is equal to the radius ;
hence
sm ^^^'orsin30=iR,
12 other words, the sine of a third part of the right angle equal to the half of the radius.
in
222
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY,
XVI. The square of the sine of an arc, together with the square of the cosine, is equal to the square of the radius ; so that in general terms we have
sin2A + cos2A=R2. This property results immediately from the rightangled triangle
It
CMP,
in
which
MP2+CP'^=CM2.
follows that when the is given, its cosine may be found, and reciprocally, by means of the formulas cos d= \/ (R^ sin^A), and sin =b V (R^ cos^A). The sign of these formulas is + , or because the same sine answers to the two arcs AM, AM', whose cosines CP, CP', are equal and have contrary signs ; and the same cosine CP answers to the two arcs AM, AN, whose sines MP, PN, are also equal, and have contrary signs. Thus, for example, having found sin 30=R, we may de(R2_iR2) \f S. sf duce from it cos 30, or sin 60
sine of an arc
A=
MP
A=
=V
= ^W^^R
XVII. The
quired
sine
and
same
arc.
The
;
triangles
being similar,
we have the
A A=
proportions
CP PM
CP
:
CA AT
:
or cos
sin
A
:
T>
:
tang
RsinA
cos
A
A
CM
CA CT
:
:
or cos
A R
: :
R
:
sec
R2
cos
PM CP
:
:
: :
CD DS
:
:
or sin
cos
A
: :
R
:
cot
A= RcosA
sm A
R^
sin
PM CM
CD CS
or sin
A R
:
cosec
A=
which are the four formulas required. It may also be observed, that the two last formul# might be deduced from the first two, by simply putting 90 A instead of A. From these formulas, may be deduced the values, with their proper signs, of the tangents, secants, &c. belonging to any and since the progresarc whose sine and cosine are known sive law of the sines and cosines, according to the different arcs to which they relate, has been developed already, it i? unnecessary to say more of the law which regulates the tangents and secants.
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
223
By means of these formulas, several results, which have already been obtained concerning the trigonometrical lines =90, we may be confirmed. If, for example, we make shall have sin A=R, cos and consequently tang 90=;
A=0
R2
infinite quantity
for
great,
the quotient of radius divided by a very small quantity, is very and increases as the divisor diminishes ; hence, the quo
by zero
to
is
finite
quantity.
; and cotangent to R.rsui cos it follows that tangent and cotangent will both be positive when the sine and cosine have like algebraic signs, and both negative, when the sine and cosine have contrary algebraic signs. Hence, the tangent and cotangent have the same sign in the diagonal quadrants that is, positive in the 1st and 3d, and negative in the 2d and 4th ; results agreeing with those of Art. XII. The Algebraic signs of the secants and cosecants are readily determined. For, the secant is equal to radius square divided by the cosine, and since radius square is always positive, it follows that the algebraic sign of the secant will depend on that of the cosine: hence, it is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants and negative in the 2nd and 3rd. Since the cosecant is equal to radius square divided by the sine, it follows that its sign will depend on the algebraic sign hence, it will be positive in the 1st and 2nd of the sine quadrants and negative in the 3rd and 4th. XVIII. The formulas of the preceding Article, combined with each other and with the equation sin '^A + cos '^Az^R^. furnish some others worthy of attention.
; :
:
First
we have R^ +
'A
cos*
tang^
=
^
R^
+
,
^^
cos^
^^f^"^
=
^
^^^^^,
formula which might be immediately deduced from the rightangled triangle CAT. By these forn^las, or by the rightangled triangle CDS, we have also R'^fcot^ A=cosec^ A. Lastly, by taking the product of the two formulas tang
A=
RsinA
cos
and cot
A= ,
L
RcosA
smA
we
have tang
A=t
.
Rj,
and tang
A=
R^
r^
We likewise
have cot
B=
tangB
224
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
; cot B : : tang B : tang A ; that is, ine cotanHmce cot gents of two arcs are reciprocally proportional to their tangents^ tang A=R^ might be deduced immeThe formula cot diately, by comparing the similar triangles CAT, CDS, which
Ax
give
AT
CA
to
CD
and
DS,
or tang
cot
XIX. The
it is
sines
required
cosines of two arcs, a and b. being given, and cosine of the sum or difference
of these arcs. Let the radius AC=R,the arc AB=a, the arc BD=6, and consequently + b. From the points B and D, let fall the perpendiculars BE, DF upon AC from the point D, draw DI perpendicular to BC lastly, from the point I draw IK perpendicu
ABD=a
lar,
and IL parallel
to,
The
similar triangles
FXTKE
:
proportions,
CB CB
CI
BE CE
IK, or
cos 6
sin
IK=^JI!^^^
CI
CK,
or
cos
biicosa:
CK=
^DL:
cos acosb.
R
COS a sin
b,
The
r>Ty
triangles
CB
TM DI
CE DL, or R sm
r^T?
:
T\T
i,
cos a
R
sin
CB DI
:
BE
IL, or
sin &
sin
IL=
a sin
But
we have
(a
IK+DL=DF=sin
Hence
.
+ &),
and
CKIL=CF=cos (a+fc).
8m{a\b)
cos (a+b)
sin
sin b .
The values of sin (a^b) and of cos (a b) might be easily deduced from these two formulas but they may be found For, produce the sine DI till it directly by the same figure. then we have BM==BD?>, meets the circumference at and MI = 11)=: sin b. Through the point M, draw MP perpenparallel to, AC since MI=:DI, we have dicular, and =IL, and IN=DL. But we have IK IN=MPsin {abl and CK + MN=CP=cos (a b) hence
MN
MN
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
.
22ft
sin
{ab)^b)
^
,v
sin
a cos b
g
R
it
sin b cos
cos (a
^
= cos
pouit
of generality, since, in the figure which we have followed, the arcs a and b, and even + 6, are supposed to be less than 90' But first the demonstration is easily extended to the case in which a and b being less than 90, their sum a + 6 is greater than 90. Then the point F would fall on the prolongation of AC, and the only change required in the demonstration would be that of taking cos {a\b)z=z CF' but as we should, at the same time, have CF' rL' CK', it would still follow that cos (a + 6) CK' I'L', or R cos (a 4^)) cos a cos b sin a sin 6. And whatever be the values of the arcs a and b, it is easily shown that the formulas are true hence we may regard them as established for all arcs. will repeat and number the formulas for the purpose of more convenient reference. sin a cos ^ + sin b cos a ,. ,v ,
We
sm(a + 6) =
.
,
(1.).
sin
{ab)=
,
,
sin
a cos b
cos a cos b
g
1^^
j^^
sin b
cos a ,^.
(2.).
sin
sin 6
(3.)
(a5) =
,.
&.
(4.)
XX.
.
If,
in the
6= a, the
^
first
and the
<z
we
mai;e
sin2a=
sin
cos a
,
^
cos
^p
2a=
cos^ a
1^^
sin^
a = 2 cos'p
R"
formulas which enab/e us to find the sine and cosine of the double arc, when we k:jow the sine and cosine of the arc itself. To express the sin a ana cos a in terms of Ja, put \a for a,
and
we
sm
have 2 ^
\a
f_,
cos
a=
o^o'i^
\a
=
sin'^
\a
.
R
terms of
a,
To
and cosine of \q
in
take th
equations
cos' a+sin'
there results
cos'^
sin'
\a=^ cos a,
ia=iR^+iR
and sin'ia=^R'
iR cos a\
cos a.
whence
sin
\a^^ OR^iR
cos a)
 \ V 2R'^2R
22
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY
we
shall have,
= V(iR2iR
two
cos
2a)=iN/2R2 2R
cos 2a.
cos 2a.
cos
a=v/(iR2+iR cos2a)=^\/2Rl2R
last formulas,
;
Making,
sin
in the
2a~0, and
Next,
45= N/iR2^Rv/i and also, cos 45= Vf make a =22 30', which gives cos 2a=R V^, and we have
VW^R
sin 22
cos 22
30'=RV(i + i V^).
XXI. If we multiply together formulas (1.) and (2.) Art. XIX. and substitute for cos'^ a, R^ sin'^ a, and for cos^ 6, R^ sin^ h we shall obtain, after reducing and dividing by R^
sin {a
+ h) sin (a
or, sin (a
h)
:
h),
h)
sm a
sin h
sin
a + sin 6
sin (a +5).
XXII. The formulas of Art. XIX. furnish a great number of consequences ; among which it will be enough to mention those of most frequent use. By adding and subtracting we obtain
the four
which
follow,
sin {a\h)
sin (a
h,
a.
cos
(a+&)+cos
{a
h,
cos {a
cos
h)
(a
+ &)=i5sin
sin h.
to
sines into linear sines or cosines, that is, into sines multiplied only by constant quantities.
XXIII. If
gives
in these
a=:^, &=y, we
Bin;?
p\q
V a
formulas
we
put a{b=p, a
6=g, which
(1.)
shall find
+ sin
^= sin \(jp\q)
2
J {p
cos
l(pq)
sin
sin g=:j^sin
q) cos l[{p
+ q)
(2.)
cos;?
+ cos5'=cosJ(p+^)
cos^(j5
sin
q) (3.)
cos<7
2 cosj=3sin \{p\q)
J {p
q) (4.)
?
:
*27
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
If
we make ^=o, we
sin
shall obtain,
p=
sin
i cos A p ^*^^
R + cos;7=
Rcos
/?=
2 cos^ h V
g^
R
2sinH/>
:
hence
sin/?
_tangj/?
R
^cotj;?
R+cos ;)~
R
\
Rcos p
sin
/?
_ cot
p_
R
tang
Jp
formulas which are often employed in trigonometrical calculations for reducing two terms to a single one.
XXIV. From the first four formulas of Art XXIII. and the first
of Art.XX.,dividinff, and considering that ^
cos a
= ^ cot R
we
sin sin sin
(p + q) cos \ (p
{p + q)
(jP4^)
sin
J (p
j^
q)
_ tang i{p + q)
tang ^~QoII^
q)
tang
(/?
+ y)
q)
cos/? + cos^
sin
/?
cos^(piq)
cos q
sin
;?
_ cot (p cos p J R y _ ^ {p _ tang ^ (p R cosp + cosq cos^(;? q _cos^{p{q) _cot^ {p^9) n cos qcos p R J {P + cos + cos q _ cos^{p\q) cos ^ (p )_cot h(p + cos q cos p tang^ ^ ^ ^+sin 7 cos + CQs H/^ {p^q)~2sm^(p + q)cosi{p{q)^cos^(p{q) cos H/^ + p q
+ sin ^_ co8 j {p
sin
sin
q)
j^
(/?
q)
)
sin
q)
q)
si
jp
sin
sin
9)
j?
q)
q)
sin
{p\q) sin
y)
(j9
(/^
qj
(/?
sin
2sin
7)
(;?
7)
sin
s in
sin
2sin 1
(jo
q)
</)
sin ^ ( ;?
y)
sin
{pTq)~2sin
the
first, it
^ {p\q)
cos^ (p + <7)~sin
^ (p
+ q)
From
to the difference
the arcs is to
follows that the sum of the sines of two arcs i* of these sines, as the tangent of half the sum of the tangent of half their difference
228
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
In order likewise to develop some formulas relative
XXV.
i, in which by substituting the values ^ ^ cos (a+b) of sin (a+h) and cos (+&), we shall find (^'" ^ ^^^ b + smb cos a)
tang {a\b)=
"^
tang
1
(g+^ ^
.
^T Now we
have sm
a=
sin 5 sin
,
.
^ *
R~"^ ^^
^^^
^=
which is the value of the tangent of the sum of two arcs, expressed by the tangents of each of these arcs. For the tangent of their difference, we should in like manner find R^ (tanff a tang b) ^ ; tang (ai)= o V / R2+tang a tang b. Suppose 6=a ; for the duplication of the arcs, we shall have the formula 2 R2 tang a
^^\
tang2a=j^,_^^^g,^:
Suppose b=2a; for mula
their triplication,
we
shall
have the
for
tang3a= gMta"g+tang2)
R^
in
tang
WS
a tang 2 a
which, substituting the value of tang 2 a, we shall have 3R^ tang a tang ^a o _= tang 3 a= ^ ^ tang ^a.
XXVI. Scholium. The radius being entirely arbitrary, is generally taken equal to 1, in which case it does not appear in For example the expression for the trigonometrical formulas. the tangent of twice an arc when R=l, becomes,
n tang 2
If
a=
2 tang a
1
tang^
s__
a
we have an analytical formula calculated to the radius of 1 and wish to apply it to another circle in which the radius is R, we must multiply each term by such a power of as will make all the terms homogeneous: that is, so that each shall contain tlie
factors.
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
229
XXVIII. If such a table were known, it would be easy to calculate a table of sines, &c. to any other radius ; since, in ditferent circles, the sines, cosines, &c. of arcs containing the same number of degrees, are to each other as their radii.
XXIX.
method of sines, &c.
were used,
it
would be necessary,
division. To avoid so tedious a use the logarithms of the sines, co; so that the tables in common use show the values of the logarithms of the sines, cosines, tangents, cotangents, <&c for each degree and minute of the quadrant, calculated to a given radius. This radius is 10,000,000,000, and consequently
tions of multiplication
and
calculation,
we
its
logarithm
is
10.
XXX. Let us glance for a moment at one of the methods of calculating a table of natural sines. The radius of a circle being 1 the semicircumference is known This being divided successively, by to be 3.14159265358979. 180 and 60, or at once by 10800, gives .0002908882086657, Of so small an arc the sine, chord, for the arc of 1 minute. and arc, differ almost imperceptibly from the ratio of equality so that the first ten of the preceding figures, that is, .0002908882 may be regarded as the sine of 1' and in fact the sine given the tables which run to seven places of figures is .0002909. By Art. XVI. we have for any arc, cos= >/(l sin^). This theorem gives, in the present case, cos 1' 9999999577. Then
,
by
Art.
XXII.
we shall have 2 cos I'xsin I'sin 0' = sin 2 cos I'xsin 2' sin l'=sin 2 cos I'xsin 3'sin 2' = sin 2 cos 1' X sin 4' sin 3' sin 2 cos I'xsin 5' sin 4'=sin
2'
3'
==.00058 17764
4'
&c. any extent, the whole the multiplication of each successive re
by
230
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
'
Or, the sines of 1 and 2' being determined, the work might be continued thus (Art. XXI.) sin r sin 2' sin 1' sin 2' + sin T sin 3 sin 2' sin 3' sin 1' sin 3' + sin 1' sin 4
:
:
sin 3'
sin 4'
sin
sin 1'
sin 4'
&c.
&c.
&c.
In hke manner, the computer might proceed for the sines of degrees, &c. thus
sin 1 sin 2
:
sin
2sm
sin 2
sin 3
sin 3 sin 4
sin b^
&c.
(fee.
&c.
the process may be considerably simplified by the theorem for the tangents of the sums and differences of arcs. For, when the radius is unity, the tangent of 45 is also unity, and tan (a\b) will be denoted thus
:
Above 45
tan (4:5{b)=i ^
^
/A^o
i.\
+ tan b tan 6
1
1
.
And
The
sines.
this,
again,
may be
still
may
TABLE OF LOGARITHMS.
XXXI. If the logarithms of all the numbers between 1 and any given number, be calculated and arranged in a tabular form, The table annexed such table is called a table of logarithms. shows the logarithms of all numbers between 1 and 10,000. The first column, on the left of each page of the table, is the column of numbers, and is designated by the letter N the decimal part of the logarithms of these numbers is placed directly opposite them, and on the same horizontal hne. The characteristic of the logarithm, or the part which stands to the left of the decimal point, is always known, being 1 less than the places of integer figures in the given number, and there;
fore
it is
not written
in the table
of logarithms.
the characteristic
is 1,
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
PROBLEM.
To find from
the table the logarithm
231
of any number.
CASE
Wlien
the
I.
number
is less
than 100.
Look on tlie first page of the table of logarithms, along the columns of numbers under N, until the number is found the
;
number
directly opposite
it,
in the
is
CASE
Wfien
the
II.
number
is
and
less
than 10,000.
Find, in the column of numbers, tlie three first figures of the Then, pass across the page, in a horizontal line, into the columns marked 0, 1,2, 3, 4, &c., until you come to the column which is designated by the fourth figure of the given number : to the four figures so found, two figures taken from the column marked 0, are to be prefixed. If the four figures found, stand opposite to a row of six figures in the column marked 0, the two figures from this column, which are to be prefixed to the four before found, are the first two on the left hand ; but, if the four figures stand opposite a line of only four figures, you are then to ascend the column, till you come to the line of six figures : the two figures at tlie left hand are to be prefixed, and then the decimal part of the logarithm is obtained. To this, the characteristic of the logarithm is to be prefixed, which is always one less than the places of integer figures in the given number. Thus, the logarithm of 1 122 is 3.049993. In several of the columns, designated 0, 1,2, 3, &c., small dots are found. Where this occurs, a cipher must be written for each of these dots, and the two figiires which are to be prefixed, from the first column, are then found in the horizontal line directly below. Thus, the log. of 2 188 is 3.340047, the two dots being changed into two ciphers, and the 34 from the column 0, prefixed. The two figures from the colum 0, must also be taken from the line below, if any dots shall have been passed over, in passing along the horizontal line : thus, the logarithm of 3098 is 3.491081, the 49 from the column being taken from the line 310.
given number.
*232
PLANE TRlGONOxMETRl.
CASE
III.
When
the
consists of Jive or
more
places offigures.
the figures after the fourth from the left hand, Find, from the table, the logarithm of the first four places, and prefix a characteristic which shall be one less than the number of places including the ciphers. Take from the last column on the right of the page, marked D,the number on the same horizontal line with the logarithm, and multiply this number by the numbers that have been considered as ciphers then, cut off from the right hand as many places for decimals as there are figures in the multiplier, and add the product, so obtained, to the first logarithm : this sum will be the logarithm sought. Let it be required to fiind the logarithm of 672887. The log. of 672800 is found, on the 1 1th page of the table, to be 5.827886, after prefixing the characteristic 5. The corresponding number in the column is 65, which being multiplied by 87, the figures regarded as ciphers, gives 5655 ; then, pointing off" two places for decimals, the number to be added is 56.55. This number being added to 5.827886, gives 5.827942 for the logarithm of 672887 ; the decimal part .55, being omitted. This method of finding the logarithms of numbers, from the table, supposes that the logarithms are proportional to their respective numbers, which is not rigorously true. In the example, the logarithm of 672800 is 5.827886 ; the logarithm of 672900, a number greater by 100, 5.827951 the difference of the logarithms is 65. Now, as 100, the difference of the numbers, is to 65, the difference of their logarithms, so is 87, the difference between the given number and the least of the numbers used, to the difference of their logarithms, which is 56.55 this difference being added to 5.827886, the logarithm of the less number, gives 5.827942 for the logarithm of 672887. The us^ of the column of diflferences is therefore manifest. When, however, the decimal part which is to be omitted exceeds .5, we come nearer to the true result by increasing the next figure to the left by 1 ; and this will be done in all the Thus, the difference to be added, calculations which follow. was nearer 57 than 56 ; hence it would have been more exact to have added the former number.
all
Consider
as ciphers.
The logarithm of a vulgar fraction is equal to the loga rithm of the numerator minus the logarithm of the denom
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
2rj:^
inator. The logarithm of a decimal fraction is found, hy considering it as a whole number, and then prefixing to the decimal part of its logarithm a negative characteristic, greater hy unity than the number of ciphers between the decimal point and the first Thus, the logarithm of .0412. is significant place of figures.
2^614897.
PROBLEM.
to
a given logarithm,
XXXII Search, in the column of logarithms, for the decimal part of the given logarithm, and if it be exactly found, set down Then, if the characteristic of the the corresponding number. given logarithm be positive, point off, from the left of the numbei found, one place more for v^^hole numbers than there are units in the characteristic of the given logarithm, and treat the other places as decimals ; this will give the number sought. If the characteristic of the given logarithm be 0, there will be one place of whole numbers ; if it be 1, the number will be entirely decimal ; if it be 2, there will be one cipher be
the logarithm cannot be exacdy found in the table, take the number answering to tlie nearest less logarithm take also from the table the corresponding difference in the column D then, subtract this less logarithm from the given logarithm and having annexed a sufficient number of ciphers to the remainder, divide it by the difference taken from the column D, and annex the quotient to the number answering to the less logarithm this gives the required number, nearly. This rule, like the one for finding the logarithm of a number when the places exceed four, supposes the numbers to be proportional to their corresponding logarithms. Ex. I. Find the number answering to the logarithm 1.532708. Here, The given logarithm, is 1.532708 Next less logarithm of 34,09, is 1.532627
;
:
tween the decimal point and 3, there will be two, &c. 1.492481 is found in page 5, But if the decimal part of
the
first
significant figure
if it
be
is
31.08.
...

Their difference
is
is
.
:
sT
128 hence 128) 81.00 (63 which being annexed to 34,09, gives 34.0963 for the number answering to the logarithm 1.532708.
And
234
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
2.
Ex,
to the logarithm
3.233568. The given logarithm is The next less tabular logarithm of 1712,
is
3.233568 3.233504
Diff.=
64
Hence the number sought is 1712.25, marking four places of integers for the characteristic 3.
TABLE OF LOGARITHMIC
SINES.
XXXIII. In this table are arranged the logarithms of the numerical values of the sines, cosines, tangents, and cotangents, of all the arcs or angles of the quadrant, divided to minutes, and calculated for a radius of 10,000,000,000. The logarithm of this radius is 10. In the first and last horizontal line, of each page, are written the degrees whose logarithmic sines, &lc. are expressed on the page. The vertical columns on the left and right, are columns of minutes.
CASE L
To
find, in the table, the logarithmic sine, cosine, tangent, or co
line
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
It will
235
be seen, that the column designated sine at the top of is designated cosine at the bottom the one designated tang., by cotang., and the one designated cotang., by
the page,
;
tang.
The angle found by taking the degrees at the top of the page, and the minutes from the first vertical column on the left, is the complement of the angle, found by taking the corresponding degrees at the bottom of the page, and the minutes traced up This in the right hand column to the same horizontal line. being apparent, the reason is manifest, why the columns designated sine, cosine, tang., and cotang., when the degrees are pointed out at the top of the page, and the minutes counted downwards, ought to be changed, respectively, into cosine, sine, cotang., and tang., when the degrees are shovra at the bottom of the page, and the minutes counted upwards. If the angle be greater than 90, we have only to subtract it from 180, and take the sine, cosine, tangent, or cotangent of
the remainder. The secants and cosecants are omitted in the table, being easily found from the cosines and sines.
For,
log.
is
sec.
=
cos.
or,
Rlog.
COS. 20
log. cos.
that
is, ttie
logarithmic secant
found by suhstracting
from
sine
20.
And
cosec.
sine
=R2
R log.
=20
log.
; that is, the logarithmic cosecant is found by subtracting tlie logarithmic sine from 20. It has been shown that R'^rrtang. x cotang.; therefore, 2 log. R=log. tang. + log. cotang.; or 20=zlog. tang. flog, cotang. The column of the table, next to the column of sines, and on the right of it, is designated by the letter D. This column is calculated in the following manner. Opening the table at any page, as 42, the sine of 24 is found to be 9.609313 ; of 24 r, 9.609597 their difference is 284 ; this being divided by
:
number of seconds in a minute, gives 4.73, which is entered in the column D, omitting the decimal point. Now,
60, the
supposing the increase of the logarithmic sine to be proportional to the increase of the arc, and it is nearly so for 60", it follows, that 473 (the last two places being regarded as decimals) is the increase of the sine for 1". Similarly, if the arc be 24 20', the increase of the sine for 1", is 465, the last two places being decimals. The same remarks are equally applicable in respect of the column D, after the column cosine, and of the column D, between the tangents and cotangents. The column between the tangents and cotangents, answers
230
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
columns
;
since of the same arc, the log. Therefore, having two arcs, a and b, log. tang b\\og. cotang h^og, tang fl + log. cotang a; or, log. tang z=:log. cotang a log. cotang h. log. tang h Now, if it were required to find the logarithmic sine of an arc expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds, we have only to find the degrees and minutes as before then multiply the corresponding tabular number by the seconds, cut off two places to the right hand for decimals, and then add the product *o the number first found, for the sine of the given arc. Thus, if we wish the sine of 40 26' 28". . The sine 40 26' 9.811952
to either of these
f
tang.
log. cotangir:20.
Tabular
diflference rr
247
69.16 = = 9.812021.16
is found In regard to the cosine and cotangent, it must be remembered, that they increase while the arcs decrease, and decrease while the arcs are increased, consequently, the proportional numbers found for the seconds must be subtracted, not added.
The tangent of an
manner
arc, in
in a
entirely similar.
Ex, To
9.999110
zr:
m 40
13
=r
5.20
9.999104.80
CASE
To find
the degrees ^ minutes,
II.
and seconds answering to any given logarithmic sine, cosine, tangent, or cotangent.
Search in the table, and in the proper column, until the number be found the degrees are shown either at the top or bottom of the page, and the minutes in the side columns, either at the left or right. But if the number cannot be exactly found in the table, take the degrees and minutes answering to the nearest less logarithm, the logarithm itself, and also the corresponding tabular difference. Subtract the logarithm taken, from the
;
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
;
237
given logarithm, annex two ciphers, and then divide the remainder by the tabular difference the quotient is seconds, and is to be connected with the degrees and minutes before found ; to be added for the sine and tangent, and subtracted for the cosine and cotangent.
Ex.
1.
To
Sine 49^
9.880054 9.879963
181)9100(50"
Tab.
Diff.
Hence
9.880054.
Ex,
2.
To
Cotang 44
10.008591
Tab.
Diflf.
421)9700(23"
Hence, 44
to
is
PRINCIPLES FOR
Till
THEOREM
I.
In etary right angled triangle, radius is to the sine of either of the acute angles, as the hypothenuse to the opposite side : and radius is to the cosine of either of the acute angles, as the hypothenuse to the adjacent side.
Let be the proposed triangle, rightangled at : from the point C as a centre, with a
ABC
radius equal to the radius of the tables, describe the arc DE, which will measure the angle C ;
CD
on
CD
let fall
the perpendicular
EF, which will be the sine of the angle C, and CF will be its cosine.
The
triangles
CBA, CEF,
:
portion,
CE R
EF
sinC
CB BC
BA
BA.
hence
238
But
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
we
also have,
CE R
Cor,
cos
CF C
: :
CB CA CB CA.
: :
hence
If the radius
R=l, we
sin
shall
have,
AB=CB
Hence,
to the
C, and
CA=CB
cos C.
in every right angled triangle, the perpendicular is equal hypothenuse multiplied by the sine of the angle at the base ; and the base is equal to the hypothenuse multiplied by the cosine of the angle at the base ; the radius being equal to unity.
THEOREM
II.
is to the
tangent of ei
ther of the acute angles, as the side adjacent to the side op
Let
angle.
CAB be the
proposed
tri
With any radius, as CD, describe the arc DE, and draw the
tangent
Cor,
I,
If the radius
R=l,
angled triangle
is
AB=CAtangC.
Hence,
the perpendicular of a right
equal
to
the base multiplied by the tangent of the angle at the base, the radius being unity.
Cor,
2.
of
its
complement
stituted in
Since the tangent of an arc is equal to the cotangent (Art. VI.), the cotangent of B may be subthe proportion for tang C, which will give
cot
CA
AB.
THEOREM
III.
In every rectilineal triangle, the sines of the angles are to each other 05 the opposite sides.
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
Let
239
ABC
AD
A
A
\
j^
the perpendicular, let fall from the vertex there may be two : on the opposite side
BC
cases.
First,
the triangle
ABD, ACD,
R R
In these
sin
sin
B C
: :
AB AD. AC AD.
:
two
hence,
sin
AB
AC.
Secondly, If the perpendicular falls j^ without the triangle ABC, the rightangled triangles ABD, ACD, will still give the proportions,
from
sin
C
is
sin
ABD
still
AB AC.
:
ABD
;
the supplement of
ABC,
or
hence
ABD=sin B
hence
sin
we
:
have
:
sin
AB AC.
:
THEOREM
IV.
In every rectilineal triangle^ the cosine of either of the angles is equal to radius multiplied by the sum of the squares of the sides adjacent to the angle, minus the square of the side opposite, divided by twice the rectangle of the adjacent sides.
Let
ABC
be a triangle
then will
I
the triangle,
.
B
.
2BC
ABD, we have
cos
AB BD
:
Ji4(j
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY
hence, cos
B= ^5
cos
BD,
B=R X
AB2+BC2~AC2
2ABxBC
hence
'
BAD,
;
we
D B
ABD
C
being
supplemental to
cos
we
have
^ B=
RxBD
^t^ AB
.
again have
^^g^g^
Scholium,
we
shall
have cos
B=R x
^I
And
the
same
principle,
when
two
A=R x
>
^^^ ^^^
C=R x
^r
msn
in whi^'h
Recurring to the formula R^ R cos A=2sin^ ^A (Art. XXIIL), or 2sin^^A=R^ RcosA, and substituting for cosA,
we
shall
have
==
2bc
^
2bc
2bc
R^x
j^^^Wx 2bc
(.''+bc){a+cb)^
^^^^^
,iniA=nv(^t:y^=^).
For the sake of brevity, pat
a\b
+ c=2p; we
have
a+b
c=^2p
Sic,
hence
sm
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
THEOREM
241
V.
[n every rectilineal triangle, the sum of two sides is to their difference as the tangent of half the sum of the angles opposite those sides J to the tangent of half their difference.
For,
AB BC
;
:
sin
sin
:
rem
:
III.).
Hence,
sin
AB + BC AB BC
C
(Theo
sin
C + sin A
:
sin
: :
A.
tang
But
sinC + sin
A ^ Q
;
sin
sin

:
tang
^ (Art. XXIV.)
ABBC
:
:
hence,
AB + BC
tang
^^
tang
^^,
<^
which
is
the property we had to demonstrate. With the aid of these five theorems
we
can solve
all
the
the
Scholium. The required part should always he found from given parts ; so that if an error is made in any part of the work, it may not affect the correctness of that which follows.
calculations
242
PLANE TRIGONOxMETRY,
It is now to be shown that, the difference between two logarithms is truly found, by adding to the first logarithm the arithmetical complement of the logarithm to be subtracted, and diminishing their sum by 10.
Let
a
b
6.
Now,
c
the difference
expressed by a
10=
b.
between the two logarithms will be But from the equation c=10 6, we have
hence
if
we
a
substitute for
10,
its
value
we
shall
have
b==aic
When we
wish
it
tlie
we may
write
directly
From 3.274107
take 2.104729.
Common
method.
By ar.comp.
ar.comp
.
3.274107 2.104729
Diff.
3.274107 7.895271
after
re
1.169378
all
sum 1.169378
We
RULE.
Add
the first term, the logarithm of the second term, and the logarithm of the third term, and their sum after rejecting 10, will
And if any expression be the loganthm of the fourth term. occurs in which the arithmetical complement is twice used, 20
must be rejected from the sum.
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
243
A be the right angle of the proposed angled triangle, B and C the other two angles; let a be the hypothenuse, h the side opposite the angle B, c the side opposite the angle C. Here we must consider that the ^ ^ c" two angles C and B are complements of each other ; and that consequently, according to the different cases, we are entitled to assume sin C=cos B, sin B=cos C, and likewise tang This being fixed, the unknown parts cot C, tang C=cot B. of a right angled triangle may be found by the first two theorems ; or if two of the sides are given, by means of the property, that the square of the hypothenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.
Let
right
B=
EXAMPLES.
Ex, L In the right angled triangle BCA, there are given the hypothenuse a=250, and the side 6=240 ; required the other
parts.
R
or,
(z
: :
sin
B
:
a
:
(Theorem
I.),
sin B.
it is
most convenient
log.

tcyj^rite the
^^
To
So
side 6
is
250 240
ar.comp.
R
B

To
)r,
sin
23"= 16

37"
As hyp. a
To
So
side 6
is
250 240
ar.comp.
log.
R
C

To
cos
16 15' 37"
To
As
c,
we
log.
say,

R
side
comp.

To
So
To
214
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
the side c might be found from the equation
Or
For,
hence,
c=log.
(a +6)
+ log.
{a
6),
or
log.
a + 6=250 + 240=490
2.690196
1.000000
2) 3.690196
a6=250240=10
Log. c
70
In the right angled triangle and the angle B=53
1.845098
Ex.
parts.
2.
BCA,
8'
:
To
c.
R
or
tang
:
: :
:
:
tangB
(Theorem c. Hence,
log.
II.)
As tang
Is to
53
8'
ar.comp.
R
side 6
So is To side
Note,
is
384

c 287.965
"2^59341
When the logarithm whose arithmetical complement be used, exceeds 10, take the arithmetical complement with reference to 20 and reject 20 from the sum.
to
To
find the
hypothenuse
a
:
a,
I.).
R
As
So
sin
sin
8'
(Theorem
log.
Hence,
0.096892 10.000000 2.584331 2.681223
are given,
53
ar.
comp.

Is to
is
R
side 6
384
To
Ex.
3.
hyp.
a 479.98
c=195, angle
Angle
C=42
05',
fl=290.953, 6=215.937.
Let A, B,
a, 6, c,
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
CASE
Criven
I.
245
remaining
parts.
sum of the two angles from two right anremainder will be the third angle. The remaining sides can then be found by Theorem III.
First, subtract the
gles, the
I.
In the triangle
ABC, there
A =58
07',
tlie
the angle
and the side c=408 yards: required remaining angle and the two other sides.
37',
B=22
C
its
sine
is
found by taking
To
As
sine
Is to sine
99 16' 58 07'
ar.comp.

log.
.

So So
is
side c
408
351.024

side
2.545337
To
As
So
sine
6.
C
B
Is to sine
is
99 16' 22 37'
ar.comp.
. 
log.

side c
408
158.976

To
2.
side b
In a triangle
42',
ABC,
B=57
parts.
and the
side
38 25' there are given the angle c=400 : required the remaining
A
Ans, Angle
C=83
53', side
CASE
11.
Gtven two sides of a triangle, and an angle opposite one of to find the third side and the two remaining angles.
thent,
246
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
AC = A
1. In the triangle ABC, there 21 6, BC are given side =22 37', 117, and the angle
remaining parts. Describe the triangles ACB, ACB; as in Prob. XI. Book III. Then find the angle B byto find the
Theorem
As
side
is
III.
Is to
ar.comp.
log.
So
22 37' 45
1 3'
55" or
To
As
sine
AB

or AB'.
log.
22 37'
ar.comp.
2.449918
The ambiguity in this, and similar examples, arises in consequence of the first proportion being true for both the triangles
ACB, ACB'. As long as the two triangles exist, the ambiguity will continue. But if the side CB, opposite the given angle, be greater than AC, the arc BB' will cut the line ABB' on the same side of the point A, but in one point, and then there will be but one triangle answering the conditions. If the side CB be equal to the perpendicular Cd, the arc BB' will be tangent to ABB', and in this case also, there will
be but one triangle. When CB is less than the perpendicular Cd, the arc BB' will not intersect the base ABB', and in that case there will be no triangle, or the conditions are impossible.
2. Given two sides of a triangle 50 and 40 respectively, and the angle opposite the latter equal to 32 : required the remaining parts of tiie triangle.
Ans. If the angle opposite the side 50 be acute, it is equal 41 28' 59", the third angle is then equal to 106 31' 01", and the third side to 72.368. If the angle opprsite the side 50 be obtuse, it is equal to 138 31' 01", the third angle to 9 28' 59 ',
to
to 12.436.
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
CASE
III.
247
Given two sides of a triangle, with their included angle, the third side and the two remaining angles.
to find
Let
angle,
ABC
be a triangle,
the given
and c and a the given sides. Know^ing the angle B, v^^e shall like
wise
gles
know
the
an
A
:
_^___
h
'C
compute the half difference of these two angles by the proportion (Theorem V.),
tang \ (C + A) or cot J B tang \ (C ^A,) c>a and consequently C>A. Having found the half difference, by adding it to the half sum ^ (C + A), we shall have the greater angle C and by subtracting it from the halfsum, we shall have the smaller angle A. For, C and A being any two quantities, we have always,
c+a
in
which we consider
A:=J(C + A)4(CA).
Knowing
the angles
C=i(C + A)+J(CA)
C
and
A
:
we
have
the proportion.
sin
sin
6
in
In the triangle ABC, let a =450, c=:540, and the cluded angle B=z: 80 required the remaining parts.
Ex,
\,
+ a=990,ca=90,
180 B=100==C + A.
log.
Asc + a
9.034795
49'
506 ir=43
=A.
To
As
So
sine
is
A
B
a
43 49'
80
ar.comp.
log.
Is to sine
side
450
...

