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Chapter 2: FUNGI CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE.

The Kingdom Fungi is enormous, the identified species and those not yet classified add up to over 300,000 species. The majority of these species are microscopic fungi (yeasts and moulds, often used for the production of antibiotics). A relatively small number of species have reproductive systems known as mushrooms that can be easily observed. In the field, fungi of various shapes and colours can be observed. Examples of common shapes and appearances are the saddle or honeycomb shapes, coral shape appearances or egg-shaped growing under ground, and finally the best known appearance, the umbrella shaped (with a cap and a stipe). Similar variations exist in the colour, taste and smell of fungi. However, such macroscopic observations are not sufficient to achieve a proper scientific identification and classification of fungi and, consequently, microscopic studies are also necessary. For the purposes of this guide the following classification is used (COURTECUISSE, 1994): Kingdom Fungi Division Amastigomycota Subdivision Ascomycotina Class Ascomycetes Subclass Pyrenomycetidae Order Xylariales Subclass Pezizomycetideae Order Helotiales Order Ostropales Order Pezizales Order Tuberales Subdivision Basidiomycotina Class Phragmabasidiomycetes Order Auriculariales Order Tremellales Class Homobadisiomycetes Subclass Aphyllophoromycetideae Order Cantharellales Order Clavariales Order Ganodermatales Order Polyporales Suclass Gasteromycetidae Order Lycoperdales Order Sclerodermatales Subclass Agaricomycetideae Order Agaricales Order Amanitales Order Boletales Order Cortinariales Order Entolomatales Order Pluteales Order Russulales Order Tricholomatales

ASCOMYCETES. They are called higher fungi along with the Basidiomycetes. They differ from the Basidiomycetes in their reproductive cells. Ascomycetes are characterised by sac-shape sporanges of relatively big size (up to 400 m [0.4 mm]) which are called asci, with spores inside, the ascospores. These reproductive cells are surrounded by sterile ones, the paraphyses, both are part of the hymenium. The most interesting species from a gastronomic and commercial point of view are from the following genera: Morchella, Helvella, Tuber, Terfezia.
Aleuria aurantia

BASIDIOMYCETES. Their sporanges are club-shaped formations and are called basidia; they carry basidiospores attached to them through the intermediate of a sterigma. The sterile cells surrounding them are cystidia.

The Basidiomycetes are divided in different groups according to microscopic characteristics: Phragmabasidiomycetes: the basidia have membranous walls orientated transversally or longitudinally. They are of gelatinous or ligneous consistence. They can produce secondary spores from the basidiospores. Homobasidiomycetes: the basidia do not have walls, are not clavate (club-shaped) or cylindrical and their basidiospores never produce secondary spores. They form the majority of the known species. Aphyllophoromycetideae: this order includes fungi of very various shapes and with hymenia formed of pleats, spines, tubes, alveoli, scales and which can be smooth, etc. Boletales: the hymenium of these fungi is formed by pores and tubes, although they can exceptionally have gills easily separable from the cap flesh. Agaricomycetideae: these umbrella-shaped fungi have hymenium made up of gills and the flesh is fibrous. This subclass has the highest diversity of species and it represents the majority of edible (Amanita caesarea, Macrolepiotas, Agaricus, etc.) and poisonous (Amanita, Lepiota, Entoloma, Cortinarius, etc.) fungi. Russulales: they are umbrella-shaped and the hymenium has gills, but the flesh is granulate and in the case of Lactarius contains latex. B.3).- Gasteromycetideae. Differing from the precedent group, the hymenium of these species is protected or enclosed inside fruiting-bodies. This group includes puffballs (Lycoperdon, Calvatia ). They can be hypogeous or epigeous.

MODERN TAXONOMY. In 1735 the Swedish botanist Karl von Linn, better known as Linneus, published a book in Latin entitled Systema Naturalis. His work presents a general classification of plants, based on morphological characteristics, following some rational and universal criteria. Linneus divided plants and living beings in general, in large kingdoms according to their morphological characteristics, which were then divided more specifically by TYPE, CLASS, ORDER and FAMILY, to finally group the living beings the most similar by GENUS and SPECIES.

KINGDOM

TYPE or DIVISION

CLASS

ORDER

FAMILY

GENUS

SPECIES

The success of the method relies on its objective and universal character. Animals and plants that are discovered at a later date will follow the same rules of classification that the ones already discovered; therefore the method is open and flexible. This universal system of classification of living beings is called binomial system, because each species is defined by two Latin or Latinised names. A generic name, always with its initial in capital letter. A specific name, in lower-case letter.

Though it is an old system and subjected to continuous modifications, it is used world-wide by scientists to classify living beings. THE CURRENT CLASSIFICATION OF FUNGI. The Modern Mycological Taxonomy There is a belief that a mycologist is only an expert in the identification of fungi, and it is often forgotten that after the identification there is a great amount of work needed in the classification of fungi.

For someone starting to discover and learn about Mycology, this part is one of the most unpleasant, as it contains a lot of strange and difficult names.

Concerning the names, two problems occur: To know, while facing a new name, which rank or taxon it corresponds to (are we dealing with the genus, order, class or is it a common name in a vernacular language?). To know the hierarchical order of each rank. The table below shows the most important ranks and its nomenclature.

MYCOLOGICAL TAXONOMY

CLASIFICATION KINGDOM DIVISION Sub.DIVISIN CLASS Sub.CLASS ORDER Sub.ORDER FAMILY Sub. FAMILY TRIBU GENUS SUBGENUS SPECIES SUBSPECIES VARIETY RACE ECOTYPE

ABREVIATION K. D. s.D. Cl. s.Cl. O. s.O. F. (Fam.) s.F. (s.Fam.) T. - g. - sg. - spp. - ssp. - var. - r. - ecot.

