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SOUTHWESTERN ADVENTIST UNIVERSITY RELIGION DEPARTMENT

Unclaimed Inheritance

DE-RLGN 317 New Testament -1 Professor Ingo Sorke, Ph.D. by Karl S. Wagner April 15, 2011

OUTLINE INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I. ANALYSIS OF THE TEXT A. Diagram of Romans 5:14-19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 B. Comparison of Translations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Using the KJV, NASB, and NIV C. Rephrasing of the Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 D. Key Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 II. BACKGROUND OF THE TEXT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A. Old Testament Background: Genesis 3: The fall and promise B. Historical Context: Our decent from Adam results in death. C. Textual Context: The Two Adams and what they accomplished. D. Word Study 1. abound to the many"- "the many died" 2. righteousness" 3. "justification of life" E. Analysis in light of Hebrews 10:1-10 III. APPLICATION.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 IV. CONCLUSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Key Statement: In Romans 5 we learn that the fall was universal as well as the work of Calvary. Jesus' death was not a promise for Him to do something in the future; rather He actually accomplished salvation for all by His death. This objective act can only be made subjective when we lay hold of the once unclaimed inheritance by faith by believing in what Christ had already accomplished to save us.

INTRODUCTION Did Jesus die for all or did He die for only those He elected? Did He die for only those whom He knew would accept Him and not for the rest? Did He die for every human being ever born or ever would be born into this world of sin? If He did, does that mean everybody He died for is saved? Classic Soteriology runs between Reformation theology with its irresistible grace and Arminism with its free will. Both views can be said to offer a kind of limited atonement, in that Jesus died for only those whom He elected or only for those whom He knew would "elect" Him. Most Armenians though understand that Jesus died for all, but teach that it is not effective until or unless one makes salvation a subjective experience. But what does this mean? Are we saying that Jesus died on the cross with the hope of doing something in the future, or did He actually accomplish something at the cross? This paper may be found in the end to be dealing with nothing more than semantics; but the problem I face is preaching the gospel effectively to Seventh-day Adventists. It is hard enough preaching the gospel to Adventists, let alone putting stumbling blocks in their way. Adventists are so quick to want to do something regarding their salvation that John 6:28 describe them perfectly. The Jews asked Jesus "What shall we do, that we might work the works of God?" Jesus' answer comes like Lincoln's Gettysburg address, which when he finished, the people were hardly aware he had even started. As quickly as the answer comes, the depth of His words could be easily overlooked, but the weight of the whole of scripture could be set on the tip of Jesus' response. He tells them "This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent." The answer seems far too simple.

The big question here might be, "Who is the one that 'believes' on him?" When a person comes forth to accept Christ, is their salvation forged right then and there, at that moment, or is it presented as an already accomplished fact? My principle text is Romans 5:18, namely the phrase, "even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life." I selected Romans 5:14-19 as the pericope from which I will work from. The primary question that begs for an answer is "What does it mean, that the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life?" I. ANALYSIS OF THE TEXT The pericope of Romans 5:14-19 displays contrasts and parallels between the first Adam and the second. While Adam and Eve did not die when they sinned, and this, before the coming of the law; death nevertheless reigned from Adam until the time of the law. Death reigned over those who were not guilty of Adam's transgression, and that includes us as well. But unlike the offence, the free gift came. In verse 15 the offence brought death, while the gift life. Each resulting by the acts of one, or "the one." If death comes because of one, much more should life come because of the righteous one who brings the gift. So, because of one, judgment came; so then, because of the righteousness of one, justification to life comes to all. A. Diagram of Romans 5:14-19
14 Nevertheless death reigned from to that Adam Moses, had not sinned (after the similitude of Adam's transgression) who is the figure of him that was to come.

even over them

15 But not as the offence, For if through the offence much more the grace

so also is the free gift. of one many be dead, of God,* abounded unto many. *and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath

16 And not as it was by one so is the gift: for the judgment but the free gift 17 For if by one man's offence

that was is of

sinned, by one to condemnation, many offences unto justification. death reigned by one;

much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.

18 Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. 19 by one man's disobedience so by the obedience of one For as many were made sinners, shall many be made righteous.

