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Cosmological constant and dark

energy
Mikhail Shaposhnikov
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL)
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.1
Outline
Cosmological constant from the point of view of gravity
Einstein equations with
from observations
Cosmological constant from the point of view of particle theory
Vacuum energy and
Different contributions to
Phase transitions and
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.2
Outline
Attempts to solve cosmological constant problem
Supersymmetry
Compensation mechanisms
Non-local gravity
Extra dimensions
Quantum gravity: anthropic principle
Quantum gravity: wormholes
Dark energy
The coincidence problem
Quintessence: tracking solutions
Conclusions
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.3
Einstein equations with
Einstein, 1917: The logic
Universe must be static (relative velocities of stars are small
compared with the speed of light)
Static solutions to the original equations
R


1
2
g

R = 8GT

do not exist for non-relativistic uniform matter


(T

= diag(, 0, 0, 0),
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.4
Einstein equations with
Einstein, 1917: The logic
Universe must be static (relative velocities of stars are small
compared with the speed of light)
Static solutions to the original equations
R


1
2
g

R = 8GT

do not exist for non-relativistic uniform matter


(T

= diag(, 0, 0, 0),
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.4
Einstein equations with
Einstein, 1917: The logic
Universe must be static (relative velocities of stars are small
compared with the speed of light)
Static solutions to the original equations
R


1
2
g

R = 8GT

do not exist for non-relativistic uniform matter


(T

= diag(, 0, 0, 0),
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.4
Einstein equations with
Equations must be changed to
R


1
2
g

R+ g

= 8GT

These equations now allow static solutions (Einstein universe) with


topology of 3-sphere, nite radius, non-zero density and nite mass
r =
1
8

G
, =
8
G
, M = 2
2
r
3
=

4G

Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.5


Einstein equations with
Equations must be changed to
R


1
2
g

R+ g

= 8GT

These equations now allow static solutions (Einstein universe) with


topology of 3-sphere, nite radius, non-zero density and nite mass
r =
1
8

G
, =
8
G
, M = 2
2
r
3
=

4G

Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.5


Einstein equations with
de Sitter, 1917: There are static solutions without matter but with
non-zero !
ds
2
=
1
ch
2
Hr
_
dt
2
dr
2

1
H
2
th
2
Hr(d
2
+sin
2
d
2
)
_
Vacuum gravitates???
Friedmann, 1922, Lemaitre, 1927: Expanding universe,
ds
2
= dt
2
R
2
(t)
_
dr
2
1 r
2
+r
2
(d
2
+sin
2
d
2
)
_
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.6
Hubble, 1929
From Tammann, 1998
12 14 16 18 20
m
V
(max)
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
l
o
g

c
z
spirals
ellipticals
No need for cosmological constant at that time! Common belief
(without explanation): = 0
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.7
from observations
Take the simplest cosmological model containing: , dark matter,
matter, and radiation and try to nd the corresponding abundances

=

G
crit
,
CDM
=

CDM
G
crit
,
M
=

M
G
crit
from all possible
cosmological observations:
CMB
galaxy distributions
Big Bang nucleosynthesis
Hubble diagram for distant type Ia supernovae
Dynamics of clusters
Galaxy rotation curves
etc
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.8
from observations
Result:

t 0.7

CDM
t 0.25

M
t 0.05
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.9
Cosmological constant puzzles
Why the cosmological constant is non-zero ?
Why


CDM
? (they evolve differently in time)
Why
M

CDM
?
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.10
Cosmological constant and vacuum energy
Right-hand side of Einstein equation: 8GT

.
Lorentz invariance:
{vac|T

|vac) =
V
g

non-zero vacuum energy leads to the change of the cosmological


constant,
+ 8G
V
,
V

8G
Problem of the cosmological constant = problem of the vacuum energy
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.11
Cosmological constant and vacuum energy
Numbers from observations:
The present density of the universe is

0
= 1.8791h
2
10
29
g/cm
3
= 0.9510
29
g/cm
3
= (0.0025eV )
4
for h = 0.71, H
0
= 100hkms
1
Mps
1
. The vacuum energy
density is
V
= (0.023eV )
4
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.12
Zero point uctuations
Quantization of the free scalar eld:
L =
1
2


