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51

ASMOSIA VII

Actes du VII e colloque international de l’ASMOSIA Thasos 15-20 septembre 2003

international de l’ASMOSIA Thasos 15-20 septembre 2003 Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of

Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of

Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity

BULLETIN

Thassos 15-20 september, 2003

Études réunies par Yannis MANIATIS

DE

CORRESPONDANCE

HELLÉNIQUE

ASMOSIA VII

ÉCOLE

FRANÇAISE

D’ATHÈNES

Directeur des publications :

Dominique Mulliez

Adjointe aux publications :

Catherine Aubert

Révision et mise au point des textes :

Y. Maniatis

L’École française d’Athènes, qui a contribué à l’organisation de la rencontre ASMOSIA VII à Thasos, avec le centre Dimokritos, la 18 e éphorie des antiquités préhistoriques et classiques de Kavala et l’IGME, a pris en charge la totalité du coût de fabrication des actes dans sa collection, mais a autorisé à titre exceptionnel Yannis Maniatis à recourir aux normes éditoriales anglo-saxonnes.

Pré-presse et photogravure :

Coordination de la fabrication :

Impression, reliure :

Conception graphique de la couverture :

EFA Velissarios Anagnostopoulos, Thymeli s.n.c. EFA, Velissarios Anagnostopoulos Break In s.a. EFA, Velissarios Anagnostopoulos

Dépositaire : De Boccard Édition-Diffusion – 11, rue de Médicis, F – 75006 Paris, www.deboccard.com

© École française d’Athènes, 2009 – 6, rue Didotou, GR – 10680 Athènes, www.efa.gr

ISBN 978-2-86958-207-1

BCH

Supplément

51

ASMOSIA VII

Actes du VII e colloque international de l’ASMOSIA Organisé par l'École française d'Athènes, le National Center for Scientific Research “DIMOKRITOS”, la 18 e éphorie des antiquités préhistoriques et classiques (Kavala) et l’Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration

Thasos, 15-20 septembre 2003

Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity organized by the French School of Athens, the National Center for Scientific Research “DIMOKRITOS”, the 18th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities (Kavala) and the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration

Thassos, september 15-20, 2003

Études réunies par Yannis MANIATIS

BULLETIN

DE

CORRESPONDANCE

HELLÉNIQUE

CONTENTS

Préface Yannis Maniatis

XIII-XVI

ABBREVIATIONS IN BIBLIOGRAPHY

XVII

SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY TALK

 

Ch. KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and S. PAPADOPOULOS

1-18

The island of Thassos and the Aegean in the Prehistory

PART I: ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS – USE OF MARBLE

 

Th. STEFANIDOU-TIVERIOU

19-29

Thassian marble: A connection between Thassos and Thessaloniki

E.J. WALTERS

31-41

Thassian Julius Caesar

G.E BORROMEO, J.J. HERRMANN, Jr. and N. HERZ Macedonian workmanship on a Thassian marble Hadrian in Providence?

43-51

J.

C. FANT

53-57

White marbles in the summer triclinium of the casa del Bracciale d’Oro, Pompeii

J.J. HERRMANN, Jr. and R.H. TYKOT Some products from the Dokimeion quarries: craters, tables, capitals and statues

59-75

P.A. BUTZ The Naxian Colossus at Delos: “Same Stone”

77-87

A.

BETORI, M. GOMEZ SERITO and P. PENSABENE

89-102

Investigation of marbles and stones used in Augustean monuments of western alpine provinces (Italy)

F.

BIANCHI and M. BRUNO

103-111

Flavian amphitheatre: The Cavea and the Portico; Comments about the quality, quantity and the

 

working of its marbles

O.

P ALAGIA, Y. M ANIATIS, E. D OTSIKA and D. K AVOUSSANAKI

113-132

New investigations on the pedimental sculptures of the “Hieron” of Samothrace: A preliminary report

V.

G AGGADIS -R OBIN , Y. M ANIATIS , C. S INTÈS , D. K AVOUSSANAKI and E. D OTSIKA

133-146

Provenance investigation of some marble sarcophagi from Arles with stable isotope and maximum

grain sizes analysis

BCH Suppl. 51

L.

COOK and I. THOMAS

147-157

Faustino Corsi and the coloured marbles of Derbyshire

F. VAN KEUREN, L.P. GROMET and N. HERZ

Three mythological sarcophagi at the RISD Museum: Marble provenances and iconography

159-174

PART II: QUARRIES, QUARRYING TECHNIQUES, GEOLOGY AND STONE PROPERTIES

J.A. HARRELL

175-186

The Bokari granodiorite quarry in Egypt’s eastern desert

E.

B LOXAM , P. S TOREMYR and T. H ELDAL

187-201

Hard stone quarrying in the Egyptian old Kingdom (3rd Millennium BC): rethinking the social or- ganization

T.

E NDO and S. N ISHIMOTO

203-210

The ancient Egyptian quarry at Dibabiya

D.

KLEMM and R. KLEMM

211-225

Pharaonic limestone quarries in Wadi Nakhla and Deir Abu Hennis, Egypt

T.

H ELDAL , P. S TOREMYR , E. B LOXAM , I. S HAW, R. L EE and A. S ALEM

227-241

GPS and GIS methodology in the mapping of Chephren’s quarry, Upper Egypt: a significant tool for

 

documentation and interpretation of the site

P.

S TOREMYR , T. H ELDAL , E. B LOXAM and J.A. H ARRELL

243-256

New evidence of small-scale Roman basalt quarrying in Egypt: Widan el Faras in the northern Faiyum desert and Tilal Sawda by El-Minya

P.

S TOREMYR and T. H ELDAL

257-271

Ancient stone quarries: Vulnerable archaeological sites threatened by modern development

P.