B. Comparison of Translations

King James Version

New American Standard Bible Romans 5:14-19

New International Version

Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come. 15 But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many. 16 And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many

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Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come. 15 But the free gift is not like the transgression. For if by the transgression of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 16 The gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned; for on the one hand the judgment arose from one transgression resulting in condemnation, but on the

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Nevertheless, death reigned from the time of Adam to the time of Moses, even over those who did not sin by breaking a command, as did Adam, who is a pattern of the one to come. 15 But the gift is not like the trespass. For if the many died by the trespass of the one man, how much more did Gods grace and the gift that came by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, over16 flow to the many! Nor can the gift of God be compared with the result of one mans sin: The judgment followed one sin and brought condemnation, but the gift fol-

offences unto justification. 17 For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.) 18 Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. 19 For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.

other hand the free gift arose from many transgressions resulting in justification. 17 For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ. 18 (I) So then as through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to all men. 19 For as through the one man's disobedience the many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the One the many will be made righteous.

lowed many trespasses and 17 brought justification. For if, by the trespass of the one man, death reigned through that one man, how much more will those who receive Gods abundant provision of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ! 18 Consequently, just as one trespass resulted in condemnation for all people, so also one righteous act resulted in justification and life 19 for all people. For just as through the disobedience of the one man the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of the one man the many will be made righteous.

The King James Version uses "upon all men" while the New American Standard Bible and the New International use the phrase "to all men" and "for all people" respectively. The King James' reading "upon" suggests salvation actually and effectively coming upon all men. Not that this is what the text actually says. The other two translations appear to suggest that salvation is simply present for all or to all.

C. Rephrasing of the Text Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not committed the same transgression Adam did, yet Adam is a symbol of the promised seed that is to come. 15 But the free gift which is to come isn't like the transgression. For if the transgression of one is able to bring death to many, than much more is the grace of God effective and the gift given, which is accomplished by one man, Jesus Christ. And that gift now has abounded unto many. 16 The gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned; for on the one hand the judgment arose from one transgression resulting in condemnation, but on the other hand the free gift arose out of many transgressions bringing the result of justification. 17 For if by the transgression of the one (Adam), death is able to reign through the one (Adam), much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.
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So to conclude, the one transgression resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to all men. 19 For as one man's disobedience made all sinners, even so through the obedience of the One, all will be made righteous. D. Key Questions The questions posed in the introduction and throughout the paper stem from primary questions regarding the nature of Christ's work on the cross and its effectiveness for sinners, objectively and subjectively. I recall one professor of esteem reply to a question put to him regarding the objective and subjective nature of salvation, specifically coming from the interpretation of Romans 5:18 published in a recent book of the time. He replied that he could not because it is not found in scripture. If one would conclude, as this professor did, that Romans 5:18 does not teach universal justification for all mankind, than we must conclude by default an objective position. Indeed, most of chapter 5, and at least the first ten verses deal with the objective nature of the cross.1 The questions arise out of this context. Who did Jesus die for and when did He accomplish it? Did He die for all, or did He die for some? Did He actually accomplish salvation for all on the cross or did He die for the privilege of doing something at a later date? In light of universal justification, this last question is one I want to pose to Adventists. This deals with the forging of salvation for mankind, not just when it was effective. How we understand what was accomplished 2,000 years ago effects how we understand the working out of our salvation today. The sanctification process, or as I put it, the growing and maturing process, has been the main focus of Adventists from the beginning. Did Jesus forge our salvation 2,000 years ago on the cross, or
Romans 5: 6, 8, 10. While we were "helpless," while we were yet "sinners," and while we were mutual "enemies" Jesus died for us. He didn't ask us if it was alright. He didn't tell us to straighten up first or stop sinning and then He would die for us. This objective aspect of the cross speaks of how much God loves us.
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did He die for the privilege of forging our salvation today as we grow and mature in the Christian faith? If it was 2,000 years ago, then was it for everybody and if so, what does that mean? II. BACKGROUND OF THE TEXT Jesus certainly is not Adam, yet we see Him standing at the head of the human race as Adam did. Because of sin, we need a new genealogy, because the blood-line we are born into is leading us to death. Jesus offers us that new "blood-line" but in this case, it is a heart-line. We need a new family if we are to have life. Paul deals with this issue in the imagery of the two Adams. We will begin with the background from the Old Testament and conclude with our need for a new Adam and why. A. Old Testament Background: Genesis 3: The fall and promise "When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make one wise, she took from its fruit and ate; and she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate " (Gen 3:6).2 I suspect the story of the fall recorded in chapter 3 of Genesis only gives us the basic facts. I imagine a fuller, more detailed account of the fall of man than the image of a woman who ate some fruit because it looked pretty and might make her wise. Adam and Eve were created perfect and in that state had a natural tendency to obey God. God told them they could eat of all the trees in the garden, except one particular tree which was found in the center. If they did, they were to die. In fact, Eve told the Serpent, God said, "You shall not eat from it or touch it, or you will die" (Gen. 3:3). She added the command not to even touch the fruit, which God did not tell Adam when He said, "from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat

Bible texts are taken from the New American Standard Bible unless otherwise noted.

from it you will surely die" (Gen. 2:17). The Serpent's reply to Eve was, "You surely will not die!" (Gen. 3:4). After sin enters the world, God steps in between mankind and the Serpent. Instead of instant annihilation, God gives a promise of a prolonged war by giving a prophecy to the fallen humans of a coming redeemer/deliverer.3 Man may have fallen, but God is standing by their side and in the end, the war will be won against the Serpent. But does this make God just? Shouldn't humans have been destroyed in the day they ate of the forbidden fruit? By allowing them to continue, His justice may be called into question. B. Historical Context: Our descent from Adam results in death. Paul wrote "Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come" (Rom. 5:14). Though Adam and Eve did not die that day, they did most surely die. And with it, all those related to them inherited the death sentence. Like Crack babies, we too are born with a disease that is going to kill us, at no fault of our own, but still just as deadly. Eve, who thought God was holding something back from her, ate of the fruit to step up into a higher plane of existence. Instead, she discovered, she had taken a large leap downward. We who are their prodigy are born not only broken with sin, but addicted to its practice. Paul writes, "for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God" (Rom. 3:23).That is to say in the original, we are continually falling short of the God's glory. This death, inherited from Adam, has become more than just something we are born with, but something we actually deserve. We need a new Adam if we are going to live.

see on Genesis 3:15

C. Textual Context: The Two Adams and what they accomplished. "For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive" (1 Cor. 15:22). Adam accomplished death, while Jesus accomplished life. Paul says "But the free gift is not like the transgression. For if by the transgression of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many" (Rom. 5:15). The words here are "much more" and "the many." If we inherit death from Adam, how much more is the grace of God and of Jesus to us who are dying? The words, "the many" are an expression for the all. "The scope of 'the many' must be the same as the 'all men' of verses 12 and 18. He uses 'the many' here, as in verse 19, for the purpose of contrasting more effectively 'the one' and 'the many', singularity and plurality-it was the trespass of 'the one', indeed 'the one trespass' (vs. 18) of the one, but 'the many' died as a result."4 I prefer to note the contrast between Christ and Adam in Romans 5 rather than the parallel. We find both positive and negative aspects in the contrast between them. Those aspects which are negative put us at odds with the first Adam, and therefore are not parallel. One scholar notes "Just as Adam's whole existence was determined by his falling away from God, i.e., by a 'fall,' so Christ's whole existence is determined by the fact that He stands in right relationship with God, i.e., that He in His own person is the realization of 'the righteousness of God.' Against Adam's para,ptwma5 stands Christ's dikai,wma6."7 Paul notes this contrast when he

John Murray The New International Commentary on the New Testament: The Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1968), pages 192-193. 5 Dr. Spiros Zodhiates, ed. The Complete Word Study Dictionary: The New Testament (Iowa Falls, IA: World Bible Publishers, Inc., 1992), page1112. para,ptwma, (paraptoma), "to fall by the wayside. Fault, lapse, error, mistake, wrongdoing." 6 ibid, 467. dikai,wma, (dikaioma), to justify. The product or result of being justified. 7 Anders Nygren Commentary on Romans, (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press, 1972), page 233.