To
side h
2.
640.082
2.806236
sides of a plane triangle, 1686 and 960, Ex, and their included angle 128 04': required the other parts.
Given two
^715. Angles,
33 34' 39
",
2400
248
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
CASE
Given
IV
We have
sin
A=R^(l^(^
sum of the
or
i^hich
three sides.
Hence
si'iA=R=((^=:^i^),
2
log. sin
JA=2
log.
R+log. (p
ft)
+ log.
{p
c)
log. e
log. b.
ABC,
let
Here p=
2 Log.
log.
=49.5, p
9.5 15.5
5=9.5, and p c=

5.5.
R
34 40
ar.comp. ar.comp.
log.
ip^b) Ipc)
b
sin
log. c
log. 2 log.
log.
J A sin J A 19
12'
39"
9517258
Angle
the angle
A=38
25' 18".
In a similar manner
Ex.
are,
2.
we find the angle B=83 53' 18" and C=57 41' 24". What are the angles of a plane triangle whose sides
Ans. 41 24' 34", 55 46' 16" and 82 49'
10''.
APPLICATIONS.
AB
were required,
the
being accessible.
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
On
the
249
ground which
we
suppose to be horizontal or very nearly so, measure a base AD, neither very great nor very small in comparison with the altitude AB then at D place the foot of the circle, or whatever be the instrument, with
;
angle
zontal line
B CE parallel to AD, A. and by the visual ray direct it to the summit of the building. Suppose we find AD or CE 67.84 yards, and the angle
BCE=41o
04'
:
in
we
shall
CE

To
EB

AsR
ar.comp.
Is to tang.
So is EC ToEB
41 04' 67.84
59.111
Hence, EB=59.111 yards. To EB add the height of the instrument, which we will suppose to be 1.12 yards, we shall khen have the required height AB=60.231 yards. If, in the same triangle it were required to find the hypothenuse, form the proportion log. 0.122660 As cos C 41 04' ar.comp.
BCE
IstoR
CE To CB
So
is
67.84
89.98
10.000000 1.831486
1.954146
Note, If only the summit B of the building or place whose height is required were visible, we should determine the distance by the method shown in the follovying example are sufficient for solvthis distance and the given angle mg the right angled triangle BCE, whose side, increased by the height of the instrument, will be the height required.
CE
BCE
"
250
2.
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
To find upon the ground
^ ^^^^yl^
B,
we must measure
the
a base
AD, and
two adjacent
Sup
^
^===^..=^^^^=^y^^^^^,
AD==
we shall thence
angle obtain AB, proportion
form the
J>y^

^I>
ar.comp.
log.
CAD=35
15',
ADC = 119
32',
3. To between two inaccessible objects B and C, we determine AB and AC as in the last example we shall, at the same time, have the included angle BAG =: BAD DAC. Suppose AB has been found equal to 538.818 yards, AC = 1201.744 yards, and the angle BAC = 68 40' 55"; to get BC, we must resolve the triangle BAG, in which are known two sides and the included angle.
Is to
ar.comp.
log.
6.759311 2.821465
So
is
tang.
r>
^G
r*
55 39' 32"
10.165449
9.740225
To
tang.
^29 08'
19"
Hence
But
19"
we
 = 55
B =84 C =26
R4 G
39'
32"
Hence
and
47' 51
31' 13"
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY.
Now,
As
So
sine
Is to sine
is
251
BC make

the proportion,
log.

A 68^
AC
1201.744
To BC
1124,145
3.050822
4. Wanting to know the distance between two inaccessible objects which lie in a direct line from the bottom of a tower of 120 feet in height, the angles of depression are measured, and found to be, of the nearest, 57 ; of the most remote, 25 30' required the distance between them.
:
Ans. 173.656
feet.
and In order to find the distance between two trees, B, which could not be directly measured because of a pool which occupied the intermediate space, the distance of a third point C from each, was measured, viz. CA=588 feet and CB =672 feet, and also the contained angle ACB=55 40'; required the distance AB.
5.
Ans. 592.967 feet. Being on a horizontal plane, and wanting to ascertain ^he height of a tower, standing on the top of an inaccessible hill, there were measured, the angle of elevation of the top ol then measuring the hill 40"^, and of the top of tlie tower 51 m a direct line 180 feet farther from the hill, the angle of elevation of the top of the tower was 33 45' required the height
^.
:
:
of the tower.
Ans. 83.9983
7.
feet.
the horizontal distance between two maccessible objects and B, and not finding any station from which both of them could be seen, two points C and D, were chosen, at a distance from each other equal to 200 yards, from the former of which could be seen, and from the latter B, and at each of the points C and a staff was set up. From C a distance CF was measured, not in the direction DC, equal so 200 yards, and from D, a distance equal to 200 yards, and the following angles were taken, viz. AFC=83 54 31', ACD=53" 30 , BDC=156^ 25', BDE=54 30', and
to
Wanting
know
DE
ACF=
BED =88
8.
30'
AB.
Ans. 345.46 yards.
there can be seen three objects. A, B and C, whose distances from each other are known, viz. 800, 600, and BC 400 yards. There are also measured the horizontal angles, A?C=33 45', BPC=22 30'. It is required, from these data, to determine the three distances PA,
station
From a
AC =
AB=
PC and PB.
Ans. PA=710.193,
PC = 1042.522, PB=934.291
yards.
252
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
I. It has already been shown that a spherical triangle is formed by the arcs of three great circles intersecting each other on the surface of a sphere, (Book IX. Def. 1). Hence, every the sides and three angles. spherical triangle has six parts Spherical Trigonometry explains the methods of determining, by calculation, the unknown sides and angles of a spherical triangle when any three of the six parts are given. II. Any two parts of a spherical triangle are said to be of the same species when they are both less or both greater than 90 and they are of different species when one is less and the
:
HI. Let
triangle, and
A^
7I^^^^^'\
/
/

.\
^\,^^^
\
^^"\^
'
!
coriesponding to their opposite i \ ^ cT'^T^t^^ angles that is, the side opposite [ j ;fa\ the angle by , the side oppo^y \ _ !J^ \ij' \ \ site B by h^ and the side opposite " l^ C by c. Then the angle \ "^^'t^ will be represented by , the an>^^^ gle by h and the angle ^ by c. The angles of the spherical triangle will be equal to the angles included between the planes which determirue its sides (Book IX. Prop. VI.).
:
i^ ^
COB
CO A BOA
\ ^\
'\
y^
From any
to the plane
COB.
From
perpendicular to ; be respectively perpendicular to OB and OC, (Book VI. Prop. VI.) will be equal to the angle B of the spheriThe angle to the angle C. cal triangle, and the angle The two right angled triangles OKA, ADK, will give the proportions
:
and
DK
OA, draw AD perpendicular D draw DH perpendicular to OB, OC and draw AH and AK the
DHA
DKA
AOK OA AK, or, R x AK= OA sin AKD AK AD, or, R x ADirr AK sin C. Hence, R^* x AD=AO sin h sin C, by substituting for AK
R R
:
sin
h.
sin
: :
its
first
equation.
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
In like
253
manner
sin c
sin
the Jriangles
AHO, ADH,
right angled at
and D, give
R R
Hence,
AO AH,
:
or
R x AH=AO
sin c
sin B.
Equating
viding
this
di
by AO, we have
.
8in6sinC=sincsinB,or^j^=^j^
or,
(1)
is,
sin
sin
; :
sin b
sin c that
7%e sines of
the angles of a spherical triangle are to each other as the sines of their opposite sides,
IV.
From
DF
parallel to
is
Then
will the
angle
pKF=COB=a,
since each
the
EKO.
OAH, we
;
have
R cos c OA OH hence AOcosc=RxOH=RxOE + R.F. In the rightangled triangle OKE R cos a OK OE, or Rx OE:=OK cos a. But in the right angled triangle OKA R cos 6 OA OK, or, R x OK=OA cos h.
: : : : :
: : :
tr Hence
R x r^n = O A. OE
r
/. A
:
C^S a COS h
KFD
R x DF=KD
sin a.
sm a
sin 6
KD
:
DF, or
OAK, ADK, we
have
R R
,
OA
cos
K AK
:
AK, KD,
hence
^,^ KD= OA
sin
sin b
cos
_^ RxDF= 0\
_
.
^
C
C
,
,
and
a sin 5 cos
g2
cos a cos b
therefore
sin
^ OA
cos
c=
OA
AO
sin b cos
C
,
^2
or
R^ cos
c R
254
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
may
be deduced for each of the cthe^
Similar equations
sides.
Hence, generally,
a=R cos b cos c+sin b sin c cos 6=R cos a cos c+sin a sin c cos c=R cos b cos a + sin b sin a cos
A.
B. C.
)
>
(2.)
cal triangle is equal to radius into the rectangle of the cosines of the two other sides plus the rectangle of the sines of those sides
into the cosine of their included angle.
the formulas designated (2) involves the three one of the angles. These formulas are used to determine the angles when the three sides are known. It is necessary, however, to put them under another form to adapt them to logarithmic computation.
sides of the triangle together w^ith
V.
Each of
Taking the
first
equation,
.
we
:
have
cos
Adding
R to
each member,
fl^ cos
we
have
R+cos
But,
A=
a + R sin b sin c
R cos b cos
and
sin b sin c
R+cos
A=
n
2 cos
^^
''^iA
(Art. XXIII.),
sin b sin c
R cos
R
b cos
c=
(cos
^R^
2cos2JA_R2
neuce,
gcos
i.
+ c)) _
sm
sm
2
Putting
R ""^
^'^+'t'^>
sm
""^ ('+'^") sm c
have
(Art. XXIII). ^
5=a+6+c, we
shall
a)
hence
^'
cos ^
/sin I BRv/"^"^
,
r*
(^^''" ^^^~^'^
.
sin
(
s.in
>
(3.)
/aiii ^
sin
sc)
C
2^^
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
Had we subtracted each member of the first equation from R, instead of adding, we should, by making similar reductions,
^ave found
^ JA=RV/
sin
^{a + b
sm
c) sin
j^
(a
+c
b)
sin h sin n
sm ^1> =
sm
KV/
sin
^{a + b
c) sin
(6 f c
a)
sin
a sin c
!^(4.)
,^_^^y^sin^{a^cb)sm^(b{c^
sin
a sin
/>
Putting 5
^s
= a + 6 4 c, we
a),
shall
have
^s
tf
= J(6 + c
Js
= J (a + c6), and
s'"
c=^{a +
b
ci
hence,
sin
^A=R^
g^^)
si"
(^^^)
sin 6 sin c
sin
^R=R^
shi
MS)
sin
^C=R^/si" ^
tt^ ^)
sin
s'"
(i^Q)
^
s\n b
may deduce the value of the side of a triangle of the three angles by applying equations (4.), to Thus, if a\ b', c\ A', B', C', represent the the polar triangle. sides and angles of the polar triangle, we shall have
VI.
We
terms
c'
180^A', 6
180 B',
and
c=180
are
: hence, omitting the ', since the equar applicable to any triangle, we shall have
cos
cos i ft=R4^
A i (A + BC)
sin
cos i (B + CA)
sin
'>
(o.)
cos i
c=R\/co8 i (A + CB)
sin
cos j (B +
CA)
A sin B.
25
Tutting
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
S=A + B + C, we
shall
have
and
ia=RvAQs~a^ ^)
sin
^Qs
sin
(JSB)
C
,
cos
p_j
^^ co3ic=RV
VII. If
shall
we
apply equations
(2.)
we
have
C cos
C C B
\
>
a'.
tri
we have
R^.cos
', since the equation is applicable to any the three symmetrical equations,
R^.cos
R^.cos
sin sin
sin
cos cos
(8.)
cos
That is, radius square into the cosine of either angle of a spk&* ncal trianghy is equal to the rectangle of the sines of the two other angles into the cosine of their included side, minus radius into the
rectangle of their cosines,
VIII. All *he formulas necessary for the solution of spherimay be deduced from equations marked (2.). If we substitute for cos h in the third equation, its value taken from the second, and substitute for cos^ a its value R^ sin^ , and then divide by the common factor R.sin a, we shall have
cal triangles,
R.cos c
i
.
^.
sin
But equation
/, X
(1.)
gives sin
sin 6= sin B c sm C
,
:
hence, by substitution,
s in
f R.
cos
sin
C C
sin c
Dividing by sin
we have
.
cose sin c
sin
a=cos a
cos
]a\ii
T)
sin
cos
sinC
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
But,
257
^=^^ sin R
(Art. XVII.).
Therefore,
cot c sin
a=cos a
cos
B + cot C
sin B.
h=cos c=cos
b cos
c cos
cot c sin
a cos
\
> (9.)
That
is,
sides into the sine of a second side, is equal to the cosine of the second side into the cosine of the included angle, plus the cotangent
of the angle opposite the first side into the sine of the included
angle.
IX.
We
J^apier's Analogies^
shall terminate these formulas by demonstrating which serve to simplify several cases in the
solution of spherical triangles. If from the first and third of equations (2.), cos c be eliminated, there will result, after a little reduction,
R
By
cos
A
B
sin
c=R
cos a sin h
cos C
sin
a cos
b.
a simple permutation,
this gives
R
have
cos
sin
c=R
cos b sin a
cos C
sin b cos a.
Hence by adding
these
shall
sin c (cos
A+cos B)=(R
sin
:
But smce
sin c (sin sin c (sin
cos C) 6 7^ = 5, we sm C sm A sm B
c
sin
sin
"=
i,
shall
have
Z>),
(sin
a + sin a
and
(sin
sin b).
Dividing these
the preceding
one
we
shall
have
sin flfsin b
*
cos
sin (a
sin
+ b)
sin b
2ft8
SPHERICAL TRIGOIMOMETRY.
reduci
>g
And
these
by the formulas
XXIV.,
tangJ(AHB)=cotK.;^i=
tagHAB)=cotiC.i;i^.
given, the
Hence, two sides a and h with the included angle C being two other angles A and B may be found by the
analogies,
cos^(a+&)
sin
cos^(a
sin
{a\h)
\ {a
h)
h)
cot ^
cot
C JC
tang^(A + B)
tang ^ (A
B).
result,
If these
c',
we
shall
instead of a, 6, A, B, C, respectively; and for the have after omitting the ', these two analogies,
:
cos^(A + B)
sinJ(A + B)
cos
^(A
tang J (a h) tangle by means of which, when a side c and the two adjacent angles A and B are given, we are enabled to find the two other sides a and h. These four proportions are known by the name of Napier's Analogies,
:
:
:
sin^(A
B) B)
tangle
tangJ(cf46)
X. In the case in which there are given two sides and an angle opposite one of them, there will in general be two solutions corresponding to the two results in Case II. of rectilineal
It is also plain that this ambiguity will extend itself corresponding case of the polar triangle, that is, to the case in which there are given two angles and a side opposite one of them. In every case we shall avoid all false solutions
triangles.
to the
by
recollecting,
1st.
is less
That every angle, and every side of a spherical triangle than 180.
lies
and
XL
Geometer
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
In every right angled spherical BAG, there are six parts three sides and three angles. If we omit the consideration of the right angle, which is always known, there will be five remaining parts, two of which must be given before the others can
triangle
'^5J>
be determined.
The circular parts, as they are called, are the two sides c and />, about the right angle, the complements of the oblique angles B and G, and the complement of the hypothenuse a. Hence there are five circular parts. The right angle A not being a circular part, is supposed not to separate the circular parts c and b^ so that these parts are considered as adjacent to each other. If any two parts of the triangle be given, their corresponding circular parts will also be known, and these together with a required part, will make three parts under consideration. Now, these three parts will all lie together, or one of them will be sepaFor example, if B and c were rated from both of the others. given, and a required, the three parts considered would lie
together.
But
lie
if
and
;
would not
together
the part a, and from b middle part. Hence, when there are three of the circular parts under consideration, the middle part is that one of them to winch
G were given, and b required, the parts for, B would be separated from G by by the part c. In either case B is the
both of the others are adjacent, or from which both of them are separated. In the former case the parts are said to be adjacent* and in the latter case the parts are said to be opposite.
This being premised, we are now to prove the following rules for the solution of right angled spherical triangles, which
it
defined.
1st. Radius into the sine of the middle part angle of the tangents of the adjacent pat'ts. is
equal
to the rect
2d. Radius into the sine of the middle part angle of the cosines of the opposite parts.
is
equal
to the rect
These
extremes
rules are
proved by assuming each of the five circumiddle part, and by taking the
first opposite, then adjacent. Having thus fixed the three parts which are to be considered, take that one of the general equations for oblique angled triangles, which shall contain the three corresponding parts of the triangle, together with 90^, and after making the reducthe right angle then make tions corresponding to this supposition, the resulting equation
:
A=
will
260
SPHERICAT. TRIGONOMETRY.
For example, let comp. a be the middle part and the extremes opposite. The equation to be applied in this case must contain a, 6, c, and A. The first of equations (2.) contains these four quantities hence
:
R^cosa=Rcosfecosc+sin6sinccos A.
If
A=90'* cos
radius into the sine of the middle part, (which is the is equal to the rectangle of the cosines of liie opposite parts. Suppose now that the complement of a were the middle part and the extremes adjacent. The equation to be applied must contain the four quantities a, B, C, and A. It is the first of equations (8.).
that
is,
complement of a,)
R^ cos A=sin
sin
cos a
R cos B cos C.
or
Making
A =90, we
sin
have
cos
B sin C
R cos a=cot B
that
is,
radius into the sine of the middle part is equal to the rectangle of the tangent of the complement of B into the tangent of the complement of C, that is, to the rectangle of the tangents of the adjacent circular parts. Let us now take the comp. B, for the middle part and the extremes opposite. The two other parts under consideration will then be the perpendicular h and the angle C. The equation to be applied must contain the four parts A, B, C, and 6 : it is the second of equations (8.),
Making
R cos B=:sin A sin C cos hR cos A A = 90, we have, after dividing by R, R cos B=sin C cos 6.
cos
Let comp.
cent.
be
still
The equation
c,
four parts a, B,
the middle part and the extremes adja must then contain the foui and A. It is similar to equations (9.).
to be applied
cot a sin
c=cos
;
cosB + cot A
sin
But
if A = 90, cot A =
hence,
or
cos
B=cot a tang c.
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
A.nd circular part
is made the middle part, we obtain the lowing equations, which embrace all the cases
26]
R cos a=cos b cos c=cot B cot C^ R cos Brzcos b sin C =cot a tang c R cos C=cos c sin B=cot a tang b ^ R sin 6=sin a sinB=tangccotC R sin c=sin asin C=tang6cotB
i^^)
We see from these equations that, if the middle part is required we must begin the proportion with radius ; and when one oftJie extremes is required we must begin the proportion with the other
extreme.
of the equations, that when be of the same species, and also that the angles B and C will likewise be of the same species. When a is greater than 90, the sides b and c will be of different species, and the same will be true of the angles B and C. also see from the two last equations that a side and its opposite angle will always be of tlie same species. These properties are proved by considering the algebraic signs which have been attributed to the trigonometrical lines, and by remembering that the two members of an equation must always have the same algebraic sign.
also conclude,
is
We
from the
first
the hypothenuse
We
the form of
be observed, that when any element is discovered in its sine only, there may be two values for this ele
ment, and consequently two triangles that will satisfy the question because, the same sine which corresponds to an angle or an arc, corresponds likewise to its supplement. This will not take place, when the unknown quantity is determined by means In all these cases, the of its cosine, its tangent, or cotangent. sign will enable us to decide whether the element in question is less or greater than 90 the element will be less than 90, if its cosine, tangent, or cotangent, has the sign + it will be greater if one of these quantities has the sign In order to discover the species of the required element ot the triangle, we shall annex the minus sign to the logarithms of all the elements whose cosines, tangents, or cotangents, are negative. Then by recollecting that the product of the two
;
262
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
extremes has the same sign as that of the means, we can at once determine the sign which is to be given to the required element^ and then its species will be known.
EXAMPLES.
1. In the right angled spherical triangle BAG, right angled at A, there are given a=r64 40' and 5=42 12': required the remaining parts.
B
c
to the middle part,
and the
hence
cos
c,
R cos a=cos h
As
So
cos
is
or
log.
ar.comp.

Is to
R
cos
a
c
Tocos
To
The
site
:
side h will
be the middle part and the extremes oppo(comp. a) x cos (comp. B)=sin a
ar.comp.

hence
R sin 5=cos
As
sin
sin
B.
a
h
Is to sin
64 40' 42 12'
48 00' 14"
log.

Sois
R
B

To
sin
9.871100
To
The
hence
angle
is
R
As
Is to cot
cos
G=cot

a tang
h.
R
a
is
ar.comp.
log.

So
tang h
64 40' 42 12'
64 34' 46"
To
cos
2. In a right angled triangle BAG, there are given the hy poihenuse alOb'' 34', and the angle B=80 40' ; required the remaining parts.
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
To
The hypothenuse
adjacent
:
203
will
hence,
ar.comp.

log.

0.784220 +
9.428717
10.000000 +
So
is
R
C
148 30' 54"

To
cot
10.212937
Since the cotangent of C is negative the angle C is greater than 90^, and is the supplement of the arc which would correspond to the cotangent, if it were positive.
To
The
angle
will
c.
extremes
a 105 34'
Is to
R
cos
So
80 40'
....

ar.comp.
log.
To
tang
9^765045^
To
The
side h will
site; hence,
Rsin
6= sin a sin B.
comp.

As
R
is
ar.
To sin
So
sin
a 105 34'
80 40'
To
sin
h 7154' 33"
.... ....
log.
.
OF QUADRANTAL TRIANGLES.
is
its
be a quadrantal triangle 90. side a If we pass to the corresponding polar triangle, we shall have A' 180a = 90, B' 180 6, G' 180c, a' 180A, 6=180B,c' 180 G; from which we see, that the polar triangle will be
in
BAG
which the
264
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
right angled at A', and hence every case may be referred to a right angled triangle. But we can solve the quadrantal triangle by means of the right angled triangle in a manner still more simple. In the quadrantal triangle BAG,
which BG=90, produce the side till GD is equal to 90, and conceive the arc of a great circle to be drawn through B and D. Then G will be the pole of the arc BD, and the angle G will be measured by BD (Book IX. Prop. VI.), and the angles GBD and D will be right angles. Now before the remaining parts of the quadrantal triangle can be found, at least two parts must be given in addition to the side BG=:90 in which case two parts of the right angled triangle BDA, together with the right angle, become known. Hence the conditions which enable us to determine one of these
in
GA
In the quadrantal triangle BGA, there are given GB=:90, the angle G=42 12', and the angle A=115 20' : required the
BD,
BAD,
BAG =
The
site
:
90 and drawn the to D, making there will then be given in the right angled triangle the side a=G=42 12', and the angle 180 115 20'=6440',to find the remaining parts.
GA
GD =
BAD=180
To
side
hence,
R
As sm
Is to
sin
a = sin
sin d,
log.
A R
a
64 40'
ar.comp.
0.043911 10.000000
9.8 27189
8o
is
sin
To sin
The
9.871100
To
angle
correspond to the middle part, and the extremes will be opposite : hence
will
42 12'
64 40'
ar.comp.
log.
So
is
R cos A
B
To
sin
35 16' 53'
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
To
The
cent
:
2G5
hence,
R
As
Is to cot
sin
6= cot A

tang
.
R A
b
ar.comp.

log.
.
64 40'
So
is
tang a
42M2'
25^ 25' 14"
To
sin
Hence,
=64 34' 46" CA=90'6=9025 25' 14" CBA=90ABD = 9035 16' 53"=54 43 07" =48 00' 15". . . BA=df the right angled triangle BAG, right angled at A, there
c=60
59'
;
parts.
B=:14856'45"
Ans,
) I
G=
6
75 30' 33"
13' 50".
=152
In the right angled spherical triangle BAG, right angled A, there are given c=116 30' 43", and 6=29 41' 32" : required the remaining parts.
5.
at
G=10352'46"
32 30' 22" a =112 48' 58".
Ans,
B=
In a quadrantal triangle, there are given the quadrantal side =90, an adjacent side =115 09', and the included angle 115 55' : required the remaining parts. 113 18' 19" (side, 117 33' 52" ^^* < o^ ( angles,
6.
ioi40'or.
1.
sides,
of
them.
2.
angles,
them.
3.
angles.
2i\i)
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
Having given the three angles of a
triangle, to find
tlie
4.
sides.
5.
sides
6.
CASE
Given two
sides,
I.
For
Ex.
this
case
we employ
sin
equation
:
(1.)
As
1.
sin 6
sin
sin B.
Given the
side
a =44
6=r84 14' 29" and the angle A=32 26' 07" ; required the remaining parts.
13' 45",
To
As
sin
Is to sin
^
^

^^
_,
d^
log.
a
h
So
is
sin
A
B
ar.comp.

To
sin
5'
22"
Since the sine of an arc is the same as the sine of its supple ment, there will be two angles corresponding to the logarithmic sine 9.883685 and these angles will be supplements of each other. It does not follow however that both of them will satisfy all the other conditions of the question. If they do, there will be two triangles ACB', ACB if not, there will be but one. To determine the circumstances under which this ambiguit}^ arises, we will consider the 2d of equations (2.).
;
R^ cos
from which
6=R
_
cos
we
obtain
B=
R^ cos
R cos a cos
:
c
.
.
sm a sm
a,
c
shall
Now
if
we
have
R^ cos
or the sign of the second
on that of cos
h.
Hence
and cos h
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
267
sign, or B and b will be of the same species, and there will be but one triangle.
But when
cos
6>cos
a, sin
6<sin a
hence,
If the sine of the side opposite the required angle be less than the sine of the other given side, there will be but one triangle.
If however, sin
and
it is
6>sin a, the cos b will be less than cos a, plain that such a value may then be given to c as to
render
R^ cos
< R cos a
cos
c,
or the sign of the second member may be made to depend on cos c. can therefore give such values to c as to satisfy the two equations
We
f cos
cos B:
sm a sm
Hence, if the sine of the side opposite the required angle be greater than the sine of the other given side, there will be two triangles which will fulfil the given conditions. Let us, however, consider the triangle ACB, in which we are yet to find the base can find these and the angle C. parts most readily by dividing the triangle into two right angled triangles. : Draw the arc perpendicular to the base then in each of the triangles there will be given the hypothenuse and the angle at the base. And generally, when it is proposed to solve an oblique angled triangle by means of the right angled triangle, we must so draw the perpendicular that it shall pass through the extremity of a given side, and lie opposite to a given angle.
AB
We
CD
AB
To
As
So
cot
is
ACD.
0.803105 10.000000 9.001465
"a!804570
Is to
A R
32 26' 07"
log.
cos
b 84 14' 29"
To
cot
ACD
To
find
tlie
angle
in the triangle
DCB.
0.074810 10.000000 9.855250
9.930060
Ascot
Is to
ar.comp.

log.
R
cos
So
is
44 13' 45"
49 35' 38"
To
cot
DCB
Hence
ACB=135
56' 47'^
^68
SPHERICAL TRIGOJWMETRY.
To
find the side
AB.
log.
As
So
sin sin
Is to sin
is
To sin
A 32 26' 07" C 135 56' 47" a 44 13' 45" c 115 16' 29"
AB
ar.comp.
The arc 64 43' 31", which corresponds to sin c is not tlie value of the side for the side : must be greater than 6, since it lies opposite to a greater angle. But 6=84 14' 29" : hence the side must be the supplement of 64 43' 31", or 115 16' 29".
AB
AB
Ex,
2.
Given 6=91
03' 25",
=40
36' 37",
and
A = 35 57'
B
is
when
B=:11535'41"
Ans.
)
i
C=
c
CASE
Having given two angles and a
the
II.
remaining parts.
equation
:
For
this case,
sin
(1.)
sin
sin h.
Ex,
1.
A=50
12',
In a spherical triangle ABC, there are given the angle B=58 8', and the side a=62 42' ; to find the re
maining parts.
To
As So
sin
A
B
a
h
Is to sin
is
sin
ar.comp.

log.
. .
To
sin
9.992243
see here, as in the last example, that there are two arcs corresponding to the 4th term of the proportion, and these arcs are supplements of each other, since they have the same sine. It does not follow, however, that both of th^m will satisfy all If they do, there will be two the conditions of the question. triangles ; if not, there will be but one.
We
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
To
there
269
determine
is
when
let
but one,
there are two triangles, and also us consider the second of equations
when
(8.)
R2 cos B=sin
sin
,
cos b
R cos A cos C,
A cos C
.
:
which gives
cos
Now,
if
cos
be
C A sin Ti greater than cos A we shall have R^ cos B>R cos A cos C,
sin
0=
R^cos B +R cos
1
:
and hence the sign of the second member of the equation will depend on that of cos B, and consequently cos b and cos B will have the same algebraic sign, or b and B will be of the same species. But when cos B >cos A the sin B<sin A hence
:
less
than
the sine of the other given angle, there will be but one solution.
however,
sin
B>sin A,
the cos
and
it is
may
to render
R^cos
or the sign of the second
to
as to satisfy ihe
+C0S
cos
b=
0=
R^ cos
B+R 7
;
sin
A A ^ sm C
cos
:
cos
C
,
ano
R^ cos B + R cos
;
sin
7^ A sm C
1
A cos C
.
Hence, if the sine of ihe angle opposite the required side be greater than the sine of the other given angle there will b$^o
solutions.
"ii^P
first
Let us
If
less
to 79 12' 10".
let fall from the angle C a perpendicular on the the triangle will be divided into two right angled triangles, in each of which there will be two parts known besides the right angle.
now, we
base
BA,
we find, C = 13054'28
c=:119^03'2(>".
If
wc
6=100 47
50",
we
shall find
C=156
15'
06"
270
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
there are given A=103 Ex. 2. In a spherical triangle 50' 57", B=46 18' 7", and a==42'' 8' 48" ; required the remaining parts.
ABC
There
will but
on^
B<sin A. / h =30
)
1
Ans,
C=36^ r
c
54"
56".
=24
3'
CASE
Having given
III.
find
the
angles.
For
this
case
we use
equations
(3.).
^A cos,.. K
a;. 1. In
V
,
g^ gjj^ 6 sine
given
a=56
an oblique angled spherical triangle there are required the 40', 5=83 13' and c=114 30'
;
angles.
\{a + h^c)=\s
=127
11' 30"
J(6c~a)=(^5a)=70 31'
30".

Log sin Js 127 11' 30" log sin (^5a) 70 31' 30" log sin h 83 13' log sin c 114 30'
ar.comp. ar.comp.
Sum
Half sum =log cos JA 24
Hence,
angle
15',
39"
9.959845
A=48 31'
18".
The addition of twice the logarithm of radius, or 20, to the numerator of the quantity under the radical just cancels the 20 which is to be subtracted on account of the arithmetical complements, to that the 20, in both cases, may be omitted. Applying the same formulas to the angles B and C, we find,
B=
Ex.
6
2.
62 55' 46"
19' 02".
C = 125
= rt7
14' 28",
In a spherical triangle there are given flrz40^ 18' 29" and c=89 47' 6" : required the three angles.
A=
Ans.
^
Brr 53
C=
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMK'l
KY.
*J1
CASE
Hiving given
IV.
For
this case
we employ
,
equations
(7.)
cos
^./cos(iSB)cos(JSia=R V p ^ sm Jd sm O
.
C)
^
Ex.
30',
1.
B^125
In a spherical triangle ABC there are given 62^ 54' required the sides. 20', and C
A =48**
22' 52'
feSB) (jSC)
Log
58'
. 
log sin
C

ar. comp.
ar. comp.

Sum
19'
48"
9.944599
manner we
find,
6= 1140
:
Ex.
2.
In a spheri<al triangle
38' 13",
55' 42",
B = l J60
and
three sides.
Ans.
( ) 6
/
a=
98 21' 40"
50'
13'
= 109 c = 115
22" 26"
CASE
Having given
V.
in a spherical triangle^ two sides and their cluded angle J to find the remaining parts.
in
272
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETKY.
this
For
case
Analogies,
cos ^{ajb)
sin ^(a\b)
cos i(a
sin
b)
:
cot
^{ab)
cot
^C iC
tang ^(A + B)
tang
^(AB).
;
Having found the half sum and the half difference of the
iingles
for,
the
greater angle
rence.
equal to the half sum plus the half difference, and the lesser is equal to the half sum minus the half diffe
The
side.
greater angle
is
The remaining
II.
Case
Ex.
46' 2",
1.
In a spherical triangle
10',
ABC,
;
a=6S*
30".
b=3T
and
C=39
23'
to find the
remaining parts
l{a + b)
= 52''
58' 1",
i{a^b)=:l5o
log.

48' 1",
iC = 1941'

As
ar.comp.
. 
Totangi(A + B)
As
Is
77 22'
25"
1"
sin
i(a + ^)5258'
log.

ar.comp.
.
tosin
is
So
cot
To tang KAB)
Hence,
A=77
side c
21"=120
Bir:77 22'

25"43

37'

21"=

33 45' 04"
43 37' 37".
Ex. 2. In a spherical triangle ABC, there are given 6=83" 19' 42", c=23 27' 46", the contained angle 39' 48
A=20
to find
B = 156
)
(
C= a=
61 32' 12".
CASE
fn
VI.
remaining parts.
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
For
this
273
case
we employ
:
cos ^(A + B)
sin
cos
sin
J(A
B)
:
^(A + B)
(AB)
tang Jc tang ^c
b).
last case.
I.
The
re
Ex,
parts.
1.
In a spherical triangle
9'
ABC,
28"
38' 20",
B = 70
38",
c=59
16'
^(A + B)=75
cos
53'
59",J(AB)=544'21", Jc=29
log.