HADJIDAKIS, D. MATARANGAS and M. VARTI-MATARANGAS

273-288

Ancient quarries in Delos, Greece

M. W URCH -K OZELJ et T. K OZELJ

289-307

Quelques sarcophages rectangulaires d’époque impériale, des carrières thasiennes aux nécropoles de Thasos

K.

L ASKARIDIS and V. P ERDIKATSIS

309-317

Characterisation of the timeless white marble and quarrying activity in Thassos

PART III: PROVENANCE IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION (MARBLE)

 

F.

GABELLONE, M.T. GIANNOTTA and A. ALESSIO

319-331

The Torre Sgarrata wreck (South Italy): Marble artefacts in the cargo

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A.

CALIA, M.T. GIANNOTTA, L. LAZZARINI and G. QUARTA

333-342

The Torre Sgarrata wreck: Characterization and provenance of white marble artefacts in the cargo

D.

ATTANASIO, S. KANE and N. HERZ

343-356

New isotopic and EPR data for 22 sculptures from the extramural sanctuary of Demeter and

 

Persephone at Cyrene

D.

ATTANASIO, G. MESOLELLA, P. PENSABENE, R. PLATANIA and P. ROCCHI

357-369

EPR and Petrographic provenance of the architectural white marbles of three buildings at Villa Adriana

T.

C RAMER , K. G ERMANN and W.–D. H EILMEYER

371-383

Marble objects from Asia Minor in the Berlin collection of classical antiquities: stone characteristics

 

and provenance

M.

BRUNO, C. GORGONI and P. PALLANTE

385-398

On the provenance of white marbles used in the baths of Caracalla in Rome

M.

FISCHER

399-412

Marble from Pentelicon, Paros, Thasos and Proconnesus in ancient Israel: an attempt at a chronolog-

 

ical distinction

Y.

M ANIATIS, P. S OTIRAKOPOULOU, K. P OLIKRETI, E. D OTSIKA and E. T ZAVIDOPOULOS

413-437

The “Keros Hoard”: Provenance of the figurines and possible sources of marble in the Cyclades

Y.

MANIATIS, S. PAPADOPOULOS, E. DOTSIKA, D. KAVOUSSANAKI and E. TZAVIDOPOULOS

439-449

Provenance investigation of Neolithic marble vases from Limeraria, Thassos: Imported marble to

 

Thassos?

M.

UNTERWURZACHER, H. STADLER and P. MIRWALD

451-458

Provenance study of Roman marble artefacts of an excavation near Oberdrauburg (Carinthia, Austria)

L.

LAZZARINI

459-484

The distribution and re-use of the most important coloured marbles in the provinces of the Roman

 

Empire

M.

MARIOTTINI, E. CURTI and E. MOSCETTI

485-493

The taste of the marbles in Roman villae (Tiburtina-Nomentana)

L.

LAZZARINI and S. CANCELLIERE

495-508

Marmor Thessalicum (verde antico): Source, distribution and characterization

P. LAPUENTE, B. TURI and Ph. BLANC Marbles and coloured stones from the theatre of Caesaraugusta (Hispania): Preliminary study

509-522

R.H. TYKOT, G.E. BORROMEO, C. CORRADO-GOULET and K. SEVERSON

523-532

Marble sculptures from the Rhode Island School of Design: Provenance studies using stable isotope and other analysis

BCH Suppl. 51

J. J. HERRMANN, Jr., R. NEWMAN and A. VAN DEN HOEK

Identifying Dolomitic Marble 2000-2003: The Capitoline Museums, New York, and Somnus- Hypnos in Urbisaglia

533-545

PART IV: PROVENANCE IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION (OTHER STONES)

R.

BUGINI and L. FOLLI

547-557

On tesserae of Roman mosaics in Lombardy (Italy)

E.

Roffia, R. Bugini and L. Folli

559-570

Stone materials of the Roman villas around lake Garda (Italy)

P.

DEGRYSE, P. MUCHEZ, E. TROGH and M. WAELKENS

571-580

The natural building stones of Helenistic to Byzantine Sagalassos: Provenance determination through stable isotope geochemistry

Ø.J. J ANSEN , T. H ELDAL , R.B. P EDERSEN , Y. R ONEN and S.H.H. K ALAND Provenance of soapstone used in medieval buildings in the Bergen region, Western Norway

581-595

B.

MORONI, I. BORGIA, M. PETRELLI and P. LAPUENTE

597-613

Archaeometry of chert tools: For a non-destructive geochemical approach

J.

CASSAR

615-626

Classifying Maltese prehistoric limestone megaliths by means of geochemical data

F.

ANTONELLI, L. LAZZARINI, S. CANCELLIERE and A. SOLANO

627-643

“Granito del Foro” and “Granito di Nicotera”: Archaeometric problems

O.

ÖZBEK

645-656

The prehistoric ground stone implements from Yartarla: The preliminary results of a geoarchaeolog-

 

ical study in Tekirdag region (Eastern Thrace)

S.

CHLOUVERAKI and S. LUGLI

657-668

Gypsum: A jewel in Minoan palatial architecture; Identification and characterization of its varieties

L.

LAZZARINI and F. ATHANASIOU

669-676

The discovery of the Greek origin of the “Breccia policroma della Vittoria”

PART V: TECHNIQUES AND DEVELOPMENTS

 

J.

ZÖLDFÖLDI and Zs. KASZTOVSZKY

677-691

Provenance study of Lapis Lazuli by non-destructive prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA)

F.

BIRICOTTI and M. SEVERI

693-698

A new non-destructive methodology for studying the internal structure of white marble of artistic and

archaeological interest

BCH Suppl. 51

PART VI: DATABASES

S.

PIKE

699-708

A stable isotope database for the ancient white marble quarries of Mount Pentelikon, Greece

G.

KOKKOROU-ALEVRAS, E. POUPAKI, A. CHATZICONSTANTINOU and A. EFSTATHOPOULOS

709-718

Corpus of ancient Greek quarries

B.

