Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 31

286

Chapter 6: Maxwells Equations for Time-Varying Fields


Lesson #37
Chapter Section: 6-1, 6-2 Topics: Faradays law, stationary loop in changing magnetic field Highlights: Faradays law EMF

Special Illustrations: Example 6-1 Example 6-2 CD-ROM Demo 6.1 CD-ROM Modules 6.1 and 6.2

287

Lesson #38
Chapter Section: 6-3, 6-4 Topics: Ideal transformer, moving conductor Highlights: Transformer voltage and current relations EMF for moving conductor

Special Illustrations: CD-ROM Modules 6.3 and 6.4 CD-ROM Demo 6.2

288

Lesson #39
Chapter Section: 6-5, 6-6 Topics: EM Generator, moving conductor in changing field Highlights: Motor and generator reciprocity EMF for combination of motional and transformer

Special Illustrations: Technology Brief on EMF Sensors (CD-ROM)

EMF Sensors An electromotive force (emf) sensor is a device that can generate an induced voltage in response to an external stimulus. Three types of emf sensors are profiled in this Technical Brief: the piezoelectric transducer, the Faraday magnetic flux sensor, and the thermocouple.

Piezoelectric Transducers Piezoelectricity refers to the property of certain crystals, such as quartz, to become electrically polarized when the crystal is subjected to mechanical pressure, thereby exhibiting a voltage across it. The crystal consists of polar domains represented by equivalent dipoles (A). Under the absence of an external force, the polar domains are randomly oriented throughout the material (A1), but when compressive or tensile (stretching) stress is applied to the crystal, the polar domains align themselves along one of the principal axes of the crystal, leading to a net polarization (electric charge) at the crystal surfaces (A2 and A3). Compression and stretching generate voltages of opposite polarity. The piezoelectric effect (piezein means to press

or squeeze in Greek) was discovered by the Curie brothers, Pierre and Paul-Jacques, in 1880, and a year later Lippmann predicted the converse property, namely that if subjected to an electric field, the crystal would change in shape. Thus, the piezoelectric effect is a reversible (bidirectional) electro-mechanical process.

289

Lesson #40
Chapter Section: 6-7, 6-8 Topics: Displacement current, boundary conditions Highlights: Concept of displacement current Boundary conditions for the dynamic case

Special Illustrations: Example 6-7

290

Lesson #41
Chapter Section: 6-9, 6-10 Topics: Charge-current continuity, charge dissipation Highlights: Continuity equation Relaxation time constant

Special Illustrations:

291

Lesson #42
Chapter Section: 6-11 Topics: EM potentials Highlights: Retarded potential Relation of potentials to fields in the dynamic case

Special Illustrations: Example 6-8

292

CHAPTER 6

Chapter 6
Sections 6-1 to 6-6: Faradays Law and its Applications
Problem 6.1 The switch in the bottom loop of Fig. 6-17 (P6.1) is closed at t 0 and then opened at a later time t1 . What is the direction of the current I in the top loop (clockwise or counterclockwise) at each of these two times?
R2 I + R1

Figure P6.1: Loops of Problem 6.1.

Solution: The magnetic coupling will be strongest at the point where the wires of the two loops come closest. When the switch is closed the current in the bottom loop will start to ow clockwise, which is from left to right in the top portion of the bottom loop. To oppose this change, a current will momentarily ow in the bottom of the top loop from right to left. Thus the current in the top loop is momentarily clockwise when the switch is closed. Similarly, when the switch is opened, the current in the top loop is momentarily counterclockwise. Problem 6.2 The loop in Fig. 6-18 (P6.2) is in the xy plane and B zB0 sin t with B0 positive. What is the direction of I ( or ) at (a) t 0, (b) t 4, and (c) t 2? Solution: I Vemf R. Since the single-turn loop is not moving or changing shape m tr with time, Vemf 0 V and Vemf Vemf . Therefore, from Eq. (6.8),

If we take the surface normal to be z, then the right hand rule gives positive direction. owing current to be in the

A B0 sin t R t

AB0 cos t R

tr Vemf R

1 R

B ds S t

(A)

CHAPTER 6
z

293

R I x

Figure P6.2: Loop of Problem 6.2.