writes "So also it is written, 'The first MAN, Adam, BECAME A LIVING SOUL' The last Adam became a life-giving spirit" (1 Cor. 15:45). Adam is the pattern for the Christ. As I have already made note of, it is expressed in contrasts more than in parallels between Adam and Jesus,8 and as such, an example of this can be seen in the use of the word "grace." Moo notes the differences or contrasts when he notes how these contrasts "boil down to one great fact: In Christ God deals with people on the basis of grace."9 He notes the word "grace" and its related word, "gift" are used seven10 times in verses 15-17 using the NIV. He continues, "What happened as a result of Adam's sin is entirely a matter of 'just deserts.' 'Death' (vv. 15, 17), 'judgment,' and 'condemnation' (v. 16) inevitably and justly follow sin. But what has happened as a result of Christ is quite different. In place of condemnation, Christ brings 'justification' (v. 16). Condemnation came as a result of 'one sin,' but justification 'followed many trespasses' (v. 16). We see in this circumstance, Paul concludes, evidence of the overwhelming grace of God."11 Moo finishes up this thought by citing Cranfield's remarks regarding the judgment that understandably comes because of one trespass, and how it is that it should be answered by God's free gift of grace, "this is the miracle of miracles, utterly beyond human comprehension."12 D. Word Study Several portions of the text come to mind that deserve exploration in the original language. The central verse we are looking at is found in Romans 5:18 and it reads "So then as
Everett F. Harrison, The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Vol. 10, Zondervan, 1976, 63. Note, "In this section (Rom. 5:15-17) Christ's effect on men is seen as totally different from that of Adam, and vastly superior. . . . Any hint of parallelism suggested by 'pattern' is replaced by the element of contrast." 9 Douglas J. Moo, The NIV Application Commentary: Romans (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000), 153. 10 I counted 8 times in the NIV for Romans 5:15-17. 11 Moo, 153. 12 IBID
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through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to all men." The points of interest we will be looking at are italicized. We will also consider the phrase in verse 15, "abound to the many." and examine its relationship to the phrase, "the many died" in the same verse.

1. abound to the many"-"the many died" The Nestle-Aland 27 Greek eclectic text for these phrases read respectively, "eij tou.j pollouj e.[peri,sseusen "(to the many abounded), and "oi polloi apeqanon" (the many died). This first phrase, "to the many abounded" refers to the work of Jesus on the cross and may seem to imply a limited application. If the atonement was limited to only those whom Jesus elected or only for those whom God foreknew would choose Him, than we have broken down our parallel and contrasting schema that Paul has utilized in the text. Paul applies the "many" to the work of Adam and we know Adam's work was not limited to many, but to all. By looking at the second phrase, we understand the first. Regarding the second phrase, Zodhiates writes, "Used in an absolute sense, hoi polloi, the many, meaning those before spoken of, including the idea of all (Rom. 5:15, 19) referring to the many who had suffered through Adam."13 As noted before, the use of the phrase "the many died" is "not intending to delimit the denotation. The scope of 'the many' must be the same as the 'all men' of verses 12 and 18."14 We can conclude that all men died and "the many" contrasts more effectively with the work of Christ which abounds to many. "The apostle is dealing with the objective ground of subjective

Dr. Spiros Zodhiates, ed., The Complete Word Study Dictionary: The New Testament (Iowa Falls, IA: World Bible Publishers, Inc., 1992), 1196. 14 John Murray, The International Commentary on the New Testament: The Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1968), 192-193.

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assurance"15 by this manifestation of His grace to all. Edwards tells us "the term many, which reappears in verse 19, is an inclusive term, roughly equivalent to 'all' in verses 12 and 18. It does not mean that some do not share in Adam's transgression, or that there are some for whom Christ's death is not efficacious."16 2. righteousness" In our main verse, Romans 5:18, it is the righteousness of Christ that leads to justification of life for all. These two words, "righteousness" and "justification" are closely related. We will first take a look at the word for righteousness. In this text, the word is translated from the Greek word, "dikaiwmatoj"( (dikaiomatos) which is in the genitive case. This means it modifies another noun in the sentence. That noun is our word below, justification. The product or result of being justified is here fulfilled by Jesus in the life He lived which lead to justification for all. It is what Jesus has (past tense) done and not initiated by anything we have done. Completely objective, yet effective for all. "Christ's obedience need not be understood as his substitutionary death on the cross alone; the word directs attention to the whole course of his life, from his obedience in the wilderness (Matt. 4:1-11; Luke 4:1-13) to his obedience in Gethsemane (Mark 14:32ff.), wherein he reversed the disobedience of Adam."17 Jesus righteousness, wrought out in His life on earth is what results in justification for all. Adam results in death for all, while Jesus results in life for all. It is a rather complete picture. What became universal for the first Adam is also universal for the second, and much more than the first. 3. "justification of life"
15 16

IBID, 193 James R. Edwards, New International Biblical Commentary: Romans, Vol. NIBC 6 (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1992), 150. 17 IBID, 152.

