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Electrolyte  Electrolytes are substances that can conduct electricity in molten or aqueous state and undergo chemical changes.

 It can conduct electricity due to the presence of free moving ions. Example for electrolytes (alkalis, acids, salt solution or molten salt):
 molten lead(II) chloride  copper(II) sulphate solution  solution containing ions such as hydrochloride acid Non-electrolyte  Non-electrolytes are molecules that cannot conduct electricity and will not undergo any chemical changes.  It cannot conduct electricity due to the absent of free moving ions. Example of non-electrolytes (covalent substances):  molten acetone  molten naphthalene  glucose solution Conductor  Conductors are substances that can conduct electricity in solid or molten state but do not undergo any chemical changes.  It can conduct electricity due to the flow of electrons. Example of conductor:   

iron graphite mercury

Ionic Compounds

Solid state

Molten state or aqueous state (dissolved in water) Do not conduct electricity Can conduct electricity Ions are held in a lattice Ions do not move freely Ions are free to move
Covalent Compounds

Solid state

Molten state or aqueous state (dissolved in water) Do not conduct electricity Do not conduct electricity Exist in molecules Exist in molecules Molecules do not have free Exception: HCl and moving ions NH3 exist as free moving ions in water

Separation
Electrolysis of Molten Compounds  Electrolysis (with battery / electricity current) is a process of decomposition / breaking down / separation of a compound (electrolyte) into its constituent elements when electric current passes through it. Important definition

Anode Cathode Anion Cation

Electrode connected to the positive terminal (+) of a battery Electrode connected to the negative terminal (-) of a battery Negatively-charged ion. Example: Cl-, SO42- and O2Positively-charged ion. Example: Na+, Zn2+ and Al3+

Classification of electrodes

Inert electrodes Active electrodes

Electrodes that do not take part in chemical reactions during electrolysis Electrodes that take part in chemical reactions during electrolysis

Carbon or platinum Copper or zinc

Example 1: Molten magnesium oxide, MgO


 Ions: Magnesium ions (Mg2+) & oxide ions (O2-)  Cathode (Negative electrode): Mg2+ move to the cathode  Anode (Positive electrode): O2- move to the anode  Electrons flow from anode to the cathode through the wire  Can conduct electricity Example 2: Molten lead(II) bromide, PbBr2  Ions: Lead(II) ions (Pb2+) & bromide ions (Br - )  Cathode (Negative electrode): Pb2+ move to the cathode  Anode (Positive electrode): Br - move to the anode  Electrons flow from anode to the cathode through the wire  Can conduct electricity Example 3: Molten naphthalene   

Ions: No ions present (naphthalene is covalent compound which consists of molecules = uncharged particles) No electrons flows Cannot conduct electricity

Electrolysis of Aqueous Compounds (dissolved in water, H2O) There are three important factors to determine the types of ions to be discharged at the electrodes. 1. Positions of ions in the electrochemical series 2. Concentration of ions in the solution 3. Types of electrodes used 1. Positions of ions in the electrochemical series The lower the position of the ion in the electrochemical series, the easier the ion is selectivelydischarged. Electrochemical series:

Cation K+ Na+ Ca2+ Mg2+ Al3+ Zn2+ Fe2+ Sn2+ Pb2+ H+ Cu2+ Hg+ Ag+ Au+

Anion FSO42NO3ClBrIOH-

Example 1: 0.5 mol dm3 of potassium chloride, KCl solution  Positive ions (cations): potassium ions (K+) and hydrogen ions (H+),  Negative ions (anions): chloride ions (Cl-) and hydroxide ions (OH-)  Cathode (negative electrode): H+ move to the cathode (ions are selectively discharge)  Anode (positive electrode): OH- move to the anode (ions are selectively discharge) Example 2: 0.1 mol dm3 of copper(II) sulphate, CuSO4 solution  Positive ions (cations): copper ions (Cu2+) and hydrogen ions (H+),  Negative ions (anions): sulphate ions (SO42-) and hydroxide ions (OH-)  Cathode (negative electrode): Cu2+ move to the cathode (ions are selectively discharge)  Anode (positive electrode): OH- move to the anode (ions are selectively discharge)