38' 11".
+ B) 75 53' 59"
44' 21" 38' 11"
ar.comp. 0.613287

9.997818 9.755051
10.366158
To
As
tang
sin
^(A + B) 75
To
So
sin
is
i(AB)
2^
tang
29 38' 11"
3 21' 25"

To
tang
Ua^b)
a=Q6^ 6=66
angle
8.768337
04' 17"
Hence
42' 52"
+ 3

21'
25"=70 25"=63

21' 27"
46' 33".
=64
;
Ex.
15' 3",
2.
B=42
A =34
remain10"
ing parts.
(
=40
0'
Ans,
274
MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
The
sumed
area, or content of a surface,
how many
times
it
contains
as the unit of measure. Thus, when we say that a square yard contains 9 square feet, we should understand that one square foot is taken for the unit of measure, and that thi? unit is contained 9 times in the square yard. The most convenient unit of measure for a surface, is a square whose side is the Hnear unit in which the Hnear dimensions of the figure are estimated. Thus, if the linear dimensions are feet, it will be most convenient to express the area in square feet if the linear dimensions are yards, it will be most convenient to express the area in square yards, &c. have already seen (Book IV. Prop. IV. Sch.), that the term, rectangle or product of two lines, designates the rectangle constructed on the lines as sides and that the numerical value of this product expresses the number of times which the rectangle contains its unit of measure.
;
We
PROBLEM
I.
To
a rectangle, or a parallelogram.
Rule.
Multiply
find the
and
be the area
1.
area of a parallelogram, the base being 12.25 Ans. 104.125. 2. What is the area of a square whose side is 204.3 feet ? Ans. 41738.49 sq.ft. 3. What is the content, in square yards, of a rectangle whose Ans. 245.31. base is 66.3 feet, and altitude 33.3 feet? 4. To find the area of a rectangular board, whose length is Ans. 9^ sq.ft. 12^ feet, and breadth 9 inches. a par5. To find the number of square yards of painting allelogram, whose base is 37 feet, and altitude 5 feet 3 inches. Ms. 21y\.
To
and the
altitude 8.5.
PROBLEM
IL
To
CASE
1.
the base by the altitude, and take half the product. Or, multiply one of these dimensions by half the other (Book IV. Prop. VI.).
MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
275
1. To find the area of a triangle, whose base is 625 and altitude 520 feet. Ans. 102500 sq. ft. 2. To find the number of square yards in a triangle, whose
base
3.
is
40 and 49 and
altitude
30
feet.
Ans. 66.
in a triangle,
To
is
find the
whose
base
altitude
Ans. 68.736].
CASE II.
When
Rule.
two
sides
and
Add together the logarithms of the two sides and the logarithmic sine of their included angle ; from this sum sub* tract the logarithm of the radius^ which is 1 0, and the remainder will he the logarithm of double the area of the triangle. Findffrom the table, the number answering to this logarithm, and divide it by 2; the quotient will be the required area.
Let
BAG
be a
triangle, in
From
the vertex
A
B
dicular to the base BC, and represent the area of the triangle by Q. Then,
R
hence,
But,
sin
: :
BA AD
:
(Trig. Th.
^p^ BAxsinB
R
Q=S^xAD
AD
value,
we have
Q_ BCxBAxsinB
'
^^
9n__ BCxBAxsin B
we
have
2Q=log.
BC + log. BA + log.
sin
Blog. R
BC =
rule as enunciated.
What
is
125.81,
BA=57.65, and
the area of a triangle whose sides are, 57 25? the incliided angle B
{+log. BC
.... ....
10.
3.786140
2Q
or
and 2Q=6111.4,
Q =3065.7, me
required area.
276
MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
2. What is the area of a triangle whose sides are VCl ?nd 40 and their included angle 28 57' ? Ans. 290.427. 3. What is the number of square yards in a triangle of which the sides are 25 feet and 21.25 feet, and their 'ncluded angle
45?
A.v!t.
20.8694.
CASE
III.
When
Rule.
2.
3.
known.
take half their
1.
Add
and
sum
From
Multiply together the half sum and each of the three reand the product will be the square of the area oj the triangle. Then, extract the square root of this product, for the required area.
mainder's,
Or, After having obtained the three remainders, add together the logarithm of the half sum and the logarithms of the respective remainders, and divide their sum by 2 : the quotient will be the logarithm of the area.
Let
ABC
;
be the given
triangle.
aC
/\
Take CD equal to the side CB, and draw DB draw AE parallel to DB,
produced, in E then CE will be equal to CA. Draw CFG perpendicular to AE and DB,
iV
y''
meeting
CB
/
ixl''
"
\r\
/
;
yvvjpr
'
and it will bisect them at the points G and F. Draw FHI parallel to AB, meeting CA in H, and EA pro
1y^
y\\
'
:
\
*^''
)y^L.l^..
'
_]/
Z?^
.y'^
\^^
' K" duced, in I. Lastly, with the centre and radius HF, describe the circumference of a circfe, meeting CA produced in K: this circumference will pass through I, because AI=FBr=FD, therefore, HF=H1 and it will also pass through the point G, because FGI is a right
angle.
Now, since HA=HD, CH is equal to half the sum CA, CB that is, CH^^CA + iCB; and since equal to iIF=iAB, it follows that
sides
;
of the
HK
is
HK=HI=AlF=:iAB,
Hence, and and
or
Now,
and
therefore,
CL=CK KL=iSAB, AK=CKCA=iSCA, AL=DK=CK CD=^SCB. AGx CG= the area of the triangle ACE, AGxFG= the area of the triangle ABE;
AG x CF=r:
the area of the triangle
KL=AB.
ACB
MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
x\Iso,
2n
by similar
:
triangles,
:
AG CG therefore, AG x CF=
consequently,
DF
CF, or AI
triangle
But and
(iS
therefoie,AGxCFxCGxAI =iS(iS
CB),
To
AB) x 0S CA) x
triangle
1.
ACB.
find the area of
30,
and 40. 20 30 40
25
45 20
1st
rem.
45 30
15 2d rem.
45 halfsum. 40
5 3d rem
2)90
45 halfsum. Then, 45 x 25 x 15 x 5=84375. The square root of which is 290.4737, the required area.
2. How many square yards of plastering are there in a triangle whose sides are 80, 40, and 50 feet ? Ans. 66.
PROBLEM
III.
To
Rule.
of a trapezoid.
:
Add
sum by
of the trapezoid, and half the product will he the required area (Book IV. Prop. VII.).
the altitude
1. In a trapezoid the parallel sides are 750 and 1225, and the perpendicular distance between them is 1 540 ; what is the
Ans. 152075. square feet are contained in a plank, whose length is 12 feet 6 inches, the breadth at the greater end 16 inches, and at the less end 11 inches? Ans. 13^^ sq.ft. 3. How many square yards are there in a trapezoid, whose parallel sides are 240 feet, 320 feet, and altitude Q(S feet ? Ans, 2053^.
area?
2.
How many
PROBLEM
IV.
To
Rule.
find the
area of a quadrilateral.
Join two of
let
angles
a diagonal, dividing the quadThen, from each of the other fall a peipendicular on the diagonal : then multiply
the angles by
278
t]ie
MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
diagonal by half the sum of the two perpendiculars^ and product will be the area.
the
the area of the quadthe diagonal being 42, and the perpendiculars D^, Bfc, equal to 18 and 16 feet? Ans. 714.
1.
"What
is
rilateral
ABCD,
AC
2.
in the
quad
rilateral
let fall
PROBLEM
To
Rule.
find the
Draw diagonals dividing the proposed polygon into Then find the areas of these trapezoids and triangles. figures separately, and add them together for the content of
the whole polygon.
1.
Let
it
be required to determine
ABODE,
having
five sides.
Let us suppose that we have measured the diagonals and perpendicufound AC 36.21, EC lars, and 39.11, B6=4, D6/=7.26, Aa=4.18, required the area. ^715. 296.1292.
PROBLEM
VI.
To
figure,
bounded on
Rule.
1. At the extremities of the right line measure the perpendicular breadths of the figure, and do the same at several intermediate points, at equal distances from each other. 2. Add together the intermediate breadths and half the sum oj the extreme ones : then multiply this sum by one of the equal parts of the base line : the product will be the required area, very nearly.
figure,
hav
ing for its base the right line AE. At the points A, B, C, D, and E, equally distant from each other, erect the per
MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
base line
a,
//,
279
AE, and
and
e.
c, d,
ABba=
BCcb
6+c
x AB,
xBC,
x CD,
x DE
is
;
CDJc=
c4d
d{e
equal to
+c
c\rd
d\e\
.^
But
this
to
each other.
sum
is
(^ + 6 + c+rf+i)xAB,
which corresponds with the enunciation of the
rule.
1. The breadths of an irregular figure at five equidistant places being 8.2, 7.4, 9.2, 10.2, and 8.6, and the length of the base 40, required the area. 8.2 4)40 8.6 10 one of the equal parts.
2(16.8
8.4 7.4 9.2 10.2
sum.
10
352= area.
35.2 sum.
2. The length of an irregular figure being 84, and the breadths at six equidistant places 17.4, 20.6, 14.2, 16.5, 20.1, Ans, 1550.64. and 24.4; what is the area^
PROBLEM
VII.
To
Rule
a regular polygon.
Multiply half the perimeter of the polygon by th. I. apothem, or perpendicular let fall from the centre on one of the sides, and the product will be the area required (Book V Prop. IX.).
280
MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
I.
Remark
The
following
is
the
manner of determining
the perpendicular when only one side and the number of sides of the regular polygon are known : First, divide 3G0 degrees by the number of sides of the polygon, and the quotient will be the angle at the centre ; that is,
Divide this the angle subtended by one of the equal sides. angle by 2, and half the angle at the centre will then be known. Now, the line drawn from the centre to an angle of the
polygon, the perpendicular let fall on one of the equal sides, and half this side, form a rightangled triangle, in which there are known, the base, which is half the equal side of the polyHence, the perpendicular gon, and the angle at the vertex. can be determined.
1. To find the area of a regular hexagon, whose sides are 20 feet each.
6)360
60=ACB,the
30=ACD,
Also,
Then, as
:
:
CAD=90ACD=60; and AD=10. sin ACD 30% ar. comp sin CAD ... 60
.
.
301030
.
AD
CD.
10
&.93753J 1.000000
1.238561
17.3205
Then,
2.
Perimeter =120, and half the perimeter =60. 60 x 17.3205=1039.23, the area.
What
is
whose
Remark II. The area of a regular polygon of any number of sides is easily calculated by the above rule. Let the areas of the regular polygons whose sides are unity or 1, be calculated and arranged in the following
MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
TABLE.
Names,
Sides.
. .
.
.
28]
Areas.
.
.
Triangle
.
.
Square Pentagon
4
5 G 7 8 9 10
11
.
.
Hexagon
. .
12
0.4330127 1.0000000 1.7204774 2.59807G2 3.G339124 4.8284271 G.1818242 7.6942088 9.3G5G399 11.1961524
Now, since the areas of similar polygons are to each other as the squares of their homologous sides (Book IV. Prop,
XXVII.),
we
;
shall
have
:
tabular area : : any side squared Or, to find the area of any regular polygon,
1^
area.
we have
Rule
2.
II. 1. Square the side of the pohjgon. Then multipkj that square by the tabular area set opposite the polygon of the same number of sides, and the produd will
1.
What
is
20
3.
To
PROBLEM
VIII.
is
To
find the circumference of a circle when the diameter given, or the dicmeter when the circumference is given.
Rule.
Multiply
and
and
It is shown (Book V. Prop. XIV.), that the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 1, is 3.1415926, or 3.1416. But since the circumferences of circles are to each other as their radii or diameters we have, by calling the diameter of the
second circle
or,
</,
::
Jx 3.1416=
also.
Hence,
a^<^J^2^^^^
3.1416
282
1.
IS
MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
What
is
whose diameter
Ans. 78.54. 7921 miles, what is thecircumference ? Ans. 24884.6136. 3. What is the diameter of a circle whose circumference i' 11652.1904? Ans. 37.09. 4. What is the diameter of a circle whose circumference i 6850? ^715. 2180.41.
2.
25 ?
PROBLEM
IX
To
an arc of a
circle containing
any numbei
of degrees.
Rule.
Multiply the number of degrees in the given arc by 0.0087266, and the product by the diameter of the circle.
Since the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 1, is 3.1416, it follows, that if 3.1416 be divided by 360 degrees, the quotient will be the length of an arc of 1 degree ; that is,
'
=0.0087266=
360
1.
This being multiplied by the number of degrees in an arc, the product will be the length of that arc in the circle whose diameter is 1 ; and this product being then multiplied by the diameter, will give the length of the arc for any diameter whatever.
Remark. When the arc contains degrees and minutes, reduce the minutes to the decimal of a degree, which is done by
dividing
1.
them by
feet.
60.
of an arc of 30 degrees, the diameter Ans. 4.712364. 2. To find the length of an arc of 12 10', or 12^, the diameter being 20 feet. ^715.2.123472. 3. What is the length of an arc of 10 16', or 10^, in a circle whose diameter is 68 ? Ans. 6.082396.
find the length
To
being 18
PROBLEM
X.
To
Rule
circle.
i. Multiply the circumference by half the radius (Book V. Prop. XII.). lluLE II. Multiply the square of the radius by 3.1416 (Book V. Prop. XII. Cor. 2).
1. To find the area of a circle whose diameter is 10 and circumference 31.416. Ans. 78.54.
MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
283
2. Find tiie area of a circle whose diameter is 7 and circumference 21.9912. Ans, 38.4846. .3. How many square yards in a circle whose diameter is 3^ feet? Ans. 1.069016. 4. What is the area of a circle whose circumference is 12 feet? Ans. 11.4595.
PROBLEM
XI.
circle.
To
Rule
find the
I. Multiply the arc of the sector by half the radius (Book V. Prop. XII. Cor. 1). Rule II. Compute the area of the whole circle: then say^ as 360 degrees is to the degrees in the arc of the sector, so is the
to the
1. To find the area of a circular sector whose arc contains 18 degrees, the diameter of the circle being 3 feet. ^715. 0.35343. 2. To find the area of a sector whose arc is 20 feet, the radius being 10. Ans. 100. 3. Required the area of a sector whose arc is 147 29', and radius 25 feet. Ans. 804.3986
PROBLEM XIL
To
Rule.
2.
find the
area of a segment of a
circle.
1.
Find
the
Find the area of the triangle formed by the chord of the segment and the two radii of the sector. 3. Then add these two together for the answer when the seg' ment is greater than a semicircle, and subtract them when it
is less.
1. To find the area of the segment ACB, its chord AB being 12, and the
radius
EA, 10
feet.
. .
jVsEA
:
AD
sin
lOar. comp. 6
::
sinD 90
284
MENSURATION OF SURFACES.
5
64.85
= area EACB.
Again, and
VEA^AD^^ \/ 10036= V64=8=EJ); 6x8=48 = the area of the triangle EABi. Hence, sect. EACBEAB= 64.35 48 = 16.35= ACB.
2. Find the area of the segment whose height is 18, iht, Ans. 636.4834. (hameter of the circle being 50. 3. Required the area of the segment whose chord is 1 6, the Ans. 44.764. diameter being 20.
PROBLEM
XIII.
is,
To
circles
which have a
common
Rule.
centre.
Take the difference between the areas of the two circles. Or, subtract the square of the less radius from the square oj the greater, and multiply the remainder iy 3.1416.
is
W^
r^^
ring, is
(R^
r^)??.
1. The diameters of two concentric circles being 10 and 6, required the area of the ring contained between their circumAns. 50.2656. ferences. 2. What is the area of the ring when the diameters of the Ans. 235.62. circles are 10 and 20?
PROBLEM
XIV.
ellipse,
To
Rule.
an
or oval.*
Required the area of an ellipse 1. whose semiaxes AE, EC, are 35 and 25.
A.ns. 2748.9.
.^
F
f
E G
\fi
* Although this rule, and the one for the following problem, cannot be de monstrated without the aid of principles not yet considered, still it was thought beet to insert them, as they complete the rules necessary for tlie mensurttion of planes.
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
2.
285
18.
ellipse
Ans. 339.2928.
PROBLEM
XV.
To
Rule.
Multiply the base by the perpendicular height, twothirds of the product for the required area.
and
tak
C
1.
To
ACB,
titude
area of the parabola the base AB being 20 and the alfind the
CD,
18.
^715. 240.
A.
2
the altitude 30.
Required the area of a parabola, the base being 20 and Ans. 400.
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
The mensuration of solids is divided into two and, 1st. The mensuration of their surfaces 2dly. The mensuration of their solidities.
;
parts.
We
A
a square whose side is the unit of length. line which is expressed by numbers is also referred to a unit of length, and its numerical value is the number ol If, then, we suppose the times which the line contains its unit. linear unit to be reduced to a right line, and a square constructed on this line, this square will be the unit of measure
surfaces
curved
for
curved surfaces.
unit of solidity is a cube, the face of which is equal to the superficial unit in which the surface of the solid is estimated, and the edge is equal to the linear unit in which the linear dimensions of the solid are expressed (Book VII. Prop. XIII. Sch.). The following is a table of solid measures : 1728 cubic inches == 1 cubic foot. == 27 cubic feet 1 cubic yard. == 1 cubic rod. 4492i cubic feet 282 cubic inches == 1 ale gallon.
The
231 2150.42
==
wine gallon
bushel.
==
286
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
PROBLEM
I.
To
the
Rule. Multiply
the perimeter of the base hy the altitude, ana product will he the convex surface (Book VII. Prop. I.). To this add the area of the two bases, when the entire surface
is
1.
required,
being 20
a cube, the length of each side Ans. 2400 sq.ft. 2. To find the whole surface of a triangular prism, whose base is an equilateral triangle, having each of its sides equal Ans. 91.949. to 18 inches, and altitude 20 feet. 3. What must be paid for lining a rectangular cistern with lead at 2d. a pound, the thickness of the lead being such as to the inner dimenrequire libs, for each square foot of surface sions of the cistern being as follows, viz. the length 3 feet 2 inches, the breadth 2 feet 8 inches, and the depth 2 feet 6 inches ? Ans. 21, 3s, lOf d
find the surface of
feet.
;
To
PROBLEM
II.
To
height,
of a regular pyramid.
Rule. Multiply
and
the
the perimeter of the base by half the slant product will be the convex surface (Book VII. this add the area of the base, when the entire
1. To find the convex surface of a regular triangular pyramid, the slant height being 20 feet, and each side of the base Ans. 90 sq.ft. 3 feet. 2, What is the entire surface of a regular pyramid, whose slant height is 15 feet, and the base a pentagon, of which each Ans. 2012.798. side is 25 feet?
PROBLEM
III.
To
Rule.
find the
Multiply
the
bases by the slant height of the frustum, and the product wih he the convex surface (Book VI 1. Prop. IV. Cor.).
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
1.
287
How many
the frustum of a square pyramid, whose slant height is 10 feet, each side of the lower base 3 feet 4 inches, and each side of
Ans. 110
sq. ft.
the convex surface of the frustum of an heptagonul pyramid whose slant height is 55 feet, each side cf the lower base 8 feet, and each side of the upper base 4 feet ?
is
What
Ans. 2310
sq.
ft.
PROBLEM
IV
To
of a prism.
Rule. 1. Find the area of the base, 2. Multiply the area of the base by the altitude, and the product will be the solidity of the prism (Book VII. Prop. XIV.).
1.
What
is
is
24
Ans. 13824. 2. How many cubic feet in a block of marble, of which the length is 3 feet 2 inches, breadth 2 feet 8 inches, and height or thickness 2 feet 6 inches ? Ans. 21^. 3. How many gallons of water, ale measure, will a cistern contain, whose dimensions are the same as in the last example ? Ans. 129H. 4. Required the solidity of a triangular prism, whose height is 10 feet, and the three sides of its triangular base 3, 4, and 5 feet. Ans. 60.
inches?
PROBLEM
V.
To
Rule.
tude,
pyramid.
XVII.).
Required the solidity of a square pyramid, each side of base being 30, and the altitude 25. Ans. 7500. 2. To find the solidity of a triangular pyramid, whose altitude is 30, and each side of the base 3 feet. Ans. 38.9711. 3. To find the solidity of a triangular pyramid, its altitude being 14 feet 6 inches, and the three sides of its base 5, 6, and 7 feet. Ans. 71.0352. 4. What is the solidity of a pentagonal pyramid, its altitude being 12 feet, and each side of its base 2 feet? Ans. 27.5276. 5. What is the solidity of an hexagonal pyrar?id, whose alti tude is 6.4 feet, and each side of its base 6 inches ? Ans. 1.38564.
1.
its
888
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
PROBLEM
VI.
To
Rule.
<Lnd a
pyramid.
Add
together the areas of the two bases of the frustum them, and then multiply the
sum by
1.
XVIIL).
To
number of
solid feet in
a piece of timber,
whose bases are squares, each side of the lower base being 15 inches, and each side of the upper base 6 inches, the altitude Ans. 19.5. being 24 feet. 2. Required the solidity of a pentagonal frustum, whose altitude is 5 feet, each side of the lower base 18 inches, and each Ans. 9.31925. side of the upper base 6 inches.
Definitions,
wedge is a solid bounded by five 1. H g planes : viz. a rectangle. ABCD, called the base of the wedge ; two trapezoids ABHG, DCHG, which are called the sides of the wedge, and which intersect and the two each other in the edge ; triangles GDA, HOB, which are called the ends of the wedge. When AB, the length of the base, is equal to GH, the trapezoids ABHG, DCHG, become parallelograms, and the wedge is then onehalf the parallelopipedon described on the base ABCD, and having the same altitude with the wedge. The altitude of the wedge is the perpendicular let fall from any point of the line GH, on the base ABCD. rectangular prismoid is a solid resembling the frustum 2. of a quadrangular pyramid. The upper and lower bases are rectangles, having their corresponding sides parallel, and the convex surface is made up of four trapezoids. The altitude of the prismoid is the perpendicular distance between its bases,
GH
PROBLEM Vn.
To
Rule.
wedge.
edge.
twice the length of the base add the length of the Multiply this sum by the breadth of the base, and then by the altitude of the wedge, and take onesixth of the product
To
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
Let
289
L=AB,
/=GH,
the length of
the length of
the base.
the edge.
6=BC,
liie
the breadth of
base.
/i=PG,
the
the altitude of
wedge. Then,
L Z=AB GH =
AM.
Suppose AB, the length of the base, to be equal to GH, the length of the edge, the solidity will then be equal to half the parallelopipedon having the same base and the same altitude (Book VII. Prop. VII.). Hence, the solidity will be equal to \hlh (Book VII. Prop. XIV.).' If the length of the base is greater than that of the edge, tet a section be made parallel to the end BCH. The wedge will then be divided into the triangular prism BCHM, and the quadrangular pyramid GAMND. The solidity of the prism =\hhl, the solidity of the pyramid
MNG
^ihh{\.T)\ and their sum, '^hhl\^hhQuT) = lhh^l\\bh2l. ibh2l=ibh(2L\I). If the length of the base is less than the length of the edge, the solidity of the wedge will be equal to the difference between the prism and pyramid, and we shall have for the solidity
of the wedge,
.bhl^,hh(l1.
h)=lbh3l
bh2l+lbh2L=ibh{2L + l),
the edge 35 feet,
^715.
If the base of a
and the
2.
(eeif
altitude 10 feet,
3833.33.
The base
and the
the edge 20
Ans.
.504.
PROBLEM
Vlll.
To
Rule.
Add together
:
the area of
bases
the areas of the tivo bases and four time t a parallel section at equal distances from the then multiply the sum by onesixth of the altitude.
zm
MENSURATION OF S0LID8.
^
Let 1. and B be the length and breadth of the lower base, / and b the length and breadth of the upper base, and ?n the length and breadth of the
V_
and
\I_JM
the diagonal edges L and a plane be passed, and it will divide the prismoid into two wedges, having for bases, the bases of the prismoid, and for edges the
Through
let
lines
L
is
and
/'=/.
The
moid,
solidity of these
pris
But since
and + Z, + 6; hence, 4Mw=(L + x (B + ^>)=BL + BZ+6L + 6Z. for its value in the preceding equation, Substituting
2M=L
4Mm
2m=B
and
we have
i/i(BL+^>/+4Mm).
ever.
may be applied to any prismoid whatFor, whatever be the form of the bases, there may be inscribed in each the same number of rectangles, and the number of these rectangles may be made so great that their sum in each base will differ from that base, by less than any assignNow, if on these rectangles, rectangular prisable quantity. moids be constructed, their sum will differ from the given prismoid by less than any assignable quantity. Hence the rule is general.
rule
1. One of the bases of a rectangular prismoid is 25 feet by 20, the other 15 feet by 10, and the altitude 12 feet ; required Ans. 3700. the solidity. 2. What is the solidity of a stick of hewn timber whose ends are 30 inches by 27, and 24 inches by 18, its length bein^
Remark. This
24 feet?
PROBLEM
IX.
To
Rule. and
I.).
of a cylinder.
of the base by the
altitude,
Multiply
To
this
add
surface is required.
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
1
291
What
is
of
whose base
2.
20,
and whose
altitude
is
50 ^
is
Ans. 3141.6. Required the entire surface of a cylinder, whose altitude 20 feet, and the diameter of its base 2 feet. Ans, 131.9472.
PROBLEM
X.
To
find the
Rule. Multiply the circumference of the base by half the side (Book VIII. Prop. III.) to which add the area of the base,
:
when
1.
Required the convex surface of a cone, whose side is 50 and the diameter of its base 8' {qqU Ans. 667.59. 2. Required the entire surface of a cone, whose side is 36 and the diameter of its base 18 feet. Ans. 1272.348.
feet,
PROBLEM XL
To
Rule.
Multiply the side of the frustum by half the sum of the circumferences of the two bases, for Uie cenvex surface (Book VIII. Prop. IV.) : to which add the areas of the two baseSt when the entire surface is required.
1.
To
find the
convex surface of
tlie
frustum
of*
a cone, the
and the circumferences of Ans. 90. the bases 8.4 feet and 6 feet. 2. To find the entire surface of the frustum of a cone, the side bemg 16 feet, and the radii of the bases 3 feet and 2 feet. Ans. 292.1688.
side of the frustum being 12^ feet,
PROBLEM XIL
To
Rule.
Multiply
II.).
Prop.
1.
feet,
2.
feet,
Required the solidity of a cylinder whose altitude is 12 Ans. 2120.58. and the diameter of its base 15 feet. Required the solidity of a cylinder whose altitude is 20 and the circumference of whose base is 5 feet 6 inches.
Ans. 48.144.
292
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS
PROBLEM
XIII.
To
Rule. Multiply
Ike area of the base by the altitude^ onethird of the product (Book VIII. Prop. V.).
and
take
1. Required the solidity of a cone whose altitude is 27 feet, and the diameter of the base 10 feet. Ans. 706.86. 2. Required the solidity of a cone whose altitude islOjfeet, and the circumference of its base 9 feet. Ans. 22.56.
PROBLEM
XIV.
To
Rule. Add
together the areas of the two bases and a mean proportional between them^ and then multiply the sum by onethird of the altitude (Book VIII. Prop. VI.).
1. Tc find the solidity of the frustum of a cone, the altitude being 18, the diameter of the lower base 8, and that of the upper base 4. Ans. 527.7888. 2. What is the solidity of the frustum of a cone, the altitude being 25, the circumference of the lower base 20, and that of Ans. 464.216. the upper base 10? 3. If a cask, which is composed of two equal conic frustums joined together at their larger bases, have its bung diameter 28 inches, the head diameter 20 inches, and the length 40 inches how many gallons of wine will it contain, there being 23 1 cubic Ans. 79.0613. mches in a gallon?
PROBLEM
XV.
To
Rule
a sphere.
Multiply the circumference of a great circle by the I. diameter (Book VIII. Prop. X.).
II.
Rule
Multiply the square of the diameter^ or four times 3.1416 (Book VIII. Prop. X.
Required the surface of a sphere whose diameter is 7. Ans. 153.9384. 2. Required the surface of a sphere whose diameter is 24 Ans. 1809.5610/71. inches. 3. Required the area of the surface of the earth, its diameter being 7921 miles. Ans. 197111024 sq. miles.
4. What is the surface of a sphce, the circumference of its great circle being 78.54? Ins. 1963.5.
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
PROBLEM
XVI.
203
To
a spherical zone.
Rule. Multiply the altitude of the zone hy the circumference of a great circle of tfie sphere^ and the product will he the Surface (Book VIII. Prop. X. Sch. 1).
1. The diameter of a sphere being 42 inches, what is the convex surface of a zone whose altitude is 9 inches ? Ans. 1181.5248 sq. in. 2. If the diameter of a sphere is 12^ feet, what will be tl>e surface of a zone whose altitude is 2 feet ? Ans, 78.54 sq. ft.
PROBLEM XVn.
To
Rule
a sphere.
Multiply the surface by onethird of the radius (Book I. VIII. Prop. XIV.).
the diameter^
that
is,
and multiply the number thus by 0.5236 (Book VIII. Prop. XIV.
whose diameter
Sch.
1.
3).
is
is 12? Ans. 904.7808. 2. What is the solidity of the earth, if the mean diameter be taken equal to 7918.7 miles ? Ans. 259992792083.
What
PROBLEM XVIIL
To
Rule.
Find the areas of the two bases, and multiply their sum by half the height of the segment ; to this product add the solidity of a sphere whose diameter is equal to the height oj the segment (Book VIII. Prop. XVII.).
Remark. When the segment has but one base, the other (Book VIII. Def. 14). to be considered equal to
is
1. What is the solidity of a spherical segment, the diameter of the sphere being 40, and the distances from the centre to the bases, 16 and 10. Ans. 4297.7088. 2. What is the solidity of a spherical segment with one base
the diameter of the sphere being 8, and the altitude of the Ans. 41.888. segment 2 feet?
294
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
segment with one base, and the altitude of the Ans. 1781.2872.
3. What is the solidity of a spherical the diameter of the sphere being 20, segment feet ?
PROBLEM
XIX.
To
Rule.
1. Compute the surface of the sphere on xohich the triari' gle is formed, and divide it by 8 ; the quotient will be the surface of the trirectangular triangle, 2. Add the three angles together ; from their sum subtract 180, and divide the remainder by 90"^ : then multiply the tri
rectangular triangle by this quotient, and the product will be the surface of the triangle (Book IX. Prop. XX.).
1. Required the surface of a triangle described on a sphere, whose diameter is 30 feet, the angles being 140, 92, and 68.
2.
of 20 feet diameter, the angles being 120 each. Ans, S14.1Q sq.ft.
PROBLEM
XX.
To
Rule.
2.
Find the trirectangular triangle, as before, the sum of all the angles take the product of two Divide the reright angles by the number of sides less two. mainder by 90, and multiply the trirectangular triangle by
1.
From
Vie quotient
the
^715.
157.08
polyedrons,
it
oecomes necessary to know, for each of them, the angle con The determitained between any two of the adjacent faces.
nation of this angle involves the following property of a regu lar polygon, viz.
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
Half
295
the diagonal which joins the extremities of two adjacent sides of a regular polygon^ is equal to the side of the polygon multiplied by the cosine of the angle which is obtained by dividing 360 by twice the number of sides : the radius being
to unity.
equal
Let be any regular polygon. Draw the diagonal AC, and from the centre F draw FG, perpendicular
to
ABCDE
Draw
AB.
also
AF,
FB
it
the lat
onal
III.
AC, and
will bisect
at
(Book
Prop. VI. Sch.). Let the number of sides of the polygon be designated by n then,
:
AFB=?^,
n
But
and
AFG = CAB=
360=
2n
cos
Cor.)
side,
the diagonal
becomes half a
Remark
Th.
I.
2.
The
perpendicular
BH=AB
sin
360 _
271
(Trig.
Cor.).
To determine the angle included between the two adjacent faces of either of the regular polyedrons, let us suppose a plane to be passed perpendicular to the axis of a solid angle, and through the vertices of the solid angles which lie adjacent. This plane will intersect the convex surface of the polyedron
a regular polygon the number of sides of this polygon will be equal to the number of planes which meet at the vertex of either of the solid angles, and each side will be a diagonal of one of the equal faces of the polyedron.
in
;
Let D be the vertex of a solid angle, CD the intersection of two adjacent faces, and ABC the section made in the convex
surface of the polyedron by a plane perpendicular to the axis through D. let a plane be drawn perThrough pendicular to CD, produced if necessary, and suppose AE, BE, to be the lines in
AB
2y6
which
this
MENSURATION OF
Then
SOLIDS.
plane intersects the adjacent will be the angle included between the adjacent faces, and FEB will be half that angle, which we will represent by J A. Then, if we represent by n the number of faces which meet at the vertex of the sohd angle, and by m the number of sides of each face, we shall have, from what has already
faces.
AEB
been shown,
BF=BC
But
360
cos
'
and
EB=BC
3G0
sin
2n
2m
BF.
EB
sin
FEB = sin
cos
hence,
sin
^A=.
sm
~2n
360
2m
This formula gives, for the plane angle formed by every adjacent faces of the
two
Tetraedron
Hexaedron
Octaedron Dodecaedron
Icosaedron
70 31' 42" 90 lOO'^ 28' 18" 116 33' 54" 138 11' 23"
we can easily calculate the perpendicular let fall from ihe centre of the polyedron on one of its faces, when the faces
faces,
ithemselves are known. The following table shows the solidities and surfaces of the (regular polyedrons, when the edges are equal to 1.
A TABLE
Names.
1,
Surface.
. .
.
Solidity.
Tetraedron
.
.
4
6 8 12
. .
.
Hexaedron
'Octaedron.
ilcosaedron
. .
.
. . .
.
.
.
.
Dodecaedron
.
.
.
. .
20
0.1178513 1.0000000
0.471404.5
7.6631189 2.1816950
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
PROBLEM
XXI.
297
To
Rule
let
a regular polyedron.
I. Multiply the surface hy onethird of the perpendicular fall from the centre on one of the faces, and the p*'oducl will be the solidity.
Rule
II. Multiply the cube of one of the edges by the solidity of a similar polyedron, whose edge is 1.
as
The first rule results from the division of the polyedron into many equal pyramids as it has faces. The second is proved
by considering that two regular polyedrons having the same number of faces may be divided into an equal number of similar pyramids, and that the sum of the pyramids which make
up one of the polyedrons will be to the sum of the pyramids which make up the other polyedron, as a pyramid of the first sum to a pyramid of the second (Book II. Prop. X.) that is, as the cubes of their homologous edges (Book VII. Prop. XX.) that is, as the cubes of the edges of the polyedron.
;
1.
What
is
whose edge
is
15
2.
3.
4.
5.
Ans. 397.75. What is the solidity of a hexaedron whose edge is 12? Ans, 1728. What is the solidity of a octaedron whose edge is 20 ? Ans. 3771.236. What is the solidity of a dodecaedron whose edge is 25 ? Ans. 119736.2328. ^liat is the solidity of an icosaedron whose side is 20 ? Ans. 17453.56
A TABLE
OP
LOGARITHMS OF NUMBERS
FROM
1
TO 10,000.
N^
i
Log.
N.
Log.
N.
Loa.
N.
Log.
3
4
5 6 7 8 9 10
li
12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19
'^0
21
22 23 24 25
0.000000 0.301030 0.477121 0.602060 0.698970 0.778151 0.845098 0.903090 0.954243 1.000000 1.041393 1.079181 1.113943 1.146128 1.176091 1.204120 1.230449 1.255273 1.278754 1.301030 1.322219 1.342423 1.361728 1.380211 1.397940
26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
1.414973 1.431364 1.447158 1.462398 1.477121 1.491362 1.505150 1.518514 1.531479 1.544068 1.556303 1..568202 1.579784 1.591065 1.602060 1.612784 1.623249 1.633468
1.6434.53
51
52 53 54 55 66 57 58 59 60
61
62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
71
1.707570 1.716003 1.724276 1.732394 1.740363 1.748188 1.755875 1.763428 1.770852 1.778151 1.785330 1.792392 1.799341 1.806180 1.812913 1.819544 1.826075 1.832509
1.8.38849
76 77 78 79 80
81
82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
91
1.880814 1.886491 1.892095 1.897627 1.903090 1.908485 1.913814 1.919078 1.924279 1.929419 1.934498 1.939519 1.944483 1.949390 1.954243
1.9.59041
72 73 74 75
92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
N. B. In the following table, in the last nine columns of each page, where the first or leading figures change from 9's
to O's, points or dots are introduced instead of the 0s through
the rest of the line, to catch the eye, and to indicate that from
first two figures of the Jjogtuithm second column stand in the next lower line.
in tli
2
N.
100
101
1
TO 10,U00
Uf
118
119
120
121
132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143
000000 4321 8G00 012837 7033 021189 5306 9384 033424 7426 041393 5323 9218 053078 6905 0G0698 4458 8186 071882 5547 079181 082785 6360 9905 093422 0910 100371 3804 7210 110590 113943 7271 120574 3852 7105 130334 3539 6721 9879 143015 146128 9219 152288 5336 8362 161368 4353 7317 170262 3186
]
4751 9026 3259 7451 1603 5715 9789 3826 7825 1787 5714 9606 3463 7286 1075 4832 8557 2250 5912 9543 3144 6716
.258
6038 .300 4521 8700 2841 6942 1004 5029 9017 2969 6885
.380 .766
3772 7257 0715 4146 7549 0926 4277 7603 0903 4178 7429 0655 3858 7037
.194
'eooi
8977 181844 4691 7521 190332 3125 5899 8657 159 '201397 1670
1
4650 7613 0555 3478 6381 9264 2129 4975 7803 0612 3403 6176 8932
1452 5206 8928 2617 6276 9904 .266 .626 .987 3503 3861 4219 4576 7071 7426 7781 8136 .611 .963 1315 1667 4122 4471 4820 5169 7604 7951 8298 8644 1059 1403 1747 2091 4487 4828 5169 5510 7888 8227 8565 8903 1263 1599 1934 2270 4611 4944 5278 5611 7934 8265 8595 8926 1231 1.560 1888 2216 4504 4830 5156 5481 7753 8076 8399 8722 0977 1298 1619 1939 4177 4496 4814 5133 7354 7671 7987 8303 .508 .822 1136 1450 3639 3951 4263 4574 6748 7058 7367 7676 9835 .142 .449 .756 2900 3205 3510 3815 5943 6246 6549 6852 8965 9266 9567 9868 1967 2266 2564 2863 4947 5244 5541 5838 7908 8203 8497 8792 0848 1141 1434 1726 3769 4000 4351 4641 6670 6959 7248 7536 9552 9839 .126 .413 2415 2700 2985 3270 5259 5542 5825 6108 8084 8366 8647 8928 0892 1171 1451 1730 3681 3959 4237 4514 6453 6729 7005 7281 9206 9481 9755 ..29 1943 2216 2488 2761
4230 4613 8046 8426 1829 2206 5580 5953 9298 9668 ..38 2985 3352 3718 6640 7004 7368
6466 .724 4940 9116 3252 7350 1408 5430 9414 3362 7275 1153 4996 8805 2582 6326
2598 6894 1147 5360 9532 3664 7757 1812 5830 9811 3755 7664 1538 5378 9185 2958 6699 .407 4085 7731 1347 4934 8490 2018 5518 8990 2434
.5851
3555
6391 9209
3033
8029 3461 3S91 4.32 7321 7748 8174 428 1570 1993 2415 424 5779 6197 6616 419 9947 .361 .775 416 4075 4486 4896 412 8164 8571 8978 408 2216 2619 3021 404 6230 6629 7028 400 .207 .602 .998 396 4148 4540 4932 393 8053 8442 8830 389 1924 2309 2694 386 5760 6142 6524 .382 9563 9942 .320 379 3333 3709 4083 376 7071 7443 7815 372 .776 1145 1514 369 4451 4816 5182 366 8094 8457 8819 363 1707 2067 2426 360 5291 5647 6004 357 8845 9198 9552 355 2370 2721 3071 351 6866 6215 6562 349 9335 9681 ..26 3^o 2777 3119 3462 343 6191 6531 6871 340 9579 9916 .253 338 2940 3275 3609 335 6276 6608 6940 333 9586 9915 .245 330 2871 3198 3525 328 6131 6456 6781 325 9368 9690 ..12 323 2580 2900 3219 321 5769 6086 6403 318 8934 9249 9564 315 2076 2389 2702 314 5196 .5507 5818 311 8294 8603 8911 .309 1370 1676 1982 307 4424 4728 .5032 305 7457 7759 8061 303 .469 .769 1068 301 3460 3758 4055 299 6430 6726 7022 297 9380 9674 9968 295 2311 2603 2895 293 5222 5512 5802 291 8113 8401 8689 289 .985 1272 1.558 287 3839 4123 4407 285 6674 6956 7239 283 9490 9771 ..51 281 2289 2567 2846 279 5069 5346 5623 278 7832 8107 8382 276 .577 .8.50 1124 274 3305 3577 3848 1272
l234567L8.l9D.
'
A TABT
N.(
8
1
t>.
1
no
^Sl 162
.163
104 165 166 167 168, 169
170
171
200
201
210
211
1247 3412 5351 5500 7496 7710 9630 9843 ..56 311754 1900 2177 3867 4078 4289 5970 6180 0390 8003 8272 848 320140 0354 0502 322219 2426 2633 4282 4488 4094 0336 6541 0745 8380 8583 8787 330414 0617 0819 2438 2040 2842 4454 4055 4850 6460 6000 6800 8456' 8656 8855 I340444I0O42IO.S4I
204120 6826 9515 212188 4844 7484 220108 2716 5309 7887 230449 2996 5528 8046 240549 3038 5513 7973 250420 2853 255273 7679 260071 2451 4818 7172 9513 271842 4158 6462 278754 281033 3301 5557 7802 290035 2256 4406 6665 8853 301030 3196
4391 4063 4934 7096 7365 7634i 9783 ..51 .319 2454 2720 2986 5109 5373 5638
7747 0370 2976 5568 8144 0704 3250 5781 8297 0799 3280 5759 8219 0004 3096 5514 7918 0310 2688 5054 7406 9746 2074 4389 6692 8982
1201
8273 0892 3496 6084 8657 1215 3757 6285 8799 1297 3782 6252 8709
1
33381 3580
5996 8398 0787 3102 5525 7041 7875 9980 .213 2300 2538 4020 4850 6921 7151 9211" 9439 1488 1715 3?o3 3979 0007 0232 8249 8473 0480 0702 2099 2920 4907 5127 7104 7323 9289 9507 1404 1081 3028 3844 5781 5990 7924 8137
2389 4499 0599 8089
0709i
6204 ft475 5746. 6016 6286 8556 7904 8173 8441 8710 8979 J247 .586 .853 1121 1388 1654 1921 3252 3518 3783 4049 4314 4579 5902 6166 6430 6694 6957 7221 8530 8798 9000 9323 95851 9840 1153 1414 1075 1936 2196 2450 3755 4015 4274 4533 4793 5051 6342 0600; 6858 7115 7372 7030 8913 91701 9426 9682 9938 .193 1470 1724! 1979 2234 2488 2742 4011 420414517 4770 5023 5276 6537 6789 7041 7292 7544 7795 9049 9299 9550 9800 ..50 .300 1546 1795 2044 2293 2541 2790 4030 4277 4525 4772 5019 6206 6499 6745 6991 7237 7482 7728 8954 9198 9443 968? 9932 .176 395 1638 1881 2125 2368 2610 3822 4064 4306 4548 4790 5031 6237 6477 6718 6958 7198 7439 8637 8877 9116 9355 9594 9833 1025 1263 1501 1739 1976 2214 3399 3636 3873 4t09 4346 4582 5761 5996 6232 6407 6702 6937 8110 8344 8578 8812 9046 9279 .446 .679 .912 1144 1377 1609 2770 3001 3233 3464 8696 'Ami 5081 5311 5542 5772 hO)2 7380 7609 7838 8067 9067 9895 23 .351 1942 2109 2390 2022 28'i9 )75 4205 4431 4050 4882 5107 o^iZ 6456 0081 0905 7130 7354 151^ 8096 8920 9143 9366 9589 ;12, 0925 1147 1309 1591 1813 5i\)34 3141 3303 3584 3804 4025 4x^.W 5347 5567 5787 6007 6226 64'.^B 7542 7761 7979 8198 416 863i9725 9943 .161 .378 .595 .813, 1898 2114 2331 2547 2764 2980 4059 4275 4^191 4700 4921 5130 6211 6425 6639 6854 7008 7282 8351 8564 8778 8991 9204 9417
1
271
2691
258 256 254 253 252 250 249 248 246 245 243
24:i
241
239
23J
23' 23f
2i*4 iHir
m^
'^^
2.<
S2^ 22V
'^^(
2i
:^:.
2.9.
002
00,.
219
oiH
217 210 216
21:.
1
.268 .451
1391 1598 3458 3665 5516 5721 7563 7767 9601 9805 1630 1832 3649 3850 5058 5859 7059 7858 9050 9849
211
2034 4051 6059 8058 ..47 .240 w:i 1632' 1830 2028' 2225 198
6
1
210 209 208 207 200 0131 205 8176 204 .211 203 2230 202 4253 202 6200 201 8257 200
''
D. 1
TO 10,000.
1
l{2345l6789lD.
342423 4392 6353 8305 350248 2183 4108 6026 7935 9835 361728 3612 5488 7356 9216 371068 2912 4748 6577 8398 380211 2017 3815 6606 7390 9166 390935 2697 4452 6199 397940 9674 401401 3121 4834 6540 8240 9933 411620 3300 2620 4589 6549 8500 0442 2375 4301 6217 8125 ..25 1917 3800 5675 7542 9401 1253 3096 4932 6759 8580 0392 2197 3995 5785 7668 9343 1112 2873 4627 6374 8114 9847 1573 3292 5005 6710 8410
220
221
222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250
251
.215 .404 .693 .783 2105 2294 2482 2671 3988 4176 4363 4551 5862 6049 6236 6423 7729 7915 8101 8287 9587 9772 9958 .143 1437 1622 1806 1991 3280 3464 3647 3831 5115 5298 5481 6664
3606 5570 7525 9472 1410 3339 5260 7172 9076 .972 2859 4739 6610 8473
7744
19]
.328 .513
4174 5964
7746 9520
1288
7124 8943 0754 2567 4353 6142 7923 9698 1464 3224 4977 6722 8461
8579 8749
3635 5307 6973 8633
7488 9306 1115 2917 4712 6321 6499 8101 8279 9875 ..51 1641 1817 3400 3575 5152 5326 6896 7071 8634 8808 .365 .538 2089 2261 3807 3978 55.7 6688 7221 7391 8918 9087
2175 4015 6846 7670 9487 1296 3097 4891 6677 8466
.228 1993 375 5501 7245
9646 190 1350 1539 189 3236 3424 188 5113 5301 188 6983 7169 187 8845 9030 186 .698 .883 185 2544 2728 184 4382 4565 184 6212 6394 183 8034 8216 182 9849 ..30 181
8981
.711
.102 .271 .440 .609 .777 1788 1956 2124 2293 2461
269 270
271 272 273 274 275 276 277
7R
279
3467 414973 5140 6641 6807 8301 8467 9956 .121 421604 1788 3246 3410 4882 5045 6511 6674 8135 8297 9752 9914 431364 1525 2969 3130 4569 4729 6163 6322 7751 7909 9333 9491 440909 1066 2480 9637 4045 4201 5604 5760
1
2433 4149 4320 4492 5858 6029 6199 7561 7731 7901 9257 9426 9595 .946 1114 1283 2629 2796 2964 4305 4472 4639 5974 6141 6308 7638 7804 7970 9295 9160 9625
1476 1656 1837 181 3456 3636 180 5249 5428 179 7034 7212 178 8811 8989 178 .405 .582 .759 177 2169 2345 2521 176 3926 4101 4277 176 5676 5850 6025 175 7419 7592 7766 9154 9328 9501 173 .883 1056 1228 173 2605 2777 2949 172
171 171
.286 .451 .616 1933 2097 2261 3574 3737 3901 5208 5371 5534 6836 6999 7161 8459 8621 8783 ..75 .236 .398
.559 1846 2007 2167 2328 2488 2649 2809 161 3450 3610 3770 3930 4090 4249 4409 160 5048 5207 5367 5526 5685 5844 6004 159 6640 6798 6957 7116 7275 7433 7592 159 8226 8384 8542 8701 8859 9017 9175 158 9806 9964 .122 .279 .437 .594 .752 158 1381 1538 1695 1852 2009 2166 2323 157 2793 29.50 3106 3263 34 19 3576 3732 3889 157 4357 4513 4669 4825 4981 5137 5293 5449 156 5915 607116226 6382 6537 6692 6848 7003' 155
^
9791 165 .945 1110 1275 1439 165 2590 2754 2918 3082 164 4228 4392 4555 4718 164 5860 6023 6186 6349 163 7486 7648 7811 7973 162 9106 9268 9429 9591 162 .720 .881 1042 1203 161
N.
I).
TO 10.000.
1
A 447158 280
281
D.
I
292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310
311
8706 450249 1786 3318 4845 6366 7882 9392 460898 462398 3893 6383 6868 8347 9822 471292 2756 4216 5671 477121 8566 480007 1443 2874 4300 5721 7138 8551 9958 491362 2760 4155 5544 6930 8311 9687 501059 2427 3791 505150 6505 7856 9203 510545 1883 3218 4548 5874 7196 518514 9828 521138 2444 3746 6045 6339 7630 8917 530200
1
7313 8861 0403 1940 3471 4997 6518 8033 9543 1048 2548 4042 5532 7016 8495 9969 1438 2903 4362 5816 7266 8711 0151 1586 3016 4442 5863 7280 8692 ..99 1502 2900 4294 5683 7068 9448 9824 1196 2564 3927 5286 6640 7991 9337 0679 2017 3351 4681 6006 7328 8646 9959 1269 2575 3876 6174 6469 7759 9045 0328
1
1
7468 9015 0557 2093 3624 5150 6670 8184 9694 1198 2697 4191 5680 7164 8643
.116
1585 3049 4508 5962 7411 8855 0294 1729 3159 4585 6005 7421 8833 .239 1642 3040 4433 5822 7206 8586 9962 1333 2700 4063 5421 6776 8126 9471 0813 2151 3484 4813 6139 7460 8777 ..90 1400 2705 4006 5304 6598 7888 9174 0456
2
1
7623 7778 7933 9170 9324 9478 0711 0865 1018 2247 2400 2553 3777 3930 4082 5302 5454 5606 6821 6973 7125 8336 8487 8638 9845 9995 .146 1348 1499 1649 2847 2997 3146 4340 4490 4639 .5829 5977 6126 7312 7460 7608 8790 8938 9085 .263 .410 .557 1732 1878 2025 3195 3341 3487 4653 4799 4944 6107 6252 6397 7555 7700 7844 8999 9143 9287 0438 0582 0725 1872 2016 2159 3302 3445 3587 4727 4869 5011 6147 6289 6430 7563 7704 7845 8974 9114 9255
.380 .520 .661
8242 8397 8552 9787 9941 ..95 1326 1479 1633 2859 3012 3165 4387 4540 4692 6910 6062 6214 7428 7579 7731 8940 9091 9242
1.55
154 154
1.53
1.53
152 152
151 161 160
.296 .447 .597 .748 1799 1948 2098 2248 3296 3445 3594 3744 4788 4936 5085 5234 6274 6423 6571 6719 7756 7904 8052 8200 9233 9380 9527 9675 .704 .851 .998 1145 2171 2318 2464 2610 3633 3779 3925 4071 5090 5235 6381 5526 6542 6687 6832 6976 7989 8133 8278 8422 9431 9575 9719 9863 0869 1012 1156 1299 2302 2445 2688 2731 3730 3872 4015 4157 5153 5295 5437 5579 6572 6714 6865 6997 7986 8127 8269 8410 9396 9637 9677 9818 .801 .941 1081 1222 2201 2341 2481 2621 3597 3737 3876 4015 4989 5128 5267 .5406 6376 6515 6653 6791 7759 7897 8035 8173
9.'^50
150 149 149 148 148 147 140 146 140 145
145 144
..99 .236 .374 .511 .648 .785 .922 137 1470 1607 1744 1880 2017 21.54 2291 137
2837 2973 3109 3246 4199 4335 4471 4607 5557 5693 5828 5964 6911 7046 7181 7316 8260 8395 8530 8664 9606 9740 9874 ...9 0947 1081 1215 1349 2284 2418 2551 2684 3617 3750 3883 4016 4946 5079 5211 5344 6271 6403 6535 6668 7592 7724 7855 7987 8909 9040 9171 9303 2835 4136 5434 6727 8016
.221 .353 .484 .615 1530 1661 1792 1922 2966 3096 .3226
9068 135
.143 .277 .411 134 1616 1750 i:m 2951 3084 133 4282 4414 133 5609 5741 133
6932 8251 9566 .876 2183 3486 4785 6081 7372 8660 9943 1096 1223
1
131
130 130 129 7501 129 8788 129 ..72 128 1361 12F
9
1
l<
i:^
lo,ot;>.
1).
1
351
352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370
371
531479 2754 4026 5294 6558 7819 9076 540329 1579 2825 544068 5307 6543 7776 9003 550228 1450 2668 3883 5094 556303 7507 8709 9907 561101 2293 3481 4666 5848 7026 568202 9374 570543 1709 2872 4031 5188 6341 7492 8639 579784 580925 2063 3199 4331 6461 6587 7711 8832 9950 591065 2177 3286 4393 5496 6597
.7695
1607 1734 1862 2882 3009 3136 4153 4280 4407 6421 5547 5674 6685 6811 6937 7945 8071 8197 9202 9327 9452 0455 0580 0705 1704 1829 1953 2950 3074 3199
4192 4316 5431 5555 6666 6789 7898 8021 9126 9249 0351 0473 1572 1694 2790 2911 4004 4126 5215 5336 6423 6544 7627 7748 8829 8948
2412 3600 4784 5966 7144 8319
3104 4263
.5419
3837 5021 6202 7379 8554 9725 0893 2058 3220 4379 5534 6687 7836 8983
..61 .173 .284 1176 1287 1399 1510 1621 1732 1843 1955 2060 2288 2399 2510 2621 2732 2843 2954 3064 3175 3397 3508 3618 3729 3840 3950 4061 4171 4282 4503 4614 4724 4834 4945 5055 5165 5276 5386 5606 5717 5827 5937 6047 6157 626 6377 6487 6707 6817 6927 7037 7146 7256 7366 7476 7586 7805 7914 8024 8134 8243 8353 8462 8572 8681 8900 9009 9119 9228 9337 9446 9556 9665 9774 9992 .101 .210 .319 .428 .,537 .646 755 .864 1082 1191 1299 1408 1517 1625 1734 1843 1951
(
1990 2117 2245 2372 2500 2627 128 3264 3391 3518 3645 3772 3899 127 4534 4661 4787 4914 .5041 5167 127 5800 5927 6053 6180 6306 6432 126 7063 7189 7315 7441 7567 7693 126 8322 8448 8574 8699 8825 8951 126 9578 9703 9829 9954 ..79 .204 125 0830 0955 1080 1205 1330 14.54 125 2078 2203 2327 2452 2576 2701 125 3323 3447 3571 3696 3820 3944 124 4564 4688 4812 4936 5060 5183 124 5802 5925 6049 6172 6296 6419 124 7036 71.59 7282 7405 7529 7652 123 8267 8389 8512 86.35 8758 8881 123 9494 9616 9739 9861 9984 .106 123 0717 0840 0962 1084 1206 1328 122 1938 2060 2181 2303 2425 2547 122 3155 3276 3398 3519 3640 3762 121 4368 4489 4610 4731 4852 4973 121 5578 5699 5820 5940 6061 6182 121 6785 6905 7026 7146 7267 7387 120 79S8 8108 8228 8.349 8469 8589 120 9188 9308 9428 9548 9667 9787 120 ..385 ..504 .624 .743 .863 .982 119 1578 1698 1817 1936 2055 2174 119 2769 2887 3006 3125 3244 3362 119 3955 4074 4192 4311 4429 4548 119 5139 5257 5376 5494 5612 5730 118 6320 6437 6555 6673 6791 6909 118 7497 7614 7732 7849 7967 8084 118 8671 8788 8905 9023 9140 9257 117 9842 9959 ..76 .193 .309 .426 117 1010 1126 1243 1359 1476 1592 117 2174 2291 2407 2523 2639 2755 116 3336 3452 3568 3684 3800 3915 116 4494 4610 4726 4841 4957 5072 116 5650 5765 5880 5996 6111 6226 115 6802 6917 7032 7147 7262 7377 115 7951 8006 8181 8295 8410 8525 115 9097 9212 9326 9441 9555 9669 114 .241 ..355 .469 .583 .697 .811 114 1381 1495 1608 1722 1836 1950 114 2518 2631 2745 2858 2972 3085 114 3652 3765 .3879 3992 4105 4218 113 4783 4896 5009 5122 5235 5348 113 5912 6024 61.37 6250 6362 6475 113 7037 7149 7262 7374 7486 7599 112 8160 8272 8384 8496 8608 8720 112 9279 9391 9503 9615 9726 9838 112 .396 .507 .619 .730 .842 .953 112
111 111 ill
no
110 110 110 109 109 109
n.
1
TO 10,0U0.
1
IT 602000
1
1400 401
61.35 422 423 7161 424 8185 425 9206 426 .224 427 1241 1441 42S 2255 1951 2457 2963 3266 4^9 4276 4S0 633468 3973 4477 431 4981 5283 5484 432 6986 6287 6488 433 7290 6989 7490 434 7990 8290 8489 435 8988 9287 9486 436 .283 9984 437 640481 0978 1276 1474 438 1970 2267 2465 439 2959 3255 440 643153 3946 4242 4439 441 4931 5226 5422 442 5913 6208 6404 443 6894 7187 7383 444 7872 8165 8360 445 8848 9140 9335 446 .113 9821 447 650308 1084 0793 1278 448 1702 2053 2246 449 3019 2730 450 653213 .3695 3984 4177 451 4946 4658 5138 452 5906 5619 6098 453 6864 6.577 7056 454 7820 7534 8011 455 8774 8488 8965 456 9726 9441 9916 ..11 .106 .201 .296 .391 .486 ..581 .676 457 458 660805 0960 10,55 11.50 1245 1.339 1434 1529 1623 i59 I8I3 19071 2002 2096 2191 2280 2380 2475 2569
612 r84 3842 4897 5950 7000 8048 9093 620136 117o 2214 623249 4282 5312 6340 7366 8389 9410 630428
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2003 2547 903090 3633 4174 4716 5256 5796 6335 6874 7411 7949 908485
9021
2206 2762 3318 3873 4427 4980 5533 6085 6636 7187 7737 8286 8835 9383 9930 0470 1022 1513 1567 2057 2112 2601 2655 3144 3199 3687 3741 4229 4283 4770 4824 5310 5364 5850 5904 6389 6443 6927 6981 7405 7519 8002 8056 8539 8592 9074 9128 9610 9663 0144 0197 0678 0731 1211 1204 1743 1797 2275 2328 2806' 2859 33371 3390
1
1
2262 2818 3373 3928 4482 5036 5588 6140 0692 7242 7792 8341 8890 9437 9985
0.531
2317 2873 3429 3984 4538 5091 5644 6195 6747 7297 7847 8396 8944 9492
..39
1131
6251 6802
2866 3434 4002 4569 5135 5700 6265 6829 7392 7955 8516 9077 9638 .197 0750 1314 1872 2429 2985 3540 4094 4648 5201 5754 6306 6857 7407 7957 8506 9054 9602
.149
2923 3491 4059 4625 5192 5757 6321 6885 7449 8011 8573 9134 9694
2980 3548 4115 4682 5248 5813 6378 6942 7505 8067 8629 9190 9750
3037 3605 4172 4739 5305 5870 6434 6998 7561 8123 8685 9246 9806
67 57 57 57 57 67 57 57
57
56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 55 55 55 55 5^ 55 55 55 55 55 55
F'^
0812 0868 1370 1426 1928 1983 2484 2540 3040 3096 3595 3051 41.50 4205 4704 4759 5257 5312 5809 5864 0301 6416 0912 6967 7462 7517 8012 8067 8561 8615 9109 9164 9656 9711
.203
.2.58
0924
1482 2039 2595 3151 3706 4261 4814 5367 5920 6471 7022 7572 8122 8670 a2l8 9766 .312 0859 1404 1948 2492 3036 3578 4120 4661 5202 5742 6281 6820 7358 7895 8431 8967 9503 ..37 0571 1104 1637 2169 2700 3231 3761
!
1077 1622 2166 2710 3253 3795 4337 A37S 5418 5958 6497 7035 7573 8110 8646 9181 9716 0251 0784 1317 1850 2381 2913 3443
1
3849 4391 4932 5472 6012 6551 7089 7026 8163 8099 9235 9770 0304 0838
1371
1903
3361 3904 4445 4986 5526 6066 6604 7143 7680 8217 8753 9289 9823 0358 0891 1424 1956 2488 3019 3549
1
3416 3958 4499 5040 5580 6119 6658 7196 7734 8270 8807 9342 9877 0411 0944
1477 2009 2541 3072 3002
6
1
3470 4012 4553 5094 5634 6173 6712 7250 7787 8324 8860 9396 9930 0404 0998
15.30
55 55 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 63
1
"n."
D.l
14
N.
1
TO 10,000.
1
l!2345678i9D.
3867 4396 4925 5453 5980 6507 7033 7558 8083 8607 9130 9653 0176 0697 1218
1738
820 913814, 4343 821 4872 822 5400 823 824 5927 825 6454 826 69S0 827 7506 828 8030 829 8555 830 919078 831 9001 832 920123 833 0645 834 1166 835 1686 836 2206 837 2725 838 3244 839 3762 840 924279 841 4796 842 5312 843 5828 84t 6342 845 6857 846 7370 847 7883 848 8396 849 8908 850 929419 851 9930 852 930440 853 0949 854 1458 855 1966 856 2474 857 2981 858 3487 859 3993 860 934498 861 5003 862 5507 863 6011 864 6514 865 7016 866 7518 887 8019 868 8520 869 9020 870 939519 871 940018 872 0516 875J 1014 874 1511 2008 875 876 2504 877 3000 878 3495 879 3989
N.
1
2258 2777 3296 3814 4331 4848 5354 5879 6394 6908 7422 7935 8447 8959 9470 9981 0491 1000 1509 2017 2524 3031 3538 4044 4549 5064 5558 6061 6564 7066 7566 8069 8570 9070 9569 0068 0566 1064
2058 2554 3049 3544 4038
1
1
3920 4449 4977 5505 6033 6559 7085 7611 8135 8659 9183 9706 0228 0749 1270 1790 2310 2829 3348 3865 4383 4899 5415 5931 6445 6959 7473 7986 8498 9010 9521
..32
0542
1051
1560 2068 2575 3082 3589 4094 4599 5104 5608 6111 6614 7117 7618 8119 8620 9120 9619 0118 0616 1114
1561 1611
3973 4502 5030 5558 6085 6612 7138 7663 8188 8712 9235 9758 0280 0801 1322 1842 2362 2881 3399 3917 4434 4951 546 7 5982 6497 7011 7524 8037 8549 9061 9572 ..83 0592 1102 1610 2118 2626 3133 3639 4145 4650 5154 5658 0162 6665 7167 7668 8169 8670 9170 9669 0168 0666 1163 1660 2157 2653 3148 3643 4137
3
1
4026 4555 5083 5611 6138 6664 7190 7716 8240 8764 9287 9810 0332 0853 1374 1894 2414 2933 3451 3969 4486 5003 5518 6034 6548 7062 7576 8088 8601 9112 9623
4079 4608 5136 5664 6191 6717 7243 7768 8293 8816 9340 9862 0384 0900 1426
1946
4132 4660 5189 5716 6243 6770 7295 7820 8345 8869 9392 9914 0436 0958
1478 1998
2466 2985 3503 4021 4538 5054 5570 6085 6G00 7114 7627 8140 8652 9163 9674
2518 3037 3555 4072 4589 5106 5621 6137 6651 7165 7678 8191 8703 9215 9725
4184 4237 42901 4713 4766 4819 5241 5294 5347 5769 5822 5875 6296 6349 6401 6822 6875 6927 7348 7400 7453 7873 7925 7978 8397 8450 8502 8921 8973 9026 9444 9496 9549 9967 ..19 ..71 0489 0541 0593 1010 1062 1114 1530 1582 1634 2050 2102 2154 2570 2622 2674 3089 3140 3192 3607 3658 3710 4124 4176 4228 4641 4693 4744 5157 5209 5261 5673 5725 5776 6188 6240 6291 6702 6754 6805 7216 7268 7319 7730 7781 7832 8242 8293 8345 8754 8805 8857 9266 9317 9368 9776 9827 9879
53 53 53 53 53 53 53 52 52 52
52
52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52
51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 61 61 51 51
0643 0694 0745 0796 0847 08981 1153 1204 1254 1305 1356 1407;
1661
2169 2677 3183 3690 4196 4700 5205 5709 6212 6715 7217 7718 8219 8720 9220 9719 0218 0716 1213
1710
6262' 6313
6765 7267 7769 8269 8770 9270 9769 0267 0765 1263 1760 2256 2752 3247 3742
5
6815 7317 7819 8320 8820 9320 9819 0317 0815 1313 1809 2306 2801 3297 3791 42361 4285
6
i
1814 2322 2829 3335 3841 4347 4852 5356 5860 6363 6865 7367 7869 8370 8870 9369 9869 0367 0865 1362 1859 2355 2851 3346 3841 4335
7
1
1865 1915
2372 2879 3386 3892 4397 4902 5406 5910 6413 6916 7418 7919 8420 8920 9419 9918 0417 0915
4953
.5457 .5960
64G3 6966 7468 7969 8470 8970 9469 9968 0467 0964 1412 1462 1909 1958 2405 2455 2901 2950 3396 3445 3890 3939' 4384 4433
8
1
50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
49
49 49
!^
1
TO 10,000.
1
15
1
D.
j
880~ 944483 4532 4581 4631 4680 4729 4779 48281 48771 4927 881 4976 5025 5074 5124 5173 5222 5272 5321 537015419 882 5469 5518 5567 5616 5665 5715 5764 5813 5862 59 1 21 883 5961 GOlO 6059 6108 6157 6207 6256 6305 6354 6403; 884 6452 G501 6551 6600 6649 6698 6747 6796 6845 6894 885 G943 6992 7041 7090 7140 7189 7238 7287 7336 7385 886 7434 7483 7532 7581 7630 7679 7728 7777 7826 7875 887 7924 7973 8022 8070 8119 8168 8217 8266 8315 8364 888 8413 8462 8511 8560 8609 8657 8706 8755 8804 8853 889 8902 8951 8999 9048 9097 9146 9195 9244 9292 9341 H90 949390 9439 94881 9536 9585 9634 9683 9731 9780 9829 891 9878 9926 9975 ..24 ..73 .121 .170 .219 .267 .316 892 950365 0414 04G2 0511 0560 0608 0657 0706 0754 0803 893 0851 0900 0949 0997 104G 1095 1143 1192 1240 1289 894 1338 1386 1435 1483 1532 1580 1629 1677 1726 1775 895 1823 1872 1920 1969 2017 2066 2114 2163 2211 2260 S96 2308 2356 2405 2453 2502 2550 2599 2647 2696 2744 897 2792 2841 2889 2938 2986 3034 3083 3131 3180 322S 898 3276 3325 3373 3421 3470 3518 3566 3615 3663 3711 899 3760 3808 3856 3905 3953 4001 4049 4098 4146 4194 9UU 954243 4291 4339 4387 4435 4484 4532 4580 4628 4677 901 4725 4773 4821 4869 4918 4966 5014 5062 5110 5158 902 5207 6255 5303 5351 5399 5't47 5495 5543 5592 5640 903 5688 5736 5784 5832 5880 5928 5976 6024 6072 6120 904 6168 6216 6265 6313 6361 6409 6457 6505 6553 6601 905 6649 6697 6745 6793 6840 6888 6936 6984 7032 7080 QO*! 7128 7176 7224 7272 7320 73G8 7416 7464 7512 7559 907 7G07 7655 7703 7751 7799 7847 7894 7942 7990 8038 908 8086 8134 8181 8229 8277 8325 8373 8421 8468 8516 909 8564 8612 8659 8707 8755 8803 8850 8898 8946 8994 910 939041 9089 9137 9185 9232 9280 9328 9375 9423 9471 911 9518 9566 9614 9661 9709 9757 9804 9852 9900 9947 912 9995 ..42 ..90 .138 .185 .233 .280 .328 .376 .423 913 960471 0518 0566 0613 0661 0709 0756 0804 0851 0899 0946 0994 1041 1089 1136 1184 1231 1279 1326 13741 914 915 1421 1469 1516 1563 1611 1658 1706 1753 1801 1848 916 1895 1943 1990 2038 2085 2132 2180 2227 2275 2322 917 2369 2417 2464 2511 2559 2606 2653 2701 2748 2795 918 2843 2890 2937 2985 3032 3079 3126 3174 3221 3268 919 3316 3363 3410 3457 3504 3552 3599 3646 3693 3741 920 963788 3835 3882 3929 3977 4024 4071 4118 4165 ^212 4260 4307 4354 4401 4448 4495 4542 4590 4637 46841 921 922 4731 4778 4825 4872 4919 4966 5013 5061 5103 5155 5202 5249 5296 5343 5390 5437 5484 5531 5578 5625 923 924 5672 5719 5766 5813 5860 5907 5954 6001 6048 0095 925 6142 6189 6236 6283 6329 6376 6423 6470 6517 6564 926 6611 6658 6705 6752 6799 6845 6892 6939 6'/86 7033 927 7080 7127 7173 7220 7267 7314 7361 7408 7454 7501 928 7548 7595 7642 7688 7735 7782 7829 7875 7922 7969 929 8016 8062 8109 8166 8203 8249 8296 8343 8390 8436 930 968483 8530 8576 8623 8670 '87 IG 8763 8810 8856 8903; 931 8950 8996 9043 9090 91.36 9183 9229 9276 9323 9369' 932 9416 9463 9509 9556 9602 9649 9695 9742 9789 9835 933 9882 9928 9975 ..21 ..68. .114 .161 .207 .254 .3001 934 970347 0393 0440 0486 0533 0579 0626 0672 0719 07651 935 0812 0858 0904 0951 0997 1044 1090 ,1137 1183 1229 936 1276 1322 1369 1415 1461 1508 1.554 1601 1647 1693! 937 1740 1786 1832 1879 1925 1971 2018 12064 2110 21571 2203 224S 2295 2342 2388 2434 2481 2527 2573 26191 938 26661 2712' 2758' 2804' 285l' 2897' 2943' 2989' 3035' 3082' 939
1 1
49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 47 47
47 47 47 47 47
17 47
47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 46 46 4G 46 46 46

