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Brent Sherwood




Code 693 NASA Goddard Space FUgbt Center Greenbelt MD 20771

Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will ecl_gse, within a historically shoff time, the technic_ challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adaYng topics in space engfneeffng planetology, life support, human factors, materlal invention, and conservation to their already mnats._nce array of e_mrttse, urban deagners can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

Many urbanism. architecture that this essay. First, given pretend many prospects the proof decades Indeed, still


temporally examine from even true lunar lunar

activity, permit capsules, methods vehicles.

being precision

cramped, work

noisy, The


and too human






of such


many years will pass before Why, then, cannot yet be known?


shuttles, and and familiar travel

modules hardware are

is purloined of earlier inappropriate

from the available atmospheric flight for lengthy stays,

is realized.

a field so embryonic Three reasons motivate defensibly Even about will be facts

its real features



of Project Apollo, to other their are already

no one could and

servicing longer either excrescent the week cargo for other former, with every hand, that activities ab-ware mission

missions with vehicular or modular approaches. up to seven (Spacelab, and with Spacehab)

architecture requires The space shuttle uses workers installed for roughly in its capacious ground space more support the does, growth, and one is still are really record support station Mir, on a

that human nonspecialists



is impossible. anxious projections


thinking inevitable

for lunar civilization;

bay. This allows occupies began

but also enforces is ultimately Skytab. the present


most productive if grounded realistically that will constrain life on the Moon. Second, those hoping professionally environment tend to be either space about urban history, lunar or architects planners, who Responsible however,

in a few inescapable to design the engineers who know must little be

volume-limited. stage in a modular

built lunar know little about space. in both

lineage the

Distilling, allows

as this approach much of its units cylinders, structures, on recent orbit can 326-day even

of traveling activity-limited

and staying by the


but is finally connections. A space that sprouts vehicular


worlds. Preparing rigorously for that joint future will take much time, and appreciating the depth and range of both fields is a first step. Third, will goals and most present must, central, thinking should, refining Without and might the direction history be, we some tangible have of the path depends no on sound idea of what our way of how facts that the basis toward people bridge from to future setting

architecture appendages Such in spirit.

of linked, manned

pressurized exterior components such

and enormous Romanenko's

like trains parked proves that, when

on sidings. specialized,


the begirmingy

far future

individuals working common to envision familiar vehicular of permanent Submarine as paradigms all, intrinsically life,

and staying even future

in space. While it is natural and space architecture based on this only the very first stages could or on planetary surfaces

for making the many immediate decisions along it. Now is the time to begin earnest discussion will use Earth's moon. Acknowledging eventual urbanism can save resources and, finally, remorse.

vocabulary, vehicular.

however, in orbit

construction and antarctic for space. deadly promote

of offwodd

in fact be sensibly

environments Remote to people and and these

are frequently hostile, thus all three require needs conciliation, urgent to quantify

proffered are, after artifice emerged to avoid

To begin, each civilization: we draw traveling, of which

distinctions staying, among

three in the human growth architecture activities, of space so far

sustain conflict, human

efficiency, disaster. From with work


and prevent "factors"

has a special

rote to play


an attempt

as completely

and living. Space

has been entirely vehicular, based Earth. Atmospheric flight governs Like trucks and vans, they only

on components their form from grudgingly

launched from the outside in. concerted

as possible human behavior suitable environments. Such hancing our ability

the goal of designing more holds great promise for enplaces and will prove critical

to stay in hostile


for long interplanetary manned missions and planetary outposts, which blur the boundary between traveling and staying. But Earth's Space oceans cannot regarded Travel time, and space become poles, from which point. human conspire economic their to ensure arena lives that until people establish people eventually return, can only model to a certain

the autonomous and risk will

INow at Boeing Aerospace Hunt.wiUe AL 35824-6402

and Electronics, JX-23, P.O. Box 24002,

widely there.