where A is the area of the loop. (a) A, and R are positive quantities. At t 0, cos t 1 so I 0 and the current is owing in the direction (so as to produce an induced magnetic eld that opposes B). 2 2 so I 0 and the current is still owing in the (b) At t 4, cos t direction. (c) At t 2, cos t 0 so I 0. There is no current owing in either direction. Problem 6.3 A coil consists of 100 turns of wire wrapped around a square frame of sides 0.25 m. The coil is centered at the origin with each of its sides parallel to the x- or y-axis. Find the induced emf across the open-circuited ends of the coil if the magnetic eld is given by (a) B z 20e 3t (T),

Vemf

100

3t

d 20e dt

0 25

375e

3t

(V)

where N 100 and the surface normal was chosen to be in the (a) For B z20e 3t (T),

0 125

0 125

z direction.

Vemf

B ds

B z dx dy

d dt

d dt

0 125

0 125

m Solution: Since the coil is not moving or changing shape, Vemf tr . From Eq. (6.6), Vemf Vemf

(c) B

(b) B

z 20 cos x cos 103 t (T), z 20 cos x sin 2y cos 103 t (T). 0 V and

294

CHAPTER 6
z20 cos x cos 103 t (T),

Problem 6.4 A stationary conducting loop with internal resistance of 0.5 is placed in a time-varying magnetic eld. When the loop is closed, a current of 5 A ows through it. What will the current be if the loop is opened to create a small gap and a 2- resistor is connected across its open ends? Solution: Vemf is independent of the resistance which is in the loop. Therefore, when the loop is intact and the internal resistance is only 0 5 ,

When the small gap is created, the total resistance in the loop is innite and the current ow is zero. With a 2- resistor in the gap,

Problem 6.5 A circular-loop TV antenna with 0.02 m 2 area is in the presence of a uniform-amplitude 300-MHz signal. When oriented for maximum response, the loop develops an emf with a peak value of 30 (mV). What is the peak magnitude of B of the incident wave? Solution: TV loop antennas have one turn. At maximum orientation, Eq. (6.5) evaluates to B ds BA for a loop of area A and a uniform magnetic eld with magnitude B B . Since we know the frequency of the eld is f 300 MHz, we can express B as B B0 cos t 0 with 2 300 106 rad/s and 0 an arbitrary reference phase. From Eq. (6.6),

30

10

AB0

Vemf is maximum when sin t

1. Hence, 0 02 B0 6 108

Vemf

AB0 sin t

d dt

d B0 cos t dt

 

Vemf 2

05

25V 25

Vemf

5A

05

25V

0 125 y

0 125

1 (A)

Vemf

100

20 cos 103 t

d dt

(c) For B

z20 cos x sin 2y cos 103 t (T),

0 125

0 125 y

0 125

0 125

cos x sin 2y dx dy

Vemf

100

20 cos 103 t

d dt

(b) For B

0 125

0 125

cos x dx dy

124 6 sin 103 t

(kV)

CHAPTER 6

295 0 8 (nA/m).

Problem 6.6 The square loop shown in Fig. 6-19 (P6.6) is coplanar with a long, straight wire carrying a current

(a) Determine the emf induced across a small gap created in the loop. (b) Determine the direction and magnitude of the current that would ow through a 4- resistor connected across the gap. The loop has an internal resistance of 1 .
z

10cm I(t) 10cm 5cm


y

Figure P6.6: Loop coplanar with long wire (Problem 6.6). Solution: (a) The magnetic eld due to the wire is

where in the plane of the loop,

x and r

y. The ux passing through the loop

0 I 2r

0 I 2y

I t

which yields B0

5 cos 2

104 t

(A)

296 is

CHAPTER 6

5 cm

(b)

At t 0, B is a maximum, it points in x-direction, and since it varies as 4 t , it is decreasing. Hence, the induced current has to be CCW when cos 2 10 looking down on the loop, as shown in the gure. Problem 6.7 The rectangular conducting loop shown in Fig. 6-20 (P6.7) rotates at 6,000 revolutions per minute in a uniform magnetic ux density given by

Determine the current induced in the loop if its internal resistance is 0 5 . Solution:
S

Iind

 

Vemf

10

sin 200t

6 103 t 200t (rad/s) 60 3 10 5 cos 200t (Wb) d 3 10 5 200 sin 200t 18 85 dt Vemf 37 7 sin 200t (mA) 05