N.
'
D.
IP
N.
TO 10,000.
1
l2345678l9D.
973128 3590 4051 4512 4972 6432 5891 6350 6808 7266 977724 8181 8637 9093 9548 980003 0468 0912 1366 1819 982271 2723 3175 3626 4077 4527 4977 6420 6875 6324 986772 7219 7666 8113 8559 9005 9450 9895 990339 0783 991226 1669 2111 2564 2995 3436 3877 4317 4757 5196 995635 6074 6512 6949 7386 7823 8259 8695 9131
940
941
952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 96i 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990
991
3174 3636 4097 4568 6018 6478 5937 6396 6854 7312 7769 8226 8683 9138 9594 0049 0503 0957
1411 1864
3220 3682 4143 4604 6064 5524 6983 6442 6900 7368 7816 8272 8728 9184 9639 0094 0549
992 993
t/94
2316 2769 3220 3671 4122 4672 6022 6471 5920 6369 6817 7264 7711 8167 8604 9049 9494 9939 0383 0827 1270 1713 2166 2698 3039 3480 3921 4361 4801 6240 5679 6117 6555 6993 7430 7867 8303 8739 9174 9565; J609
1
3266 3728 4189 4660 6110 5570 6029 6488 6946 7403 7861 8317 8774 9230 9685 0140 0594 1003 1048 1466 1601 1909 1954 2362 2407 2814 2859 3266 3310 3716 3762 4167 4212 4617 4062 6067 6112 6516 6561 6966 6010 6413 6468 6861 6906 7309 7363 7756 7800 8202 8247 8648 8693 9094 9138 9639 9583 9983 ..28 0428 0472 0871 0916 1316 1369 1768 1802 2200 2244 2642 2686 3083 3127 3624 3568 3965 4009 4405 4449 4846 4889 5284 6328 6723 5767 6161 6205 6599 6643 7037 7080 7474 7617 7910 7954 8347 8390 8782 8826 9218 9^r.i 9652 [){][){)
2
1
3313 3774 4235 4696 5156 5616 6076 6633 6992 7449 7906 8363 8819 9275 9730 0185 0640 1093 1647 2000 2462 2904 3366 3807 4257 4707 6167 5606 6065 6503 6951 7398 7845 8291 8737 9183 9628
6679 7037 7495 7952 8409 8865 9321 9776 0231 0685 1139 1692 2046 2497 2949 3401 3852 4302 4752 6202 6661 6100 6648 6996 7443 7890 8336 8782 9227 9672
0561 1004 1448 1890 2333 2774 3216 3657 4097 4537 4977 6416 5864 6293 6731 7168 7606 8041 8477 8913 9348 9783
1
3405 3866 4327 4788 5248 6707 6167 6626 7083 7641 7998 8464 8911 9366 9821 0276 0730 1184 1637 2090 2643 2994 3446 3897 4347 4797 6247 6696 6144 6593 7040 7488 7934 8381 8826 9272 9717 0605 1049 1492 1935 2377 2819 3260 3701 4141
4.581 .5021
8043 8500 8956 9412 9867 0322 0776 1229 1683 2135 2588 3040
4420 4880 5340 5799 6258 6717 7176 7632 8089 8646 9002 9457 9912 0367
0821 1276 1728 2181
2633 3085
3491 3636
3942 .3987 4392 4437 4842 4887 6292 6337 6741 6786 6189 6234 6637 6682 7085 7130 7532 7577 7979 8024 8425 8470 8871 8916 9316 9361 97G1 9806
0660 0694 1093 1137 1536 1580 1979 2023 2421 2466 2863 2907 3304 3348 3745 3789 4185 4x529 4626 4669 6065 5108 6504 5647 6942 5986 6380 6424 6818 6862 7255 7299 7692 7736 8129 8172 8564 8608 9000 9043 9435 9479 987019913
1
4466 4926 5386 5846 6304 6763 7220 7678 8136 8691 9047 9503 9968 0412 0867 1320 1773 2226 2678 3130 3581 4032 4482 4932 5382 5830 6279 6727 7176 7622 8068 8514 8960 9405 9850 0738 1182 1625 20B7 2509 2951 3392
38331
46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46
46
0516 0960 1403 1846 2288 2730 3172 3613 4063 4493 4933 6372
.5811
46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 46 46 45 45 45 45 46 46 44 44 44 44 44 44 44
U
44 44
44 44
5460
.6898
44 44
44 44
44 41 44
6030
6468J
6906 7343
7779!
IN.
M^
I).
!
A TABLE
OP
LOGARITHMIC
N.
The minutes
in
the lefthand
and
~
1
18
Degi ee.)
I
A TABLE OF LOGARITHM^;

