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Folded plates_ ncipLe Pri

Construction consisting of thin, flat elements of concrete, steel, timber, etc.,which are connected rigidly at angles with each other forming a cross section which is capable of carrying a load over a long span. Folded plates are assemblies of flat plates rigidly connected together along their edges in such a way so as to make the structural system capable of carrying loads without the need for additional supporting beams along mutual edges. The distinguishing feature of the folded plate is the ease in forming plane surfaces. Therefore, they are more adaptable to smaller areas than curved surfaces which require multiple use of forms for maximum economy A folded plate may be formed for about the same cost as a horizontal slab and has much less steel and concrete for the same spans.

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Longitudinal/Prismatic folding:
Longitudinal folding is characterized through uninterrupted and linked folding edges where parallel and skew up folds and down folds alternate. Single-layered longitudinal folding corresponds in their load bearing structure to a linear load bearing system. Double-layered folding with different directions of their folds can create the structural condition of the plate.
WALLS CONTINUOUS WITH SHELL

Spot / facet folding:

F o l d e d p l a t e s _ es Typ F o l d e d p l a t e s _ es Typ

Spot or facet folding requires that several folds intersect like a bunch in one single spot. This results in pyramidal folds with crystalline or facet-like planes. Facet folding can either be based on a triangular shape or on a quadrangular shape. A single or double-layered facet folding resembles the load bearing structure of a plate and can be compared to space frameworks.

TAPERED FOLDED PLATES

Folded plates consist of straight pieces joined with sharp edges. It cannot be made as thin as a shell due to the fact that it is subjected to bending.

Folded plates_ um Sports HaLL Vir


A r c h i t e c t _ F i n n n i e s& ] r g e n N i e L s e n Mo Location_Copenhagen~ mark Den Material_Reinforced ent Concrete Cem
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EDGE SUPPORTED FOLDED PLATES

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FOLDED PLATE TRUSS

FOLDED PLATE RIGID FRAME

Plan Virum Sports Hall

Advantages:
Concrete roofs provide inherent resistance to fire, deterioration and to atmospheric corrosion Allow large spans to be achieved in structural concrete which allows flexibility of planning and mobility beneath ground condition require expensive piled foundation. the no. of supporting column reduces so economic advantage it is thicker than shells therefore easier to cast. Disadvantages: Aesthetics of folding plate not that pleasing compared to that of a shell Usually more expensive than roofs lighter in weight comprising roof sheeting

Cross Section Virum Sports Hall

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A flat slab construction was not _ possible due to large span without adding columns between the space or the slab would buckle.

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Exterio'r: At four corners, to withstand diagonal bending moments tension cables are provided which anchor to the underground.
Vertical loads are distributed uniformly along symmetry line Hence folded plate. The structure has folds in two ways.

V i r u m S p o r t s h a l l ) fa c i n g t h e railway tracks

Movement
Diagonally there are bending moments at the corners Less Construction

Lightness
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Interior: 6 columns under the furrows that take the focus, leaving the impression that the lantern is pushing down, producing compression load.

Delft Aula Congress Center


Delft, Netherlands

p l a t ede f t o L y ytechni s s_ eL L FF o l deedd p l a t eds _ L f t p p o L t e c h n i c cs c hcohoo o L old


The roof does not simply cover a large open area, but rather a wide variety of spaces requiring very different support systems.

Area of cantilever auditorium: 1600 rn"

Floor slab cantilever: 14m (2 columns) Requirements:


Design was the outcome of the need to meet two Roof supports: 32m (service shaft) conflicting but essential requirements: thoroughfare on the Delft PS campus, had to be highly visible from the road.

no columns at any intermediate point in the auditorium, the roof must be built to project outward main The building, located at one end of the from the centre of the building.
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Hence folded plate system was The building should not obstruct traffic. employed Solution:
The solution to this paradox was to build an auditorium on the first storey while leaving the ground storey underneath both visually and physically open for access to the main thoroughfare. The raised floor of the auditorium rests on two very wide (polygonal section) columns that are set back from the building perimeter to balance loads

Folded plates_ ft poLytechnic schooL deL


The basic shape of the roof cross-section is a series of six equilateral triangles. The enormous depth of 6 m generated is only necessary at the spring line, (axis 13 on the longitudinal section of the building)

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CANTILEVER FLOOR SLAB

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The cantilever folded roof element, designed as it was to be as lightweight as possible. It does not in fact comprise a continuous shell, but rather a series of cantilevered beams Longitudinally, they tend to converge at a point on the free edge. Unnecessary inter-beamis "eliminated" from the roof to form a edge,lightening the the weight of the structure. 07 As a result, the material space steadily increases towards the outer grid that follows overall

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lines of fold geometry. At section 10, the structure profile tilts abruptly downward. This lattice-typelongitudinal also simplified the installation of skylights.

The rear (tensile) support for this grid consists in a huge girder at section number 18, in turn resting on four columns subjected to tensile forces.
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Stiffeners at the edge to prevent the lateral opening up of the last fold which follows the trapezoidal shape of the plan.

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