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CGE 654 Well Completion

Artificial Lift

Faculty of Chemical Engineering

Artificial Lift
Why do we install artificial lift? The primary purpose of installing an artificial lift system is to maintain a reduced bottom hole pressure (drawdown) to enable the desired reservoir fluids to be produced at an acceptable rate

Maintaining the required (optimal) flowing bottom hole pressure is the design basis for all artificial lift installations. If the appropriate drawdown can be maintained the future management of the reservoir and completion can be conducted efficiently

Faculty of Chemical Engineering

Artificial Lift

Relative frequency of different types of artificial-lift methods installed in the USA in 1992 (data from J.Clegg, S.Buchan and N.Heln, JPT, December 1993, p1128)

Production from artificial lift wells for a major international oil company
Faculty of Chemical Engineering

Artificial Lift Artificial lift selection criteria


1. Well and reservoir characteristic Production casing size Maximize size of production tubing and required (gross) production rates Annular and tubing safety systems Producing formation depth and deviation (including doglegs, both planned and unplanned) Nature of the produced fluids (gas fraction and sand/wax/asphaltene production)

Faculty of Chemical Engineering

Artificial Lift Artificial lift selection criteria


2. Field location Offshore platform design dictates the maximum physical size(limitation) and weight of artificial lift equipment that can be installed Climate extreme (e.g. arctic operations will also limit the practical use) On-shore environment
Urban location require minimum of visual and acoustic impact Remote location min availability of support infrastructure

Distance from the wellhead to the processing facilities Power source natural gas, mains electricity, diesel generator
Faculty of Chemical Engineering

Artificial Lift Artificial lift selection criteria


3. Operational problem Some form of artificial lift (e.g. gas lift ) more tolerance to solids production (sand) than the other (e.g. centrifugal pump) Formation of massive organic and inorganic deposit (e.g. paraffins, asphalthenes, inorganic scales and hydrates) prevent by treatment with suitable inhibitors & require additional equipment @ complicated downhole completion required

Faculty of Chemical Engineering

Artificial Lift Artificial lift selection criteria


4. Economics

Maintenance costs will vary between operating location depending on the state of the local, service company infrastructure The number of wells in the field with that particular form of artificial lift will influence the operating cost

Faculty of Chemical Engineering

Artificial Lift Artificial lift selection criteria


5. Implementation of artificial lift selection techniques Concern due matching facility constraints, artificial lift capabilities and the well productivity Certain environmental and geographical considerations that may be overriding Some artificial lift are able to reduce the sand face producing pressure to a very low value Wax and formation solid present greater difficulties to some forms of artificial lift designer

Faculty of Chemical Engineering

Artificial Lift

Faculty of Chemical Engineering

Artificial Lift

Faculty of Chemical Engineering

Chapter 5 Wellhead and X-mass Tree

Faculty of Chemical Engineering