SZÉKELY and J. ZÖLDFÖLDI

719-734

Fractal analysis and quantitative fabric analysis database of West Anatolian white marbles

PART VII: STONE PROPERTIES – WEATHERING – RESTORATION

 

A.TSIKOURAS, K. MIHOPOULOS, K. HATZIPANAGIOTOU and N. NINIS

735-743

Correlations of mineralogy and physical properties for stones used in the building and the restoration of the Asklepieion at Epidauros

I.

PAPAYIANNI and M. STEFANIDOU

745-752

Study of the behaviour of Serpentinite stones used for the construction of ancient Dioklitianoupoli in Northern Greece

M.

GREENHALGH

753-764

Where have all the columns gone? The loss and reuse of antiquities in the Eastern Mediterranean

K.

KOUZELI, and E. ZGOULETA

765-776

Gypsum at the Minoan site of Knossos: Types and deterioration

L.

GIORDANI, M. ODDONE, and S. MELONI

777-786

Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of the marble façade of the Certosa di Pavia: Materials

 

provenancing and problematics related to decay

K.

P OLIKRETI, and Y. M ANIATIS

787-798

Ionic and charge mobility on weathered marble surfaces, studied by EPR spectroscopy

PART VIII: PIGMENTS AND PAINTINGS ON MARBLE

 

B.

BOURGEOIS and Ph. JOCKEY

799-809

Polychrome Hellenistic sculpture in Delos: Research on surface treatments of ancient marble sculp-

 

ture - Part II

A.

G. KARYDAS, H. BRECOULAKI, B. BOURGEOIS and Ph. JOCKEY

811-829

In-situ X-Ray Fluorescence analysis of raw pigments and traces of polychromy on Hellenistic sculpture at the archaeological museum of Delos

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PRÉFACE

L’acronyme ASMOSIA désigne l’Association pour l’étude du marbre et autres pierres dans l’Antiquité (Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity), fondée lors d’un atelier de recherche

avancée de l’OTAN qui s’est tenu à l’hôtel Il Ciocco, à Lucca, en Italie, du 9 au 13 mai 1988. L’atelier était intitulé : Le marbre en Grèce ancienne et à Rome : Géologie, carrières, commerce et artefacts. Il fut suivi par une cinquantaine de participants qui représentaient de nombreuses professions : des physi- ciens, travaillant dans le domaine de l’archéométrie, des archéologues, des historiens de l’art et des conservateurs. Il fut organisé par Marc Waelkens et Norman Herz avec le but affiché d’encourager les projets associant scientifiques, historiens de l’art et autres pour une meilleure compréhension des ques- tions relevant de l’usage de la pierre par les Anciens. À la suite de cet atelier, une série de rencontres fut programmée tous les deux ans et demi environ : la seconde rencontre eut lieu du 16 au 20 octobre

1990 à Louvain, en Belgique ; la troisième du 17 au 19 mai 1993 à Athènes, en Grèce ; la quatrième

du 9 au 13 octobre 1995 à Bordeaux, en France ; la cinquième du 11 au 15 juin 1998 à Boston, aux

États-Unis ; la sixième du 15 au 18 juin 2000 à Venise, en Italie ; la septième du 15 au 20 septembre

2003 à Liménas, sur l’île de Thasos, en Grèce. Cette série de colloques fait partie intégrante de l’asso-

ciation ASMOSIA : ils ont pour objectif de promouvoir la collaboration entre les sciences, l’archéologie et l’histoire de l’art pour une meilleure compréhension de l’exploitation, du transport, du traitement et de l’emploi de la pierre brute dans l’Antiquité.

La publication des actes a été bien accueillie à la fois par les historiens de l’art, les archéologues et la communauté scientifique, comme par les corps de conservateurs; elle a contribué à susciter une coopé- ration interdisciplinaire sans cesse élargie. Dans la mesure où, avant la création de l’association, cette coopération était minimale, ce fut là, en fait, un progrès décisif. Pour la bonne organisation et la publi- cation de ces rencontres, on a également eu la chance de bénéficier du soutien financier d’agences nationales et internationales, comme la fondation Samuel H. Kress Foundation, l’OTAN, etc.

Le nombre de membres de l’association a plus que quadruplé, passant de 50 en 1988 à environ 250 aujourd’hui, représentant 25 pays. En dehors des actes de colloques, ASMOSIA publie également à raison de deux fois par an l’ASMOSIA Newsletter.

À ce jour, ce domaine de la recherche a fait preuve d’importantes avancées dans la mesure où les sources matérielles dont on dispose pour l’usage du marbre et des autres pierres dans l’Antiquité ont été lar- gement étudiées et où les matériaux eux-mêmes ont fait l’objet de caractérisations géologiques et physico-chimiques. Les bases de données avec leurs paramètres analytiques se sont développées et les

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caractéristiques de différents types de pierres brutes se sont accumulées. Bien des problèmes archéolo- giques ou relevant de l’histoire de l’art trouvent désormais une meilleure réponse et une meilleure explication par le recours aux analyses scientifiques et aux bases de données, qu’il s’agisse de la provenance, de l’iden- tification, de la diffusion, du traitement, des assemblages et de la préservation d’importants artefacts.

Le 7 e colloque international de l’association ASMOSIA s’est tenu à Liménas, la ville principale et le port de l’île de Thasos, en Grèce. Il a été organisé par le laboratoire d’archéométrie-NCSR « Demokritos », l’École française d’Athènes, la 18e éphorie des antiquités préhistoriques et classiques, l’IGME (Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration). Le comité d’organisation, composé de Y. Maniatis, K. Polikreti, Z. Bonias, S. Papadopoulos, T. Kozelj, M. Wurch-Kozelj et M. Varti-Mataranga, tient à adresser ses remerciements à la Municipalité de Thasos qui a mis à disposition la salle de conférences du « Kalogeriko » et a tout mis en œuvre pour faciliter le bon déroulement du colloque, le ministère grec de la culture et le ministère grec de l’Égée ainsi que l’Association des entreprises du marbre de Thrace et de Macédoine pour leur soutien financier.

