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Acids and Bases

November-28-11 9:12 AM

And Neutralization Reactions

Acids
Substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) when mixed in water Physical Properties o Sour tasting o Wet to the touch when in solutions o Water soluble o Good conductors of electricity, therefore electrolytes Chemical Properties o React with metals to produce hydrogen gas o Corrosive o Make chemical indicators change colour o React with bases to produce a neutral solution o React with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide

Acids : Reaction with Metals


Hydrochloric acid + zinc ---> hydrogen gas + zinc chloride 2HCl(aq) + Zn(s) ---> H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq)

Naming Acids
A binary acid forms when an H+ bonds with a non-metal HF (aq), HCL (aq), HBr (aq), HI (aq), H2S (aq), and H3P (aq) are some common

binary acids To name them, use the following structure: o "hydro + ___________ic acid

An oxyacid has a non-metal and an oxygen component H3PO4, HCIO3, HIO3, H2SO4, HBrO3, H2CO3 and HNO3 are some common

oxyacids To name them: o "_____________ic acid

Bases
Substances that release hydroxide ions (OH-) when mixed in water. Also

called alkaline Physical Properties o Bitter tasting o Slippery to the touch when in solution o Water soluble o Good conductors of electricity, therefore electrolytes Chemical Properties o Corrosive o Make chemical indicators change colour o React with acids to produce a neutral solution

Chemical Indicators
Are solutions that change colour in acids and in bases Can be either natural or synthetic Litmus paper: o Base turns it blue o Acid turns it Red Universal Indicator is a mixture of chemicals that

changes colour through a wide range of pH values

The pH scale

Phenolphthaline (Php) Bromethynol Blue Methyl Orange

A numerical scale used to show how acidic or basic a solution is pH stands for "power of hydrogen" The pH scale measures the strength of an acid or a base by taking into consideration the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) pH = power of Hydrogen
The pH scale varies from 0-14 o Acid = pH <7 o Neutral = pH = 7 o Base = pH >7

What is a Log Scale


The pH scale is a logarithmic scale If the pH increases by 1, the solution is 10x more basic If the pH increases by 2, the solution is 100x more basic (2 zeros) If the pH decreases by 1, the solution is 10x more acidic A pH of 7 is 1000x more acidic than a pH of 10

Neutralization Reactions

A type of double displacement reaction Acid + Base ---> Water + Salt A salt is an ionic compound. The pH of the products is around 7 (neutral)