2. Effect of concentration of ions in the solution The concentration of a particular type of ion is high = ion more likely to be discharged in electrolysis. Example: 2.0 mol dm-3 of lead(II) chloride, PbCl2 solution  Positive ions (cations): lead(II) ions (Pb2+) and hydrogen ions (H+),  Negative ions (anions): chloride ions (Cl-) and hydroxide ions (OH-)  Cathode (negative electrode): Pb2+ move to the cathode (ions are selectively discharge)  Anode (positive electrode): Cl- move to the anode (ions are selectively discharge) Nevertheless, if the two ions are placed very far apart in the electrochemical series, the concentration aspect becomes insignificant. Example 1: 2.0 mol dm-3 of sodium bromide, NaBr solution  Positive ions (cations): sodium ions (Na+) and hydrogen ions (H+),  Negative ions (anions): bromide ions (Br-) and hydroxide ions (OH-)  Cathode (negative electrode): H+ move to the cathode (ions are selectively discharge)  Anode (positive electrode): Br - move to the anode (ions are selectively discharge) Example 2: 2.0 mol dm-3 of lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2 solution  Positive ions (cations): lead(II) ions (Pb2+) and hydrogen ions (H+),  Negative ions (anions): chloride ions (NO3-) and hydroxide ions (OH-)  Cathode (negative electrode): Pb2+ move to the cathode (ions are selectively discharge)  Anode (positive electrode): OH - move to the anode (ions are selectively discharge)

3. Types of electrodes used in the electrolysis There are 2 important notes: Inert electrodes: Carbon and platinum (Both of these electrodes do not react with the electrolytes or products of electrolysis)  Active electrodes: Silver, copper and nickel (Active anode ionises and concentration of cations in the electrolyte does not change) Example 1: Carbon electrode (inert electrode) in the electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm-3 of aqueous copper(II) sulphate, CuSO4 solution  Positive ions (cations): copper ions (Cu2+) and hydrogen ions (H+),  Negative ions (anions): sulphate ions (SO42-) and hydroxide ions (OH-)  Cathode (negative electrode): Cu2+ move to the cathode (ions are selectively discharge). A brown deposited on the cathode.  Anode (positive electrode): OH- move to the anode (ions are selectively discharge). Gas bubbles are produced. A colourless gas liberates and it ignites the glowing wooden splinter.  The intensity of the blue colour solution decreases because the concentration of copper(II) ions decreases. Example 2: Copper electrode (active electrode) in the electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm-3 of aqueous copper(II) sulphate, CuSO4 solution  Positive ions (cations): copper ions (Cu2+) and hydrogen ions (H+),  Negative ions (anions): sulphate ions (SO42-) and hydroxide ions (OH-)  Anode (positive electrode): OH- and SO42- are not discharged. Copper anode dissolves by releasing electrons to form copper(II) ions, Cu2+. Copper anode becomes thinner.  Cathode (negative electrode): Cu2+ move to the cathode (ions are selectively discharge) to form copper metal. Copper cathode becomes thicker.  The intensity of the blue colour solution remains unchanged because the concentration of copper(II) ions remains the same. Other examples: 3. Copper electrode (active electrode) in the electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm-3 of aqueous copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 solution 4. Silver electrode (active electrode) in the electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm-3 of aqueous silver nitrate, AgNO3 solution This ends Part 5. The next part, Part 6 of short notes from Berry Berry Easy on SPM Form 4 Chemistry Electrochemistry will focus on the prediction of electrolysis products of aqueous solutions and industrial applications of electrolysis.


Predict the Products of Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions Main factor: Position of ions in the electrochemical series Cation: The higher the position in the electrochemical series are very stable (remain as cation). Example: K+ and Na+ are never discharged in an aqueous solution in electrolysis.  Anions: The higher the position in the electrochemical series are very stable (remain as anion). Example: F - and SO42- are never discharged in an aqueous solution in electrolysis. Second factor: Concentration of the electrolyte


Third factor: Types of electrode as anode Electrolysis in Industries A. Extraction of reactive metals  Reactive metals: Sodium, calcium, magnesium and aluminium extract from their compounds  Example: extraction of aluminium from aluminium oxide, Al2O3 (bauxite) by using cryolite, Na3AlF6 at 980C. B. Purification of metals  Anode: impure metal  Cathode: pure metal  Electrolyte: solution containing the ions of the metal to be purified  Example: purification of impure copper metal. C. Electroplating of metals  Electroplating is a process of coating the surface of metal objects with a thin and even layer of another metal.  Importance of electroplating is to prevent corrosion and improve the appearance.  Cathode: object to be electroplated  Anode: pure plating metal  Electrolyte: aqueous solution contains plating metal ions

Voltaic Cell / Galvanic cell It is an electrochemical cell which converts chemical energy > electrical energy
 Negative terminal: more electropositive (higher position in the electrochemical series)  Positive terminal: less electropositive (lower position in the electrochemical series)  Electrons released (more electropositive metal) through the wire to a less electropositive metal. Example 1: Zinc plate and iron plate are placed in 1.0 mol dm3 of lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2solution  Negative terminal (Anode): Zinc metal (Zinc plate dissolves to form Zn2+)  Positive terminal (Cathode): Iron metal (hydrogen ions will be selectively discharge to form hydrogen gas. It is because H+ is lower position than Pb2+ and Zn2+ in the electrochemical series) Example 2: Magnesium plate and copper plate are placed in 1.0 mol dm3 of sodium chloride, NaCl solution  Negative terminal (Anode): Magnesium metal (Magnesium plate dissolves to form Mg2+)  Positive terminal (Cathode): Copper metal (hydrogen ions will be selectively discharge to form hydrogen gas. It is because H+ is lower position than Mg2+ and Na+ in the electrochemical series) Daniell Cell It is another example of a voltaic cell.  