Sine
D.
Cosine
D.
Tana.
D.
Coiang.
ililliiUt;.
"0 0.000000
1
2 3
4
6 6 7 8
9 10
11
12 13 14 15 16
17
18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40
41
42 43 44 46 46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 64 65 56 57
58 59
60
6.463726 764756 940847 7.065786 162696 241877 308824 366816 417968 463725 7.505118 542906 577668 609853 639816 667845 694173 718997 742477 764754 7.785943 806146 825451 843934 861662 878695 895085 910879 926119 940842 7.955082 968870 982233 995198 8.007787 020021 031919 043501 054781 065776 8.076500 086965 097183 107167 116926 126471 135810 144953 153907 162681 8.171280 179713 187985 196102 204070 211895 219581 227134 234557 241855
Cosine
1
501717 293485 208231 161517 131968 111575 96653 85254 76263 68988 62981 57936 53641 49938 46714 43881 41372 39135 37127 35315 33672 32175 30805 29547 28388 27317 26323 25399 24538 23733 22980 22273 21608 20981
20390. 19831
19302 18801 18325 17872 17441 17031 16639 16265 15908 15566
1.5238
14924 14622 14333 14054 13786 13529 13280 13041 12810 12587 12372 12164 11963
10.000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 9.999999 999999 999999 999999 999998 9.999998 999997 999997 999996 999996 999995 999995 999994 999993 999993 9.999992 999991 999990 999989 999988 999988 999987 999986 999985 999983 9.999982 999981 999980 999979 999977 999976 999975 999973 999972 999971 9.999969 999968 999966 999964 999963 999961 999959 999958 999956 999954 9.999952 999950 999948 999946 999944 999942 999940 999938 999936 999934
00 00 00 00 00
01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01
02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 (3 04 04 04 04 04
1
0.000000 6.463726 764756 940847 7.065786 162696 241878 308825 366817 417970 463727 7.505120 542909 577672 609857 639820 667849 694179 719003 742484 764761 7.785951 806155 825460 843944 861674 878708 895099 910894 926134 940858 7.955100 968889 982253 995219 8.007809 020045 031945 043527
60 501717 13.536274 59 293483 235244 58 208231 059153 57 161517 12.934214 5G 131969 837304 55 111578 758122 54 99653 691175 53 85254 633183 52 76263 .582030 51 68988 536273 50 62981 12.494880 49 57933 457091 48 53642 422328 47 49939 390143 46 46715 360180 45 43882 332151 44 41373 305S21 43 39136 280997 42 37128 257616 41 35136 235239 40 33673 12.214049 39 32176 193845 38 30806 174540 37 29549 156056 30 28390 138326 35 27318 121292 34 26325 104901 33 25401 089100 32 24540 073St;6 31 23735 059142 30 22981 12.044900 29 22275 031111 28 21610 017747 27 2()!)83 004781 26 2r.^92 11.992191 25 iy;^:v.3 979955 24 9680.55' 23 19305 18803 956473 22 0.54S09 18327 945191 21 065806 17874 934194 20 8.076531 17444 11.923469 19 086997 17034 913003 18 097217 16642 902783 17 107202 16268 892797 16 116963 15910 883037 15 126510 15568 873490 14 135851 15241 864149 13 144996 14927 855004 12 153952 14627 846048 11 162727 14336 837273 10 8.171328 14057 11 828672 '9 179763 13790 8202371 8 188036 13532 811964'. 196156 13284 803844 6 204126 13044 795874 5 788047 4 211953 12814 12590 219641 780359 3 227195 r^37n 772805 2 234621 12168 765379 758079 241921 11967
1
Sine
Clang.
1
Tans:.
I
M.
1
K) Degrenii.
SINES
AND TANGENTS.
Cosine
1
(I
Tang.
Degree.
19
Cotaiip.
nn
1
Sine
D.
D.
2 3
4
5 6 7 8 9 10
11
12
13 14 15
16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 2t 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44
45 46 47
48 49
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 53 59 60
8.241855 349033 256094 263042 269881 276614 283243 289773 296207 302540 30S794 8.314954 321027 327016 332924 338753 344504 350181 355783 361315 366777 8.372171 377499 382762 387962 393101 398179 403199 408161 413068 417919 8.422717 427462 432156 436800 441394 445941 450440 454893 459301 463665 8.467985 472263 478498 480693 484848 488963 493040 497078 501080 605045 8..508974 512867 516726 520551 524343 528102 531828 63552? 539186
.542819
Cosine
11963 11768 11580 11398 11221 11050 10883 10721 10565 10413 10266 10122 9982 9847 9714 9586 9460 9338 9219 9103 8990 8880 8772
6794 6731 6669 6608 654S 6489 6431 6375 6319 6264 6211
61.58
9.999934 999932 999929 999927 999925 999922 999920 999918 999915 999913 999910 9.999907 999905 999902 999899 999897 999894 999891 999888 999885 999882 9.999879 999876 999873 999870 999867 999864 999861 999858 999854 999851 9.999848 999844 999841 999838 999834 999831 999827 999823 999820 999816 9.999812 999809 999805 999801 999797 999793 999790 999786 999782 999778 9.999774 999769 999765 999761 999757 999753 999748 999744 999740 999735
'"
1
04 8.241921 11967 249102 11772 04 256165 11684 04 263115 11402 04 04 269956 11225 276691 11054 04 283323 10887 04 289856 10726 04 296292 10570 04 302634 10418 04 308884 10270 04 04 8.315046 10126 321122 9987 04 327114 9851 04 333025 9719 05 338956 9590 05 344610 9465 05 350289 9343 05 355895 9224 05 361430 9108 05 366895 8995 t)5 05 8.372292 8885 377622 8777 05 382889 8672 05 388092 8570 05 393234 8470 05 398315 8371 05 403338 8276 05 408304 8182 05 413213 8091 05 418068 8002 06 06 8.422869 7914 427618 7830 06 432315 7745 06 436962 7663 06 441560 7583 06 446110 7505 06 4.50613 7428 06 455070 7352 06 459481 7279 06 463849 7206 06 06 8.468172 7135 06 472454 7066 06 476693 6998 480892 6931 06 485050 6865 07 489170 6801 07 07 493250 6738 07 497293 6676 07 601298 6615 07 605267 6555 07 P 509200 6496 07 613098 6439 07 6382 516961 07 520790 6326 07 524586 6272 07 528349 6218 07 532080 6165 07 535779 6113 07 539447 6062 07 543084 6012
Cotang.
1
11.758079 750898 743835 736885 730044 723309 716577 710144 703708 697366 691116 11.684954 678878 672886 666975 661144
649711 644105 63S570 633105 11.627708 622378 617111 611908 606766 601685 596662 591696 586787 581932 11.677131 672382 567685 563038 658440 653890 6493H7 544930 640519 536151 11.531828 527546 523307 519108 514950 510830
60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 45
655.390 44
43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21 20
19 18
17 16 15 14 5067.50 13 502707 12
498702 11 494733 10 11.490800 9 486902 8 483039 7 479210 6 475414 6 471651 4 467920 3 464221 2 460553 1
4.56916
Ta.^.
88 Degrees.
20
"m"
1
(2 Degrees.;
awe
8.542819 546422 549995 553539 657054 560540 563999 567431 570836 574214 577566 8.580892 584193 587469 590721 593948 597152 600332 603489 606623 609734 8.612823 615891 618937 621962 624965 627948 630911 633854 636776 639680 8.642563 645428 648274 651102 653911 656702 669475 662230 664968 667689 8.670393 673080 676761 678405 681043 683665 686272 688863 691438 693998 8.696543 699073 701589 704090 706577 709049 711507 713952 716383 718800
Cosine
D.
a TABLE OP LOGARITHBIIC

t;osine
D.
^
1
Tang.
D.
CcranR.
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59
SL
1
6004 5955 5906 6858 5811 6765 5719 5674 6630 6587 6644 5602 5460 5419 5379 5339 6300 5261 6223 6186 5149 6112 6076 6041 5006 4972 4938 4904 4871 4839 4806 4776 4743 4712 4682 4662 4622 4692 4563 4536 4606 4479 4451 4424 4397 4370 4344 4318 4292 4267 4242 4217 4192 4168 4144 4121 4097 4074 4051 4029 4006
1
9.999735 999731 999726 999722 999717 999713 999708 999704 999699 9D9694 999689 9.999685 999680 999675 999670 999665 999660 999655
9996.50
999645 999640 9.999035 999629 999624 999619 999014 999608 999603 999597 999592 999586 9.999681 999675 999570 999564 999668 999653 999647 999541 999535 999529 9.999524 999518 999512 999606 999600 999493 999487 999481 999475 999469 9.999463 999456 999450 999443 999437 999431 999424 999418 999411 999404
Sine
1
07 8.543084 07 640691 07 550268 08 653817 08 557336 08 660828 08 664291 08 567727 08 571137 08 674520 08 577877 08 8.581208 08 684514 08 587795 08 591051 08 694283 08 597492 08 600677 08 603839 09 606978 09 610094 09 8.613189 09 616262 09 619313 09 622343 09 625352 09 628340 09 631308 09 634256 09 637184 09 640093 09 8.642982 09 645853 09 648704 09 651537 10 654352 10 667149 10 659928 10 662689 10 665433 668160 12 10 8.670870 10 673563 10 676239 10 678900 10 681544 10 684172 10 686784 10 689381 10 691963 10 694529 11 8.697081 11 699617 11 702139 704646 11 11 707140 709618 11 712083 11 714534 11 11 716972 11 719396
.
6012 5962 5914 5866 5319 5773 5727 5682 5638 5595 5552 5510 5468 5427 5387 5347 5308 5270 6232 5194 6158 5121 5085 5050 5015 4981 4947 4913 4880 4848 4816 4784 4753 4722 4691 4661 4631 4602 4573 4544 4526 4488 4461 4434 4417 4380 4354 4328 4303 4877 4252 4228 4203 4179 4155 4132 4108 4086 4062 4040 4017
1
11.456916 00 453309 59
4497321 58
446183157
442664 56 439172! .55 4357091 54 432273 53 4288631 52 425480, 51 422123; 50
11.418792U9
4154861 4122051 4089491 405717]
i
48 47 46 45
362816 359907 11.357018 354147 351296 348463 345648 342851 340072 337311 334667 331840 11.329130 326437 323761 321100 318456 315828 313216 310619 308037 305471 11.302919 300383 297861 295354 292860
290:}82
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18
l'
16 15 14 13 12
11
10
9 8 7
G
287917
2854651 283028;
2Snf504'
Tanij.
5 4 3 2
I
CoianLv
1
(M.
fj
^^3
Degrees.^
D.
21
'olHllL'.
1
M.
Sine
Cosine
D.
'J'aiiK.
"o" 8.718800 721204 1 723595 2 725972 3 728337 4 730688 5 733027 6 735354 7 737667 8 9' 739969 742259 10 11 8.744536 12 746802 749055 13 751297 14 753528 15 16 755747 17 757955 760151 18 19 762337 20 764511 21 8.766675 22 768828 23 770970 24 773101 775223 25 777333 26 27 779434 28 781524 783605 29 30 785675 31 8.787736 32 789787 33 791828 34 793859 35 795881 36 797894 37 799897 38 801892 39 803876 40 805852 41 8.807819 42 809777 43 811726 44 813667 45 815599 46 817522 47 819436 48 821343 49 823240 50 825130 51 8.827011 52 828884 53 830749 54 832607 55 834456 56 836297 57 838130 58 839956 59 841774 SO 843585
4006 3984 3962 3941 3919 3898 3877 3857 3836 3816 3796 3776 3756 3737 3717 3698 3679 3661 3642 3624 3606 3588 3570 3553 3535 3518 3501 3484 3467 3451 3431 3418 3402 3386 3370 3354 3339 3323 3308 3293 3278 3263 3249 3234 3219 3205 3191 3177 3163 3149 3135 3122 3108 3095 3082 3069 3056 3043 3030 3017 3000
9.999404 11 999398 11 999391 11 999384 11 999378 11 999371 11 999364 12 999357 12 999350 12 999343 12 999336 12 9.999329 12 999322 12 999315 12 999308 12 999301 12 999294 12 999286 12 999279 12 999272 12 999265 12 9.999257 12 999250 13 999242 13 999235 13 999227 13 999220 13 999212 13 999205 13 999197 13 999189 13 9.999181 13 999174 13 999166 13 999158 13 999150 13 999142 13 999134 13 999126 13 999118 13 999110 13 9.999102 13 999094 14 999086 14 999077 14 999069 14 999061 14 999053 14 999044 14 999036 14 999027 14 9.999019 14 999010 14 999002 14 998993 14 998984 14 998976 14 998967 15 998958 15 998950 15 998941 15
Sine
1
8.719396 721806 724204 726588 728959 731317 733663 735996 738317 740626 742922 8.745207 747479 749740
75198:>
754227 756453 758668 760872 763065 765246 8.767417 769578 771727 773866 775995 778114 780222 782320 784408 786486 8.788554 790613 792662 794701 796731 798752 800763 802765 804758 806742 8.808717 810683 812641 814589 816529 818461 820384 822298 824205 826103 8.827992 829874 831748 833613 835471 837321 839163 840998 842825 844644
Cotang.
4017 3995 3974 3952 3930 3909 3889 3868 3848 3827 3807 3787 3768 3749 3729 3710 3692 3673 3655 3636 3618 3600 3583 3565 3548
3531
3337 3322 3307 3292 3278 3262 3248 3233 3219 3205 3191 3177 3163 3150 3136 3123 3110 3096 3083 3070 3057 3045 3032 3019
1
11.280604(60 278194 59 275796 58 273412 57 271041 56 268683 55 266337 54 264004 53 261683 52 259374 51 257078 50 11.254793 49 2.52521 48 2502B0 47 248011 46 245773 45 243547 44 241332 43 239128 42 236935 41 234754 40 11.232583 39 230422 38 228273 37 220134 36 224005 35 221886 34 219778 33 217680 32 215592 31 213514 30 11.211446 29 209387 28 207338 27 205299 26 203269 25 201248 24 199237 23 197235 22 195242 21 193258 20 11.191283 19 189317 18 187359 17
185411 183471 181539 179616 177702 175795 173897
16 15 14 13 12
11
10
11.172008 170126 168252 166387 164529 162679 160837 159002 157175 155356
Tang.
1
9 8 7 6 6
4
3 2
1
C.sine
M.

86
IIPKriea
14
22
(4 Degrees.)
Sine
D.
1
a TABLE OF LOGARITHMIC

TJ
1
Cosine
D.

Ta,.g.
D
3019 3007 2995 2982 2970 2958 2946 2935 2923 2911 2900 2888 2877 2866 2854 2843 2832 2821 2811 2800 2789 2779 2768 2758 2747 2737 2727 2717 2707 2697 2687 2677 2667 2658 2648 2638 2629 2620 2610 2601 2592 2583 2574 2565 2556 2547 2538 2530 2521 2512 2503 2495 2486 2478 2470 2461 2453 2445 2437 2430 2421
1
Cotang.
i
2 3 4 5
f)
7
8
9 10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17
18
19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 54 55 66
57 58 59 60
8.843585 845387 847183 848971 85075 852525 854291 856049 85780 859546 861283 8.863014 86473S 866455 868165 869^68 871565 873255 874938 876615 878285 8.879949 881607 883258 884903 686542 888174 889801 891421 893035 894643 8.890246 897842 899432 901017 902596 904169 905736 907297 908853 910404 8.911949 913488 915022 916550 918073 919591 921103 922610 924112 925609 8.927100 928587 930068 931544 933015 934481 935942 937398 938850 940296
C'ufiiiie
3005 9.998941 15 8.8'M644 9989^2 15 846455 2992 998923 15 2980 848260 998914 15 850057 2967 998905 15 851846 2955 998896 15 853628 2943 998887 15 855403 2931 998878 15 857171 2919 998869 15 858932 2907 998860 15 860686 2896 998851 15 862433 2884 2873 9.998841 15 8.864173 998832 15 865906 2861 998823 16 867632 2850 998813 16 869351 2839 998804 16 871064 2828 998795 16 872770 2817 998785 16 874469 2806 998776 16 876162 2795 998766 16 877849 2786 998757 16 879529 2773 2763 9.998747 16 8.881202 998738 16 882869 2752 884530 998728 16 2742 998718 16 886185 2731 887833 998708 16 2721 16 889476 998699 2711 891112 998689 16 2700 892742 998679 16 2690 17 894366 998669 2680 895984 998659 2670 17 8.897596 2660 9.998649 899203 2651 998639 17 900803 2641 998629 17 902398 2631 998619 17 903987 2622 998609 17 905570 2612 998599 17 907147 2603 998589 17 17 908719 2593 998578 910285 2584 998568 17 911846 2575 998558 17 2566 9.998548 17 8.913401 2556 914951 998537 17 916495 2547 998527 17 918034 2538 998516 18 919568 998506 18 2529 921096 2520 998495 18 998485 18 922619 2512 924136 2503 998474 18 998464 18 925649 2494 18 998453 927156 2480 2477 9.998442 18 8.928658 18 930155 998431 2469 998421 18 931647 2460 998410 18 933134 2452 998399 18 934616 2443 936093 998388 18 2435 998377 18 937565 2427 998366 18 939032 2419 998355 18 940494 2411 998344 18 941952 2403
Sine
1 1 1
11.155356 60 1 53,545 5 151740 58 149943 57 148154 56 146372 55 144597 54 142829 53 141068 52 139314 51 137567 50 11.135827 49 134094 48 132368 47 130049 46 128936 45 127230 44 125531 43 123838 42
1221'>1 41
11
120471 118798 117131 115470 113815 112167 110524 108888 107258 105634 104016 11.102404 100797 099197 097602 096013 094430 092853 091281 089715 088154
40
39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28
27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
074351 11
072841 10
11.071342 069845 068353 066866 065384 063907 062435 000968 059506 058048
Tang.
1
9 8 7 6 6 4 3 2
1
Colang.
M.
1
R5 DoRrees.
SINES
AND TANGENhs.
Cosine

(5 Degrees. )
Tang.
1
23
OdUtilU.
1 1
Sine
D.
D.
D.
4
6
f.
V
t^ I!
10
11
It:
r.f
14 15 16
17
18
1(1
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 33 39 40
4f 42 43 44 45
46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
943174 944606 946034 947456 948874 950287 951696 953100 954499 8.955894 ^2317 957284 2310 958670 2302 960052 2295 961429 228P 902801 2280 964170 2273 965534 2206 966S93 2259 968249 2252 8.969600 2244 970947 2238 972289 2231 973628 2224 974962 2217 976293 2210 977619 2203 978941 2197 930259 2190 9S1573 2183 8.982883 2177 934189 2170 985491 2163 986789 21.57 988083 2150 989374 2141 990660 21.38 991943 2131 993222 2125 994497 2119 8.995768 2112 997036 2106 998299 2100 999560 2094 9.000316 2087 002069 2082 003318 2076 004563 2070 005805 2064 007044 2058 9.008278 2052 009510 2046 010737 2040 011962 2034 013182 2029 014400 2023 015613 2017 016824 2012 018031 2006 019235' 2000
Cosine
1
2403 2394 2387 2379 2371 2363 2355 2348 2340 2332 2325
9.993^544 19 998333 19 998322 19 998311 19 998300 19 998289 19 998277 19 998266 19 998255 19 998243 19 998232 19
9.998220 998209 998197 998186 998174 998163 998151 993139 998128 993116 9.998104 998092 998080 998068 998056 998044 998032 998020 998008 997996 9.997984 997972 997959 997947 997935 997922 997910 997897 997885 997872 9.997860 997847 997835 997822 997809 997797 997784 997771 997758 997745 9.997732 997719 997706 997693 997680 997667 997654 997641 997628 997614
Sine
1
19 19 19 19 19 19 19
20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21
21 21 21
8.941952 943404 944S52 946295 947734 949168 950597 952021 953441 954856 956267 8.957674 959075 960473 961866 963255 964639 960019 967394 968766
9701.33
2421 2413
11.0.58048 60
2405 2397 2390 2382 2374 2366 2360 2351 2344 2337 2329 2323 2314 2307 2300 2293 2236 2279
2271 2265 2257 2251
8.971496 972855 974209 975560 976906 978248 979586 980921 982251 983577 8.984899 986217 987532 988842 990149 991451 992750 994045 995337 996624 8.997908 999188 9.000465 001738 003007 004272 005534 006792 008047 009298
9.010.546
2244 2237 2230 2223 2217 2210 2204 2197 2191 2184 2178
2171 2165 2158 2152 2146 2140 2134 2127 2121 2115 2109 2103 2097 2091 2085 2080 2074 2068 2062 2056 2051 2045 2040 2033 2028 2023
011790 013031
0l426fi
22 22 22 22 22 22 22
1
056596 055148 053705 052266 05^332 049403 047979 046559 045144 043733 11.042326 040925 039527 038134 036745 035361 033931 032606 031234 029867 11.028504 027145 025791 024440 023094 021752 020414 019079 017749 016423 11.015101 013783 012468 011158 009851 008549 007250 005955 004663 003376 11.002092 000312 10.999535 993262 996993 995728 994466 993208 991953 990702 10.989454 988210 986969 985732 984498 983268 982041 980817 979597 978380
Tang.
1
59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31 30
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18
17 16 15 14 13 12
111
10
9 8 7 6 6
4 3
2
1
84JJeg:ree8.
21
16 Dejrrees.)
^^lllo
a TABLE OF LOGARITHMIC
j
v ~
1
D.
Cosine
I).
Tang.
V.
Cutaiig.
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
i
9.019235 020435 021632 022825 024016 025203 026386 027567 028744 029918 03 1089
9.'>:^2v57
11
n
14
15
16 17
18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 2S 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
43 44 45 46 47 48 49 60
51
52 53
64
55 56 57 58 59 60
i
033421 034582 035741 036896 038048 039197 040342 041485 042625 9.043762 044895 046026 047154 048279 049400 050519 051635 052749 053859 054966 056071 057172 058271 059307 060460 061551 002639 063724 064806 9.065885 066962 068036 069107 070176 071242 072306 073366 074424 075480 9.076533 077583 078631 079676 080719 081759 082797 083832 084864 085894
Cosine
1
1936 1930 1925 1920 1915 1910 1905 1899 1894 iS89 1884 1879 1875 1870 1865 1860 1855 1850 1845 1841 1836 1831 1827 1822 1817 1813 1808 1804 1799 1794 1790 1786 1781 1777 1772 1768 1763 1759
17.55
1750 1746 1742 1738 1733 1729 1725 1721 1717 1713
997452 997439 997425 997411 997397 997383 997369 997355 997341 9.997327 997313 997299 997285 997271 997257 997242 997228 997214 997199 9.997185 997170 997156 997141 997127 997112 997098 997083 997068 997053 9.997039 997024 997009 996994 996979 996964 996949 996934 996919 996904 9.996889 996874 996858 996843 996828 996812 996797 996782 996766 996751
Sine
1
22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
60 59 58 57 56 55
9.034791 035969
0.37144
24 24 24 24 24 24
25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26
038316 039485 040651 041813 042973 044130 045284 9.046434 047582 048727 049869 051008 052144 053277 054407 055535 056659 9.057781 058900 060016 061130 062240 063348 064453 065556 066655 067752 9.068846 069938 071027 072113 073197 074278 075356 076432 077505 078576 9.079644 080710 081773 082833 083891 084947 086000 087050 088098 089144
ColaiiK!.
968763 967575 966391 1964 10.965209 964031 1958 962856 1953 961684 1948 960515 1943 959349 1938 958187 1933 957027 1928 955870 1923 9o47l6 1918 1913 10.953566 952418 1908 951273 1903 950131 1898 948992 1893 947856 1889 946723 1884 945593 1879 944465 1874 943341 1870 1865 10.942219 941100 1869 939984 1865 938870 1851 1846 937760 1842 936652 935547 1837 934444 1833 933345 1828 932248 1824 1819 10.931154 930062 1815 1810 928973 1806 927887 926803 1802 925722 1797 924644 1793 1789 923568 1784 922495 921424 1780 1776 10.9203,56 1772 919290 1767 918227 1763 917167 1759 916109 1755 915053 1751 914000 1747 912950 1743 911902 1738 910856
'l"8..g
1
54 53 52
51 50
49
48
47 46 45
44 43 42 41
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11
10
9 8 7 6 5
4
3 2
1
Al.
1
83 Depree*
(7De grees.)
Tanp.
1
26
Coiarii.
(
pr
1
Sine
D.
Cosine
D.
D.
2 3 4
5 6 7 8 9 13
ll 12 13 14 .5 16 17 18 19
20
21
9.085894 086922 087947 088970 089990 091008 092024 093037 094047 095056 096062 9.097065 098066 099065 100062 101056 102048 103037 104025 105010 105992 9.106973
107951 108927 109901 110873 111842 112809 113774 114737 115698 9.116656 117613 118567 119519 120469 121417 122362
1233ft6
1713 1709 1704 1700 1696 1692 1688 1684 1680 1676 1673 1668 1665
1661
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51 52
124248 125187 9.126125 127060 127993 128925 129854 130781 131706 132630 133551 134470
53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
1657 1653 1649 1545 1641 1638 1634 1630 1627 1623 1619 1616 1612 1608 1605 1601 1597 1594 1590 1587 1583 1580 1576 1573 1569 1566 1562 1559 1556 1552 1549 1545 1642 1539 1535 1532 1529 1525 1522 1519 1516 1512 1509 1506 1503 1500 1496
9.996751 996735 996720 996704 996688 996673 996657 996641 996625 996610 996594 9.996578 9965C2 996546 996530 996514 996498 996482 996465 996449 996433 9.996417 996400 996384 996368 996351 996335 996318 996302 996285 996269 9.996252 996235 996219 996202 996185 996168 996151 996134
99611":
26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26
996100 9.9yu083 996066 996049 996032 996015 995998 995980 995963 995946 995928
9.99.5911
27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 ?8 28 28 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29
1
094336 095367 096395 097422 098446 099468 9.100487 101504 102519 103532
104.542
1738 1734 1730 1727 1722 1719 1715 1711 1707 1703 1699
105550 106556 107559 108560 109559 9.110556 111551 112543 113533 114521
11.5507
1695 1691 1687 1684 1680 1676 1672 1669 1665 1661 1658 1654
16.50
1646 1643 1639 1636 1632 1629 1625 1622 1618 1615 1611 1607 1604 1601 1597 1594 1591 1587 1584
1.581
894450 893444 892441 891440 890441 10.889444 888449 887457 886467 885479 884493 883509 882528 881648 880571
49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40
39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30
10.879.596 29 878623 28
1677 1574
1571
877652 876683 875716 874751 873789 872828 871870 870913 10.869959 869006 868056 867107 866161
27 26 26 24 23 22
21
20
136667 137605 138542 9.139476 140409 141340 142269 143196 144121 145044 145966 146885 147803
Cotang.
862395
8614.58
11
10
9 8 7 6 5
4
3 2
1
Tang.
82 Degrees.
f
M.
Sine
I
1
(8 Degrees.;
1
a table of lcxjarithmic
1
D.
Cosine
D.
Taii^.
D.
C.taiifi.
[
1
"o" 9.143555 144453 J 145349 2 146243 3 147136 4 148026 5 148915 C 149802 7 150686 8 151569 9 152451 10 11 9 153330 154208 12 155083 13 155957 14 156830 15 157700 16 158569 17 159435 18 100301 19 161164 20
1
'
1496 1493 1490 1487 1484 1481 1478 1475 1472 1469 1466 1463 1460 1457
14.54
9.995753 30 995735 30
99.5717 30
995699 30
99.5681
30 30 30 30 30 30 30
9.147803 148718 149632 150544 151454 162363 163269 154174 165077 166978
1.56877
1514
1511 1508
9.995.555 30 995.537 30
30
31 31 31 31 31 31 31
995427
99.5409
995390
9.162025 22 162885 163743 23 164600 24 165454 25 166307 26 27 167159 168008 28 168856 29 30 169702 31 9.170547 171389 32 33 172230 34 173070 173908 35 36 174744 37 176578
21
38 39 40
41
42 43
1433 1430 1427 1424 1422 1419 1416 1413 1410 1407 1405 1402 1399 1396 1394 1391 1388 1386 1383 1380
44 45
46
47
48 49 50
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 69
181374 182196 183016 183834 184651 185466 186280 9.187092 187903 188712 189519 190325 191130 191933 192734
19.3534
1
995222 995203 9.995184 995165 995146 995127 995108 995089 995070 995051 995032 995013 9.994993 994974
9949,55
32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32
32 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
i
9.157776 158671 169665 160457 161347 162236 163123 164008 164892 165774 9.166654 167532 168409 169284 170157 171029 171899 172767 173634 174499 9.176362 176224 177084 177942 178799
1796.55
994935 994916
991896
94332
1351 1348 1346 1343 1341 1338 1336 1333 1330 1328
994877 994857 994838 994818 9.994798 994779 994759 994739 994719 994700 994680 994660 994640 994620
Sine
180508 181360 182211 183059 9.183907 184752 186597 186439 187280 188120 188968 189794 190629 191462 9.192294 193124
1939.53
846731 54 845826 53 1506 1502 844923 52 844022 21 1499 1496 843123 50 1493 10.842225 49 841329 48 1490 1487 840435 47 1484 839543 46 838653 45 1481 837764 44 1479 836877 43 1476 1473 835992 42 835108 41 1470 834226 40 1467 1464 10.833346 39 832468 38 1461 831591 37 1458 830716 36 1455 829843 36 1453 828971 34 1450 828101 33 1447 827233 32 1444 826366 31 1442 825501 30 1439 1436 10.824638 29 823776 28 1433 822916 27 1431 822058 26 1428 821201 25 1425 1423 820345 24 1420 819492 23 818640 22 1417 817789 21 1415 816941 20 1412 1409 10.810093 19 815248 18 1407 814403 it 1404 813561 16 1402 812720 15 1399 811880 14 1396 811042 13 1393 810206 12 1391 809371 11 1389 808538 10 1386 1384 10.807706 9 80C876 8 1381 806047 7 1379 806220 6 1376 804394 5 1374 803570 4 1371 802747 3 1369 801926 2 1366 801106 1 1364
1361
,
800287
Tans.
I
Cosine
ISl.
1
81 Degreei.
SINES
M.
Si>.e
AAD TAAOENTs.
Cosino
1
(^9
Degree*. ;
D.
27
Cutang.
1
D.
I)
Tan,.
19. 194332
1
19515:9
2 3 4 5
6
7 8 9
10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
195925 196719 197511 198302 199091 199879 200666 201451 202234 9.203017 203797 204577 205354 206131 206906 207679 208452 209222 209992 9.210760 211526 212291 213055 213818 214579 215338 216097
2168.54
1328 1326 1323 1321 1318 1316 1313 1311 1308 1306
1.304
32 33 34 35
36
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
47
48 49 50
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
217609 9.218363 219116 219868 220618 221367 222115 222861 223606 224349 225092 9.225833 226573 227311 228048 228784 229518 230252 230984 231714 232444 9.233172 233899 234625 235349 236073 236795 237515 238235 238953 239670
Cosine
1268 1266 1264 1261 1259 1257 1255 1253 1250 1248 1246 1244 1242
12.39
1220 1224 1222 1220 1218 1216 1214 1212 1209 1207 1205 1203
1201
9.994620 994600 994580 994560 994540 994519 994499 994479 994459 994438 994418 9.994397 994377 994357 994336 994316 994295 994274 994254 994233 994212 9.994191 994171 994150 994129 994108 994087 994066 994045 994024 994003 9.993981 993960 993939 993918 993896 993875 993854 993832 993811 993789 9.993768 993746 993725 993703 993681 993660 993638 993616 993594 993572 9.993550 993528 993506 993484 993462 993440 993418 993396 993374 993351
Sine
1
33 33 33 34 34 34 34
34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35
35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 37 37
9.199713 200529 201345 202159 202971 203782 204592 205400 206207 207013 207817 9.208619 209420 210220 211018 211815 212611 213405 214198 214989 215780 9.216568 217356 218142 218926 219710 220492 221272 222052 222830 223606 9.224382 225156 225929 226700 227471 228239 229007 229773 230539 231302
9.2.32065
1361
1324 1321 1319 1317 1315 1312 1310 1308 1305 1303 1301 1299 1297 1294 1292 1290 1288 1286 1284
1281
37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37
232826 233586 234345 235103 235859 236614 237368 238120 238872 9.239622 240371 241118 241865 242610 243354 244097 244839 245579 246319
Cutang.
1279 1277 1275 1273 1271 1269 1267 1265 1262 1260 1258
12.56 12.54
1252 1250 1248 1246 1244 1242 1240 1238 1236 1234 1232
12.30
10.800287 799471 798655 797841 797029 796218 795408 794600 793793 792987 792183 10.791381 790580 789780 788982 788185 7S7389 786595 785802 785011 784220 10.783432 782644 781858 781074 780290 779508 778728 777948 777170 776394 10.775618 774844 774071 773300 772529 771761 770993 770227 769461 768698 10.767935 767174 766414 765655 764897 764141 763386 762632 761880 761128 10.760378 759620 7588S2 758135 757390 756646 755903
7.55161
60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51
50 49 48
47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37
3(5
35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16 15 'i x3 12
11
10 9 8 7
6 5
4
3 2
1
75 142 753681
'J'ang.
ZI
.M.
1
80 Degreed
28
M.
Sli.c
(10
1
D;',nees.)
a TABLE
1
Ol
Tans.
LOGAKITHMIC
1
n
Cusino
D.
D.
i
Cntans.
1
2 3
4 5
6 7 8 9 JO
11
12 13 14 15
Ifi
17
18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38
:9
40
41
42
43
45
46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
\
9.239670 240386 241101 241814 242526 243237 243947 244656 245363 246069 246775 9.247478 248181 248883 249583 250282 250980 251677 252373 253067 253761 9.254453 255144 255834 266523 257211 257898 258583 259268 259951 260633 9.261314 261994 262673 263351 264027 264703 266377 266051 266723 267395 9.268065 268734 269402 270069 270735 271400 272064 272726 273388 274049 9.274708 275367 276024 276681 277337 277991 278644 279297 279948 280599
Cosine
1
1193 1191 1189 1187 1185 1183 1181 1179 1177 1175 1173
1171 1169
9.993351 37 993329 37 993307 37 993285 37 993262 37 993240 37 993217 38 993195 38 993172 38 993149 38 993127 38 9.993104 38 993081 38 993059 38 993036 38 993013 38 992990 38 992967 38 992944 38 992921 38 992898 38 9.992875 38 992852 38 992829 39 992806 39 992783 39 992759 39 992736 39 992713 39 992690 39 992666 39 9.992643 39 992619 39 992596 39 992572 39 992549 39 992525 39 992501 39 992478 40 992454 40 992430 40 9.992406 40 992382 40 992359 40 992335 40 992311 40 992287 40 992263 40 992239 40 992214 40 992190 40 9.992166 40 992142 40 992117 41 992093 41 992069 41 992044 41 992020 41 991996 41 991971 41 991947 41
Sine
9.246319 247057 247794 248530 249264 249998 250730 251461 252191 252920 253648 9.254374 265100 255824 256547 257269 257990 258710 259429 260146 260863 9.261578 262292 263005 263717 264428 265138 265847 266555 267261 267967 9.268671 269375 270077 270779 271479 272178 272876 273573 274269 274964 9.275658 276351 277043 277734 278424 279113 279801 280488 281174 281858 9.282542 283225 283907 284588 285268 285947 286624 287301 287977 288652
Cotaiig.
1
1230 10.7.^3681 60 1228 752943 59 1226 752206 58 1224 75)470 57 1222 750736 56 1220 750002 56 1218 749270 748539 53 1217 747809 52 1216 7470801 51 1213 746352 50 1211 1209 10.745626 40 744900 48 1207 744176 47 1205 743453 46 1203 742731 45 1201 742010 44 1200 741290 43 1198 740571 42 1196 739854 41 1194 739137 40 1192 1190 10.738422 39 737708 38 1189 736995 37 1187 736283 36 1185 735572 35 1183 734862 34 1181 734153 33 1179 733445 32 1178 732739 31 1176 732033 30 U74 1172 10.731329 29 730625 28 1170 729923 27 1169 729221 26 1167 728521 25 1165 727822 24 1164 727124 23 1162 726427 22 1160 725731 21 1168 72.5036 20 1157 1155 10.724342 19 723649 18 1153 722957 17 1151 722266 IS 1150 1148 721576 15 720887 14 1147 720199 13 1145 719512 12 1143 718826 11 1141 718142 JO 1140 1138 10.717458 9 716775 8 1136 716093 7 1135 715412 6 1133 714732 5 1131 714053 4 1130 713376 3 1128 712699 2 1126 712023 1 1125 711348 1123
Tant;.
1
M.
j
9? Degree.s
SINES
M.
1
AND TANGENTS,
n.
1
(ll Degrees.)
1
2&
Cman?.
(
Sine
Cosiire
n.
Tana.
0.
1
60 69 68 57
56 55 54 53 52
61
~0
1
9.280599
281218
2 3
4
5 6 7
9 10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39 40
41
281897 282544 283190 283836 284480 285124 285766 286408 287048 9.287687 288326 288964 289600 290236 290870 291504 292137 292768 293399 9.294029 294658 2952SG 295913 296539 297164 297788 298412 299034 299655 9.300276 300895 301514 302132
.302748
1064 1063
1061 1059 1058 1056 1054 1053 1051 1050 1048 1046 1045 1043 1042 1040 1039 1037 1036 1034 1032 1031 1029 1028 1026 1025 1023 1022 1020 1019 1017 1016 1014 1013 1011 lOlo
10 J 9
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 GO
303364 303979 304593 305207 305819 9.306430 307041 307650 308259 308867 309474 310080 310685 311289 311893 9.312495 313097 313698 314297 314897 315495 316092 316689 317284 317879
Cosine
1
1001
994 993
991
990
9.991947 41 991922 41 991897 41 991873 41 991848 41 991823 41 991799 l4l 991774 42 991749 42 991724 42 991699 42 9.991674 42 991649 42 991624 42 991599 42 991574 42 991549 42 991524 42 991498 42 991473 42 991448 42 9.991422 42 991.397 42 991372 43 991346 43 991321 43 991295 43 991270 43 991244 43 991218 43 991193 43 9.991167 43 991141 43 991115 43 991090 43 991064 43 991038 43 991012 43 990986 43 990960 43 990934 44 9.990908 44 900S82 44 990855 44 990829 44 990803 44 990777 44 990750 44 990724 44 990697 44 990671 44 9.990644 44; 990618 44; 990591 44 990565 44 990538 44, 990511 45 J90485 45 990458 45 990431 45 990404 45
.Sine
1
9.288652 289326 289999 290671 291342 292013 292682 293350 294017 294684 295349 9.296013 296677 297339 298001 298662 299322
2999.80
1123 1122 1120 1118 1117 1115 1114 1112 1111 1109 1107
1106 1104 1103 1101 1100 1098 1096 1095 1093 1092
300638 301295 301951 9.302607 303261 303914 304567 305218 305869 306519
.307168
307815 308463 9.309109 309754 310398 811042 311685 312327 312967 313608 314247 314885 9.315523 316159 316795 317430 318064 318697 319329 319961 320592 321222 9.321851 322479 323106 323733 324358 324983
325607'
10.711348 710674 710001 709329 708658 707987 707318 706650 705983 705316 704651 10.703987 703323 702661 701999 701338 700678 700020 699362 698705 698049 10.697393 696739 696086 695433 694782 694131 693481 692832 692185
60 i9 48 47 46 45
44
43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31 691.537 30
1075 1074 1073 1071 1070 1068 1067 1065 1064 1062
1061 1060 1058 1057 1055 1054 1053 1051 1050 1048
326231 326853
327475i
<:(.t!iii..
1047 1045 1044 1043 1041 1040 1039 1037 1036 1035
10.690891 29 690246 28 689602 27 6889;:8 26 688315 25 687673 24 687033 23 686392 22 685753 21 685115 20 10.684477 19 683841 18 683205 17 682570 16 681936 15 681303 14 680671 13 680039 12 679408 11 678778 10 10.678149 9 677521 8 676894 7
6 5
4 3
2
1
1
Ij
7ft
Desrfea
30
M.
1
"(12
Sin.
Degrees.)
r>.
1
a TABLE OP I.OGAR1THM1C
1
Cosine
D.
Ta.ig.
D.
Cotaiig.
i
3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10
11
12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31'
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47
48 49
60
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 68 59 60
9.317879 318473 319066 319658 320249 320840 321430 322019 322607 323194 323780 9.324366 324950 325534 326117 326700 3272S1 327862 328442 329021 329599 9.330176 330753 331329 331903 332478 333051 333624 334195 334766 335337 9.335906 336475 337043 337610 338176 338742 339306 339871 340434 340996 9.341558 342119 342679 343239 343797 344355 344912 345469 346024 346579 9.347134 347687 348240 348792 349343 349893 350443 350992 351640 352088
Cd^iiie
990 988 987 986 984 983 982 980 979 977 976 975 973 972 970 969 968 966 965 964 962
961
960 958 957 956 954 953 952 950 949 948 946 945 944 943
941
9.990404 990378 990351 990324 990297 990270 990243 990215 990188 990161 990134 9.990107 990079 990052 990025 989997 989970 989942 989915 989887 989860 9.989832 989804 989777 989749 989721 989693 989665 989637 989609 989582 9.989553 989525 989497 989469 989441 989413 989384 989356 989328 989300 9.989271 989243 989214 989186 989157 989128 989100 989071 9S9042 989014 9.988985 988956 988927 988898 988869 988840 988811 988782 988753 988724
Sine
1
45 9.327474 45 328095 45 328715 45 329334 45 329953 45 330570 45 331187 45 331803 45 332418 45 333033 45 333646 46 9.334259 46 334871 46 335482 46 336093 46 336702 46 337311 46 337919 46 338527 46 339133 46 339739 46 9.340344 46 340948 46 341552 47 342155 47 342757 47 343358 47 343958 47 344558 47 345157 47 345755 47 9.346353 47 346949 47 347545 47 348141 47 348735 47 349329 47 349922 47 350514 47 351106 47 351697 47 9.352287 47 352876 47 353465 47 354053 47 354640 48 355227 48 355813 48 356398 48 356982 48 357566 48 9.358149 48 358731 48 359313 48 359893 48 360474 48 361053 49 361632 49 362210 49 362787 49 363364
'
1035 1033 1032 1030 1029 1028 1026 1025 1024 1023 1021 1020 1019 1017 1016 1015 1013 1012 1011 1010 1008
10 672526 60
1007 1006 1004 1003 1002 1000 999 998 997 996 994 993 992 991 990 988 987 986 985 983 982 981 980 979 977 976 975 974 973 971 970 969 968 967 966 966 963 962 961 960
671905 671285 670666 670047 669430 668813 668197 667582 666967 666354 10.665741 665129 664518 663907 663298 662689 662081 661473 660867 660261 10.659656 659052 658448 657845 657243 656642 656042 655442 654843 654245 10.653647 653051 652455 651859 651265 650671 650078 649480 648894 648303 10.647713 647124 646535 645947 645360 644773 644187 643602 643018 642434 10.641851 641269 640687 640107 639526 638947 638368 637790 637213
636P3f>
59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51
50 49 48
47
46 45 44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36
35 34 33
32
31
30
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11
10
9 8 7
5
4
3 2
1
Lj
Cuiai.g.
17 Decrees.
Tang
M.
^
SINES
M.
Sii.e
j
AND TANGENTS.
Cosine
1
;^13 Dei^rees )
Ta.i2.
I).
31
Cofan?.
1
D.
I).
~0
I
9.352(W8
352fi35
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
353181 353726 354271 354815 355358 3559U1 356443 356984 357524 9.358064 358603 359141 359078 360215 360752 361287 361822 362356 362889 9.363422 363954 364485 365016 365546 366075
32 33 34 35 36 37 33 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
366604 367131 367659 368185 9.368711 369236 369761 370285 370808 371330 371852 372373 372894 373414 9.373933 374452 374970 375487 376003 376519 377035 377549 378063 378577 9.379089 379601 380113 380624 381134 381643 382152 382661 383168 383675
Cosine
1
9.988724 988695 910 988666 909 988636 908 988607 907 988578 905 988548 904 988519 903 988489 902 988460 901 988430 899 898 9.988401 988371 897 988342 896 988312 895 988282 893 988252 892 988223 891 988193 890 988163 889 988133 888 887 9.988103 988073 885 988043 884 988013 883 987983 882 987953 881 987922 880 987892 879 987862 87T 876987832 875 9.987801 987771 874 987740 873 987710 872 987679 871 987649 870 987618 869 987588 867 987557 866 987526 865 864 9.987496 863 987465 862 987434 861 987403 860 987372 859 987341 858 997310 857 987279 856 987248 854 987217 853 3.987186 852 987155 851 987124 850 987092 849 987061 987030 848 847 986998 846 986967 845 986936 844 986904
911
Sine
1
49 9.363364 363940 49 49 364515 49 365090 49 365664 49 366237 49 366810 49 367382 49 367953 49 368524 369094 49 49 9.369663 49 370232 370799 49 50 371367 50 371933 50 372499 50 373064 50 373629 50 374193 50 374756 50 9.375319 50 375881 50 376442 50 377003 50 377563 50 378122 378681 50 50 379239 50 379797
51
960 959 958 957 955 954 953 952 951 950 949 948 946 945 944 943 942 941 940 939 938
51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 62 52
380354 9.380910 381466 382020 382575 383129 383682 384234 384786 385337 385888 9.386438 386987 387536 388084 388631 389178 389724 390270 390815 391360 9.391903 392447 392989 393531 394073 394614 395154 395694 396233 396771
CotllliT
920 919 918 917 915 914 913 912 911 910 909 908 907 906 905 904 903 902
901
631476 630906 10.630337 629768 629201 628633 628067 627501 626936 626371 625807 625244 10.624681 624119 623558 622997 622437 621878 621319 620761 620203 619646 10.619090 618534 617980 617425 616871 616318 615766 615214 614663 614112 10.613562
51
50 49 48
47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37
36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19
1
612464 611916 611369 610822 610276 609730 609185 608640 10.608097 607553 607011 600469 605927 605386
6130131 18 17
16 15
14 13 12
11
10
9 8 7 6
4
3 2
]
_J
aiip.
1
M.
rfi
Dogrecf
~
Siiio
32
(U
Degrees.;
D.
a TABLE OF LOGARITHMIC

