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Fear of success-Puneet Gupta(2009CE10326) and Raman Kunwar(2010CE10393)

Based on Horner s Theory Piedmont(1988) defined Fear of Success(FOS) as the expectancy held by some women that success in certain achievement-related situations will be followed by negative consequences......success is equated with a loss of feminity that will result in social rejection (p468) As competition and success is generally classified as masculine characteristics, women are typically faced with an approach avoidance conflict and associate negative consequences, such as social isolation and loss of feminity, with success. FOS affects motivation differently in men. Orlofsky (1978 cited by Piedmont, 1988, p471) stated that, FOS in males is not so much FOS but some combination of a) fear of failure, b) the wish to avoid responsibilities that continued achievement of success brings, and c) a devaluation of the achievement ethic. Paludi(1984) defined FOS as need to avoid the success . FOS affects the motivation to works, it would usually result in procrastination as well people will tend to develop methods to self sabotage the success.

Methods to measure FOS BEM role inventory-Dr. Sandra Lipsitz Bem is a psychologist who developed the gender schema theory to explain how individuals come to use gender as an organizing category in all aspects of their life. In 1971 she created Bem sex role inventory to measure how well you fit in the gender role by characterizing you personality as masculine, feminine, androgynous or undifferentiated There are 60 item on the list from one have to rate oneself on a scale from 1(never or almost never true) to 7(almost always true). Part 1: The Measure Rate yourself on the following items on 1-7 scale: 1 to 7 (always or almost always true)

(never or almost never true)

1. 2. 3. 4.

self-reliant yielding helpful defends own beliefs

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

cheerful moody independent shy conscientious

10. athletic 11. affectionate 12. theatrical 13. assertive 14. flatterable 15. happy 16. strong personality 17. loyal 18. unpredictable 19. forceful 20. feminine 21. reliable 22. analytical 23. sympathetic 24. jealous 25. has leadership abilities 26. sensitive to the needs of others 27. truthful 28. willing to take risks 29. understanding 30. secretive

31. makes decisions easily 32. compassionate 33. sincere 34. self-sufficient 35. eager to soothe hurt feelings 36. conceited 37. dominant 38. soft-spoken 39. likable 40. masculine 41. warm 42. solemn 43. willing to take a stand 44. tender 45. friendly 46. aggressive 47. gullible 48. inefficient 49. acts as a leader 50. childlike 51. adaptable 52. individualistic 53. does not use harsh language 54. unsystematic 55. competitive 56. loves children

57. tactful 58. ambitious 59. gentle 60. conventional Next, Add up your ratings for items 1, 4, 7,10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, 37, 40, 43, 46, 49, 55, and 58. Divide the total by 20. This is your masculinity score. Add up your ratings for items 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, 35, 38, 41, 44, 47, 50, 53, 56, and 59. Divide the total by 20. This is your femininity score.

Feminity greater than 4.9 Feminity less than 4.9

Masculinity greater than 4.9 Androgynous Male-sex type

Masculinity less that 4.9 Female sex-type Undifferentiated

The publisher of The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) describes the purpose of the test in this way: The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) provides independent assessments of masculinity and femininity in terms of the respondent s self-reported possession of socially desirable, stereotypically masculine and feminine personality characteristics. This can also be seen as a measurement of the extent to which respondents spontaneously sort self-relevant information into distinct masculine and feminine categories. The self administering 60-item questionnaire measures masculinity, femininity, androgyny, and undifferentiated, using the Masculinity and Femininity scales.

FOSS-In this questionnaire developed by Zuckerman, M and Allison, S.N., 1976, there are number of statements. For each statement a scale from 1 to 7 is provided, with 1 represented extreme disagreement and 7 representing extreme agreement. This is a measure of personal attitude.

PAI-Consists of 50 positive nd 50 negative adjectives. Examinee os to select 30 adjectives which best describe him/her. Score is determined on basis of positive and negative words selected. Demographic Sheet-Information regarding gender, major course of study, ethnic background, marital status, age, academic status, employment status, grade point average and family structure is asked.

Masculinity, Feminity, Androgynous and Undifferentiated-Attitudes, behaviors, rights, and responsibilities that a society associates with each sex are known as gender roles (Holt and Ellis, 1998). A person may be described as masculine, as feminine, as androgynous, i.e., having characteristics of both, or as undifferentiated, that are, having neither strong masculine nor strong feminine characteristics. Masculine and feminine roles are not opposite ends of the same continuum but are instead two separate dimensions. (Bem, 1977). According to Powell and Butterfield (1989), people who are androgynous are believed to be more effective because they can perform both the instrumental, directive, or masculine roles and the expressive, nurturing, or feminine roles. Age, race, and social class further define individuals roles, which influence how men and women interact and the attitudes and behaviours expected of each (Lindsey, 1994). Changes of trends- Females have gradually been adapting masculine characteristics with their own inherited feminine characteristics in recent trends. Ever changing world due to westernization, modernization, urbanization, social change in expected gender roles specially in working women class, may cause of certain recently developed trends of social factors. Classic examples of women excelling are Sarah Palin, Indira Nooyi, Rabbani Khair etc. Not a biological trait-Men turn out to be just as success-fearing as women. It is not a peculiarly Feminine trait. Fear of success is not universal amongst women and is not unique to women. Major (1979) reported that it is psychological femininity rather than actual femininity that predisposes people to fear of success. Women also have fewer same-sex role models in high powered jobs who they can attempt to emulate, unlike men where such role models are abundant (Baron and Byrne, 1991). Woolsey (1977) found that femininity was incompatible with the socially highly valued items of competence and individual achievement and that this lead to ambivalence, fear of success, guilt and anxiety in women. FOS in College-A primary concern of both females and male students appear to the high achievement would provoke negative feelings toward them from others and a concern that brings with it undesirable stress factors. Secondary concerns for fearing achievement were that interpersonal relationships would suffer and other people might take advantage of the achiever.

FOS in IIT- A person who tries to studies or gets good grades in IIT is often teased by people as maggu . So the student often tries to resolve this teasing by not studying which is a clear of self sabotaging the success. He/she fears that the their interpersonal relationships and teasing would reduce if he studies less.

Kamlesh singh and Priyanka agrawal,Perceived Sex Role and Fear of Success: A Study on Urban Working Women,J.sdc.sci.,15(1):65-69 (2007). Joyce K.Illfelder,Fear of Success,Sex Role Attidues and carrer Salience and Anxiety Levels of College Women,Journal of Vocational Behavior 16,7-17(1980). D.G.Williams,Relationships Between the Bem Sex-Role Inventory and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Person individ.diff.vol.3.pp223 to pp.224(1982). Carl v.Rabstejnek,Fear of Success. Michele A.Paludi,Psychometric Properties and Underlying Assumptions of Four Objective Measures of Fear of Success. Deanna L.Barnett by Fear of Success.