1
2
m
2

2
Scalar eld = collection of innite number of harmonic oscillators.
Creation and annihilation operators,
[a(

k), a

( p)] = (2)
3
2(k)
3
(

k p), (k) =
_
k
2
+m
2
and
(x) =
_
d
3
k
(2)
3
2(k)
_
a(k)e
ikx
+a

(k)e
ikx
_
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.13
Zero point uctuations
Hamiltonian:
H =
_
d
3
k
(2)
3
2(k)
_
1
2
(k)
_
a

(k)a(k) +a(k)a

(k)
_
_
=
=
_
d
3
k
(2)
3
2(k)
_
(k)a

(k)a(k)

+
V
(2)
3
_
d
3
k
1
2
(k)

vacuum energy (zero point oscillations of harmonic oscillators)

V
=
1
(2)
3
_
d
3
k
1
2
(k) t
M
4
16()
2
is divergent as M ! No problem in QFT without gravity: vacuum
energy is not observable.
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.14
The problem
Typical numbers from particle physics:
Assume that QFT is valid up to M M
P
= 1.22 10
19
GeV

Pl
M
4
P
- 120 orders of magnitude greater than the
experimental value:
V
10
120

Pl
GUT contribution: M M
GUT
10
16
GeV,
GUT
M
4
GUT
-
still discrepancy of 108 orders of magnitude,
V
10
108

GUT
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.15
The problem
Typical numbers from particle physics:
Assume that QFT is valid up to M M
P
= 1.22 10
19
GeV

Pl
M
4
P
- 120 orders of magnitude greater than the
experimental value:
V
10
120

Pl
GUT contribution: M M
GUT
10
16
GeV,
GUT
M
4
GUT
-
still discrepancy of 108 orders of magnitude,
V
10
108

GUT
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.15
The problem
Typical numbers from particle physics:
Assume that QFT is valid up to M M
P
= 1.22 10
19
GeV

Pl
M
4
P
- 120 orders of magnitude greater than the
experimental value:
V
10
120

Pl
GUT contribution: M M
GUT
10
16
GeV,
GUT
M
4
GUT
-
still discrepancy of 108 orders of magnitude,
V
10
108

GUT
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.15
The problem
Electroweak contribution: M M
W
100GeV,
W
M
4
W
-
still discrepancy of 52 orders of magnitude,
V
10
52

W
Strong interactions: M
QCD
100MeV,
QCD

4
QCD
- discrepancy of 40 orders of magnitude,
V
10
40

QCD
Electrodynamics: M m
e
0.5MeV,
QED
m
4
e
-
discrepancy of 32 orders of magnitude,
V
10
32

QED
Neutrino masses, M m

0.07eV,

m
4

V
10
7

- almost correct???
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.16
The problem
Electroweak contribution: M M
W
100GeV,
W
M
4
W
-
still discrepancy of 52 orders of magnitude,
V
10
52

W
Strong interactions: M
QCD
100MeV,
QCD

4
QCD
- discrepancy of 40 orders of magnitude,
V
10
40

QCD
Electrodynamics: M m
e
0.5MeV,
QED
m
4
e
-
discrepancy of 32 orders of magnitude,
V
10
32

QED
Neutrino masses, M m

0.07eV,

m
4

V
10
7

- almost correct???
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.16
The problem
Electroweak contribution: M M
W
100GeV,
W
M
4
W
-
still discrepancy of 52 orders of magnitude,
V
10
52

W
Strong interactions: M
QCD
100MeV,
QCD

4
QCD
- discrepancy of 40 orders of magnitude,
V
10
40

QCD
Electrodynamics: M m
e
0.5MeV,
QED
m
4
e
-
discrepancy of 32 orders of magnitude,
V
10
32

QED
Neutrino masses, M m

0.07eV,

m
4

V
10
7

- almost correct???
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.16
The problem
Electroweak contribution: M M
W
100GeV,
W
M
4
W
-
still discrepancy of 52 orders of magnitude,
V
10
52