Ce volume réunit les contributions présentées au 7 e colloque international de l’association ASMOSIA. Les thèmes abordés dans ces communications sont à la pointe du domaine interdisciplinaire où se rejoi- gnent les sciences, l’archéologie et l’histoire de l’art ; ils reflètent un large spectre de la recherche poursuivie sur les pierres grâce à la coopération des sciences et des humanités. En particulier, les thèmes abordés recouvrent presque tous les aspects qui concernent la pierre depuis la carrière jusqu’au produit décoré dans son état final, sans exclure les questions du vieillissement et de la restauration.

Tous les textes soumis pour publication dans ces actes ont fait l’objet d’une révision attentive par un ou plusieurs réviseurs, ce qui en garantit le haut niveau, le caractère innovant et la portée scientifique.

En la matière, nous exprimons nos sincères remerciements aux membres du comité exécutif de l’asso- ciation ASMOSIA, N. Herz, L. Lazzarini, P. Storemyr, J.J. Herrmann Jr., Ph. Jockey, S. Kane, J. Harrell, ainsi qu’aux members du comité scientifique du colloque qui ont apporté leur concours à la difficile révision des textes présentés dans ce volume.

En outre, nous voulons remercier V. Zatta, secrétaire de l’Institute of Materials Science-NCSR « Demokritos » pour son aide dans le traitement des actes et les étudiants-chercheurs du laboratoire d’archéométrie-NCSR « Demokritos » D. Tambakopoulos et M. Maniati pour leur aide dans l’orga- nisation et la relecture des épreuves.

Nous tenons aussi à exprimer notre plus profonde gratitude à l’École française d’Athènes et, en parti- culier, à son directeur, le professeur D. Mulliez : l’École française d’Athènes, en effet, a supporté la totalité du coût de fabrication et du travail de publication des actes dans le Supplément 51 du Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique. Nos remerciements vont également à Sandrine Huber, ancienne adjointe aux publications de l’École française d’Athènes, et à Catherine Aubert, qui lui a succédé à ce poste, pour la part qu’elles ont prise dans l’élaboration de la publication.

Yannis Maniatis

Président de l’association ASMOSIA

BCH Suppl. 51

PREFACE

ASMOSIA stands for the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity and was founded at a NATO sponsored Advanced Research Workshop held at Il Ciocco, Lucca, Italy, 9-13 May, 1988. The Workshop was entitled, “Marble in Ancient Greece and Rome: Geology, Quarries, Commerce, Artifacts” and was attended by fifty persons representing many varied professions: physical scientists working in Archaeometry, archaeologists, art historians, and conservators. It was organized by Marc Waelkens and Norman Herz with the avowed goal of encouraging collaborative projects among sci- entists, art historians and others in order to better understand the problems associated with ancient man’s use of stone. Following that a series of meetings were held scheduled approximately every two and a half year: the second meeting was held October 16-20, 1990 in Leuven, Belgium; the third May 17-19, 1993, in Athens, Greece; the fourth October 9-13, 1995 in Bordeaux, France; the fifth June 11-15, 1998, in Boston, USA; the sixth June 15-18, 2000 in Venice, Italy; and the seventh in September 15-20, 2003 at Limenas on the Island of Thassos, Greece. These series of conferences form an integral part of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones Used in Antiquity (ASMOSIA) and their aim is to promote the combined scientific, archaeological and art-historical research for a better understanding of the exploration, transportation, treatment and use of stone raw materials in Antiquity.

The publications of the proceedings have been well received by both the art historical, archaeological, and scientific, as well as museum communities and have helped to inspire an ever increasing interdis- ciplinary cooperation. Since previous to ASMOSIA, such cooperation was minimal, this has indeed been a great accomplishment. We have also been fortunate in receiving financial support for our meetings and publications from national and international agencies, such as the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, NATO etc.

Membership in ASMOSIA has grown over four-fold, from under 50 in 1988 to about 250 now and representing 25 countries. Publications apart from the conference proceedings include the currently twice-yearly ASMOSIA Newsletter.

Today, the field has witnessed important advances as the raw material sources for marble and other stones used in Antiquity have been studied to a great extend and the materials have been characterised geologically and physicochemically. The databases with analytical parameters have been expanding and experience with the characteristics of different types of raw stone materials has been accumulating. Many archaeological and art-historical problems can now be better resolved and explained using the advanced scientific methods and databases. Such problems may be related to provenance, identification, movement, treatment, assemblages and preservation of important artifacts.

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The 7th International ASMOSIA Conference was held at Limenas, the main town and harbour of the island of Thassos, Greece. It was organized by the Laboratory of Archaeometry-NCSR “Demokritos”, the French School at Athens, the 18th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities and the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration. The Organizing Committee, Y. Maniatis, K. Polikreti, Z. Bonias, S. Papadopoulos, T. Kozelj, M. Wurch-Kozelj and M. Varti-Mataranga would like to thank and acknowledge the Municipal Authorities of Thassos for providing the Conference building “Kalogeriko” and all the necessary facilities in order to make this Conference possible, the financial support of the Greek Ministry of Culture, the financial support of the Greek Ministry of the Aegean and the financial support of the Association of Marble Enterprises of Macedonia and Thrace.

This book contains the papers submitted to the 7th International ASMOSIA Conference. The sub- jects of the papers represent the state-of-the art in the field and reflect a very broad range of research and applications carried out in cooperation between the sciences and the humanities. In particular, the subjects cover almost everything on stone from the quarry to the final decorated object, including even aspects of weathering and restoration.

All the papers submitted for publication in these proceedings went under a peer reviewing process by one or more reviewers. This guarantees that the papers published in this volume are of high standards, innovative and scientifically sound.