Cosine
I).
Tang.
D.
Cutaiig.
9.383675 384182 1 384687 2 385192 3 385697 4 386201 5 386704 6 387207 7 387709 8 388210 9 388711 10 11 9.389211 389711 12 390210 13 390708 14 391206 15 391703 16 392199 L7 392695 18 393191 19 393685 20 21 9.394179 394673 22 395166 23 395658 24 .396150 25 396641 26 27 397132 397621 28 398111 29 30 398600 31 9.399088 399575 32 400062 33 400549 34 401035 35 401520 36 402005 37 402489 38 402972 33 403455 40 41 9.403938 404420 42 404901 43 40,5382 44 405862 45 406341 46 406820 47 407299 48 407777 49 408254 50 51 9.408731 409207 52 409682 53 410157 54 410632 55 411106 56 57 411579 58 412052 59 412524 60 412996
(;<)>i!ie
1
838 837 836 835 834 833 832 831 830 828 827 826 825 824 823 822 821 820 819 818
817 817
816 815
810 809 808 807 806 805 804 803 802 801 800 799 798 797 796 795 794 794 793 792
7^1
9.980904 986873 986841 986809 986778 986746 986714 986683 986651 986619 986587 9.986555 986523 986491 986459 986427 986395 986363 986331 986299 986266 9.986234 986202 986169 986137 986104 986072 986039 986007 985974 985942 9.985909 985876 985843 985811 985778 985745 985712 98567S 985646 985613 9.985580 985547 985514 985480 985447 985414 985380 985347 985314 985280 9.985247
98.5213
52 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
54 54 54
54 65 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56
9.396771 397309 397846 398383 398919 399455 399990 400524 401058 401591 402124 9.402656 403187 403718 404249 404778 405308 405836 406364 406892 407419 9.407945 408471 408997 409521 410045 410569 411092 411615 412137 412658 9.413179 413699 414219 414738
41.5257
896 896 895 894 893 892 891 890 889 888 887 886 885 884 883 882 881 880 879 878
417842 9.418358 418873 419387 419901 420415 420927 421440 421952 422463 422974 9.423484 423993 424503
42,5011
867 866 865 864 864 863 862 861 860 859 858 857 856 855 855 854 853 852
851
10.603229 602691 602154 601617 601081 600545 600010 599476 598942 598409 697876 10.697344 596813 596282 595751 695222 594692 594164 593636 593108 592581 10.592055 691529 591003 590479 589955 589431 588908 588385 687863 587342 10.686821 586301 585781
58.5262
60 59 58 57 56 55 64 53 62
61
60 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11
850 849 848 848 847 846 845 844 843 843 842
1
10.581642 581127 680613 580099 679585 579073 578560 578048 677537 577026 10.576516 576007 675497 6749S9 674481
57397;^
10
9 8 7 6 5
4
2
1
<;
Tang
Tm"
75 l^oRreeB.
i 1
SINES
AND TANGENTS.
1
(15 Degrees.)
Tanu'.
1
33
Cotaiia.
j
JL ~U
1
Sine
1
D
Cosine
D.
D.
9.412996 413467
4139.38
2 3
4
6 6
7
8 9
10
11
418615 419079 419544 420007 420470 420933 17 421395 18 421857 19 422318 20 21 9 422778 423238 22 423697 23 424156 24 25 424615 425073 2G 425530 27
12 13 14 15 16
780 779 778 777 770 775 774 773 773 772
771
28 29 30
31
42.5987
32 33 34 36 36 37 38 39 40
4r
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
426443 426899 9.427354 427809 428263 428717 429170 429623 430075 430527 430978 431429 9.431879 432329 432778 433226 433675 434122 434569 435016 435462
4.35908
9. 436353
760 760 759 758 757 756 755 754 753 752 752 751 750 749 749 748 747 746 745 744 744 743 742
741
9.984944 984910 984876 984842 984808 984774 984740 994706 984672 984637 984603 9.984569 984535 984500 984466 984432 984397 984363 984328 984294 984259 9.984224 984190 984155 984120 984085 984050 984015 983981 983946 983911 9.983875 983840 983805 983770 983735 983700 983664 983629 983594
983.5.58
57 9.428052 428557 57 429062 57 429566 57 430070 57 430573 57 431075 57 431577 57 432079 57 432580 57 433080 57 9.433.580 57 434080 57 434579 57 435078 57 435576 58 436073 58 436570 58 437067 58 437563 58 438059 58 58 9.438554 439048 58 439543 58 440036 58 440529 58 441022 58 441514 58 442006 58 442497 58 442988 58
58 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60
,
9. '143479
9.983.5231 98.3487
443968 444458 444947 445435 445923 44641 446898 447384 447870 9.448356
4^18841
983452
9834161
52 53 54 55 56 57 5S 59 60
983381 983345 983309 983273 983238 983202 9.983166 983130 983094 983058 983022 982986 982950 982914 982878 9828421
S.ne
,
842 841 840 839 838 838 837 836 835 834 883 832 832 831 830 829 828 828 827 826 825 824 823 823 822 821 820 819 819 818 817 816 816 815 814 813 812 812 811 810 809 809 808 807 806 806 805 804 803 802 802 801 800 799 799 798 797 796 796 795 794
1
50 49 48 56.5421 47 664922 46 664424 45 563927 44 563430 43 662933 42 662437 41 561941 40 10.561446 39 560952 38 660457 37 659964 36 559471 35 658978 34 558486 33 557994 32 657503 31 557012 30 10.656521 29 656032 28 565542 27 555053 26 554565 25 654077 24 5535S9 23 553102 22 552616 21 652130 20
10.571948 671443 670938 570434 569930 569427 568925 568423 567921 667420 566920 10..566420 565920
60 59 58
57 56 55 54 53 52
51
10.551644 551159 550674 550190 549706 549223 548740 548257 547775 547294 10..5468 13 646332 645852 545372 544893 544414 543936 643458 542981 542504
Tan?.
1
19 18
17 16 15 14 13 12
11
10
9
8 7
6 5
4
3 2
1
RL
74 Degrees.
34
M.
Sine
(16 Degrees.)
D.
1
a TABLE OF LOGARITHMIC

Cosine
D.
Tang.
D.
Cotai:g
'(
=r
1
2 3
4 5
6 7 8 9 iO
11
IS 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 60
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
9.440338 440778 441218 441658 442096 442535 442973 443410 443847 444284 444720 9.445155 445590 446025 446459 446893 447326 447759 448191 448623 449054 9.449485 449915 450345 450775 451204 451632 452060 452488 452915 453342 9.453768 454194 454619 455044 455469 455893 456316 456739 457162 457584 9.458006 458427 458848 459268 459688 460108 460527 460946 461364 461782 9.462199 462616 463032 463448 463864 464279 464694 465108 465522 465935
Cosine
730 729 728 727 727 726 725 724 723 723 722
721
720 720 719 718 717 716 716 715 714 713 713 712
711
710 710 709 708 707 707 706 705 704 704 703 702
701 701 700
699 698 698 697 696 695 695 694 693 693 692 691 690 690 689 688
1
9.982842 982805 982769 982733 982696 982660 982624 982587 982551 982514 982477 9.982441 982404 982367 982331 982294 982257 982220 982183 982146 982109 9.982072 982035 981998 981901 981924 981886 981849 981812 981774 981737 9.981699 981662 981625 981587 981549 981512 981474 981436 981399 981361 9.981323 981285 981247 981209 981171 981133 981095 981057 981019 980981 9.980942 980904 980866 980827 980789 980750 980712 980673 980635 980596
.
60 60
61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61
62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64
1 1
9.457496 457973 458449 458925 459400 459875 460349 460323 461297 461770 462242 9.462714 463186 463658 464129 464599 465069 465539 466008 466476 466945 9.467413 467880 468347 468814 469280 469746 470211 470676 471141 471605 9.472068 472532 472995 473457 473919 474381 474842 475303 475763 476223 9.476683 477142 477601 478059 478517 478975 479432 479889 480345 480801 9.481257 481712 482167 482621 483075 483529 483982 484435 484887 485339
Colang.
1
58 57 56 55
54
787 786 785 785 784 783 783 782 781 780 780 779 778 778 777 776 775 775 774 773 773 772
771 771
53 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
770 769 769 768 767 767 766 765 765 764 763 763 762 761 761 760 759 759 758 757 757 756 755 755 754 753 753
}
534461 533992 533524 41 533055 40 10.532587 39 532120 38 531653 37 531186 36 530720 d^ 530254 o^ 529789 33 529324 32 528859 31 5283'J5 30 10.527982 2y 527468 28 527005 27 526543 26 526081 25 525619 24 525158 23 524097 22 524237 21 523777 20 10.523317 19 522858 18 522399 17 521941 16 521483 15 521025 14 520568 13 520111 12 519655 11 519199 10 9 10.518743 8 518288 517833 7 fi 517379 f, 516925 4 516471 3 616018 616565
i.'
5151 13
5Mnni
Tang.
1
{>
Sine
M.
1
73 Dc'Krees
SINES
AND TANGENTS.
Cosine
1
(l7 Degrees
1
35
Cotaiig.
1
rr
Sine
I)
D.
Tang.
D.
9.465935 466348 1 460761 2 467173 3 407585 4 467996 6 468407 6 468817 7 469227 8 469637 ^ 470046 10 9.470455 11 470863 12 471271 13 471679 14 472086 15
472898 473304 473710 474115 20 21 9.474519 474923 22 475327 23 475730 24 476133 25 476536 26 476938 27 477340 28 477741 29 478142 30 9.478542 31 478942 32 479342 33 479741 34 480140 35 480539 36 480937 37 481334 38 481731 39 482128 40 41 9.482525 482921 42 43 483316 483712 44 484107 45 484501 46 484895 47 485289 48 485682 49 50 486075 51 9.486467 52 486860 53 487251 54 487643 55 488034 56 488424 57 488814 58 489204 59 489593 60 489982
Cosine
16 17 18 19
472495:
688 688 087 686 685 685 684 683 683 682 681 680 680 679 678 678 677 076 676 675 674 674 673 672 672 671 670 669 669 668 667 667 666 665 665 664 663 663 662
661 661
9.980596 980558 980519 980480 980442 980403 980364 980325 980286 980247 980208 9.980169 980130 980091 980052 980012 979973 979934 979895 979855 979816 9.979776 979737 979697 979658 979618 979579 979639 979499 979459 979420 9.979380 979340 979300 979260 979220 979180 979140 979100 979059 979019 9.978979 978939 978898 978858 978817 978777 978736 978696 978655 978615 9.978574
978.533
64 64 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68
9.485339 485791 486242 486693 487143 487593 488043 488492 488941 489390 489838 9.490286 490733 491180 491627 492073 492519 492965 493410 493854 494299 9.494743 495186 495630 496073 496515 496957 497399 497841 498282 498722 9.499163 499603 500042 500481 500920 501359 501797 502235 502672 503109 9.503546 603982 504418 504854 605289 605724 506159 506593 507027 507460 9.507893
508.326
755 752 751 751 750 749 749 748 747 747 746 746 745 744 744 743 743 742 741 740 740 740 739 738 737 737 736 736 735 734 734 733 733 732 731 731
7,30
56
512407 55 511957 54
611.508 5110.59
53 52
51
610610 610162 10 509714 509267 508820 508373 507927 507481 607035 506590 606146 505701
10.60.5257
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41
730 729 728 728 727 727 726 725 725 724 724 723 722 722
721 721
504814 504370 503927 503485 503043 502601 502159 601718 601278 10.500837 500397 499958 499519 499080 498641 498203 497765
497.328
40 39 88 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21 20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11
718
717 716 716
511776
Cotanir.
496891 10.496454 496018 495582 495146 494711 494276 49384 493407 492973 492540 10.492107 491674 491241 490809 490378 489946 489515 489084 488654 488224
Tang.
10 9 8 7 6 6
4
3 2
1
M/j
71 Degrees.
39
M.
Sine
(18 Degrees.)
I).
a TABtM OK
1
LOtiAUITlI.lflo
D.
Cotar.s.
}
Cosine
I).
Tang.
~T
2 3
4
5 6
7 8
9
10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42
43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 64 55
56 57 ns 59 60
9.489982 490371 490759 491147 491535 491922 492308 492695 493081 493466 493851 9.494236 494621 495005 495388 495772 496154 496537 496919 497301 497682 9.498064 498444 498825 499204 499584 499963 500342 600721 501099 501476 9.501854 602231 602607 602984 503360 603735 504110 504485 604860 605234 9.505608 505981 506354 606727 507099 607471 607843 608214 508585 508956 9 609326 509696 510065 510434 510803 511172 511540 511907 612275 512642
Cosine
648 648 647 646 646 645 644 644 643 642 642 641 641 640 639 639 638 637 637 636 636 635
620 620 619 619 618 618 617 616 616 615 615 614 613 613 612 612
9.978206 978165 978124 978083 978042 978001 977959 977918 977877 977835 977794 9.977752 977711 977669 977628 977586 977544 977503 977461 977419 977377 9.977335 977293 977251 977209 977167 977125 977083 977041 976999 976957 9.976914 976872 976830 976787 976745 976702 976660 976617 976574 976632 9.976489 976446 976404 976361 976318 976275 976232 976189 976146 976103 9.976060 976017 975974 975930 975887 975844 975800 975757 975714
Sine
68 68 68 69 69 69 69
69 69
69 69 69 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 70
70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71
71 71 71 71 71 71
72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 975670! 72
1
9.511776 512206 512635 513064 513493 513921 614349 514777 515204 615631 516057 9.516484 516910 517335 517761 618185 518610 519034 619458 519882 520305 9.520728 521151 521573 521995 522417 522838 523259 623680 524100 524520 9.524939 625369 625778 526197 526616 627033 627451 527868 528285 528702 9.529119 529535 529950 530366 530781 531196 531611 532025
5324391
532853 9.633266 633679 534092 634504 634916 635328 535739 636150 536561 536972
C'otaii!;.
1
710 709 709 708 708 707 706 706 705 705 704 703 703 703 702 702 701 701 700 699 699 698 698 697 697 696 696 695 695 694 693 693 693 692 691 691 690 690 689 689 688 688 687 687 686 686 685 685 684 64
10.488224 487794 487365 486936 480507 486079 485651 485223 484796 484369 483943 10.483516 483090 482665 482239 481815 481390 480966 480542 480118 479695 10.479272 478849 478427 478005 477583 477162 476741 476320 475900 475480 10.475061 474641 474222 473803 473385 472967 472549 472132 471715 471298 0.470881 470465 470050 469634 469219 468804 468389 467975 46756] 46714? ]M. 466734 466321 465908 465496 465084 464672 464261 463850 463439 463028
Tani;.
(
60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11
10
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
1
>'
SINKS
AND
TANGf:NT.s.
Cosine
D.
'^0
Tang.
De'nee.i.)
.).
37
Cotani.'.
(
JL T
1
Sine
D.
3 4
5 6
7 8 9 10
11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48
49 50
51
9.512642 513009 513375 513741 514107 514472 514837 515202 515566 515930 616294 9.516657 517020 517382 517745 6J8107 518468 518829 519190 519551 519911 9.520271 520631 520990 521349 521707 522066 522424 522781 523138 523495 9.523852 524208 624564 524920 525275 525630 525984 626339 526693 527046 9.527400 527753 528105 628458 528810 529161 529513
612
611 611
629864*
o2 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
530215 530565 9.530915 531265 531614 531963 532312 532661 533009 533357 633704 534052
Cijsiiie
1
610 609 609 608 608 607 607 606 605 605 604 604 603 603 602 601 601 600 600 599 599 598 698 697 596 596 595 696 594 594 693 693 592 591 591 690 590 589 689 688 688 687 687 586 586 585 685 684 584 583 682 682 581 581 580 580 579 578
9.975670 975627 975583 975539 975496 975452 975408 975365 975321 975277 975233 9.975189 975145 975101 975057 975013 974969 974925 974880 974836 974792 9.974748 974703 974659 974614 974570 974525 974481 974436 974391 974347 9.974302 974257 974212 974167 974122 974077 974032 973987 973942 973897 9.973852 973807 973761 973716 973671 973625 973580 973635 973489 973444 9.973398 973352 973307 973261 973215 973169 973124 973078 973032
Siiio
73 73 73 73 73 73
73.
73 73 73 73
73 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 .546735 74 647138 74 647540 74 547943 74 648345 74 548747 74 649149 75 75 9.549550 549951 75 650352 75 550752 75 551152 75 551552 75 551952 75 552351 75 662750 75 553149 75 75 9.653648 553946 75 554344 75 554741 76 555139 76 555536 76 665933 76 76 .556329
540653 541061 9.541468 541S75 542281 542688 543094 643499 543905 544310 644715 545119 9..545524 545928 546331
680 680 679 679 678 678 677 677 676 676 675 675 674 674 673 673 672 672
671 671 670 670 669 669
160
1.59
58 57 56 55 54 53 52
44 43 42
41
m
664 663 663 662 662
661 661
76 76 76 76 76 76 76 77 9729861 77
1
.557913
660 660 659 659 659 658 658 657 657 656 656 655 655
1
454072 453669 453265 452862 452460 452057 451655 451253 450851 10.450450 450049 449648 449248 448848 448448 448048 447649 447250 446851 10.446452 446054 445656 445259 444861 444464 444067 443671 443275
4^12879
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16
15 14 13 12
11
10
9 10.442483 8 442087 7 441692 6 441298 5 440903 4 440509 3 440115 2 439721 1 439327 438934 _JL Tane.
1
M.
70
l)#i'ri'tt
15
38
M.
1
(20 Degrees.;
Hine
D.
1
a TABLE OF LOGARITHMIC
1
Cdsiiie
1).
Tane.
D.
C.tana.
2 3 4
5 6 7 8 9 10
IS 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
9.534052 534399 534745 535092 535438 535783 536129 536474 536818 537163 537507 9.537851 538194 538538 538880 539223 539565 539907 540249
.540590
573 572 572 6T1 571 570 570 569 569 568
,568
540931 21 9.541272 22 541613 23 541953 24 542293 25 542632 26 542971 27 543310 28 543649 29 543987 30 54i325 31 9.544663 32 545000 33 545338 34 545674 35 546011 36 546347 37 546683 38 5470 39 547354 40 547689 41 9 548024 42 548359 43 548693 44 549027 45 549360
1
20
567 567 566 566 565 565 564 564 563 563 562 562
561 561
46 47 48 49 50
51
.549693
52 53
54
55 56 57 58 59
f30
550026 550359 550692 551024 9.551356 551687 552018 552349 552680 553010 553341 553670 551000 554329
CnAur
560 560 559 559 558 558 557 557 556 556 555 555 554 554 653 553 552 552
5.52
551 551
9.972986 972940 972894 972848 972802 972755 972709 972663 972617 972570 972524 9.972478 972431 972385 972338 972291 972245 972198 972151 972105 972058 9.972011 971964 971917 971870 971823 971770 971729 971682 971635 971588 9.971540 971493 971446 971398 971351 971303 971256 971208 971101 971113 9.971066 971018 970970 970922 970874 970827 970779 970731 970683 970635 9.970586 970538 970490 970442 970394 970345 970297 970249 970200 970152
Sine
1
9.561066 561459 561851 562244 562636 563028 563419 663811 564202 664592 564983 77 9..565373 78 565763 78 566153 78 566542 78 566932 567320 78 78 567709 78 568098 568486 79 568873 78 78 9.569261 569648 78 570035 78 570422 78 570809 78 78 571195 571581 79 571967 79 79 572352 572738 79
77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77
79 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 79
9. 57*3 123
655 654
650 650 649 649 649 648 648 647 647 646 646 645 645 645 644 644 643 643 642 642 642
641 641
10.438934 60" 438541 59 438149 58 437756 57 437364 56 436972 55 436581 54 436189 53 435798 52 435408 51 4.35017 50 10.434627 49 434237 48 433847 47 433458 46 433068 45 432680 44 432291 43 431902 42 431514 41 431127 40 10.430739 39 430352 38 429965 37 429578 36 429191 35 428805 34 428419 33 428033 32 427648 31 427262 30
80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80
81 81 81 81 81
573507 573892 574276 574660 575044 575427 575810 576193 576576 9.576958 577341 577723 578104 578486 578867 579248 579629 580009 580389 9.580769 581149 581528 581907 582286 582665 583043 583422 683800 684177
Cotang.
640 640 639 039 639 638 638 637 637 636 636 636 635 635 634 634 634 633 633 632 632 632 631 631 630 630 629 629
1
10.426877 426493 426108 425724 425340 424950 424573 424190 423807 423424 10.423041 422659 422277 421896 421514 421133 420752 420371 419991 419611 10.419231 418851 418472 418093 417714 417335 416957 416578 416200 415823
Tung.
1
29 28 27 26 25
24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10
9 8 7 6 6
4 3 2
1
M.
1
Degrees.
SINES
M.
I
AND TANGENTS.
\
(21 Degrees.;
Tati)r