W
Strong interactions: M
QCD
100MeV,
QCD

4
QCD
- discrepancy of 40 orders of magnitude,
V
10
40

QCD
Electrodynamics: M m
e
0.5MeV,
QED
m
4
e
-
discrepancy of 32 orders of magnitude,
V
10
32

QED
Neutrino masses, M m

0.07eV,

m
4

V
10
7

- almost correct???
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.16
Phase transitions
The universe was dense and hot in the past phase transitions
phi
V
High temperatures
phi
V
Low temperatures
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.17
Phase transitions
How the universe new that it must end in a state with tiny cosmological
constant?
Ination: Cosmological constant is needed for exponential expansion of
the universe!
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.18
Zeldovich, 1967:
Add fermions to the theory : L =

i

+m

Fermionic eld = collection of innite number of fermionic harmonic


oscillators.
Creation and annihilation operators now anticommute,
|a(

k), a

( p)|
+
= (2)
3
2(k)
3
(

k p), (k) =
_
k
2
+m
2
and
(x) =
_
d
3
k
(2)
3
2(k)
2

=1
_
a

(k)u

(k)e
ikx
+b

(k)v

(k)e
ikx
_
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.19
Zeldovich, 1967:
Hamiltonian:
H =
_
d
3
k
(2)
3
2(k)
_
1
2
(k)
2

=1
_
a

(k)a

(k) +b(k)

(k)
_
_
=
=
_
d
3
k
(2)
3
2(k)
_
(k)
2

=1
(a

(k)a

(k) +b

(k)b

(k))
_

V
(2)
3
_
d
3
k
1
2
2(k)
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.20
Zeldovich, 1967:

vacuum energy is now negative

V
= 4
1
(2)
3
_
d
3
k
1
2
(k)
Take a theory containing one Dirac fermion and two complex scalar
elds, all with the same mass: vacuum energy is zero!
4 + 2 2 = 0
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.21
Supersymmetry
This is true for any supersymmetric theory with interactions, if SUSY is
not broken:
|Q

, Q

|
+
= (

is the energy-momentum vector,


0
= diag(1, 1).
Unbroken SUSY: Q

|vac) = 0 {vac|P
0
|vac) = 0,
V
= 0
But:
-SUSY must be broken in real world
-Gravity must be included (supergravity)

The problem is the same as in non-SUSY theories!


Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.22
Compensation mechanisms
Idea (Dolgov, Wilczek and Zee,...): Introduce a scalar eld that couples
to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor and has equations of
motion
(

t
2

x
2
) T

R,
T

is a total energy-momentum tensor including , R is the scalar


curvature.
Suppose T

depends on and vanishes at some


0
. evolves in
time till it reaches
0
we have automatically
V
= 0.
Similar to axion: adjustment to the vacuum with CP-symmetry.
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.23
Compensation mechanisms
General properties of scalar eld:
small mass, m < (
V
)
1/4
t 0.002 eV
macroscopic range, l > 10
2
cm
must be weakly coupled (fth force?)
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.24
Weinberg no-go theorem
Weinberg: Impossible without ne tuning
Proof (for one scalar eld):
Euler-Lagrange equations for the scalar eld and the metric
L
g

= 0,
L

= 0
No ne tuning solution: trace of T

must be proportional to scalar eld


equation for all constant :
g

L
g

= f()
L

for some function f().


Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.25
Weinberg no-go theorem
So, Lagrangian (for constant elds) must be invariant under
transformation
g

= 2g

, = f()

Potential part of Lagrangian depends on a specic combination of


and g

only,
e
()
g

where
d()
d
= f(). Redene the metric: g

e
()
g

Lagrangian can depend only on derivatives of - -term cannot be


compensated!
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.26
Weinberg no-go theorem
Remarks:
Proof can be generalized to many scalar elds
Vector and tensor eld solutions (Dolgov) strong violations of
Lorentz invariance in gravitational sector modications of the
Newton law and properties of gravitational waves in
non-acceptable way (Rubakov, Tinyakov).
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.27
Non-local gravity
Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, Dvali, Gabadadze: Cosmological
constant does not gravitate!
Modied Einstein equations:
M
2
P
(1 +F(L
2