For this, we expresses his sincere thanks to the Executive Committee of ASMOSIA, N. Herz, L. Lazzarini, P. Storemyr, J.J. Herrmann Jr., Ph. Jockey, S. Kane, J. Harrell, and the Scientific Committee of the Conference and also to other professional colleagues who helped with the difficult task of reviewing the papers presented in this volume.

In addition, we want to thank Mrs V. Zatta, the Secretary of the Institute of Materials Science of NCSR “Demokritos” for her help in processing the proceedings and the research students of the Laboratory of Archaeometry-NCSR “Demokritos” Mr. D. Tambakopoulos and Mrs. M. Maniati for their help in organising and proof readings of the papers.

We also expresses his deepest gratitude to the French School at Athens and particularly to its Director prof. D. Mulliez for undertaking the full cost and effort of publication of the proceedings as Supplement 51 of the Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique. Thanks are also due to Mrs. S. Huber, former publication officer of the French School, and Mrs. C. Aubert, present publication officer, for organizing the pub- lication.

Yannis Maniatis

Current President of ASMOSIA

BCH Suppl. 51

MARMOR THESSALICUM (verde antico):

SOURCE, DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERIZATION

L. LAZZARINI and S. CANCELLIERE

Laboratorio di Analisi dei Materiali Antichi, Dip. di Storia dell’Architettura, I.U.A.V., Venezia, Italy

ABSTRACT

Marmor thessalicum and Lapis Atracius were names of geographic origin given by the Romans to a beautiful green breccia named verde antico during the Italian Renaissance. This stone was first introduced into Rome in Hadrian’s times for columns, facing slabs, tubs, etc., and soon became the most important green stone of Roman antiquity. Later in the Byzantine period it was also worked for sarcophagi, whole iconostasis, and bap- tismal fonts. Its extensive primary use, and the medieval re-use of spolia, gave rise to its almost ubiquitous distributions in all Mediterranean countries. Both ancient and modern quarries of verde antico are situated on the slopes of Mount Mopsion, close to the village of Chasabali, in the province of Larisa (Thessaly). The verde antico formation belongs to a large ophiolitic complex of Upper Jurassic age. This paper provides a thorough minero-petrographic and chemical analysis of its various facies in order to characterize and distinguish them from the similar verde di Tino from the Marlas area on the island of Tinos, Cyclades. Marmor Thessalicum is an ophicarbonate breccia composed of black-to-green antigorite and white-calcite clasts in a greenish matrix formed by a mixture of these two minerals. Accessory minerals are magnetite, chromite, tremolite and as- bestos.

KEYWORDS:

MARMOR THESSALICUM, VERDE ANTICO, HISTORY, SOURCE, CHARACTERISA- TION, ARCHAEOMETRY

INTRODUCTION

It was in Greece that the Romans found some of the most beautiful coloured stones they used to decorate their private and public buildings. Among these is what they called marmor thes- salicum or lapis atracius, (the name comes from Thessaly the region where the quarries were

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496

L. LAZZARINI and S. CANCELLIERE

496 L. LAZZARINI and S. CANCELLIERE Fig. 1 . — Typical macroscopic aspect of verde antico

Fig. 1. — Typical macroscopic aspect of verde antico (sample # 1.1).

sited, and from Atrax, the town closest to them). This white and black mottled green breccia (fig. 1) named verde antico by the Roman marble cutters of the Renaissance/Baroque period. The green colour is mostly due to the matrix of the rock, of a light-to-average dark tonality, but it often features darker colours in some elements of the breccia, which may be of various hues from emerald-green to black and of dimensions varying from a few mm to more than one meter. The white elements are of a pure colour and of much smaller size, seldom reaching 20- 30 cm across. Gray or red-coloured clasts are much more rare and of a centimetric size. These macroscopic features are quite similar to those of verde di Tinos, a typical ophicalcite also quar- ried in Roman times at Marlas, the N-W part of the island of Tinos (Greece) (LAZZARINI 2002 and 2007).

As far as we know (GNOLI 1988), verde antico was introduced in Rome in Hadrianic times: the oldest monument where it has been in fact identified is Villa Adriana at Tivoli. It soon became very popular for facing slabs and columns in most of the Roman provinces. Examples of large slabs are found in the Hadrianic Baths of Leptis Magna (fig. 2), and of columns, the four that once stood in the Arch of Marcus Aurelius in Rome, which we know from documents was de- molished in 1662 by order of Pope Alexander VII: two of these columns are now in the Church

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antico ): SOURCE, DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISATION 497 Fig. 2 . — Leptis Magna (Lybia), Hadrian’ baths,

Fig. 2. — Leptis Magna (Lybia), Hadrian’ baths, large slabs of verde antico facing the floor.

of St. Agnese, and two in the Corsini Chapel at S Giovanni in Laterano. This stone was even more quarried and used in Byzantine time when it replaced the red porphyry for imperial sar- cophagi, and was widely used for columns in some of the most renowned basilicas such as the Aghias Sophias of Constantinople and of Thessaloniki, St.John of Ephesus, the B-basilica of Philippi (fig. 3), etc. Other uses of this period included altar tabletops and baptismal fonts, sometimes classified as re-uses of ancient artifacts. Such re-utilisation started in fact after the fall of the Roman Empire in the Eastern and Western provinces. In the former the Arabs ap- preciated coloured marbles and used them in the most important mosques. Columns of verde antico are present for example, in the Omayad mosque of Damascus (fig. 4), in that of the Dome on the Rock of Jerusalem, and in several others, like the Hassan mosque in Cairo. Some are also present in the cathedrals of Canosa and Gerace (South Italy), and many in the basil- icas of Rome (for ex. in S.Giovanni in Laterano) and Venice (St.Mark’s). Re-use also continued after the Middle Age throughout the Renaissance and Baroque periods when the shortage of ancient pieces forced Italian architects to search for substitution stones on the Western Alps, in Liguria and Calabria. Verde antico was newly quarried from the sixties to the eighties of the last century; it is now out of fashion and only seldom exploited.