as inevitable expense,


2nd Conference

on Lunar

Bases and Space Activities









space. much it inby in and the

cultural iteratively. for citizen) The






each the Latin

other root

Human living is an exceedingly more than pagsably engineered cludes all we do: working, is a vastly model messy and their resting, behavior over effects for living a numerical abstract core The human grace future wisdom

complex activity, accommodation playing, one cannot Instead, of human of those see, not

requiring because

We cannot imagine "civilization" (from divorced from its creative artifacts. is architecture's grandest product,

and growing. deeply be reduced

Designing solvable to factors


a built



Crays. People

within which throngs of people can arrange lives. As a tool permitting societal evolution, provide enduring organization and sustain

discrete but linked the city must first the individual and

of living. the aspects and

the sum living.

of physical occupies that with

richness requirements living demands as we


all '.iuman


and determines

collective needs of the people living in it. By accommodating simultaneously most of the conflicting, singular services its citizens desire, way. organism influence the city can enable The synergy much of that more larger, a population populac resourceful, that density possible in turn no other a social this e animates

environments to be honed environments balance that, Earth.

support skill and the and

are subtle a fine can

and continue multivariate

over millennia as far into experience

as society


Manipulating defensibly provide, of architecture.

and more drives

consequential together

than any individual available to make cities A civilization


be. It is this strength, they live. enduringly

this capacity, humans



to a civic culture,

can feasibly

in space

as on

They demand

wherever sustained

in fact the practice

and efficiently things, however, commodity

by its culture advancing the the extreme greatness; and delight. and

We activity may define of coordinating

architecture a set of specialty

as the professional and services industries

can upon that foundation reach of the human spirit. density urbanism Disease, encouraged often violence, by cities falls far

achieve great As we know, cannot of both alone







to make facilities that foster and enhance human living. To dissect the profession, we first need ways to evaluate its product. Then we can more Two concise, standard fabrication, usable? serves the and critically ago, complete firmness, anything safety. review the the specialties Roman it coordinates. proffered defining This qualities, question: a clear, good tripolar proper Is it millennia Vitta_vius and

spiritual impoverishment concentrations of people. approached, populations. biologically desirabIe negative priceless civilization, atavistic Certainly tolerable for human aspects benefits. necessarily by linking

have histod_cally As contemporary biological there is

accompanied unbridled physical limitations are in human what is the their

controls resurface a vast gap between species design while a central otherwise and what

statement commodity,

of the qualities delight. material the a work

for the human civilization. _ulations occupies

is spiritually

architecture: covers


tries to mitigate still fostering role

that architecture appropriate Firmness putt_se addresses for which

can do or be. F/rmness

of dense

refers to structural and Commodity

integrity, subsumes


in building fields

all the ways

of architecture accommo-




progr'amnatic physical and Commodity the omitted

it is built,

dating the environment. Deh'gbt frequently luxury. Would ancient without structure,

abstract needs addresses the signature Western

of its occupants and question: Is it useful? of great culture architecture, as a separable

that can only make a firm, commodious, ment if combined coherently. Traditional to modern human terrestrial architecture historical include study, programming,

Trod delightful environspecialties contributing subjects and as sundry representalaw, materials engineering, geology, as abstract

is often

diacritical in modern

Delight addresses people rather use principles any one solution, apply of which and art. encapsulating

the subtle but penetrating question: this than other solutions? These three to all ages and modes and styles properties of distinct aad complementary cannot

tional modeling, psychology, testing and development, negotiation, economics, Designers civic industrial construction environmental of cities waste production, spectator must

structural engineering, environmental control management, study, in addition commerce, communication address and engineering art. and of course


mass transportation, pollution avoidance, and dis. and media, sources

architecture projects human materials the even and

be simultaneously and aspirations; Because The and to use, architecture profession. traveling spoons


management crime,

power death,

At its best, it depends has been purview staying, between


human needs


tribution, public health needs tions,



at the very least, it embodies on manipulating called is extensive human c3tnically of architecture, beings

and behaviors. oldest"

for human

recreation, resource conservation, maintenance, and defense. and urban planners subjects of all these character, diverse by

park management, simultaneously the assemblages. the proporIn

"second neglecting


try to satisfy

(as here)

manipulating of material

and inclusive. their

We take all designed environment, from



and scale

highways, gardens Civil architecture, convolved 5000 years Archeologists ago

to sewers, and buildings, servicing and embodying with civilization. civilization following generally define

too, as architecture. human community, is as having two begun about and used

so doing they add incidentally to the long history of built human environments. Their central, coordinating effort remains invariant despite material and social features unique to time and place.