39
Sine
D.
Cosine
D.
9.654329 554658 1 554987 2 555315 3 555643 4 555971 5 6 556299 7 556626 556953 8 9' 557280 10 557600 9..557932 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
548 548 547 547 646 546 545 645 544 544 543
.543
5582.58
558583
5.58909
559234 559558 559883 560207 560531 20 560855 21 9.561178 561501 22 23 561824 562146 24 25 562468 26 562790 27 .563112 28 563433 563755 29 30 564075 31 9.564396 32 564716 33 565036 31 565356
:i5
.565076
543 542 542 541 541 540 540 539 539 538 638 637 637 636 536 636 635 535 534 534 633 533 532 532
531
.531
36 37 38
.'}9
531
40
41
42 43 44 45 46
i7
4>'
49 50
62 53 54 55 56 57 58
59
60
567269 9.567587 567904 668222 568539 568856 569172 569488 569804 670120 670436 9.570751 571066 571380 571695 572003 572323 572636 57295C 573263 673575
530 530 529 629 528 528 628 527 527 626 626 625 525 524 524 623 623 523 622 522 521 621
9.970152 81 970108 81 970055 81 970006 81 969957 81 969909 81 969860 81 969811 81 969762 81 969714 81 969665 81 9.969616 82 969567 82 969518 82 969469 82 969420 82 969370 82 969321 82 969272 82 969223 82 969173 82 9.969124 82 969075 82 969025 82 968976 82 968926 83 968877 83 968827 83 968777 83 968728 83 968678 83 9.968628 83 968578 83 968528 83 968479 83 968429 83 968379 83 968^29 83 968278 83 968228 84 968178 84 9.968128 84 968078 84 968027 84 967977 84 967927 84 967876 84 967826 84 967775 84 967725 84 967674 84 9.967624 84 967573 84 967.522 85 967471 85 967421 85 96737C 85 967319 85 967268 85 967217 85 967166 85
I
9.584177 584555 584932 685309 585686 586062 586439 586815 587190 587566 687941 9.588316 588691 589066 589440 589814 590188 590562 590935
.'^91308
629 629 628 628 627 627 627 626 626 625 625 625
10.416823 415445
41,5068
591681 9.592054 592426 592798 593170 593542 593914 594285 594656 695027 695398
9..59.5768
596138
596.508
596878 597247 697616 597985 598354 598722 599091 9.599459 599827 600194 600562 600929
60129(5
617 617 616 616 616 615 616 616 614 614 613 613 613 612 612
611 Oil 611
601602 002029 602395 602761 9.603127 603493 003858 004223 604588 604953
60.5317
610 610 610 609 609 609 608 608 607 607 607 006 606
413185 412810 412434 412059 10.411684 411309 410934 410500 410186 409312 409438 409065 408692 408319 10.407946 407574 407202 406829 406458 406086 405715 405344 404973 404602 10.404232 403862 403492 403122 402753 402384 402015 401646 401278 400909 10.400541 400173 399806 399438 399071 398704 398338 397971 397605 397239 10.396873 396507 396142 395777 395412 395047 394683 394318 393954 393590
'I'aiifj.
59 58 57 56 65 54 53 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19,
18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11
10 9 8 7 6 6
4 3 2
1
08
1).
40
(22 Degrees.;
1
a TAK/.K OF LOGARITHMIC
1
IT
"TT
1
8ine
D.
Cosine
D.
Tang.
D.
Colanc.
2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9
10
ii
12 13 14 15 16
17 18
19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35
36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
573575 673888 574200 574512 574824 575136 575447 575758 576069 576379 576689 9.576999 577309 677618 577927 578236 578545 578853 579162 579470 579777 9.580085 580392 580699 581005 581312 581618 581924 582229 582535 582840 9.583145 583449 583754 584058 584361 684665 584968 585272 685574 585877 9.586179 586482 586783 587085
9.
517 517 616 516 516 515 515 614 514 513 513 513 512 tl2
511 511 511 510
9.967166 967115 967064 967013 966961 966910 966859 966808 966756 966705 966653 9.966602 966550 966499 966447 966395 966344 966292 966240 966188 966136 9 966085 966033 965981 965928
96.5876
85 85 85 85 85 85 86 85 86 86 86 86 86
S6 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87
610 509 609 609 508 508 507 607 606 606
^06
87 87
88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89
1 1
.587386
52 53 54 55 56
5<7
58 59 60
587688 587989 588289 588590 588890 9.589190 689489 589789 590088 590387 590686 690984 591282 691580 691878
Co.iiie
1
500 600 499 499 499 498 498 497 497 497 496 496
1
965353 965301 965248 965195 965143 965090 9.965037 964984 964931 964879 964826 964773 964719 964666 964613 964560 9.964607 964454 964400 964347 964294 964240 964187 964133 964080 964026
Sine 6T
9.606410 606773 607137 607500 607863 608225 608588 608950 609312 609674 610036 9.610397 610769 611120 611480 611841 612201 612661 612921 613281 613641 9.614000 614359 614718 615077 615435 615793 616151 616509 616867 617224 9 617582 617939 618295 618652 619008 619364 619721 620076 620432 620787 9.621142 621497 621852 622207 622561 622915 623269 623623 623976 624330 9.624683 625036 625388 625741 626093 626445 626797 627149 627501 627852
Cotan^.
1
606 606 606 606 604 604 604 603 603 603 602 602 602
601 601 601
600 600 600 699 599 598 598 598 697 597 697 596 596 696 695 595 595 594 594 594 593 693 593 592 592 592 591
591
590 590 690 589 689 689 688 588 688 587 687 587 586 686 586 685 585
1
10.393590 393227 392863 392500 392137 391776 391412 391050 390688 390326 389964 10.389603 389241 388880 388520 388169 387799 387439 387079 386719 386369 10.386000 385641 385282 384923 384565 384207 383849 383491 383133 382776 10.383418 382061 381705 381348 380992 380636 380279 379924 379568 379213 10.378858 378503 378148 377793 377439 377085 376731 376377 376024 375670 10.375317 374964 374612 374259 373907 373555 373203 372851 372499 372148
Tang.
1
60 59 58 67 66 55 64 53 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 46 44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36 36 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5
4
3 2
1
1_
M.
[
r>ei<r
SI\r:S M.
Sine
D.
AM) TANJ
1
Kivrs.
D.
(23 Degrees.;
Tang
D.
1
41
Cotai.g.
1
Cosine
"o" y.
1
59 1878
2 3
4 5
6 7
8
9 10
11
12 13 14
lo 16
17
18 19
20
21
22 23 24 Lo 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39
40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51 52
592176 592473 592770 693067 593363 593659 593955 594251 594547 594842 9.595137 595432 595727 596021 596315 596609 596903 597196 597490 597783 9.598075 598368 598660 598952 599244 599536 599827 600118 600409 600700 9.600990 601280 601570 601860 602150 602439 602728 603017 603305 603594 9.603882 604170 604457 604745 605032 605319 605606 605892 606179 606465
9 6067,51
496 495 495 495 494 494 493 493 493 492 492
491 491 491
490 490 489 489 489 488 488 487 487 487 486 486 485 485 485 484 484 484 483 483 482 482 482 481
481 481
53 54 55 56 57 5S 59 60
1
480 480 479 479 479 478 478 478 477 477 476 476 476 476 475 474 474 474
9.964026 963972 963919 963865 963811 963757 963704 963650 963596 963542 963488 9.963434 963379 963325 963271 963217 963163 963108 963054 962999 962945 9.962890 962836 962781 962727 962672 962617 962562 962508 962453 962398 9.962343 962288 962233 962178 962123 962067 962012 961957 961902 961846 9.961791 961735 961680 961624 961569 961513 961458 961402 961346 961290 9.961235 961179 961123 961067 961011 960955 960899 960843 96078^ 960730
Sine
1
9.627852 628203 628554 628905 629255 629606 629956 630306 630656 631005 631355 9.631704 90 632053 90 632401 90 632750 90 633098 90 633447 90 633795 91 634143 91 634490 91 634838 91 91 9.635185 635532 91 635879 91 636226 91 636572 91 636919 91 637265 91 637611 91 637956 91 638302 92 92 9.638647 638992 92 639337 92 92 639682 640027 92 640371 92 640716 92 641060 92 641404 92 641747 92 92 9.642091 92 642434 92 642V 77 93 643120 643463 93 643806 93 93 644148 644490 93 644832 93 93 645174 93 9.645516 93 645857 93 646199 93 646540 93 646881 93 647222 93 647562 04 647903 94 648243 94 648583
89 89 89 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90
Coiane.
585 685 585 684 584 683 683 683 583 582 682 582
681 681 681
578 578 578 677 677 677 677 576 676 576 575 676 576 574 574 674 573 573 573 572 672 572 672
671 571 571
10.372148 371797 371446 371095 370745 370394 370044 369694 309344 368995 368645 10.368296 367947 367599 367250 366902 366553 366205 365857 365510 365162 10.364815 364468 364121 363774 363428 363081 362735 362389 362044 361698 10.361353 361008 360663 360318 359973 359629 359284 358940 358596 358253 10.367909 357566 357223 356880 356537
3.56194
60 59 58 57 56 55
54 53 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11
570 570 670 669 669 569 669 668 668 568 667 567 667
.566
10
9
10.3.54484
8 7 6 6 4 3 2
1
l\l
66 Degrees.
42
(24 Deffrees.")
^;ine
a T/LBLE OF LOGARITHMIC
1
D.
Cosine
D.
Ta.ig.
D.
Cotang.
'IT 9.609313 609597 1 609880 2 610164 3 610447 4 610729 6 6 611012 7 611294 8 611576 611858 9 10 612140 11 9.612421 12 612702 13 612983 14 613264 15 613545 16 613825 17 614105 18 614385 19 614665 20 614944 21 9.615223 22 615502 23 615781 24 616060 25 616338 26 616616 27 616894 28 617172 29 617450 30 617727 31 9.618004 32 618281 33 618558 34 618834 35 619110 36 619386 37 619G62 38 619938 39 620213 40 620488 41 9.620763 42 621038 43 621313 44 621587 45 621861 46 622135 47 622409 48 622682 49 622956 50 623229 51 9.623502 52 623774 53 624047 54 e^4319 55 624591 56 624863 57 625135 58 625406 59 625677 60 625918
1
470 470 470 469 469 469 468 468 467 467 467 466 466 466 465 465 465 464 464 464 463 463 462 462 462
461 461 461 460 460 460
459 459 459 458 458 457 457 457 456 456 456 455 455 455 454 454 454 453 453 453 452 452 452
451
i
9.960730 960674 960618 960561 900505 960448 960392 960335 960279 960222 960165 9.960109 960052 959995 959938 959882 959825 959768 959711 959654 959596 9.959539 959482 959425 959368 959310 959253 959195 959138 959081 959023 9.958965 958908 958850 958792 958734 958677 958619 958561 958503 958445 9.958387 958329 958271 958213 058154 958096 958038 957979 957921 957863 9.957804 957746 957687 957628 957570 957511 957452 957393 957335 957276
Sine
1
94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97
97 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98
9.648583 648923 649263 649602 649942 650281 650020 650959 651297 651636 651974 9.652312 652650 652988 653326 653663 654000 654337 654674 655011 655348 9.655684 656020 656356 656692 657028 657364 657699 658034 658369 658704 9.659039 659373 659708 660042 660376 660710 661043 661377 661710 662043 9 662376 662709 663042 663375 663707 664039 664371 664703 665035 665366 9.665697 666029 666360 666691 667021 667352 667682 668013 668343 668672
Colang.
1
566 566 566 566 565 565 565 564 564 564 563 563 563 563 562 562 562 561 561 561 561 660 560 560 559 559 559 559 558 558 558 558 557 557 557 557 556 556 556 555 555 555
554 554 554 554 553 553 553 553 552 552 552
551 551 551 551 550 650 550 550
1
10.351417 351077 350737 350398 350058 349719 349380 349041 348703 348364 348026 10.347688 347350 347012 346674 346337 346000 345663 345326 344989 344652 10.344316 343980 343644 343308 342972 342636 342301 341966 341631 341296 10.340961 340627 340292 339958 339624 339290 338957 338623 338290 337957 10.337624 337291 336958 336625 336293 335961 335629 335297 334965 334634 10.334303 333971 333640
33.3309
60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 45
44 43 42
41
40 39
38 37 3G 35
34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
2
1
Cosine
M.
65 Degreea.
Sine
1
SIIV/:S
AND TANGENTS
Cosine
1
(25 Degrees
1
43
Cotang.
1
D.
D.
Tang.
D.
2 3
4
5
fi
7 8 9 10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 2o 26 27 28 29
20
31
32 33 34
35 36 37 38 39
40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
"~
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
9.625948 626219 626490 626760 627030 627300 627570 627840 628109 628378 628647 9.628916 629185 629453 629721 629989 630257 630524 630792 631059 631326 9.631593 631859 632125 632392 632658 632923 633189 633454 633719 633984 9.634249 634514 634778 635042 635306 635570 635834 636097 636360 636623 9.636886 637148 637411 637673 637935 638197 638458 638720 638981 639242 9.639503 639764 640024 640284 640544 640804 641064 641324 641584 641842
Conine
451 451 451 450 450 450 449 449 449 448 448 447 447
9.957276 957217
9571.58
447 446 446 446 446 445 445 445 444 444 444 443 443 443 442 442 442
441 441
956506 956447 956387 956327 956268 956208 956148 9560S9 9.956029 955969 955909 955849 955789 955729
95.5069
98 9.668673 98 669002 98 669332 98 669661 98 669991 98 670320 99 670049 99 670977 99 671.306 99 671634 99 671963 99 9.672291 99 672619 99 672947 99 673274 99 673602 99 673929 99 674257 100 674584 100 674910 100 675237 100 9.675564 100 675890 100 676216 100 676543 100 676869 100 677194 100 677520
100 100 100
101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101
5.50
440 440 440 439 439 439 438 438 438 437 437 437 437 436 436 436 435 435 435 434 434 434 433 483 433 432 432 432 431
1
677846 678171 678496 9.678821 679146 679471 679795 680120 6S0444 680768 681092 681416 681740 9.682063 682387 682710 683033 683366 683679 684001 684324 684646 684968 9.685290 685612 685934 686255 686577 686898 687219
687.540
547 547 647 646 546 546 646 545 545 545 544 544 644 544 643 643 543 643 542 642 642 642
541 541 541
.541
329680 329351 329023 328694 328366 328037 10.327709 327381 327053 326726 326398 326071 325743 325416 325090 324763 10.324436 324110 323784 323457 323131 322806 322480 322154 321829
56 55 54 53 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40
39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 321.504 30
687861 688182
Coiang.
540 540 540 540 539 539 639 639 638 538 638 538 637 637 637 637 536 536 536 536 535 535 535 536 634 534
1
20
19 18 17 16 15
14
10.314710
314,388
9 8 7 6 6 4
3 2
1
3U81S
Tang.
Jw.
64 Degrees.
44
M.
1
{''^G
Degrees.}
I^.
1
a table of LOGARiruMic

Si
le
1
Cosine
D.
T:....
I),
Co tang.
2 3 4 5
6 7 8
11
]2 i3 14 15 16
17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 35 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
642360 642618 642877 643135 643393 643650 643908 644165 644423 9.644680 644936 645193 645450 645706 645962 646218 646474 646729 646984 9.647240 647494 647749 648004 648258 648512 648766 649020 649274 649527 9.649781 650034 650287 650539 650792 651044 651297
651.549
430 430 430 430 429 429 429 428 428 428 427 427 427 426 426 426 425 425 425 424 424 424 424 423 423 423 422 422 422 422 421 421
421
42 43
14
45
16
47 48 49 50
51
651800 652052 9.652304 652555 652806 653057 653308 653558 653808 654059 654309
6.54558
52 53 51 55 56 57 58 59 60
1
9.654808 655058
65.5307
420 420 420 419 419 419 418 418 418 418 417 417 417 416 416 416 416 415 415 415 414 414 414 413 413
9.953660 103 9.688182 953599 103 688502 'J53537 103 688823 953475 103 689143 953413 103 689463 953352 103 689783 953290 103 690103 953228 103 690423 953166 103 690742 953104 103 691062 953042 103 691381 9.952980 104 9.691700 952918 104 692019 952855 104 692338 952793 104 692656 952731 104 692975 952669 104 693293 952606 104 693612 952544 104 693930 952481 104 694248 952419 104 694566 9.952356 T04 9.694883 952294 104 695201 952231 104 695518 952168 105 695836 952106 105 696153 952043 105 696470 951980 105 690787 951917 105 697103 951854 105 697420 951791 105 697736 9.951728 105 9.6980.53 951665 105 698369 951602 105 698685 951539 105 699001 951476 105 699316 951412 105 699632 951349 106 699947 951286 106 700263 951222 106 700578 951159 106 700893 9.951096 106 9.701208 951032 106 701523 950968 106 701837 950905 106 702152 950841 106 702466 950778 106 702780 950714 106 703095 950650 106 703409 950586 106 703723 950522 107 704036 9.950458 107 9.704350 950394 107 704663 950330 107 704977 950266 107 705290 950202 107 705603 950138 107 705916 950074 IO7I 70622S 960010 lOT 706541 949945 1071 706854 949881 107 707166
Sine
1
534 534 534 633 533 533 533 533 532 532 532
631 531 631 531 631 530 530 630 630 629 629 629 629 629 628 628 628 528
60 59
58 57 56
55
54
i
53 62
51
r>o
527 627 627 627 626 526 526 626 526 525 525 625 524 524 624 624 524 623 623 523 523 522 522 622 622 622
521 521 521 621 521
520
308619 10.308300 307981 307662 307344 307025 306707 306388 306070 305752 305434 10.305117 304799 304482 304164 303847 303530 303213 302897 302580 302264 10.301947 301631 301315 300999 300684 30036S 300053 299737 299422 299107 10.298792 298477 298163 297848 297534 297220 296905 296591 296277 295964 10.295650 295337 295023 294710 294397 294084 293772 293459 293146 292834
T.U..
49 48 47 46 45
44 43
42
41
40
39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18
17 16 15
14 13 12
11
10
9 8
7
6 5
3
2
1
Coiant,'.
1
<53
Degrees.
SINES
AM) T\NGE>T
Cosine

(27 Degrees /
Tang.
D.
Cotang.
,
4J
1
M
~0
1
Sin.
T)
D.
. (157047
2 3
4
5
6 7 8 9 10
11
12 13 14
15
16 17
18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43
44 45
46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 00
1
658284 658531 658778 659025 659271 659517 9.659763 660009 660255 660501 660746 660991 661236 661481 661726 601970 9.662214 662459 662703 662946 663190 663433 663677 663920 664163 664406 9.664648 664891 665133 665375 665617 665859 666100 606342 666583 666824 9.667065 667305 667546 667786 668027 66S267 668506 668746 668980 669225 9.669464 669703 669942 670181 670419 670658 670896 671134 671372 671609
CoMlii:
410 410 410 409 409 409 409 408 408 408 407 407 407 407 406 406 406 405 405 405 405 404 404 404 403 403 403 402 402 402 402
401
9.949881 949816 949753 949688 949623 949558 949494 949129 949364 949300 949235 9.949170 949105 949040 948975 948910 948845 948780 948715 948650 948584 9.94S519 948454 948388 948323 948257 948192 948126 948060 947995 947929 9.947863 947797 947731 947665 947600 947533 947467 947401 947335 947269 9.947203 947136 947070 947001 946937 946871 946804 946738 946671 946604 9.94B538 946471 946404 946337 946270 946203 946136 946069 946002 945935
Sine
1
107 9.707166 107 707478 107 707790 108 708102 108 708414
108 108 108 103 108 108
108 108 108 108 108 108 109 109 109 109
109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 110 110
no
110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110
no no
111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111
112 112
708726 709037 709349 709660 709971 710382 9.710593 710904 711215 711525 711836 712146 712456 712766 713076 713386 9.713696 714005 714314 714624 714933 715242 715551 715860 716168 716477 9.716785 717093 717401 717709 718017 718325 718633 718940 719248 719555 9.719862 720169 720476 720783 721089 721396 721702 722009 722315 722621 9.722927 723232 723538 723844 724149 724454 724759 725065 725369 725674
Cotai.g.
620 520 520 520 519 519 519 519 619 518 518 518 618 618 647 617 617 617 516 516 516 516 516 515
^:5 51h 615 614 514 514 514 614 613 513 613 513 513 512 512 512 512 612
611 611 511 511
51]
10.293834 293522 292210 291898 291586 291274 290963 290651 290340 290029 289718 10.289407 289096 288785 288475 288164 287854 287544 287234 286924 286614 10.286304 286995 285686 285376 285067 284758
6o
fi9
f^ 57 56 55 54 53 52
51
60 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 48
41
510 610 510 510 510 609 509 509 509 509 508 508 508 508
~
1
281367 281060 280752 280445 10.280138 279831 279524 279217 278911 278604 278298 277991 277685 277379 10.277073 276768 276462 276156 275851 275546 275241 274935 274631 274326
Tang.
24 23 22
21
20
19 18
I
1
16 15 14 13 12
11
10
9
8 7 6 5
4 3
2
1
M.
1
62 Degrees.
46
(28 Degrees.;
1
a table or logarithmic
1
^
1
M.
Sine
n.
Cosine
Tiwa.
!>
1
Co.au..
!
2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9
iio
11
9.671609 67i847 672084 672321 672558 672795 673032 673268 673505 673741 673977
9.67^4213
396 395 395 395 395 394 394 304 394 393 393
12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19
675390 675624 675859 676094 676328 20 21 9.676562 676796 22 23 .677030 677264 24 677498 25 26 677731 27 677964 678197 28 678430 29 30 678683 31 9 678895 679128 32 679360 33 679592 34 679824 35 680056 36 680288 37 38 680519 680750 39 40 680982 41 9.681213 681443 42 681674 43 681905 44 682135 45 682365 46 682595 47 682825 48 6830.55 49 683284 50 51 9.683514 683743 02 683972 53 684201 54 684430 55 684658 56 684887 ,^7 58 685115 59 6S5343
390 390 390 390 389 389 389 388 388 388 388 387
.387
387 387 386 386 386 385 385 385 385 384 384 384 384 383 383 383 383 382 382 382 382 381
381 381 380
9.945935 945868 945800 945733 945666 945598 945531 945464 945396 945328 945261 9.945193 945125 945058 944990 944922 944854 944786 944718 944650 944582 9.944514 944446 944377 944309 944241 944172 944104 944036 943967 943899 9.943830 943761 943693 943624 943555 943486
94.3417
112 9.725674 112 725979 112 726284 726588 112 112 726892 112 727197 727501 112 727805 113 113 728109 113 728412 113 728716
113 9.729020 113 729323 113 729626 113 729929 113 730233 113 730535 730838 113 113 731141 113 731444 114 731746
114 9.732048 7.32351 114 114 732653 114 7329.55 114 733257 7335.58 114 733860 114 734162 114
507 507 507 507 506 506 506 506 506 505 505 505 605 505 504 504 504 604 504 503 503 503 503 503 502 502 502 502 502 502
601 501 501 501 501
"0.27432^ 60 274021 59 273716 58 27.3412 67 273108 66 272803 55 272499 54 272195 53 27! 891 52
271.588 51
271284 0.270980 270677 270374 270071 269767 269465 269162 268859 268556
10.267952 267649 267347 267045 266743 266442 266140 265838 265537 265236 10.264934 264633 264332 264031 263731 263430 263129 2B2829 262529 262229 10.261929 261629 261329 261029 260729 260430 260130
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41 2682.54 40
39 38
37 36 35 34 33 32
31
60
65.571
Cosine
1
943348 943279 943210 9.943141 943072 943003 942934 942864 942795 942726 942656 942587 942517 9.942448 942378 942308 942239 942169 942099 942029 941959 941889 941819
Su.
1
73.5668
115 115 115 115 115 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 117 117
735969 736269 736570 736871 737171 737471 737771 9.738071 738371 738671 738971 739271 739570 739870 740169 740468 740767 9.741066
741.365
600 500 600 500 500 499 499 499 499 499 499 498 498 498 498 498 49? 497 497 497 497 497 496
1
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19
18 17 16 15 14 13 12 2.59831
259532 11 259233 10 '9 10.258934 258635 8 258336 7 258038 6 257739 5 257441 4 257142 3 256844 2
256.546
1
1
2562481
Tanj:.
Li
JJ
61 Dcgrcea
SINES
M.
Sine
D.
A^D
TANGENTS

(29 Degrees.;
Tang.
D.
1
47
Ci.tang.
1
Cosine
D.
"o" 9.685571 I 685799 2 686027 3 08C254 4 686482 5 686709 6 686936 7 687163 8 6S7389 9 687616 10 687843 nl 9.688069 12 688295 13 688521 14 688747 15 688972 16 689198 17 689423 IS 689648 19 689873 20 690098
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
9.690.323 690.548
32 33 34 35 36 37 38
692785 693008 693231 693453 693676 693898 694120 39 694342 40 694564 41 9.694786 42 695007 43 695229 44 69.5450 45 695671 46 69.5892 47 696113 48 696334
49 50
51
6965.54
380 379 379 379 379 378 378 378 878 377 377 377 377 376 376 376 376 375 375 375 375 374 374 374 374 373 373 373 373 372 372 372 371 371 371 371 370 370 370 370 369 369 309 369 368 368 368 368
9.9418191 117 9.743752 941749 117 744050 941679 117 744348 941609 117 744645 941539 117 744943 941469 117 745240 941398 117 745538 941328 117 745835 941258 117 746132 941187 117 746429 941117 117 746726 9.941046 118 9.747023 940975 118 747319 940905 118 747616 940834 118 747913 748209 940763 118 748505 940693 118 748801 940622 118 940.551 118 749097 749393 940480 118 749689 940409 118
9.940338 940267 940196 940125 940054 939982 939911 939840 939768 939697 9.939625 939554 939482 939410 939339 939267 939195 939123 939052 938980 9.938008 938836 938763 938691 938619
118 9.749985 750281 118 750576 118 750872 119 751167 119 751462 119 7517.57 119 7.52052 119 752347 119 7.52642 113 119 9.7.52937 753231 119 753526 119 753820 119 7.54115 119 7.54409 120 7.54703 120 7.54997 120 755291 120 75.5585 120
496 496 496 496 496 496 495 495 495 495 495 494 494 494 494 494 493 493 493 493 493 493 492 492 492 492 492 492 491
491 491
10.2.56218 60
255950 59 255652 58
25.5355 57
255057 254730 254402 254165 2538G8 2535V 253274 10.252977 252681 252384 252087 251791 251495 251199 250903 250607
;i.5031i
56 55 54 53 52
51
60 49 48 47 40 45
4^1
43 42
41
120 9.755878 7.56172 120 756465 120 756759 120 757052 120 938.547 120 757345 938475 120 757638
121 121 121
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
I
696775 9.696995 697215 697435 697654 697874 698094 698313 698532 698751 698970
Cosine
367 367 367 367 366 366 366 366 365 365 365 365 364
121 938113! 121 121 121 121 121 9377491 121 937676 121 937604 121
937531 121
Sine
1 1
757931 758224 758517 9.758810 759102 759395 759687 759979 760272 760564 760856 761148 761439
Cotang.
1
490 490 490 490 490 490 489 489 489 489 489 489 488 488 488 488 488 488 487 487 487 487 487 487 486 486 486
1
10.250015 249719 249424 249128 248833 248538 248243 247948 247653 247358 10.247063 246769 246474 246180 245885 245591 245297 245003
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 Q
2'14709 21
244415 10.244122 243828 243535 243241 242948 242655 242362 242069 241776 241483 10.241190 240898 240605 240313 240021
2.39728
8 7 6 5 4 3 2
1
M.
60 Degr ees.
48
M.
Sine
(30 Degrees.)
1
a table of

LOGAnirit.Hir:
D.
D.
Cosine
D.
Tane.
.....
1
2 3
4
5 6 7 8 9 10
700062 700280 700498 700716 700933 701151 11 9.701368 701585 12 701802 13 702019 14 702236 15 702452 16 17 702669
18 19
364 364 304 364 363 363 363 363 363 362 362 362 362 361 361 361
361
702885'
20
21
703101 703317
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35
36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48
49 50
51 52
53 54 56 56 57 68 59 150
9.703533 703749 703964 704179 704395 704610 704825 705040 705254 705469 9 705683 705898 706112 706326 706539 706753 706967 707180 707393 707606 9.707819 708032 708245 708458 708670 708882 709094 709306 709518 709730 9 709941 710153 710364 710575 710786 710997 711308 711419 711629 711839
j
360 360 360 360 350 359 359 359 359 358 358 358 358 357 357 357 357 356 356 356 356 355 355 355 355 354 354 354 354 353 353 353 353 353 352 352 352 352
351 351 351 351
350 350
I
9.937531 937458 937385 937312 937238 937165 937092 937019 936946 936872 936799 9.936725 936652 936578 936505 936431 936357 936284 936210 936136 936062 9.935988 935914 935840 935766 935692 935618 935543 935469 935395 935320 9.935246 935171 935097 935022 934948 934873 934798 934723 934649 934574 9.934499 934424 934349 934274 934199 934123 934048 933973 933898 933822 9.933747 933671 933596 933520 933445 933369 933293 933217 933141 933066
i"'
1
1
121 9.7614391
122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122
122 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 123
123 123 123 124 124 124 124 124 124 124
761731 762023 762314 762606 762897 763188 763479 763770 764061 764352 9.764643 764933 765224 765514 765805 766095 766385 766675 766965 767255 9.767545 767834 768124 768413 768703 768992 769281 769570 769860 770148
124 9.770437 770726 124 771015 124 771303 124 771592 124 771880 124 772168 125 772457 125 772745 125 773033 125 125 9.773321 773608 125 773896 125 774184 125 774471 125 774759 125 775046 125 775333 125 775621 126 126 775908
126 9.776105 126 776482 126 776769 777055 126 777342 126 777628 126 126 777915 126 778201 126 77848t 126 778774
Cuiany.
1 1
486 10.2385011 601 486 238269 591 486 237977 58 486 237686 57 485 237394 56 485 237103 55 485 236812 54 485 23652] 53 485 236230 52 485 235939 51 484 235648 50 484 10.235357 49 484 235067 48 484 234776 47 484 234486 46 484 234195 45 484 233905 44 483 233615 43 483 233325 42 483 233035 41 483 232745 40 483 10.232455 39 483 232166 38 482 231876 37 482 231587 36 482 231297 35 482 231008 34 482 230719 33 482 230430 32 481 230140 31 481 229852 30 481 10.229563 29 481 229274 28 481 228985 27 481 228697 26 481 228408 25 480 228120 24 480 227832 23 480 227.543 22 480 227255 21 480 226967 20 480 10.226679 19 226392 18 479 226104 17 479 225816 16 479 225529 15 479 225241 14 479 224954 13 479 224667 12 479 224379 11 478 224092 10 478 478 10.223805 9 223518 8 478 223231 7 478 22294: 6 478 222658 5 478 222372 4 477 22208.'! 3 477 221790 2 477 22151'. 477 2212261 477
I
1
CoillL'
'
1
''
1
59 Dujtirc*
SllSKS
M.
Sine
D.
AND TANGENTS
Cosine
{
49
Cotang.
1
D.
Tiuijr.
D.
"(T 9 711839
1
2 3
4
5 6 7 8 9
11
12 13
14
15 16 17 18 19
0
21
22
23
24
25 2B 27 28 29 30
31
32 33
34 3f
31)
3/ 8 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
"~
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
/ 12050 712260 712469 712679 712889 713098 713308 713517 713726 75 3935 9.714144 714352 714^61 714769 714978 715186 715394 715602 715809 716017 9.716224 716432 716639 716846 717053 717259 717466 717673 717879 718085 9.718291 718497 718703 718909 719114 719320 719525 719730 719935 720140 9.720345 720549 720754 72Q958 721162 721366 721570 721774 721978 722181 9.722385 722588 722791
350 350 350 349 349 349 349 349 348 348 348 348
.347
347 347 347 347 346 346 346 346 345 345 345 345 345 344 344 344 344 343 343 343 343 343 342 342 342 342
341 341 341 341
72299*
'
340 340 340 340 340 339 339 339 339 339 338 338 338 338 337 337 337 337
1
9.933066 932990 932914 932838 932762 932685 932609 932533 932457 932380 932304 9.932228 932151 932075 931998 931921 931845 931768 931691 931614 931537 9.931460 931383 931306 931229 931152 931075 930998 930921 930843 930766 9.930688 930611 930533 930450 930378 930300 930223 930145 930067 929989 9.929911 929833 929755 929677 929599 929521 929442 929364
126 9.778774 127 779060 127 779346 127 779632 127 779918 780203 127 127 780489 780775 127 127 781060 781346 127 127 781631 127 9.781916 782201 127 782486 128 128 782771 783056 128 128 783341 783626 128 783910 128 128 784195 784479 128
128 9.784764 785048 128 785332 128 785616 129 785900 129 786184 129 786468 129 786752 129 787036 129 787319 129
129 9.787603 787886 129 788170 129 788453 129 788736 129 789019 130 130 789302 130 789585 789868 130 130 790151 130 9.790433 790716 130 130 790999 130 791281 791.563 130
477 477 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 475 475 475 475 475 475 475 475 474 474 474 474 474 474 473 473 473 473 473 473 473 472 472 472 472 472 472 472
471 471 471 471 471 471 471 471
10.221226 220940 220654 220368 220082 219797 219511 219225 218940 218654 218369 10.218084 217799 217514 217229 216944 216659 216374 216090 215805 215521 10.215236 214952 214668 214384 214100 213816 213532 213248 212964 212681
60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51 50
49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40
39"
38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
130 130 131 29286 131 929207 131 131 131 131 131 131 131 131 131 131
131
1
1
9.929129 929050 928972 928893 928815 928736 928657 928578 928499 928420
Sine
791846 792128 792410 792692 792974 9.793256 793538 793819 794101 794383 794664 794945 795227 795508 795789
Cotang.
470 470 470 470 470 470 470 469 469 469 469 469 469 469 468 468
t
10.212397 212114 211830 211547 211264 210981 210698 210415 210132 209849 10.209507 209284 209001 208719 208437 208154 207872 207590 207308 207026 10.206744 206462 206181 205899 205617 205336 205055 204773 204492 204211
20
19 18
\7
16 15 14 13 12 .1 10
9 8 7 6 5
4
3 2
1
Ts1
\^\
58 Degrees
t>i)
(3 2 Degrees.)
1
a TAKLF OF roOARirilAlK)
j
"m"
Sii.e
1
i>.
Cosine
D.
Tanfj.
D.
i
Coianfi.
"o" 9.724210
1
2 3 4 6
6 7
8 9
10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44
45 46
47
48 49 50
51
52 53 64 55 56 57 58 59 60
724412 724614 724816 725017 725219 725420 725622 725823 726024 726225 9.726426 726626 726827 727027 727228 727428 727628 727828 728027 728227 9.728427 728626 728825 729024 729223 729422 729621 729820 730018 730216 9.730415 730613 730811 731009 731206 731404 731602 731799 731996 732193 9.732390 732587 732784 732980 733177 733373 733569 733765 733961 734157 9.734353 734549 734744 734939 735135 735330 735525 735719 735914 736 09
1
337 337 336 336 336 336 335 335 335 335 335 334 334 334
9. 9284^^0
334 334 333 333 833 333 333 332 332 332 332
331
.S31
331 331
330 330 330 330 330 329 329 329 329 829 328 328 828 328 328 327 327 327 327 327 326 326
.326
928025 927946 927867 927787 927708 927629 9.927549 927470 927390 927310 927231 927151 927071 926991 926911 920831 9.92675] 926671 926591 926511 926431 926351 926270 926190 926110 926029 9.925949 925868 925788 925707 925626 925545 925465 925384 925303 925222 9.925141 925060 924979 924897 924816 924735
9246.54
182 188 133 188 183 133 183 133 133 138
133 183 133 134 134 134 134 134 134 134
9.79578y 796070 796351 796632 796913 797194 797475 797755 798036 798316 798596 9.798877
7991.57
799437 799717 799997 800277 800557 800836 801116 801396 9.801675 801955 802234 802513 802792 803072 803351 808630 803908 804187 9.804466 804745 805023 805802 805580
80.5859
135 135 185 185 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136
136
1.36
924572 924491 924409 9.924328 924246 924164 924083 924001 923919 923837 923755 923678 92859
Sine
1
806187 806415 806693 806971 9.807249 807527 807805 808088 808361 808638 808916 809193 809471 809748 9.810025 810302 810580 810857 811134 811410 811687 811964 812241 812517
Cotang.
1
468 468 468 468 468 468 468 468 467 467 467 467 467 467 467 466 466 466 466 466 466 466 466 465 465 465 465 465 465 465 465 464 464 464 464 464 464 464 463 463 463 463 463 463 463 463 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 461
461 461 461 461
461
51
50
49
48
47
46 45 199 723 44
48 42
41
40 39 88 37 36 35
8^
33 32
31
30
10.195.5.34 29 1952,55 28
27 26 25 24 23 22 20
19 18 17 16 15 14 18 12
11
19.3807 21
VM52
10.189975
189098; 180420!
10 9 8
7
6 5 4 3 2
1
'
zi
Cosine
1
M.
1
57 Kegrt'Hs.
.si\.>
AM/ TANGENTS.
Cosine