(V)

B dS

y 50

10

y2

10

cos t

10

cos t

y 50

(mT)

Iind

sin 2

104 t

1 38 sin 2

 

Vemf 4 1

69

10 5

 

69

10

sin 2

104 t

(V)

104 t

 

Vemf

11

104 sin 2

d dt

104 t

 

11

10

10

 

0 I

10 2 4 10

B ds

15 cm

0 I x 10 (cm) dy 2y 1 15 ln 5 7 5 cos 2 104 t 10 1 2 7 cos 2 104t (Wb) x

11

(mA)

CHAPTER 6
z

297

2c m

B 3cm B y

(t)
x

Figure P6.7: Rotating loop in a magnetic eld (Problem 6.7). The direction of the current is CW (if looking at it along x-direction) when the loop is in the rst quadrant (0 2). The current reverses direction in the second quadrant, and reverses again every quadrant. Problem 6.8 A rectangular conducting loop 5 cm 10 cm with a small air gap in one of its sides is spinning at 7200 revolutions per minute. If the eld B is normal to the loop axis and its magnitude is 6 10 6 T, what is the peak voltage induced across the air gap? Solution: 2 rad/cycle 7200 cycles/min 240 rad/s 60 s/min 5 cm 10 cm 100 cm/m 2 5 0 10 3 m2
3 6

Problem 6.9 A 50-cm-long metal rod rotates about the z-axis at 90 revolutions per minute, with end 1 xed at the origin as shown in Fig. 6-21 (P6.9). Determine the induced emf V12 if B z 2 10 4 T.

2 rad/cycle 90 cycles/min 60 s/min

Solution: Since B is constant, Vemf is given by u r, where

m Vemf . The velocity u for any point on the bar

3 rad/s

 

Vemf

peak

AB0

50

10

240

10

22 62

From Eqs. (6.36) or (6.38), Vemf

AB0 sin t; it can be seen that the peak voltage is V

 

 

298
z

CHAPTER 6

B 1 y 2 x

Figure P6.9: Rotating rod of Problem 6.9.

From Eq. (6.24),

Problem 6.10 The loop shown in Fig. 6-22 (P6.10) moves away from a wire carrying a current I1 10 (A) at a constant velocity u y7 5 (m/s). If R 10 and the direction of I2 is as dened in the gure, nd I2 as a function of y0 , the distance between the wire and the loop. Ignore the internal resistance of the loop. Solution: Assume that the wire carrying current I1 is in the same plane as the loop. The two identical resistors are in series, so I2 Vemf 2R, where the induced voltage is due to motion of the loop and is given by Eq. (6.26):

The magnetic eld B is created by the wire carrying I1 . Choosing z to coincide with the direction of I1 , Eq. (5.30) gives the external magnetic eld of a long wire to be

0 I1 2r

Vemf

B dl

m Vemf

 

10

0 25

236

10 r

05

10

r 05 0 4 2

r 05

r dr

V12

B dl

z2

10

m Vemf

3r

r dr

CHAPTER 6
z 10 cm R I1 = 10 A 20 cm I2 u R y0 u

299

Figure P6.10: Moving loop of Problem 6.10.

z dz and the limits of Integrating around the four sides of the loop with dl integration chosen in accordance with the assumed direction of I2 , and recognizing m that only the two sides without the resistors contribute to Vemf , we have

and therefore

Problem 6.11 The conducting cylinder shown in Fig. 6-23 (P6.11) rotates about its axis at 1,200 revolutions per minute in a radial eld given by

r 6 (T)

y0

01

 

I2

m Vemf 2R

150

1 y0

 

10

(nA)

 

 

 

10

10 7 5 0 2 1 1 2 y0 y0 0 1 1 1 (V) y0 y0 0 1

r y0

02

r y0 0 1

m Vemf

z dz

02

0 I1 u 2r

0 I1 u 2r


z dz

 

 

yu

ru

For positive values of y0 in the y-z plane, y

r, so 0 I1 2r z 0 I1 u 2r

300
z

CHAPTER 6

5cm

10cm +

Sliding contact

Figure P6.11: Rotating cylinder in a magnetic eld (Problem 6.11). The cylinder, whose radius is 5 cm and height 10 cm, has sliding contacts at its top and bottom connected to a voltmeter. Determine the induced voltage. Solution: The surface of the cylinder has velocity u given by