The and their time is the the next century, the nature particularly there, design on and under vehicular can

and the surface by place is cislunar moon. ensures (the issues. space, that human Poised of Earth's only Until then

in Mesopotamia,

key inventions:

writing and urbanism. The urbanism must be considered

earliest applications of writing artifacts of commerce, having

abstract yet practical formal design to facilitate intercourse. Subsequently, these permanently both lating mere ture written and built, became intrinsically

efficient and dense expressive media, useful for encapsu-

of all space


be influenced of inhabiting

a skeleton


of the tremendous

array of architectural the first truly new

and stimulating human sensibilities. By thus transcending functionality, the recording arts of literature and architecwere born. Over the ages since then, civilization and its

still at the threshold


since the dawn of man, and having only essayed it, we are now understandably preoccupied

tentatively into with technical







challenges. dominates Orbiting stay in

Keeping all other

people problems could



physically space activity.


still effort to by a

Any offworld "conventional"



will and


attention subjects gravitational production, of including attitude

to all listed


of manned muster. for will be



earlier, biology, material

a few people century orbit Space Leaving of have we

has consumed

the best engineering Enabling many much (STS) more problems some Long form several months, served challenging quite sustaining microgravity or

the twentieth complete throughout expensive. opens anything groups might against Ecological bone


plus advanced CELSS, radiation management, interorbital elemental mining, biomass recycling, and of course the full di_iplines peculiar to spacecraft tics, propulsion, vacuum thermal teleoperation, vibration and gence, and redundant must address further alien and planetology gravity level, to become

simultaneously Transportation space, behind tackled interleaved so inevitably System cislunar


traditional astronaucontrol, intelli-



travel and beyond large stays inertial, of Earth

engineering, management, suppression,

the sustenance technical far. demands (CELSS). whether

and protection



a level


safety. Finally, actual planetary the dominant issues of launch local geology, enough weather, in the and wilderness conversant preservation.

architecture and landing, diurnal cycle anyone of

for long times Life Support require

of Controlled



prophylaxis, demineralization;




and protracted

travel at and beyond

geosynchronous both constant problems

orbit (GEO) demands careful shielding against and acute radiation fluence. Solving just these and elegantly will keep us busy well into the

lunar architecture to perform it rigorously, has an awful lot to learn. As a professional from ready to take on the on the task we so glibly is indeed child's lunar urbanism. and environmental the second culture. bursts set oldest ix, ople Moon

responsibly, and well culture, we are far imagine. Just putting to estabwith heralds a of its


play compared enrichment profession

next century. Yet, once those cease to pose


are solved, obstacle

even primitively, civilization.

they will We can

lishing a mature The sudden which great range civilized of substituting Old planetary dialogue enjoyed. is lethal. space leap

and noble technical infuse architecture

the dominant

to space


safely assert that before multitudes of people begin living in space, more ancient architectural issues will have superseded the technical dilemmas of putting and keeping them there. Establishing an offworld urbanism that can provide the spectrum of amenities, stimulation, and cultural support that people require of cities introduced anywhere by presents a really challenges thousands, to dominate tough or problem, social millions even beside which our incipient living in space engineering hundreds, must come pale. The everything complexities of people

forward history, conditions.

in human Space become

For the five millennia within those archaic and Gone

has worked

a fairly parochial boundaries, restrictions. have always

an unprecedented constants between indoors

of freedoms


will be the easy

and outdoors

that humans

Interior "exteriors" must arise, since the true exterior The harsh rules of space and its startling allowances will the relationship between to rethink people human and their

else. Technically

on the verge of being Moon, we have barely

able to keep communities alive on the begun to prepare for solving the total

change altogether environment. By being remake afresh pating species proving try, yet with forced urbanism

unequivocally beyond Earth history

living, we can starting Anticiour of imindeed us to most than with planet of lunar

architectural problem engaged by doing so. Extant but unconcerted preparation takes three forms. First, and least useful, by than in Earth are utopian which images attempt they Second by science to the inconsistent images, detail these arising and reveal from contemporary of space details. about Albeit In their ideas often futures "colonization" civilization presenting creators explored technically beyond studies, rather about fixed to paint a picture peculiar more fiction. study

if we proceed of civilization

carefully, as practice.