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This last part is what has been modified by "righteousness" in the verse. The word in Greek is "dikaiwosin" (dikaioseos) and as you can see, is virtually the same as the first word itself. They both come from the same root word, "dikaioo" which means "to justify." The word dikaioseos is in the accusative case. That means, it is having something done to it. From above, we learned it is the "righteousness" of Christ that is doing something to this noun. Christ brings justification of life (zoe) to all. In this case, the justification which Christ wrought out by His life and on the cross is now brought to all, not manifested in the characters of individuals as if intrinsic, but held by us only "in Christ." It is what Jesus actually accomplished by His life and death. That is why the gospel the apostle Paul preached is made known in the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus.18 Jesus did not die for the privilege of doing something in the future. He actually accomplished what He set out to do on the cross. Paul expounds on the efficacy of the cross in contrast to the sacrificial system in the book of Hebrews to where we now turn. E. Analysis in light of Hebrews 10:1-10 The book of Hebrews may seem to some an unlikely place to turn while discussing universal justification, or even pretending to. Yet it is the book that unites the old temple cultic system with the accomplishments of Jesus, trading for us the old for the better. We get in Jesus, better blood, better sacrifice, and better priest and here in chapter 10 we get better results. In the box below is the text for easy reference. Without much ado, this section of text tells us primarily of the effectiveness of Jesus' sacrifice over and against the old sacrificial system. He actually accomplished what animal sacrifices could not do. He is able to purge our conscious of guilt. This means the cross was effec-

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1 Cor. 15:1-4.

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tive 2,000 years ago the lives of those who believe are now bearing witness to that. The cross is able to take away the first in order to establish the second. Not that the first was
For the Law, since it has only a shadow of the good things to come and not the very form of things, can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually year by year, make perfect those who draw near. 2 Otherwise, would they not have ceased to be offered, because the worshipers, having once been cleansed, would no longer have had consciousness of sins? 3 But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins year by year. 4 For it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins. 5 Therefore, when He comes into the world, He says, "SACRIFICE AND OFFERING YOU HAVE NOT DESIRED, BUT A BODY YOU HAVE PREPARED FOR ME; 6 IN WHOLE BURNT OFFERINGS AND sacrifices FOR SIN YOU HAVE TAKEN NO PLEASURE. 7 "THEN I SAID, 'BEHOLD, I HAVE COME (IN THE SCROLL OF THE BOOK IT IS WRITTEN OF ME) TO DO YOUR WILL, O GOD.'" 8 After saying above, "SACRIFICES AND OFFERINGS AND WHOLE BURNT OFFERINGS AND sacrifices FOR SIN YOU HAVE NOT DESIRED, NOR HAVE YOU TAKEN PLEASURE in them" (which are offered according to the Law), 9 then He said, "BEHOLD, I HAVE COME TO DO YOUR WILL." He takes away the first in order to establish the second. 10 By this will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.
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Hebrews 10:1-10

bad or evil. The first was merely a symbol, pointing us forward to Christ's work on the cross. Now that it has come, the old passes away, giving way to the new. The new is better only because it is the substance of that which the first looked for. "By this will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all" (Heb. 10:10). Notice what Paul writes in Romans of the divine initiative. He says "being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus; whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God he passed over the sins previously committed: for the demonstration, I say, of His righteousness at the present time, that He might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus" (Rom. 3:24-26). God has at the right time in