(^33
Dcgives
D
51
Cotan?.
1
M.
Sine
n.
D.
Tang
"0"
2 3 4
fi
9 736109
~32r
324 324 323 323 323 323 323 322 322 322 322 322
321 321 321 321 321
6 7 8 9 10
n
12 i3 14 15 IG
17
18 19
2G
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
iO
41
736303 736498 736692 736886 737080 737274 737467 737661 737855 738048 y 738241 738434 738627 738820 739013 739206 739398 739590 739783 739975 9.740167 740359 740550 740742 740934 741125 741316 741508 741699 741889 9.742080 742271 742462 742652 742842 743033 743223 743413 743302 743792 9.743982
744171 7443G1
320 320 320 320 320 319 319 319 319 319 318 318 318
318 318 317 317 317 317 317 316 316 316 316 316 315 315 315 315 315 314 314 3L4 314 314 313 313 313 313 313 312 312 312
1
9.923591 923509 923427 923345 923263 923181 923098 923016 922933 922851 922768 9 922686 922603 922520 922438 922355 922272 922189 922106 922023 921940 9.921857 921774 921691 921607 921524 921441 921357 921274 921190 921107
.
137 9.812517 812794 137 S13070 137 813.347 137 813623 137 813899 137 814175 137 814452 137 814728 137 815004 137 138 815279
138 9.81.5555 815831 138 816107 138 816382 138 816658 138 816933 138 817209 138
1.38
139 139
1.39
139 139
1.39
817484 817759 818035 9.818310 818585 818860 819135 819410 819684 819959 820234
820.508
460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 459 459 459 459 459 459 459 459
459 458 458 458 458 458 458 458 458 458 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 455 455 455 455 455 455 455 455 455 454
820783
744550 744739 744928 47 745117 48 745306 49 745494 50 745683 51 9.745871 52 746059 53 746248 54 746436 55 746624 5r. 746812 746999 /^^ '5S 747187 59 747374 747562 60_
Cosine
42 43 44 45 46
9.921023 920939 920856 920772 920688 920604 920520 920436 920352 920268 9.920184 920099 920015 919931 919846 919762 919677 919593 919508 919424 9.9L9339
919254!
139 9.821057 140 821332 140 821606 140 821880 140 822154 140 822429 140 82270.3 140 822977 140 823250 140 823.524
10.187482 187206 186930 180653 186377 186101 185825 185548 185272 184996 184721 10.184445 1S4169 183893 183618 183342 183067 182791 182516 182241 181965 10.181690 181415 181140 180865 180590 180316 180041 179766 179492 179217 10.178943 178668 178394 178120 177846 177571 177297 177023
60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43
4;2
41
40
39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 1767.50 21 17G476 20
19 18 17 16 15
824619 824893 825166 825439 825713 825986 826259 9.826532 826805 827078 827351 827624 827897 828170 828442 828715 828987
Ooiaiig.
1
10.176202 175928 175655 175381 175107 174834 174561 174287 174014 173741 10.173468 173195 172922 172649 172376 172103 171830
1715.58
14
13 12 11
10
9
8 7 6 5 4
3 2
171285 171013
Tang.
1
u
M.
56
Dfsif'^s.
5ii
(34
1
Dcg rees.;
D.
1
a TABLK OF

L(.i.\l.!T!t.MlC
M.
Sine
Cosine
D.
Tang.
D
454 454 454 454 454 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452
451 451 451 451 451 451 451 451 451 451
Cotan.
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11
12 13 14 15
Ifi
17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
62 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
9.747562 747749 747936 748123 748310 748497 748683 748870 749056 749243 749429 9.749615 749801 749987 750172 750358 750543 750729 750914 751099 751284 9.751469 751654 751839 752023 752208 752392 752576 752760 752944 753128 9 753312 753495 753679 753862 754046 754229 754412 754595 754778 754900 9.755143 755326 755508 755690 755872 756054 756236 756418 756600 756782 9.756963 757144
757026
310 310 310 310 310 309 309 309 309 309 308 308 308 308 308 308 307 307 307 307 307 306 306 306 306 306 305 305 305 305 305 304 304 304 304 304 304 303 303 303 303 303 302 302 302 302 302
301 301 301 301 301 301
1
9.918574 918489 918404 918318 918233 918147 918062 917976 917891 917805 917719 9.917634 917548 917462 917376 917290 917204 917118 917032 916946 916859 9.916773 916687 916600 916514 916427 916341 916254 916167 916081 915994 9.915907 915820 915733 915646 915559 915472 915385 915297 915210 915123 9.915035 914948 914860 914773 914685 914598 914510 914422 914334 914246 9.914158 914070 913982 913894 913806 913718
142 9.828987 142 829260 142 829532 142 829805 142 830077 142 830349 142 830621 143 830893 143 831165 143 831437 143 831709
60 59 58 57 56 169651 55 169379 54
53 52
51
143 9.831981 143 832253 143 832525 143 832796 143 833068 143 833339 1^ 833611 144 833882 144 834154 144 834125
50
49 48 17
16
144 9.834696 144 834967 144 835238 144 835509 144 835780 144 836051 144 836322 145 836593 145 836864 145 837134 145 9.837405 145 837675 145 837946 145 838216 145 838487 145 838757 145 839027 145 839297 145 839568 146 839838
146 9.840108 840378 146 840647 146 840917 146 146 841187 146 841457 146 841726 146 841996 146 842266 147 842535
450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 449 449 449
449
147 9.842805 147 843074 147 843343 147 843612 843882 147 147 844151 91.'^.630 147 844420 913541 147 844689 913453 147 844958 913365 147 845227
tiine
1
449 449 449 449 449 449 449 448 448 448 448 448 448
!
166932 166661 166389 166118 165846 165575 10.165304 165033 164762 164491 164220 163949 163678 163407 163136 162866 10.162595 162325 162054 161784 161513 161243 160973 160703 160432 160162 10.159892 159622 159353 159083 158813 158543 158274 158004 157734 157465 10.157195 156926 156657 156388 156118 155849 155580
155311 155042 154773
T:;ns.'.
45
44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11
10 9 8 7
6 5 4 3 2
1
Colani;
^r
55 Dfgroes.
SINES
AND TANGENTS.
1
(36
Tanc.
DejrjeeS.)
D.
Cotaii!.'.
1 '
o3
Mj
Sine
D.
Cosine
'
1
I).
^l
1
2 3
4
5 6 7 8
9 10
11
12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31 32
33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
9.758591 758772 758952 759132 759312 759492 759672 759852 760031 760211 760390 9.760569 760748 760927 761106 761285 761464 761642 761821 761999 762177 9.702356 762534 762712 762889 763067 763245 763422 763600 763777 763954 9.764131 764308 764485 764662 764838 765015 765191 765367 765544 785720 9.765896 766072 766247 766423 766598 766774 766949 767124 767300 767475 9.767649 767824 767999 768173 768348 768522 768697 768871 769045 769219
]"" Cosine
300 300 299 299 299 299 299 298 298 298 298 298 298 297 297 297 297 297 296 296 296 296 296 296 295 295 295 295 295 294 294 294 294 294 294 293 293 293 293 293 293 292 292 292 292 292
291 291 291 291 291
912922 912833 912744 912655 912566 912477 9.912388 912299 912210 912121 912031 911942 911853 911763 911674 911584 9.911495 911405 911315 911226 911136 911046 910956 910866 910776 910686 9.910596 910506 910415 910325 910235 910144 910054 909963 909873 909782 9.909691 909601 909510 909419 909328 909237 909146 909055 908964 908873 9.908781 908690 908699 908507 908416 908324 908233 908141 908049
Sine
147 9.846227 845496 147 845764 148 846033 148 846302 148 846570 148 846839 148 847107 148 148 847376 847644 148 847913 148
148 9.848181 848449 149 848717 149 848986 149 849254 149 849522 149 849790 149 850058 149 850326 149 860593 149
149 9.850801 861129 149 861396 150 851664 150 851931 150 852199 150 852466 150 862733 150 853001 150 863268 150
151 151 151 151 152 152 152 152 152 152
152 152 152 152 153 153 153 153 153 907958' 153
1
854336 854603 854870 856137 856404 865671 855938 9.856204 866471 866737 857004 857270 857537 867803 858069 858336 858602 9.858868 859134 859400 859666 859932 860198 860464 860730 860995 861261
1
448 448 448 448 448 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 447 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 443
162087 10.161819 151561 151283 151014 150746 150478 160210 149942 149676 149407 10.149139 148871 148604 148336 148069
147801 147634 147267 146999 146732
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37
36 36 34 33 32
31
10.146466 146198 146931 146664 146397 145130 144863 144596 144329 144062 10.143796 143629 143263 142996 142730 142463 142197
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18
443 443 443 443 443 443 443 443 443 443
i
141931 141664 11 141398 10 10.141132 9 140866 8 140600 7 140334 6 140068 5 139802 4 139636 3 139270 2 139005 1 138739
Tang.
f
1
17 16 15 14 13 12
Cmang.
M.

54 Degrees.
16
64
ai.
[3G Degrees.)
Pino
1
a T VBLK OF
1
LOGARITlI.niC
D.
i
D.
Cosine
D.
Tans.
Cotane.
~o" 9.769219
1
3 4 6
6
7
8
U 10
IJ
1* 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 00
769393 769506 769740 769913 770087 770260 770433 770606 770779 770952 9.771125 771298 771470 771643 771815 771987 772159 772331 772503 772675 9.772847 773018 773190 773351 773533 773704 773875 774046 774217 774388 9.774558 774729 774899 775070 775240 775410 775580 775750 775920 776090 9.776259 776429 776598 776768 776937 7^7106 777275 777444 777613 777781 9 777950 778119 778287 778455 778624 778792 778960 779128 779295 779463
Gobi lie
290 289 289 289 289 289 288 288 288 288 288 288 287 287 287 287 287 287 286 286 286 286 286 286 285 285 285 285 285 285 284 284 284 284 284 284 283 283 283 283 283 283 282 282 282 282 282 281 281 281
281 281 2S1
9,9079581 153 907866 153 907774 153 907682 153 907590 153 907498 153 907406 153 907314 154 907222 154 907129 154 907037 154 9 906945 154 906852 154 906760 154 906667 154 906575 154 906482 154 906389 155 906296 155 906204 155 906111 165 9.906018 155 905925 155 905832 155 305739 155 905645 155 905552 155 905459 155 905366 156 905272 156 905179 156 9.905085 156 904992 156 904898 156 904804 156 904711 156 904617 156 904523 156 904429 157 904335 157 904241 157 9.904147 157 904053 157 903959 157
903864 903770 903676 903581 903487 903392 903298 9.903203 903108 903014 902919 902824 902729 902634 902539 902444 902349
Sine
157
9.861261 861527 86 1702 862058 862323 862589 862854 863119 863385 863650 863915 9.864180 864445 864710 864975 865240 805505 865770 866035 866300 866564 9.866829 867094 867358 867623 867887 868152 868416 868680 868945 869209 9.869473 869737 870001 870265 870529 870793 871057 871321 871585 871849 9.872112 872376 872640 872903 873167 873430 873694 873957 874220 874484 9.874747 875010 875273 875536 875800 876063 876326 876589 876851 877114
(Jotilllg.
443 443 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 441 441 441 441 441 441 441
441 441 441 441 441
60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 62
51
50 49 48 47 46 45
44 43 42
41
40
39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 438 438 438 438 438 438 438 438
30
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10
9 8 7 6 5
4
3 2
1
ZA
Ta.if..
M.
53 Decrees.
JINES
iND TANGENTS.
1
^^37
TuiiK.
Degrees
D.
Cot.ur.2.
1
55
1
T
1
M.
Sine
T).
Csine
D.
2 3
4
5
6 7 8
9 10
U
12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 31 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42
43
44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
9.779463 779631 779798 779966 780133 780300 780467 780G34 780801 780968 781134 9.781301 781468 781634 781800 781966 782132 782298 782464 782630 7S2796 9.782961 783127 783292 783458 783623 783788 783953 784118 784282 784447 9.784612 784776 784941 785105 785269 785433 785597 785761 785925 786089 9 786252 78G416 786579 786742 786908 787069 787232 787395 787557 787720 0.787883 788045 788208 788370 788532 788694 788856 789018 789180 789342
.
279 279 279 279 279 278 278 278 278 278 278 277 277 277 277 277
277 276 276 276 276 276 276 275 275 275 275 275 275 274 274 274 274 274 274 273 273 273 273 273 273 272 272 272 272 272 272
271 271 271 271 271 271 271
9.902349 902253 902158 902063 901967 901872 901776 901681 901585 901490 901394 9.901298 901202 901106 901010 900914 900818 900722 900620 900529 900433 9.900337 900240 900144 900047 899951 899854 899757 899660 899564 899467 9.899370 899273 899176 899078 898981 898884 898787 898689 898592 898494 9.898397 898299 898202 898104 898006 897908 897810 897712 897614 897516 9.897418 897320 897222 897123 897025 896926 896828 896729 896631 896532
159 9.877114 159 877377 159 877640 159 877903 159 878165 159 878428 159 878691 159 878953 159 879216 159 879478 160 879741 160 9.880003 160 880205 160 880528 160 880790 160 881052 160 881314 160 881576 160 881839 160 882101
161
161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 162
162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 163
163 163 163 163 163 163 163 163 163 163
164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164
1
882363 9.882625 882887 883148 883410 883672 883934 884196 884457 884719 884980 9.885242 885503 885765 886026 886288 886549 886810 887072 887333 887594 9.887855 888116 888377 888639 888900 889100 889421 889682 889943 890204 9.890465 890725 890986 891247
891.507
438 438 438 438 438 438 438 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 434 434 434 434
121572 121309 121047 120784 120522 120259 10.119997 119735 119472 119210 118948 118686 118424 118161 117899 117637 10.117375 117113 116852 116590 116328 116066
55 54 63 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40
39 38
37 36 35 34 11.5804 33 115543 32 115281 31 115020 30 10.114758 29 114^197 28 1 14235 27 113974 26 113712 25 113451 24 113190 23 112928 22 112667 21 112406 20
19 18
10.112145 111884 111623 111361 111100 110840 110579 110318 110057 109796 10.109535 109275 109014 108753 108493 108232 107972 107711 107451 107190
Tang.
17 16 15 14 13 12
11
10 9 8
r
6 5
4
3 2
1
Cosiiie
Sme
:"
S2 Dtgrees
56
M.
1
(3a Dej^rees.;
t*ine
^).
a TABLE OF LOOARJTHMIC
1
Cosine
D.
Tan
D.
Cotang.
j
2 3
4
5 6 7 8 9 10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
62 53 64 55 56 57 58 59 60
I
9.789342 789504 789665 789827 789988 790149 790310 790471 790632 790793 790954 9.791115 791275 791436 791596 791757 791917 792077 792237 792397 792557 9.792716 792876 793035 793195 793354 793514 793673 793832 793991 794150 9.794308 794467 794626 794784 794942 795101 795259 795417 795575 795733 9.795891 796049 796206 796364 796521 796679 796836 796993 797150 797307 9.797464 797621 797777 797934 798091 798247 798403 798560 798716 798872
Cosine
269 269 269 269 269 269 268 268 268 268 268 268
9.896532
184 9.892810 896433 165 893070 896335 165 893331 165 896236 893591
267 267 267 267 267 267 266 266 266 266 266 266 265 265 265 265 205 265 264 264 264 264 264 264 264 263 263 263 263 263 263 263 262 262 262 262 262
261 261
261 261 261 261 261 261
896137 896038 895939 895840 895741 895641 895542 9.895443 895343 895244 895145 895045 894945 894846 894746 894646 894546 9.894446 894346 894246 894146 894046 893946 893346 893745 893645 893544 9.893444 893343 893243 893142 893041 892940 892839 892739 892638 892536 9.892435 892334 892233 892132 892030 891929 891827 891726 891624 891523 9.891421 891319 891217 891115 891013 890911 890809 890707 890605 890503
Sine
1
167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167
168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168
169 169 169 169 169 169 169 169 169 170
170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170
1
893851 894111 894371 894632 894892 895152 895412 9.895672 895932 896192 898452 896712 898971 897231 897491 897751 898010 9.898270 898530 89S7S9 899049 899308 899568 899827 900086 900346 900605 9.900804 901124 901383 901642 901901 902160 902419 902679 902938 903197 9.903455 903714 903973 904232 904491 904750 905008 905267 905526 905784 9.906043 906302 906560 906819 907077 907336 907594 907852 908111 908369
Colang.
1
434 434 434 434 434 434 434 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 433 432
4.32
432 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 431 431 431 431 431 431
431
40 39 30 37 36 35 34 33 099914 32 099654 31 099395 30 10.099136 29 098876 28 098617 27 098358 26 098099 25 097840 24 097581 23 097321 22 097062 21 096803 20 10.096545 19 096286 18 096027 17 095768 16 095509 15 095250 14 094992 13 094733 IS 094471 11 0942 16J 10
l\j
104588 10 104328 104068 103808 103548 103288 103029 102769 102509 102249 101990 10.101730 101470 101211 100951 100092 100432 100173
50 49
48
47 46 45
44
43
4C 4'
0939'57
9 8 7 6 5
4 3 2
I
M
(
51
Degrees.
SINES
M
"~o" 9
1
.
AND TANGENTS.
C..>ine
1
(39 Degrees.)
Tai.ij.
.^im.
l>1
1).
D.
C.tang.
79SS72
7990^8
:
3 4 5 6
1
7 8 9
10
11
12 13 14 15 16
17
18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33
34 35
36
37
38 39 40
41
799184 799339 799495 799651 799805 799902 800117 800272 800427 9.800582 800737 800892 801047 801201 801356 801511 801665 801819 801973 9.802128 802282 802430 802589 802743 80289? 803050 803204 803357 803511 9.N03664 803817 803970 804123 804276 804428 804581 804734 804886
80.5039
9.890503 890400 890298 890195 890093 889990 889888 889785 889682 889579 889477 9.889374
170 9.908369
171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171
8S92n
889168 258 889064 888961 258 888858 257 888755 257 888651 257 888548 257 888444 257_ 257 9.888341 888237 256 888134 256 888030 256 887926 256 887822 256 887718 256 887614 256 887510 255 887406 2.55 255 9.887302 887198 255 2.55 887093 8S69S9 255 886885 2.54
2.58
172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 173
908628 908886 909144 909402 909660 909918 910177 910435 910693 910951 9.911209 911467 911724 911982 912240 912498 912756 913014 913271
913.529
10.0916311 60 0913721 59
173 9.913787 914044 173 914302 173 914.560 173 914817 173 91.5075 173 173 91.5332 915590 173 91.5847 173 916104 174
254
2.54
174 9.916362 174 916619 174 916877 174 917134 917391 174 8867.^0 174 917648 174 917905 8866T6 174 918163 88657 886466 174 918420 886362 175 918677
I
42 43 44 45 46 47 43 49 50
51
9.805191 805343
80.5495
253
2.53 2.53
1
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
805647 805799 80595 806103 806254 806406 806557 9.806709 806860 807011 807163 807314 807465 807615 807766 807917 808067
CDsiiie
253
2.53 2.53 2.53
176 9.918934 919191 175 919448 175 919705 175 919962 175 920219 175 88.5627 175 920476 885.522 175 920733 885416 175 920990 885311 176 921247
'
9.88.5205 176 9.921.503 885100 176 921760 884994 176 922017 884889 176 922274 922530 884783 176 884677 176 922787 884572 176 923044 884466 176 923300 92.3557 884360 176 923S13 884254 177
Sine
1
430 430 430 430 430 430 430 430 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 427 427
091114 090856 090598 090340 090082 089823 089565 089307 089049 10.088791 088533 088276 0880 IS 087760 087502 087244 086986 080729 086471 10.086213
08.5956
58 57
56 55 54 53
5^2
51 50
49 48
47 46 45 44
43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36 35 34
28
2'i
083123 082866 082609 082352 082095 081837 081580 081323 10.081066 080809 080552 080295 080038 079781 079524 079267 079010 078753 10.078497 078240 077983 077726 077470 077213 076956 076700 076443 076187
Tn.
26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11
10
'9
8 7 6 5
4
3 2
1
_
1
Cotang.
1
M.
1
50 Degrees.
58
(iO
Siiie
Degrees.)
n.
1
a TABLE JP LOGARITHMIC
!
T
1
<>
M.
Co.^iiie
Tane.
D.
Cotanp.
4
5 6 7 8 9 10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
52
r,o
54 55 56 57 58 59 60
9.80S067 808218 808368 808519 808669 808819 808969 809119 809269 809419 809569 9.809718 809868 810017 810167 810316 810465 810614 810763 810912 811061 9.811210 811358 811507 811655 811804 811952 812100 812248 812396 812544 9.812692 812840 812988 813135 813283 813430 813578 813725 813872 814019 9.814166 814313 814460 814607 814753 814900 815046 815193 815339 815485 9.815631 815778 815924 816069 816215 816361 816507 816652 816798 816943
Cosine
250 250 250 250 250 250 249 249 249 249 249 249 248 248 248 248 248 248 248 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 243 243 243 243 243 243 243 242 242 242 242
9.884254! 177 9.923813 884148 177 924070 884042 177 924327 883936 177 924583 883829 177 924840 883723 177 925096 883617 177 925352 883510 177 925609 883404 177 925865 883297 178 926122 883191 178 926378 9.883084 178 9.926634 882977 178 926890 882871 178 927147 882764 178 927403 882657 178 927659 882550 178 927915 882443 178 928171 882336 179 928427 882229 179 928683 882121 179 928940 9.882014 179 9.929196 881907 179 929452 881799 179 929708 881692 179 929964 881584 179 930220 881477 179 930475 881369 179 930731 881261 180 930987 881153 180 931243 881046 180 931499
9.880938 880830 880722 880613 880505 880397 880289 880180 880072 879963 9.879855 879746 879637 879529 879420 879311 879202 879093 878984 878875 9.878766 878656 878547 878438 878328 878219
8781091
181 181 181 181 181 181 182 182 182 182
182 182 182 182 182 183 183 183 183 183
932266 932522 932778 933033 933289 933545 933800 934056 9.934311 934567 934823 935078 935333 935589 935844 936100 936355 936610 9.936866 937121 937376 937632 937887 938142 938398 938653 938908 939163
Colang.
427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 427 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425
10.076187 075930 075673 075417 075160 074904 074648 074391 074135 073878 073622 10.073366 073110 072853 072597 072341 072085 071829 071573 071317 071060 10.070804 070548 070292 070036 069780 069525 069269 069013 068757 068501 10.068245 067990 067734 067478 067222 066967 066711 066455 066200 065944 10.065689 065433 065177 064922 064667 064411 064156 063900 063645 063390 10.063134 062879 062624 062368 062113 061858 061602 061347 061092 060837
r:i..g.
1
60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
11
10
8 7 6 r
4 3 2
I
M.
I
49 Degrees
SINES
M.
Sine
1
AND TANGENTg
Cosine
1
\^4\
ToTitr.
Degrees .)
D.
69
Cotang.
1
D.
D.
~0 9.816943
1
2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10
11
12 13
14 15 16 17
18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51
52 53 54 65 56
57 58
59 60
1
817088 817233 817379 817524 817668 817813 817958 818103 818247 818392 9.818536 818681 818825 818969 819113 819257 819401 819545 819689 819832 9.819976 820120 820263 820406 820550 820693 820836 820979 821122 821265 9.821407 821550 821693 821835 821977 822120 822262 822404 822546 822688 9.822830 822972 823114 823256 823397 823539 823680 823821 823963 824104 9.824245 824386 824527 824668 824808 824949 825090 825230 825371 826511
Cosine
9.877780 877670 877560 877450 877340 241 877230 241 877120 241 877010 241 876899 241 876789 241 876678 241 240 9.876568 876457 240 876347 240 876236 240 876125 240 876014 240. 875904 240 875793 239 875682 239 875571 239 239 9.875459 87534S 239 875237 239 875126 239 875014 238 874903 238 874791 238 874680 238 874568 238 874456 238 238 9.874344 874232 238 874121 237 874009 237 873896 237 873784 237 873672 237 873560 237 873448 237 873335 236 236 9.873223 873110 236 872998 236 872885 236 872772 236 872659 236 872547 235 872434 235 872321 235 872208 235 235 9.872095 871981 235 871868 235 871755 234 871641 234 871528 234 871414 234 871301 234 871187 234 87 1 073 234
242 242 242 242
Sine
1
183 9.939163 183 939418 183 939673 183 939928 183 940183 184 940438 184 940694 184 940949 184 941204 184 941458 184 941714
184 9.941968 184 942223 184 942478 185 942733 185 942988
185 185 185 ^85 185
943243 943498 943752 944007 944262 185 9.944517 185 944771 185 945026
186 186 186 186 186 186 186
186 187
94,5281
187 187 187 187 187 187 187 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 190
945535 945790 946045 946299 946554 946808 9.947063 947318 947572 947826 948081 948336 948590 948844 949099 949353 9.949607 949862 950116 950370 950625 950879 951133 951388 951642 951896 9.952150 952405 952659 952913 953167
953421
953675
953929 954183 954437
Coiang.
425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 423 423 423 423 423 423
'0.060837 060582 060327 060072 059817 059562 059306 059051 058796 058542 058286 10.058032 057777 057522 057267 057012 056757 056502 056248 055993 055738 10.055483 055229 054974 054719
0.54465
60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51
50
49 48
47
46 45 44 43 42
41
054210 053955 053701 053446 053192 10.052937 052682 052428 052174 051919 051664 051410 051156 050901 050647 10.050393 050138 049884 049630 049375
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
048358 11 048104 10 10.047850 9 047595 8 047341 7 047087 6 046833 5 046579 4 046325 3 046071 2
04.5817
1
045563
Tang.
1
M.

43 Deprees.
60
M
1
1
(42 Degrees.)
Fine
D.
1
a TABLE OF LOG.\KITHMlC

Cosine
D.
Tanir.
1
!)
CV,I;,nc.
~0 9.825511
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 2G 27 28 29 30
31 32
33 34 35 36 37 38
39
40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48
19
825651 825791 825931 826071 826211 826351 826491 826631 826770 826910 9.827049 827189 827328 827467 827606 827745 827884 82S023 828162 828301 9.828439 828578 828716 828855 828993 829131 829269 829407 829545 829683 9.829821 829959 830097 830234 830372 830509 830646 830784 830921 831058 9.831195 831332 831469 831606 831742 831879 832015 832152 832288 832425 9.832561
8.32697
234 233 233 233 233 233 233 233 233 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232
231 231 231 231
52 53
54
56 56 57 58 59 60
230 230 230 230 230 230 229 229 229 229 229 229 229 229 228 228 228 228 228 228 228 228 227 227 227 227 227 227 227 226 226 226 226 226 226 226
9.871073 870960 870846 870732 870618 870504 870390 870276 870161 870047 869933 9.8G9818 869704 869589 869474 869360 869245 869130 869015 868900 868785 9.868670 868555 868440 868324 868209 868093 867978 867862 867747 867631 9.867515 867399 867283 867167 867051 866935 866819 866703 866586 866470 9.866353 886237 866120 866004 865887 865770 865653 865536
190 9.954437 190 9.54691 190 954945 190 955200 190 955454 190 955707 190 955961 190 956215 190 956469
191 191
191 191 191 191 191 191 191
194 194 194 195 195 195 195 195 86.5419 195 865302 195
195 195 195 196 196 196 196
196
9.865185 865068 864950 864833 864716 864598 864481 864363 864245 864127
Sine
1
196 196
1
956723 956977 9.957231 957485 957739 957993 958246 958500 958754 959008 959262 959516 9.959769 960023 960277 960531 960784 961038 961291 961545 961799 962052 9.962306 962560 962813 963067 963320 963574 963827 964081 964335 964588 9.964842 965095 965345 965602 965855 966109 966362 966616 966869 967123 9.967376 967629 967883 968136 968389 968643 968896 969149 969403 969656
Colaiii:.
I
423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423
423
10.0455631 60
423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422
045309 045055 044800 044546 044293 044039 043785 043531 043277 043023 10.042769 042515 042261 042007 041754 041500 041246 040992 040738 040484 10.040231 039977 039723 039469 039216 038962 038709 038455
037948 10.037694 037440 037187
0.36933
59
.58 .57
56 55
54
53 52
51
50
49 48
47
46 45 44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36 35 34
33 32
0,38201 31
30 29
28
27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
032117 031864
03I61I
8 7 6 5
4 3
2
N.
47 Dsgrees.
R
1
SINES
Sine
1
AND TANGENTS
Cosine
1
1
(43 Degrees.)
Tang.
1
8i
CotaiiR.
1
D.
n.
D.
2 3
i
5
6
7
8 9 10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43
44 45 46 47 48
49 50
51
52 53 54 55 56 57 68 69 eo
9.833783 833919 834054 834189 834325 834460 834595 834730 834865 834999 835134 9.835269 835403 835538 835672 835807 835941 836075 836209 836343 836477 9.836611 836745 836878 837012 837146 837279 837412 837546 837679 837812 9.837945 838078 838211 838344 838477 838610 838742 838875 839007 839140 9.839272 839404 839536 839668 839800 839932 840064 840196 840328 840459 9.840591 840722 840854 840985 841116 841247 841378 841509 841640 841771
Cosine
1
226 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 223 223 223 223 223 223 223 222 222 222 222 222 222 222 222 221 221 221 221 221 221 221 221 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 218 218 218 218 218 218
1
9.864127 864010 863892 863774 863650 863538 863419 863301 863183 863064 862946 9.862827 862709 862590 862471 662353 862234 862115 861996 861877 861758 9.861638 861519 861400 861280 861161 861041 860922 860802 860682 860562 9.860442 860322 860202 860082 859962 859842 859721 859601 859480 859360 9.859239 859119 858998 858877 858756 858635 858514 858393 858272 858151 9.858029 857908 857786 857665 857543 857422 857300 857178 857056 856934
1
196 9.969656 196 969909 197 970162 197 970416 197 970669 197 970922 197 971175 197 971429 197 971682 197 971935 198 972188 198 9.972441 198 972694 198 972948 198 973201 198 973454 198 973707 198 973960 198 974213 198 974466 199 974719 199 9.974973 975226 199 975479 199 975732 199 199 975985 976238 199 976491 199 199 976744
200 976997 200 977250 200 9.977503 200 9VV756 200 978009 200 978262 200 978515 200 978768 201 979021 979274 201 201 979527 979780 201 201 9.980033 980286 201 980538 201 980791 201 202 981044 981297 202 981550 202 981803 202 982056 202 982309 202 202 9.982562 982814 202 983067 202 983320 203 983573 203 983826 203 203 984079 984331 203 203 984584 984837 203
422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 421 421
421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421
10.030344 60 030091 59 029838 58 029584 57 029331 56 029078 55 028825 54 028571 53 028318 52 028065 51 027812 50 10.027559 49 027306 48 027052 47 026799 46 026546 45 026293 44 026040 43 025787 42 025534 41 025281 40 10.025027 59 024774 38 024521 37 024268 36 024015 35 023762 34 023509 33 023256 32 023003 31 022750 30 10.022497 29 022244 28 021991 27 021738 26 021485 25 021232 24 020979 23 020726 22 020473 21 020220 20 10.019967 19 019714 18 019462 17 019209 10 018956 15 018703 14 018450 13 018197 12 017944 11 017691 10 10.017438 9 017186 8 016933, 7 016680 6 016427 5 016174 4 015921 3 015669 2 015416 I
0l5l63i
Tar.g.
I 1
Sine
j
Cotane.
M.
46 Degrees.
62
{U
Sine
Degrees.;
I).
a TAliLF
(
..
Lrt'GARITHMlC
1
i
2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9
Ci)<ine
D.
T;uij.
D.
Cotaiv.'.
10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 2l 22 23
24 25 26
27
28 23 30
31
9.841771 841902 842033 842163 842294 842424 842555 842685 842815 842946 843076 9.843206 843336 843466 843595 843725 843855 843984 844114 844243 844372 9.844502 844631 844760 844889 845018 845147 845276 845405 845533 845662 9.845790
84,5919
218 218 218 217 217 217 217 217 217 217 217 216 216 216 216 216 216 216 215 215 215 215 215 215 215 215 215 214
32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39
40
41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
846047 846175 846304 846432 846560 846688 846816 846944 9.847071 847199 847327 847454
847582 847709
214 214 214 214 214 214 214 214 213 213 213 213 213 213 213 213
212
847836 847964 848091 848218 51 9.848345 848472 52 53 848599 848726 54 848852 55 56 848979 849106 57 843232 58 849359 59 60 849485
Cosine
9.856934 856812 856690 856568 856446 856323 853201 856078 855956 855833 855711 9.855588 855465 855342 855219 855096 854973 854850 854727 854603 854480 9.854356 854233 854109 853986 853862 853738 853614 853490 853366 853242 9.853118 852994 852869 852745 852620 852496 852371 852247 852122 851997 9.851872 851747 851622 851497 851372 851246 851121 850996 850870 850745 9.850619 850493 850368 850242 850116 849990 849864 849738 849611 849485
Sine
1
204 204 204 204 204 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 206 206 206 206 206 2a6 206 206 206 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 208 208 208 208 208 208 208 208 209 209 209 209 209 209 209 209 210 210 210 210 998737J 210 998989 210 999242 210 999495 999748 210 210 10. 000000
Col an;;.
Depre^fl.
9.984837 985090 985343 985696 985848 986101 986354 986607 986860 987112 987365 9.987618 987871 988123 988376 988Q29 988882 989134 989387 989640 989893 9.990145 990398 990651 990903 991156 991409 991662 991914 992167 992420 9.992672 992925 993178 993430 993683 993936 994189 994441 994694 994947 9.995199 995452 995705 995957 996210 996463 996715 996968 997221 997473 9.997726 997979 998231 998484
421
421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421
10.015163 014910 014657 014404 014152 013899 013646 013393 013140 012888 012635 0.012382 012129 011877 011624 011371 011118 010866 010613 010360 010107 10.009855 009602 009349 009097 008844 008591 008338 008086 007833 007580 10 007328 007075 006822 006570 006317 006064 005811 005559 005306 005053 10.004801 004548 004205 004043 003790 003537 003285 003032 002779 002527
10. 1102274
60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
41
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
31
39 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
19 18
17
16 15 14 13 12 11 10
y02021
9 8 7 6 5
4 3
2
1
"1
U.
4.%
QA 529
U513
1851
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