the 5000-year

the most emphatic will undergo fuels the human realm condition. affording

environmental our incessant The utterly Moon promise new standard

transformation designer's hope of a pristine, opportunity of firm, our lures first and


unsuspecting, again, and delightful

life in space. bring

are the uncounted of human been

generating urbanism.

a new The


vignetted the





of having


priceless chance to prove to ourselves the historical evidence shows. Most which we can treat human living last, teach it is. us how to protect

that we can be wiser critically, the clarity world may, precious

by writers generally rather than ways profession the eventually engineering. millennia of mannerist storehouse of

driven to explore implications and meaning, and means. Finally, but unwittingly, the architecture problems is better prepared for solving than is space supported to avoid and by the of living in space planners can hope still viable that the

on an alien

at long

Earth as the uniquely

of terrestrial important

Given time and trial, of course, human living would approximately have done on Earth. We would " could novel better

even the fuzzy problems sort hope, themselves however,

Only dedicated human professional experience of simple potential the role visions, futures, common to more play while to

out, as they that foresight



the vibrant inspiring

realize presumption in

limit error through planning, even though arena; not only should we aim to design than any found than the on the Earth, cost we must in quicker luxurious

space is an utterly there an urbanism it hundreds had here. material we

cities in space. We must exorcise has a "humanizing" We landscape.

aim to do

architecture that notion: urban Space

of times Otherwise depletion,

five millennia human





by reversing

and environmental


will be unconscionably

engineering will in fact be but of architectural practice. Lunar human change needs deeply. of its citizens, no new Engineering but technology, environment,

a new tool in the ancient panoply urbanism must after all follow the to principles gimmicks of building that no new to will no new are liable

high. LUNAR
Having established can look Outright mature.

according realities

and urbanism, their evolution, and we

on the Moon nor syntax engineering

provide the vocabulary urbanism. Recognizing eventually allows be absorbed

neither the diction that human space inclusive

of lunar must

defined the scope of architecture why access to space must affect more closely at their necessary lunar prophecy So rather than is a .specious goal, portraying arbitrary


on the Moon.

by the


of architecture

us to see just how it will expand

that profession.

and certainly predetails that might




on Lunar

Bases and

Space Activities

characterize boundaries misleading

one images

possible of lunar

future, all the



instead The


factual of basic

However, antisolar lunar lifestyle

the natural may evolve

landscapes that restricts

of the Moon's to human recreational

surface viewing

and the A to very

that contain

possibilities. means


sky will

be especially




that certain

principles remain unobvious, rules that will constrain what these plants sarily neglect Lunar facts will the remain dominate dominant will The largess and extensive lunar first vehicular

so we outline the most probable lunar architecture must be. Not all life until than real a few urban Nor growth supphases. will they necesas they all stages by Earth's every or .sealed, for on

special times, spurring ritual, behavioral, and special surface architectures for that p_. Primarily subterranean, then, lunar cities would be heavily overburden, overlying boundary top-shielded and perhaps tunneled will by concrete even be the The single superstructures, of untouched surface, important planetary most by regolith wilderness both natural architectural That pressure. structurally hermetic newtons overburden city by areas

and outpost for more material be densely cannot progress.


city caverns.

unpredictable urbanism

and engineered,

populated culture

at virtually allowed poured, in a place (or

on the Moon. contain atmospheric lunar cities can be square withstand counteract meter over this of the 100,000 a regolith pressure safe be

of its evolution. environmental cubic or meter assembled)


"cottage" must Nor sense

be afforded be hewn can


boundary While rather wall of force with

must in general also the enclosures inside conventional, surface sufficient itself by the weight exerted every must to air within

of vital volume sustained.