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earth's history shown that He was just (remember, Adam and Eve should have died) and the justifier of those whom He would justify; that is to say, those who have faith in Jesus. Here then, are the conditions clearly seen along with the description of universal atonement for humankind which is able to reach back in time to embrace the whole of humanity. The condition is faith. As the text reads, "to those who have faith in Jesus." The cross is universal. Its effects are universal, for all people. What Jesus did objectively is a reality for us to claim. Completed, and wrapped up in ribbons and bows, our salvation awaits us as an unclaimed inheritance. Waiting for us to reach out with the hand of faith and subjectively make it our own. To "those who have faith in Jesus" the Bible says. Only those who believe have the "right" to be called children of God (see on John 1:12; Rom. 8:16-17; Rom. 9:8; Gal. 3:26). John writes of the testimony of Jesus by saying, "And the witness (testimony: same word) is this, that God has (past tense) given us eternal life, and this life is in His Son" (1 John 5:11). We have been raised up and seated with Christ de facto in the heavenly places (see Eph. 2:6). While we wait for the consummation of our faith in the blessed hope (Titus 2:13), we can know Jesus actually accomplished what He set out to do on Calvary. III. APPLICATION It is all a matter of how we are to live in this present world. Do we live in anticipation of salvation and hope we might measure up in the end and be saved? We have already seen that we have not initiated salvation by joining forces with God in the work of redemption. The divine initiative was all God and not of us. We, like dumb sheep, have gone astray and the good shepherd comes to find us. We, as lost coins, lay in corners oblivious of even being lost, yet when our master finds us, rejoices, for he has intertwined us with His self identity, giving us

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value that without us, He would be less than He could be.19 When we believe the gospel, we are changed. While Paul makes his case for the reason the gospel is to be preached to both Jew and Gentile, he declares that nobody seeks God, and that we all like sheep have gone astray (see on Rom. 3:11-12), yet here we are seeking after God. How does that happen? Again Paul writes,
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But the righteousness based on faith speaks as follows: "DO NOT SAY IN YOUR HEART, 'WHO

WILL ASCEND INTO HEAVEN?' (that is, to bring Christ down), 7or 'WHO WILL DESCEND INTO THE ABYSS?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead)." 8But what does it say? "THE WORD IS NEAR YOU, IN YOUR MOUTH AND IN YOUR HEART"--that is, the word of faith which we are preaching, 9that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved;" (Rom. 10:6-9). Taking this from Deuteronomy 30, Paul tells us that God has found us. By simply asking after God, we have manifested the Holy Spirit striving with us. We ask, and the word is in our mouth. We do not have to go on a God quest like the pagans. God goes on human quests, and He finds us! We just respond. Simply believe that Jesus has died for all and not just for some. Many of us find it hard to believe that Jesus actually died for us as well. The cross was universal, not limited. It is effective for all. For all who will have faith in Jesus (see on Rom. 3:26). IV. CONCLUSION While the universal aspect of the cross has led some to conclude that all will eventually be saved, or that we are actually born saved children of God until or unless we finally reject it, we should not let these false teachings overshadow the glorious truth of universal justification.

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see the parables in Luke 15 of the Lost Sheep, the Lost Coin and the Prodigal Son.

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Jesus has actually accomplished justification for all. He did it at the time of His passion, not as a promise to be delivered at a later date. While our justification is real, and universal, it does not mean we are born in a state of salvation. We are still born into the family of the first Adam, and being connected to that family, we inherit death. Our need is to find a new genealogy with living DNA. We need the second Adam, Jesus. Until or unless we lay hold of His gift by faith, we are doomed to suffer the effects of the first Adam. While the second Adam is life accomplished, it is not life realized for us. The objective must give way to the subjective. We must make it a personal experience. Only when we do that, can we say we are saved. Only then, can we be sons and daughters of God. We have an inheritance. The money is already deposited in the bank in our name. It is in effect, but not effective, until you believe and draw upon its Holy resources. Will you claim your inheritance today, or will you leave it unclaimed and unappreciated? "Therefore, just as the
Holy Spirit says, Today if you hear His voice, do not harden your hearts as when they provoked me, as in the day of trial in the wilderness" (Heb. 3:7-8). Today, you have an opportunity to give your "yes" to God.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Ewards, James R., New International Biblical Commentary: Romans. Vol. NIBC 6. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1992. Harrison, Everett F., The Expositor's Bible Commentary:Romans. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein: General Editor. Vols. 10: Romans, 1 & 2 Corinthians, Galatians. 12 vols. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976. Moo, Douglas J., The NIV Application Commentary: Romans. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000. Murray, John, The International Commentary on the New Testament: The Epistle to the Romans. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1968. Nygren, Anders, Commentary on Romans. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press, 1972. Zodhiates, Dr. Spiros, ed., The Complete Word Study Dictionary: The New Testament. Iowa Falls, IA: World Bible Publishers, Inc., 1992.

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