TERMINATION FUNGI -MYCOTA. -MYCOTINA. -MYCETES -MYCETIDEAE -ALES -INEAE -ACEAE -OIDEAE -EAE

GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNGI


Also called MYXOMYCETES Division between fungi and animals or protista. Mobile or immobile.

KINGDOM FUNGI

D. GYMNOMYCOTA

D. DEUTEROMYCOTA

So-called IMPERFECT FUNGI in the past. Asexual reproduction by conidia. Alternation of reproductive phases: sexual (anamorph) asexual (teleomorph) both ( synanamorph) Important actual status: medical (Candidiasis, Balstomicosis, HIV). industrial (Aspergillus, Penicillium).

D. MASTIGOMYCOTA

Sexual reproduction by flagellated spores (+/). Organisation without cellular separation (cenocytic). Important cause of diseases: plant (Mildew, Ink). animal (Trout disease: saprolegniosis).

D. AMASTIGOMYCOTA

Sexual reproduction (in all or part of the cycle). Spores NEVER flagellated. s.D. ZYGOMYCOTINA Coenocytic structure. s.D. ASCOMYCOTINA s.D. BASIDIOMYCOTINA Membranous walls.

GENERAL CLASIFICATION OF ASCOMYCETES

Cl. LABOULBENIOMYCETES. Cl. ACARPOASCOMYCETES s.D. ASCOMYCOTINA Cl. PLECTOMYCETES.

s.Cl. Erysiphomycetideae

s.Cl. Pirenomycetidae Cl. HYMENIOASCOMYCETES s.Cl. Loculoascomycetideae s.Cl. Lecanoromycetideae s.Cl.Pezizomycetideae.

O. PHACIDIALES. DISCOM. NO OPERCULADOS s.C.PEZIZOMYCETIDEAE O. OSTROPALES. O. LEOTIALES.

DISCOM. OPERCULADOS

s.O. SARCOSCYPHINEAE s. O. PEZIZINEAE

Fam. TERFEZIEAE. TUBERALES Fam. TUBERACEAE.

GENERAL CLASIFICATION OF BASIDIOMYCETES AND APHYLLOPHOROMYCETES

Cl. TELIOMYCETES. s.D. BASIDIOMYCOTINA Cl. PHRAGMOBASIDIOMYCETES. GRUPOS DE TRANSICION. s.Cl. Aphyllophoromycetideae Cl. HOMOBASIDIOMYCETES s.Cl. Agaricomycetideae. s.Cl. Gasteromycetideae.

O. CORTICIALES

F. CORTICIACEAE F. STEREACEAE F. BANKERACEAE F. TELEPHORACEAE F. AURISCALPIACEAE F. HERICIACEAE F. CLAVICORONACEAE F. COLTRICIACEAE F. PHELLINACEAE F. GANODERMATACEAE F. PHAEOLACEAE F. GRIFOLACEAE F. FOMITOPSIDACEAE F. CORIOLACEAE F. BJERKANDERACEAE F. FISTULINACEAE F. POLIPORACEAE F. SCHYZOPYLLACEAE

O. TELEPHORALES

O. HERICIALES

O. HYMENOCHAETALES

O. GANODERMATALES

S. Cl. APHYLLOPHOROMYCETIDEAE

O. HYMENOCHAETALES

O. CLAVARIALES

F. CLAVARIACEAE F. CLAVARIADELPHACEAE F. CLAVULINACEAE F. RAMARIACEAE F. SPARASSIDACEAE F. TYPHULACEAE F. GOMPHACEAE F. HYDNACEAE F. CRATERELLACEAE F. CANTHARELLACEAE F. SCUTIGERACEAE

O. CANTHARELLALES

GENERAL CLASIFICATION OF AGARICOMYCETES


F. PLEUROTACEAE F. HYGROPHORACEAE F. TRICHOLOMATACEAE s.F. Tricholomatoideae s.F. Leucopaxilloideae s.F. Lyophylloideae F. MARASMIACEAE F. DERMOLOMACEAE

O. TRICHOLOMATALES

O. AGARICALES

F. AGARICACEAE F. COPRINACEAE - g. Amanita - g. Limacella F. PLUTEACEAE F. ENTOLOMATACEAE F. MACROCYSTIDIACEAE F. RHODOTACEAE F. CORTINARIACEAE F. CREPIDOTACEAE F. STROPHARIACEAE F. BOLBITIACEAE F. ELASMOMYCETACEAE F. RUSSULACEAE F. HYGROPHOROPSIDACEAE F. OMPHALOTACEAE F. PAXILLACEAE F. GOMPHIDIACEAE F. BOLETACEAE F. GYRODONTACEAE F. STROBILOMYCETACEAE

O. AMANITALES s.Cl. AGARICOMYCETIDEAE O. PLUTEALES O. ENTOLOMATALES

O. CORTINARIALES

O. RUSSULALES

O. BOLETALES

GENERAL CLASIFICATION OF GASTEROMYCETES

O.HYMENOGASTERALES

F. HYMENOGASTRACEAE F. GASTERELLACEAE

O. MELANOGASTRALES

F. MELANOGASTRACEAE F. LEUCOGASTRACEAE

O. LYCOPERDALES

F. GEASTRACEAE F. LYCOPERDACEAE

O.SCLERODERMATALES s.Cl.GASTEROMYCETIDEAE

F. ASTRACEAE F. PISOLITHACEAE F. SCLERODERMATACEAE

O. TULOSTOMALES

F. BATTARAEACEAE F. TULOSTOMATACEAE

O. NIDULARIALES

F. NIDULARIACEAE F. SPHAEROBOLACEAE

O. HYSTERANGIALES F. PHALLACEAE F. CLATHRACEAE

O. PHALLALES