Problem 6.12 The electromagnetic generator shown in Fig. 6-12 is connected to an electric bulb with a resistance of 150 . If the loop area is 0.1 m 2 and it rotates at 3,600 revolutions per minute in a uniform magnetic ux density B 0 0 4 T, determine the amplitude of the current generated in the light bulb. Solution: From Eq. (6.38), the sinusoidal voltage generated by the a-c generator is V0 sin t C0 . Hence, Vemf AB0 sin t C0

Problem 6.13 The circular disk shown in Fig. 6-24 (P6.13) lies in the xy plane and rotates with uniform angular velocity about the z-axis. The disk is of radius a and is present in a uniform magnetic ux density B zB0 . Obtain an expression for the emf induced at the rim relative to the center of the disk.

V0 R

15 08 150

01

(A)

 

V0

AB0

01

3 600 60

04

15 08

(V)

V12

B dl

r 6 z dz

01

3 77

(V)

1 200 60

10

(m/s)

CHAPTER 6
z

301

Figure P6.13: Rotating circular disk in a magnetic eld (Problem 6.13).

r u

Figure P6.13: (a) Velocity vector u. Solution: At a radial distance r, the velocity is

where is the angle in the xy plane shown in the gure. The induced voltage is

Section 6-7: Displacement Current


Problem 6.14 The plates of a parallel-plate capacitor have areas 10 cm 2 each and are separated by 2 cm. The capacitor is lled with a dielectric material with

B0

 

z is along r. Hence,
a

r dr

B0 a2 2

 

 

B dl

z B0 r dr

302

CHAPTER 6

Problem 6.15 A coaxial capacitor of length l 6 cm uses an insulating dielectric material with r 9. The radii of the cylindrical conductors are 0.5 cm and 1 cm. If the voltage applied across the capacitor is

what is the displacement current?


l

V(t)

Figure P6.15: Solution: To nd the displacement current, we need to know E in the dielectric space between the cylindrical conductors. From Eqs. (4.114) and (4.115),

Hence,

b a

V r ln

50 sin 120t r ln 2

 

Q b ln 2l a

Q 2rl

72 1 sin 120t r

V t

50 sin 120t

(V)

Id 2b

(V/m)

30

106 sin 2

Id

A V0 sin t d 4 8 854 10 12 10 10 2 10 2 0 33 sin 2 106 t (mA)

106 t

Solution: Since the voltage is of the form given by Eq. (6.46) with V0 2 106 rad/s, the displacement current is given by Eq. (6.49):

40 , and the voltage across it is given by V t displacement current.

30 cos 2

10 6 t (V). Find the 30 V and

2a

CHAPTER 6

303

The displacement current ows between the conductors through an imaginary cylindrical surface of length l and radius r. The current owing from the outer conductor to the inner conductor along r crosses surface S where

Hence,

Alternatively, since the coaxial capacitor is lossless, its displacement current has to be equal to the conduction current owing through the wires connected to the voltage sources. The capacitance of a coaxial capacitor is given by (4.116) as

The current is

which is the same answer we obtained before. Problem 6.16 The parallel-plate capacitor shown in Fig. 6-25 (P6.16) is lled with a lossy dielectric material of relative permittivity r and conductivity . The separation between the plates is d and each plate is of area A. The capacitor is connected to a time-varying voltage source V t . (a) Obtain an expression for Ic , the conduction current owing between the plates inside the capacitor, in terms of the given quantities.

50 cos 120t

0 82 cos 120t

dV dt

2l 120 ln b a

2l ln b a

0 82 cos 120t

(A)

5 75

10

120

2l cos 120t

Id

sin 120t

D S t

5 75

10

r 2rl

sin 120t

5 75

10

(C/m2 )

r9

8 85

10

12

E r 0 E 72 1 sin 120t r

r 2rl

(A)

304
I A

CHAPTER 6

V(t)

Figure P6.16: Parallel-plate capacitor containing a lossy dielectric material (Problem 6.16). (b) Obtain an expression for Id , the displacement current owing inside the capacitor. (c) Based on your expression for parts (a) and (b), give an equivalent-circuit representation for the capacitor. (d) Evaluate the values of the circuit elements for A 4 cm 2 , d 0 5 cm, r 4, 2 5 (S/m), and V t 10 cos 3 103 t (V). Solution: (a)

E V D A V Id A A d t t d t (c) The conduction current is directly proportional to V , as characteristic of a resistor, whereas the displacement current varies as V t, which is characteristic of a capacitor. Hence, d A and C R A d (d)
4

(b)

0 5 10 2 2 5 4 10

   

d A

Ic

V R

V A d

CHAPTER 6
I
+

305

V(t)
-

Ic

Id C

V(t)
-

Actual Circuit

Equivalent Circuit

Figure P6.16: (a) Equivalent circuit.