suburban Moon. not society

"homestaking" Resources be dissipated

really make construction anything


on the lunar

it. In fact,

and life support except the densest majority

will generally of cities; of lunar

will be almost will depend imports will be on

The overwhelming indigenous inevitably locally, civilization manufacturing be rate-limited. techniques. Offworld Thus common objects them from space A specialized computer in which the programmer on which all somehow of lunar for she jots must origin must made but

would exceed by many times shielding alone. Pressurized, spaceships; economical, Lunar architecture, examples, urbanistic sequence natural East to schemes themselves, life

the thickness lunar cities argues there.

required for will in effect strongly Many

no other single feature underground urbanism need three not be of which

more though.

for an ages of

troglodytic, provide

not because


is impossible,


programmatic interior. executed regarded fi'om the The as a all the Middle

because it is impractical. from space, but the chair she munches, the she light by which Moon. This need excite sees local a human divining

might come sits, the snack notes, and the on the

have been conceptually or explicitly Roman i_mpire was conceived and of controlled landscapes the British everywhere, civilizing volumes and views and that it conquered absorbed,

.scrap paper

be produced with and of

pervasively to fashion and from occupy

culture, from

its corollary up, will us Some prevents

Isles, as alien. Imposing the same planning Romans created their own universe around it with gods of their convenience choosing. as urban and Vh'tuafly "rooms"

environment a complete though. bicycles

the bottom it now.


generations image

incidentally conclusions transl_rtation unobtrusively, be justified

arranging in it the ordered landscape of their all outdoor spaces in Roman cities functioned

are unavoidable, machines like of composite elaborate

Simplicity will over powered mobility systems transit

favor urban vehicles--if and exercise are likely to

within which the public rituals of Roman society could be played out. The Roman invention of concrete allowed enclosed volumes of a truly public those volumes announced In Empire, outside out masonry intr_ction, architecture Roman and lavishly of religious belief upward came to influential the technology to the western northern than interior a densely and and extravagance mystery the flooding to recover and sustain an as anything interior The cloak scale never before and of the street alive today. millennium warfare Often tiny of shrank instead. piety, but civic spaces a secular refine stretching light from architecture century North its following conspired little slits more recessed the Roman from the to produce peered in thick encouraged off the east, in the the stone old medieval seen, and the legacy both of facades that surfaced and

a few kilograms

can provide traffic.


only for interurban

them remains

We can expect most surface buildings to be made primarily of lunar concrete reinforced with local metal, serving both structural and shielding of titanium needs with minimal industry. We can expect as are alloys steel and aluminum to be used as commonly

cold and frequent environment. shielded through Ornament

a genuinely of halls

pile, medieval


and plastic on Earth, and we can expect glass to be everywhere. Among the easiest materials to fabricate from lunar sources, glasses cavern fibers. quickly, This Moon masonry, Lunar of varying linings We must cheaply, well fired, might makes purities expect mean will make up everything products from Again, from tunneled as and architectural and simply and vitreous must elements, as possible landscape materials. be to structural a_ailable these and optical resources. by poured, are not all the Heavily

chambers even


intellectualism the people became rather West interior than to

Christianity largely To the now

that ubiquitous a built

will be made


still with public.

enormous service Eventually,




masonry the old above.

construction Roman Gothic basilica religion and


but they will be the most expedient. an interior architecture.

volume, it with interior Roman. mall


shielded havens are required during anomalously large solar proton events (ALSPEs, or flares), and cosmic rays (which Earth's atmosphere isotropically ures are working, unshielded more pressure suburban incidentally attenuates) and continuously; irradiate the the best lunar long-term surface semicountermeasnot actually limit their immortal, affording space yet their (and crystalline

as potent, America the

grand, has

Most familiarly, inclusive sumption attention landscape. ing Toronto italism instead


evolved con-

to compensate


not yet known. It may well be that, when people living in space will quite voluntarily exposure. domes No modern about myth seems image planetary sunlight). more than the persistent scattered with of miraculous surfaces, views of raw

of its natural landscape. is occupied and stimulated The consistency of religion strip and Los Angeles essentially architecture