Solutions are connected by a salt bridge (inert electrolyte) or a porous pot. The main function of a salt bridge / porous pot is to complete the circuit by allowing the movement of ions and prevent two aq

Berry Important Half Equations Anode:


 2Cl - > Cl2 + 2e  2Br - > Br2 + 2e  2I - > I2 + 2e  4OH- > 2H2O + O2 + 4e Cathode:  2H+ + 2e > H2  Zn2+ + 2e > Zn  Fe2+ + 2e > Fe  Pb2+ + 2e > Pb  Cu2+ + 2e > Cu  Ag+ + e > Ag How to write overall reaction equation? Example 1:  Anode: 2I - > I2 + 2e  Cathode: 2H+ + 2e > H2  Overall: 2I - + 2H+ > I2 + H2 Example 2:  Anode: 2Br - > Br2 + 2e  Cathode: Pb2+ + 2e > Pb  Overall: 2Br - + Pb2+ > Br2 + Pb Example 3:  Anode: 4OH- > 2H2O + O2 + 4e  Cathode: 2H+ + 2e > H2 (x2)  Overall: 4OH- + 4H+ > 2H2O + O2 + 2H2 Example 4:  Anode: 4OH- > 2H2O + O2 + 4e  Cathode: Cu2+ + 2e > Cu (x2)  Overall: 2Cu2+ + 4OH- > 2Cu + 2H2O + O2 .

Comparison of Electrolytic Cells and Voltaic Cells Similarities:


 Two electrodes involves in the reaction  Electrons flow through the external circuit (connecting wires)  Anode (oxidation): loss of electrons  Cathode (reduction): gain of electrons Differences:

Main basic structures Energy conversion

Electrolytic Cell A battery is needed to supply electrical energy Electrical energy > chemical energy

Voltaic Cell Battery is not needed.

Chemical energy > electrical energy

Transfer of electrons Anode (positive Cathode (positive at the positive terminal): Oxidation terminal): Reduction terminal anions lose electrons at the anode Transfer of electrons Cathode (negative Anode (negative at the negative terminal): Reduction terminal): Oxidation terminal cations accept electrons from the cathode

Electrochemistry  It is an arrangement of elements according to their tendencies to donate electrons to form cations.  Higher position in the series = a metal that has a higher tendencies to ionise and form positive ions.  Electrochemistry is constructed by the potential difference (voltage difference) between pairs of metals and the ability of a metal to displace another metal from its own salt solution. A) Electrochemical Series based on the Potential Difference (Voltage Difference)  To construct an electrochemical series = measure the potential difference between two metals in voltaic cells.  Negative terminal (anode) in voltaic cell has a higher tendency to release electrons = higher position in the electrochemical series (Positive terminal (cathode) in voltaic cell has a lower tendency to release electrons = lower position in the electrochemical series.  The greater the potential difference (voltage) = further apart the positions of two metals in electrochemical series. B) Electrochemical Series from the Displacement Reaction of Metals  To construct an electrochemical series = ability of a metal to displace another metal from its salt solution.  Higher position of a metal in the electrochemical series = able to displace a metal below it from its salt solution. Example: Mg(s) + CuSO4(aq) > MgSO4(aq) + Cu(s)  Mg is more electropositive than Cu (placed higher than copper in electrochemical series)  Mg atom loses electrons to form magnesium ion and dissolves in the solution.

The Importance of Electrochemical Series To determine:


 Terminal of a voltaic cell  Voltage produced by a pair of metals  Ability of a metal to displace another metal from its salt solution  Metal displacement of hydrogen from an acid The Importance of Electrochemical Industries  Extract useful metals (aluminium, sodium and magnesium) from its ore using electrolysis.  Manufacture of useful chemical substances (chlorine and sodium hydroxide) using electrolysis.  Electroplating of iron with chromium to protect the iron layer.  Silver-plating to make fine cutleries.  Voltaic cell (batteries) Effect of Electrochemical Industries towards the Environment    

Heavy metals (chromium and mercury) cause water pollution. Chlorine gas is a toxic gas cause problem (irritates) to human respiratory system. Mercury cell (batteries) is highly toxic. Improper disposal of industrial waste cause water pollution.