Problem 6.17 An electromagnetic wave propagating in seawater has an electric eld with a time variation given by E zE0 cos t. If the permittivity of water is 810 and its conductivity is 4 (S/m), nd the ratio of the magnitudes of the conduction current density to displacement current density at each of the following frequencies: (a) 1 kHz, (b) 1 MHz, (c) 1 GHz, (d) 100 GHz. Solution: From Eq. (6.44), the displacement current density is given by

The displacement current is negligible. (b) At f 1 MHz, 2 106 rad/s, and J

Jd

106

81

8 854

10

12

Jd

103

81

8 854

10

12

888

(a) At f

103 rad/s, and

1 kHz,

Jd

jr 0 E

r 0

and, from Eq. (4.67), the conduction current is J taking the ratio of the magnitudes,

Jd

D t

E t E. Converting to phasors and

888

103

 

8 85

10 12 4 0 5 10 2

10

2 84

10

12

306 The displacement current is practically negligible. (c) At f 1 GHz, 2 109 rad/s, and J

CHAPTER 6

Neither the displacement current nor the conduction current are negligible. (d) At f 100 GHz, 2 1011 rad/s, and

The conduction current is practically negligible.


Sections 6-9 and 6-10: Continuity Equation and Charge Dissipation


Problem 6.18 At t 0, charge density v0 was introduced into the interior of a material with a relative permittivity r 9. If at t 1 s the charge density has dissipated down to 10 3 v0 , what is the conductivity of the material? Solution: We start by using Eq. (6.61) to nd r :
t r

or

which gives

or

 

But r

90 . Hence 90 r 9

8 854 10 1 45 10 7

12

55

10

10 6 ln 10 3

1 45

10

ln 10

10 6 r

10 3 v0

v0 e

10

v t

v0 e

Jd

1011

81

8 854

10

12

(s)

(S/m)

 

Jd

109

81

8 854

10

12

8 88

10


3

0 888

CHAPTER 6
Problem 6.19 If the current density in a conducting medium is given by

307

determine the corresponding charge distribution v x y z;t . Solution: Eq. (6.58) is given by

The divergence of J is

Using this result in Eq. (24) and then integrating both sides with respect to t gives

where C0 is a constant of integration.

Problem 6.20 In a certain medium, the direction of current density J points in the radial direction in cylindrical coordinates and its magnitude is independent of both and z. Determine J, given that the charge density in the medium is

Solution: Based on the given information,

From Eq. (6.54),

v t

0 r cos t t

With J

Jz

0, in cylindrical coordinates the divergence is given by 1 rJr r r

r Jr r

0 r cos t

C/m3

0 r sin t

J dt

8y cos t dt

8y cos t

8y sin t

y z x y z 2 4 y cos t y

xz2

v t

y4y2

z2x cos t

(24) C0

J x y z;t

xz2

y4y2

z2x cos t

308 Hence

CHAPTER 6

and

Problem 6.21 If we were to characterize how good a material is as an insulator by its resistance to dissipating charge, which of the following two materials is the better insulator?

Since it takes longer for charge to dissipate in fresh water, it is a better insulator than dry soil.

Sections 6-11: Electromagnetic Potentials


Problem 6.22 given by Ezt The electric eld of an electromagnetic wave propagating in air is 108 t

x4 cos 6

2z

y3 sin 6

For fresh water,

 

For dry soil,

Solution: Relaxation time constant r

. 25 10 4 80 10 3 25 104 s. 104 s.