Reverting indoors, public by the mall's manufactured makby capthe same. will also Driven

of its style is place-independent, or conquest, this enclosed,



populace baking


them in strong

scaled, and transient in lunar interiors.

find expression







The and

civic new

pride, we have motives to the

inspiration, guiding rich will

and lunar embody

commercialism briefly civic its will building. own however. movement.


built the old




most recover however, its

signs forests

of human and appalling fragile



to ecoand

expressions eclectically century public two

just reviewed human All types from of human

be among


Left alone,



desert erosion

Referring twenty-first in the will share details


a pluralistic interiors

structures can eventually even toxic pollution. The lunar wilderness, despite takes millions irrecoverable, "gardening"

despite is truly

lunar interiors




effectively of

it builds. differences a larger scale

of lunar

inanimate of years


Micrometeorite just centimeters



First, they must Although stride longer have a new governed by

to remake


await experience, a natural gait in lunar gravity will and hops will rise higher. Human "factors" will problem economy, architecture than Earth shielding, Lunar ecological a web low, organisms. and seriously a difficult as well. can live radiation, research bringing avoidable). to prevent inconceivable along to solve. Interior supporting structures, will be much more _ therefore be architecture, and its urban life will be having hosts, Our utter a sterile but Some in and real despite nonsterile. evolved and truly

regolith. The forces that allow reclaiming strip mines and ruins on Earth simply do not exist on the Moon; the first trek through a pristine ruins its region ineffable of the Moon's unique value "magnificent desolation" Surface wilderne_ practically forever.

slender than Earth allows. Lunar lighter and seem more expansive its pressurized Human in the symbiotic of these too closure, beings interactions relationships anyway, management will are its exterior elaborate of Earth with is too to host other shalplan life and and it is be

exploration, strip mining, and construction Hill be facts of human activity on the Moon. So, sooner or later, Hill be human demands for more isolates participatory and renewal utter preservation size areas also will of aid untouched which that effort wild since regions. its The its total close cannot small use be horizon planetary of the Moon, visually. on the Moon afforded by makes preventing

crowdedness. septic biosphere


WiIderness contemplating

appreciation wilderness

of commensal

the same way it is on Earth.

The solace HiU induce

understanding sterilization offworld problem. that will

impractical Pathogen cities in

ecology. Lunar extreme exploit

Hill be metal

radically new forms of urban design and specialized to accommodate that human need on the Moon. The urbanism the lunar Moon boundary our future. as exciting, Many people, engineers, about realism populate_ reciprocally and themes; those who sponsibly history. few fundamental here as weather properties grow is to directly the of out Earth. lunar reviewed conditions, No rule, whether

architectures and to as them built from for planning being ones.

themselves by corroding temperature, in space. lunar off grow


bacteria environments toxics Hill that the

metabolize niches coinhabit could cockroach

of facts as intrinsic By accepting useful designs authors,

pressure, and should with us. demarfixture space

Feral pet cities, Earth

our projections can be more and after all, prevents professional leaders, thoughts. lunar and on the urbanism

of the incipient, rigorous designers,



eventually urbanism venerable


apt and more as inspirational

without too porous

(pigeons the Moon

as romantic, explorers,

as specious


Hill be too fast and quarantine from colonizing

illustrators, by thinking accurate densely it

eggs and spores

or planners, Moon. will By starting

are thrilled Now be from

Finally, the Moon must cation between w//derness of a town there, from not human environment, wall to distill so much to

be a place of unprecedented and human use. The ancient from the countryside from lunar biosphere protect Fragile inhabitants the natural though the the

living in space into those interior, defines and that do plan one of the

is the time to inject a few primarily


Hill recur environment of Earth deeply things, of


and nonsterae; will be pervasively lunar can w//derness contribute

that it and Indigenous

the civilization in its materials precious-to realizing

but rather to protect destruction.

is irreplaceably meaningfully ever imagined

may be in the face of "development," we are nonetheless spoiled by its resilience. The encroachment of living relentless weather, and finally even the inexorable




in human


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