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L. LAZZARINI and S. CANCELLIERE

3

4

498 L. LAZZARINI and S. CANCELLIERE 3 4 Fig. 3 . — Philippi (Greece), Basilica ‘B,
498 L. LAZZARINI and S. CANCELLIERE 3 4 Fig. 3 . — Philippi (Greece), Basilica ‘B,

Fig. 3. — Philippi (Greece), Basilica ‘B, columns of verde antico. Fig. 4. — Damascus (Syria), Omayad Mosque, courtyard, small columns of verde antico and cipollino rosso.

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antico ): SOURCE, DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISATION 499 Fig. 5 . — Map with the distribution of

Fig. 5. — Map with the distribution of verde antico in the Mediterranean area: see the relevant paper by L. Lazzarini in this volume for the identification of the sites.

The importance and popularity of our stone is well shown by a distribution map (fig. 5) made from more than 6000 records of the presence of ancient coloured stones in some 400 different ancient sites (LAZZARINI 2009). From this map it is evident that the primary use of verde an- tico was concentrated in Central Mediterranean, mainly Italy and North Africa, but also in several Greek sites, and spread all over the Roman provinces reaching places very far away from its quarries such as Tyrus, now Tyre, (Phoenicia) in the East, Colonia Lindum (Lincoln) (Britannia) in the North, or Italica (Iberia), in the West. The largest numbers of re-uses are in Italy, Greece and Asia Minor.

ANCIENT QUARRIES

The ancient and modern quarries of verde antico are located some 10 km NE of the town of Larisa, the capital of Thessaly (Greece), not far from the village of Chasabali which remains immediately to the south: they were firstly and carefully studied by I. Papageorgakis (PAPA- GEORGAKIS 1963). The quarries are open on the northen and southern slopes of the western

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L. LAZZARINI and S. CANCELLIERE

500 L. LAZZARINI and S. CANCELLIERE F i g . 6 . — Map of the

Fig. 6. Map of the quarry area of verde antico.

part of ancient Mount Mopsion (fig. 6) which is not formed by a unique peak, but by a series of low hills protruding from a wide plain. In the northern areas, modern wire-cutting ex- ploitation has destroyed most traces of ancient quarrying, but these, are very well preserved in the southern sites. There, one can still see the organisation of the quarrying activity, with var- ious extraction sites connected by ancient roads (fig. 7), often with high quarry fronts (fig. 8), or with loci showing the typical stepped shapes and nice traces of the Roman heavy pick. Un- usually rare are wedge-holes and abandoned blocks or unfinished column shafts. The latter are probably covered by the many ancient, sometimes wide and thick, deposits of debris that are scattered all around the quarries, and offer direct evidence of the very large amount of rock re- moved in antiquity.

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antico ): SOURCE, DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISATION 501 F i g . 7 . — View on

Fig. 7. View on the ancient quarries on the southern slopes of Mount Mopsion.

ancient quarries on the southern slopes of Mount Mopsion. Fig. 8 . — A well-preserved front

Fig. 8. — A well-preserved front of a Byzantine quarry visible on the left of fig.7.

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GEOLOGICAL SETTING

Mount Mopsion belongs to the large mountain range of Mount Olympos-Mount Ossa- Mount Pelion forming a Neogene horst between the grabens of Larisa to the west, and that of the Thermaikos to the east (HIGGINS and HIGGINS 1996). All formations of these areas are in- cluded in the Pelagonian Zone of the Hellenides. Those of Mount Ossa are characterised by marble and schist on the upper part, and by a well known ophiolitic complex in the low lands towards south and west. This complex has been well mapped in the “Platycampos Sheet” of IGME (The Hellenic Geological Institute) by Greek geologists (KATSIKATSOS et al. 1981). The breccia occupies the upper part of the metamorphic complex, tentatively dated to the Upper Cretaceous that is formed of a slightly metamorphic flysch overlying the so-called Aya marbles and our breccia called “the ophiolitic transgressive breccia of Omorphochorion”. The maximum thickness of this breccia has been estimated to 150 m. Below the breccia are ser- pentinites, metamorphic basic rocks and metasediments.

SCIENTIFIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS

More than 30 samples were collected from a dozen of ancient quarries. 18 were selected for the microscopic study in thin section and powder X-Ray diffraction (CuKa/Ni at 30 KV, 20 mA):

the latter was also performed on several samples after chemical attack with diluted HCl to re- move calcite and separation of magnetite with a magnet. The same amount of samples studied under the polarising microscope was subjected to chemical analysis by ICP-AES: only the main and minor elements were quantitatively determined. 10 samples of whole rock and of single components (element or matrix) were finally analysed with a Hg-porosimeter to measure the main porosimetric parameters of the rock. The microscopic study and chemical analysis were extended to 3 samples of verde di Tinos from the most ancient quarries visible at Marlas, with the purpose of checking the possibility of distinguishing this stone from verde antico on a laboratory basis.

The microscopic study of verde antico and the diffractometric analyses enabled determination of its minero-petrographic features as follows:

– The fabric is conglomeratic/micro-conglomeratic (fig. 9) and formed by serpentinic and marble elements in a matrix composed of a mixture of these two components.

– The macroscopically black/dark green serpentinic elements are mainly of small antigorite crystals forming a felt-like or interlocked fabrics. Veins filled with antigorite crystals grown perpendicularly to the walls of the vein are also quite common

– The macroscopically white marble elements are composed of recrystallised calcite often forming a heteroblastic fabric with xenoblasts reaching a MGS of 2 mm.