108 t

Dry Soil: Fresh Water:

r r

2 5, 80,

10 10

4 3

(S/m) (S/m)

2z

r Jr

0 r2 sin t 3

Jr

0 r2 sin t 3

rJr

r 0

0 sin t

r3 3

0 sin t

0 r2 sin t

 

1 rJr r r rJr r r rJr dr 0 r

0 r sin t

r2 dr

(A/m2 )

(V/m)

CHAPTER 6
Find the associated magnetic eld H z t . Solution: Converting to phasor form, the electric eld is given by

309

which can be used with Eq. (6.87) to nd the magnetic eld:

Converting back to instantaneous values, this is

and, from Eq. (6.87),

which, together with the original phasor expression for H, implies that

r c

2 107 4 3 108

4 30

1 E j

1 H j

jk z5e jky j

jk2 x5e jky j2

(rad/m)

Solution: In phasor form, the magnetic eld is given by H Eq. (6.86),

Find k and the associated electric eld E.

Hyt

x5 cos 2

107 t

ky

(A/m)

x5e jky (A/m). From

Problem 6.23 The magnetic eld in a dielectric material with 0 is given by

4 0 ,

0 , and

Ht z

x8 0 sin 6

108 t

2z

y10 6 cos 6

108 t

2z

(mA/m)

 

 

Hz

1 E j x y z 1 y z x j j3e j2z 4e j2z 0 1 x6e j2z y j8e j2z j j x6 y j8 e j2z 8 6 10 4 10 7

jx8 0e

j2z

y10 6e
j2z

Ez

x4e

j2z

jy3e

j2z

(V/m)

(mA/m)

310 Inserting this value in the expression for E above, 2 107 10


12

CHAPTER 6

Problem 6.24

Given an electric eld

where E0 , a, , and k are constants, nd H. Solution:

Problem 6.25 The electric eld radiated by a short dipole antenna is given in spherical coordinates by

Find H R ;t .

Solution: Converting to phasor form, the electric eld is given by

ER

10 R

sin e

j2R

(V/m)

E R ;t

sin cos 6

10 R

108t

2R

z a cos ay sin t

kz

(V/m)

z a cos ay cos t

kz

E0 y k sin ay cos t kz E0 y k sin ay cos t kz

z a cos ay e

j 2

E0 y k sin ay

He jt

jkz

jkz jt

 

x E0 sin ay e jkz 1 E j 1 y E0 sin ay e jkz j z E0 y k sin ay z ja cos ay e

x E0 sin ay cos t

kz

E0 sin ay e y

xE0 sin ay cos t

kz

jkz

5e j4y

30

z941e j4y

4 30 4 8 854

30

(V/m)

CHAPTER 6
which can be used with Eq. (6.87) to nd the magnetic eld:

311

Converting back to instantaneous value, this is

Problem 6.26 A Hertzian dipole is a short conducting wire carrying an approximately constant current over its length l. If such a dipole is placed along the z-axis with its midpoint at the origin and if the current owing through it is I0 cos t, nd it (a) the retarded vector potential A R at an observation point Q R in a spherical coordinate system, and (b) the magnetic eld phasor H R . Assume l to be sufciently small so that the observation point is approximately equidistant to all points on the dipole; that is, assume that R R. Solution: (a) In phasor form, the current is given by I I0 . Explicitly writing the volume integral in Eq. (6.84) as a double integral over the wire cross section and a single integral over its length,

where s is the wire cross section. The wire is innitesimally thin, so that R is not a function of x or y and the integration over the cross section of the wire applies only to the current density. Recognizing that J zI0 s, and employing the relation R R,

l 2

l 2

dz

I0 4

l 2

jkR

I0 4

l 2

jkR

dz

I0 l e 4R

jkR

l 2

l 2

J Ri e R s

jkR

ds dz

H R ;t

53 sin cos 6 R

108 t

2R

(A/m)

HR

1 E j

1 1 E 1 R RE j R sin R R 1 2 10 2 e j2R sin j R R 2 10 2 2 sin e 6 108 4 10 7 R 53 sin e j2R (A/m) R

j2R

312

CHAPTER 6
R cos sin , and therefore

(b) From Eq. (6.85),

Problem 6.27

The magnetic eld in a given dielectric medium is given by

where x and z are in meters. Determine: (a) E, (b) the displacement current density J d , and (c) the charge density v . Solution: (a)

From the given expression for H,

107

(rad/s)