– The matrix is formed by calcite mixed with antigorite, and contains more or less abundant and disperded particles/isomorphous opaque crystals of magnetite (fig. 10). This mineral is often deteriorated along its boundaries into yellow-brown limonite, which is also

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antico ): SOURCE, DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISATION 503 9 10 Fig. 9 . — Photomicrograph of the

9

antico ): SOURCE, DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISATION 503 9 10 Fig. 9 . — Photomicrograph of the

10

Fig. 9. — Photomicrograph of the thin section of sample VA 12.1 showing a micro-brecciated fabric formed by clasts of antigorite (dark grey) and marble (white) in a mixed matrix. N+, 32 X. Fig. 10. — Photomicrograph as above of magnetite (black) and tremolite crystals in the matrix of sam- ple VA 3.3. N+, 64 X.

forming patinas and colouring the two main minerals. Sometimes present in the matrix are needles of tremolite (fig. 10). The matrix shows macroscopically different hues of green depending (as it clear appears under the microscope) on the proportion calcite-to- antigorite, the former mineral “diluting” the deep green colour of the second.

Verde antico has sometimes been referred to as an ophicalcite (GNOLI 1988), but its correct classification according to the description reported above is as an ophicarbonate metacon- glomerate.

The chemical analysis of the rock is reported in Table 1. From the data, it is evident that Si, Ca, Mg and Fe are the main elements composing verde antico. SiO 2 varies from 11 to 40 %, CaO from 5 to 40 %, MgO from 11 to 34 %, Fe 2 O 3 from 2 to 8 %. Small amounts of Al and of Mn complete the overall composition. It is therefore evident that this ophicarbonate breccia, is a rock formed by serpentinisation of ultramafic rocks crushed by tectonisation and mixed with limestone fragments and permeated by calcareous solutions; the breccia then un- derwent an average-grade metamorphism in an ocean floor environment.

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Table 1: Chemical analysis of verde antico (VA) and of verde di Tinos (VT); <l.d= value below detection limit.

N° camp

SIO 2 Al 2 O 3

Fe 2 O %

2

MnO

MgO

CaO

Na 2 O

K 2 O

TiO

2

P 2 O %

5

P.F.

Totale

VA

%

p

%

p

p

% p

% p

% p

% p

% p

%

p

p

% p

% p

1-2

30.50

0.72

8.11

0.09

29.09

13.00

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

0.06

18.41

99.98

1-3

15.30

0.34

2.51

0.06

13.73

36.53

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

31.84

100.31

3-1

13.91

0.55

2.18

0.07

12.37

38.07

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

32.99

100.14

3-2

25.08

0.83

6.73

0.08

22.87

21.27

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

23.24

100.10

3-3

28.11

0.78

4.80

0.07

26.01

18.45

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

22.12

100.34

6-2

23.27

0.72

5.29

0.05

21.31

24.29

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

25.08

100.01

6-3

23.43

0.65

4.63

0.05

21.47

24.17

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

25.35

99.75

7-1

23.54

1.27

4.70

0.05

20.55

24.51

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

25.28

99.90

8-1

20.37

0.80

4.87

0.07

18.50

27.58

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

27.37

99.56

8-2

39.69

1.10

7.16

0.10

33.81

5.54

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

12.74

100.14

8-4

20.66

0.67

4.29

0.06

18.87

28.18

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

27.41

100.14

9-1

21.19

0.74

4.74

0.06

20.07

26.78

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

26.75

100.33

9-2

27.71

0.88

6.34

0.08

25.99

17.98

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

21.34

100.32

11-2

11.84

0.35

2.65

0.05

11.23

39.68

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

34.47

100.27

11-3

32.03

0.77

5.93

0.08

30.56

12.32

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

18.57

100.26

12-1

23.12

0.75

4.37

0.06

21.55

24.46

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

25.69

100.00

12-2

19.27

0.63

3.52

0.07

18.45

29.39

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

28.58

99.91

13-1

20.23

0.64

3.94

0.07

19.09

28.04

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

<l.d.

27.67

99.68

Aver.

23,29

0,73

4,82

0,07

21,42

24,46

25,27

100,06

Std. D

6,74

0,22

1,60

0,01

6,02

8,92

5,39

0,23

VT 1

20.32

1.00

6.44

0.10

16.54

28.16

<l.d

<l.d

<l.d

<l.d.

26.94

99.5

VT 2

29.06

0.64

4.74

0.34

18.27

25.13

<l.d

<l.d

<l.d

<l.d

21.72

99.9

VT 3

31.30

0.61

9.52

0.09

26.90

13.20

0.06

<l.d

<l.d

0.08

17.60

99.30

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505

Table 2: Density and porosity values of the examined samples.

Sample

Apparent density (g/cm 3 )

Bulk density (g/cm 3 )

Porosity

(%)

VA3.3

2.77

2.73

1.55

whole

VA3.1

2.69

2.64

1.90

whole

VA1.2

2.74

2.73

0.37

black clast

VA8.2

2.98

2.93

1.93

black clast

VA3.2

2.75

2.73

0.78

black clast

VA4.8

2.66

2.62

1.65

green clast

VA3.3

2.72

2.64

3.12

white clast

VA1.2

2.72

2.66

2.25

matrix

VA4.1

2.69

2.61

3.09

matrix

VA4.1

2.75

2.68

2.60

matrix

The Table 2 and Figure 11 report the porosimetric data and related density values. As regards this very last parameter, the average bulk density for the whole rock is around 2.7, a bit vari- able for the clasts; higher for some black clasts, reaching a maximum of 2.93. The porosity of the whole rock is 1.9 %, higher than that of the values of the single black clasts (av.p.1%), but lower than the other components, the matrix (av. p. 2.64 %) the green clasts (1.65 %) and the white clasts (3.12 %), which seem to be the more porous of the components. The typical pore- size distributions shown in Fig.11 indicate an even distribution of the small porosity for the whole rock, with an almost equal amount of pores with radiuses varying from 0.01 to 1 mi- crometer, and pores with 1-10 μ. Black clasts show a more dispersed pattern, with a tendency towards more pores in the range1-10 μ; green clasts mostly show a bi-modal behaviour, with a larger amount of fine pores (< 1 μ); the white marble clasts, finally, show a concentration of pores around 1 μ. Overall, verde antico is thus a rather compact material with a relatively favourable distribution of pores.