 

j0 1 x

12 sin 2z e

j0 6 cos 2z e

j0 1 x

j6 cos 2z e

j0 1 x

1 j

 

z z j0 1 x 0

y 6 cos 2z e j0 1 x e j 2 1 H j x y 1 y x j 0 j6 cos 2z e

y j6 cos 2z e

j0 1 x

j6 cos 2z e

j0 1 x

y 6 cos 2z sin 2

107 t

0 1x

y 6 cos 2z cos 2

107 t

y 6 cos 2z sin 2

107 t

0 1x

(A/m)

0 1x

 

cos

 

1 A

I0 l e jkR R cos sin 4 R I0 l 1 sin e jkR 4 R R jkR 1 I0 l sin e jk 4R R


e
jkR

R cos

In spherical coordinates, z

I0 l sin e 4R

jkR

CHAPTER 6

313

Hence,

Using the values for and , we have


7

(b)

or

(c) We can nd v from or from

Applying Maxwells equation,

yields

r 0

3 sin 2z sin 2

107 t

0 1x

3 sin 2z sin 2

1 5 cos 2z sin 2

107 t

0 1x

r 0

30 sin 2z cos 2

x z

107 t

0 1x

r 0

v v t

Ex x

Ez z

107t

0 1x

x 12 sin 2z sin 2

107 t

0 1x

z 0 6 cos 2z cos 2

Jd

Jd e jt

Jd

jD

Jd

x j12 sin 2z

z 0 6 cos 2z e

j0 1 x

107 t

0 1x

(A/m2 )

E D t

r 0 E

x 0 6 sin 2z

z j0 03 cos 2z

10 6 e

j0 1 x

(C/m2 )

x 30 sin 2z cos 2

10 t

0 1x

z 1 5 cos 2z sin 2

x 30 sin 2z

z j1 5 cos 2z

103 e

j0 1 x

(V/m)

c up

and

3 2

108 108

2 25 107t 0 1x (kV/m)

up

108


(m/s)

01

(rad/m)

314

CHAPTER 6

Problem 6.28 The transformer shown in the gure consists of a long wire coincident with the z-axis carrying a current I I0 cos t, coupling magnetic energy to a toroidal coil situated in the xy plane and centered at the origin. The toroidal core uses iron material with relative permeability r , around which 100 turns of a tightly wound coil serves to induce a voltage Vemf , as shown in the gure.
z

I Vemf + N b a c y

(a) Develop an expression for Vemf .

Solution: (a) We start by calculating the magnetic ux through the coil, noting that r, the distance from the wire varies from a to b

Vemf

B ds

I cI b ln x c dr 2r 2 a a d cN b dI N ln dt 2 a dt cNI0 b sin t (V) ln 2 a

(b) Calculate Vemf for f I0 50 A.

60 Hz, r

4000, a

Iron core with r

5 cm, b

6 cm, c

2 cm, and

CHAPTER 6
(b)

315

Problem 6.29 In wet soil, characterized by 10 2 (S/m), r 1, and r 36, at what frequency is the conduction current density equal in magnitude to the displacement current density? Solution: For sinusoidal wave variation, the phasor electric eld is

Problem 6.30

In free space, the magnetic eld is given by

(a) Determine k. (b) Determine E. (c) Determine Jd . Solution: (a) From the given expression, space, 6 k c 3

109 108

109 (rad/s), and since the medium is free 20 (rad/m)

36 cos 6 r

109 t

10

12

kz

(mA/m)

10 2 36 8 85

or

Jd

Jc

E E0 e jt E D jE0 e jt t t Jc 1 Jd 2 f 5 106 5 MHz

E0 e jt

Vemf

5 5 sin 377t

(V)

 

 

4000

10

10

100

60

50 ln 6 5

sin 377t

316 (b) Convert H to phasor:

CHAPTER 6

(c)

Jd

E t 13 6 r 0 cos 6 109 t 20z r t 13 60 6 109 r sin 6 109 t 20z r 0 72 sin 6 109 t 20z (A/m2 ) r r

(A/m2 )

36 e jkz (mA/m) r 1 H j0 H 1 1 r rH z j0 z r r z 36 jkz 1 36e jkz e r j0 z r r r j36k jkz 1 r e j0 r 36k 36 377 jkz 13 6 10 3 r e jkz r e e r 0 r r r Ee jt 13 6 r cos 6 109 t 20z (V/m) r

j20z

(V/m)