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506 L. LAZZARINI and S. CANCELLIERE Fig. 11 . —Cumulative volume of pores in mm 3

Fig. 11. —Cumulative volume of pores in mm 3 versus pore radius distribution (in micrometers and in logaritmic scale) of whole rock and single clasts of verde antico.

THE ARCHAEOMETRIC PROBLEMS

As mentioned above, verde antico may be confused with verde di Tinos and sometimes with rare brecciated varieties of verde di Varallo, a green stone (ophicalcite) still quarried in the Italian Western Alps. Of these latter two materials, only the first was used in antiquity (the second was used from the late Renaissance- Baroque periods onwards), so petrographic and

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507

antico ): SOURCE, DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISATION 507 Fig. 12 . — Plot of the chemical analysis

Fig. 12. — Plot of the chemical analysis of verde antico and verde di Tino in the CaO-MgO-SIO 2 .

chemical analyses for comparison were made on only 3 samples collected from ancient quar- ries NE of Marlas on the island of Tinos. The results show that the Tinian green is a true ophicalcite essentially composed of antigorite and calcite with magnetite as the main acces- sory mineral. The microscopic fabric differs from verde antico since it is not microbrecciated but characterised by an intimate mixture of the two essential minerals. Its chemical composi- tion is shown in Table 1: comparison with the results of verde antico do not show the possibility of a clear distinction of the two green stones based on the chemical analysis of the main com- ponents. This is confirmed also by plotting the results of the major elements on a SiO 2 -CaO-MgO triangular diagram (fig. 12). The possibility of a separation of the two mar- bles may rely on trace elements and C &O stable isotope ratios measurements on the carbonatic fractions of the rocks that will be done in a future research. For the time being, ob- servation of the macroscopic features of the green marble from Tinos in the wide cuts of the modern quarries and in a large number of polished slabs ready for sale, has shown that brec- ciation in it is quite rare, and occurs only on a small scale. The rock is also lacking white marble clasts, being mostly characterised by white veins of calcite: these features seems for now to be quite distinctive for a first macroscopic identification of the two marbles.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are grateful to the Ephoreia of Classical Antiquities of Larisa for having kindly authorised samples to be taken from the ancient quarries, and to Dr. Dionysis Matarangas of IGME, Athens, for providing geo- logical information and documentation.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

GNOLI, R., 1988, Marmora Romana, L’Elefante, II ed., Roma.

HIGGINS, M., and HIGGINS, R., 1996, A geological companion to Greece and the Aegean, Duckworth, London.

KATSIKATSOS, G., VIDAKIS, M., MIGIROS, G., and PAPAZETI, E., 1981, Platycampos Sheet, Geological Map of Greece, 1:50.000, IGME, Athens.

LAZZARINI, L., 2002, “I marmi colorati usati dai Romani: verde antico, marmor thessalicum, marmor atracium”, in M.DE NUCCIO and L.UNGARO (eds), I marmi colorati della Roma Imperiale, Marsilio, Padova, pp. 261-262.

LAZZARINI, L., 2007, Poikiloi Lithoi, Versiculores Maculae: I marmi colorati della Grecia antica, Fabrizio Serra Editore, Pisa-Roma, pp. 223-244.

LAZZARINI, L., 2009, “The distribution and re-use of the most important coloured marbles in the provinces of the Roman Empire” in Y. M ANIATIS (ed.), ASMOSIA VII, The Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity – Proceedings of the 7 th International Conference of the Associ- ation for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity, BCH Suppl., 51, pp. 459-484.

PAPAGEORGAKIS, I.,1963, «T· ·Ú¯·›· Ï·ÙÔÌ›· Ù˘ £ÂÛÛ·Ï›·˜», ¶Ú·ÎÙÈο Aη‰ËÌ›·˜ AıËÓÒÓ, 38,

pp. 564-572.

Ce volume comprend les textes des communications d’ASMOSIA VII, 7 e con- férence internationale de l’Association pour l’étude du marbre et des autres pierres dans l’Antiquité (Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Anti- quity), qui s’est tenue dans l’île de Thasos, en Grèce. Les thèmes abordés dans ces communications sont à la pointe du domaine interdisciplinaire où se rejoignent la science, l’archéologie et l’histoire de l’art ; ils reflètent un large spectre de la recherche sur les pierres, depuis la carrière jusqu’au produit décoré dans son état final. Les sujets plus particulièrement abordés sont les suivants : (1) Considérations archéologiques et emploi du marbre ; (2) Carrières, techniques d’extraction, géologie et propriétés de la pierre ; (3) Identification de provenance et caractérisation : le marbre ; (4) Identification de provenance et caractérisation : autres pierres ; (5) Techniques et développements ; (6) Bases de données ; (7) Propriétés de la pierre – Vieillissement –Restauration et (8) Pigments et peintures sur marbre.

This book contains the papers submitted to ASMOSIA VII, which is the 7th In- ternational Conference of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity. The conference was held in the island of Thassos, Greece. The sub- jects of the papers represent the state-of-the-art in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Archaeology and Art-History and reflect a very broad range of research and applications on stone, from the quarry to the final decorated object. In particular, the subjects cover: (1) Archaeological considerations and use of marble, (2) Quarries, Quarrying Techniques, Geology and Stone properties, (3) Provenance Identification and Characterisation: Marble, (4) Provenance Identification and Characterisation: Other stones, (5) Techniques and Developments, (6) Databases, (7) Stone Properties – Weathering – Restoration and (8) Pigments and paintings on marble.

Properties – Weathering – Restoration and (8) Pigments and paintings on marble . ÉCOLE FRANÇAISE D

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