2
))g

= T

F is a lter function with the properties:


F() 0 for 1
and
F() 1 for 1
The distance scale is assumed to be large, L H
1
.
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.28
Non-local gravity
Effective Newton constant: (8G
eff
)
1
= M
2
P
(1 +F(L
2

2
))
Cosmological constant is constant in space
F is very large
the space curvature is small, O(1/F).
Ordinary matter: varying in space
F is very small
gravity is normal.
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.29
Non-local gravity
Problems
Breaking of causality by non-local terms
Complete theory?
Origin of the large distance scale?
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.30
Extra dimensions
Rubakov, MS,...: If the number of spacial dimensions is greater than
four, cosmological constant may affect only on extra dimensions and
leave 4-dimensions at
Specic model: Gravity with cosmological constant in 6d (5d do not
work as 1d is always at).
Coordinates: x

, r,
Warped metric, solution to Einstein equations with bulk cosmological
constant
B
:
ds
2
= A(r)g

dx

dx

+B(r)d
2
+dr
2
There are solutions for which
B
,= 0, but = 0
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.31
Extra dimensions
Problems:
physical is an integration constant - what xes to be small?
Complete theory - how to localize all SM particles on a brane?
(main difculty - gauge elds)
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.32
Quantum gravity: anthropic principle
Weinberg,... Suppose that fundamental constants (in particular,
cosmological constant) are not constants but determined by some
(quantum?) dynamics.

There can be many universes characterized by different fundamental


parameters constants but determined by some (quantum?) dynamics.

The intelligent life can appear only in part of them.


Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.33
Quantum gravity: anthropic principle
If is large and positive, universe expands with large rate
formation of structures is impossible
there is no place where life can appear. From here:

V
< few
c
.
If is large and negative, universe collapses after some time. One has
to require that this time is large enough for life to appear From here:

V
>
c
.
So:
c
<
V
< few
c
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.34
Quantum gravity: anthropic principle
Main problem:
What is the physics leading to the change of fundamental
constants?
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.35
Quantum gravity: wormholes
Hawking, Giddings, Strominger, Coleman...
Instantons of Euclidean gravity:
wormholes, connecting two asymptotically at spaces
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.36
Quantum gravity: wormholes
Physics effects : modifying effective Lagrangian,
S S +

i
O
i
(x)
O
i
- local operators. All fundamental constants - quantum operators.
Measurement - collapse of the wave function - xing of the constant of
Nature.
Probability to nd cosmological constant :
P() exp[
3
G
+O(1)]
So, = +0
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.37
Quantum gravity: wormholes
Problems:
The cosmological constant is likely to be non-zero
Is QM valid for the universe as a whole?
Denition of Euclidean Quantum gravity
Computation: dilute gas approximation
What happens with other constants?
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.38
Dark energy
Do we really have cosmological constant?
Using a term to t the cosmological data is the simplest (but
certainly not the only) possibility. It would also be reasonable to
assume that extra matter in the Universe has a more general equation
of state, p = , where p is pressure, is an energy density and is
a constant. Another form of equation of state:
V
(1+)
= 0 for non-relativistic matter
= 1/3 for photons
= 1 for cosmological constant
= 1/3 for cosmic strings
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.39
Dark energy
From: Primack, DM2004
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.40
Dark energy
From: Filippenko, DM2004
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.41
The coincidence problem
Another problem: comparison of
M
and

. At the present stage of


expansion of the Universe they are of the same order of magnitude.
However, matter energy varies as
M
1/a
3
, radiation energy varies
as

1/a
4
, whereas vacuum energy does not change during the
expansion of the universe.

M
(T) (
T
now
T
)
3
10
90
on the Planck scale, and the question is whether this huge hierarchy
could have any physical explanation.
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.42
Quintessence as dark energy
A model for a substance with a general equation of state can be
provided by a uniform scalar eld (Wetterich, Ratra, Peebles ...), for
which
=

2
/2 U()

2
/2 +U()
.
Depending on the eld evolution, one can set 1 1, where
= 1 and = +1 correspond to the dominance of potential and
kinetic energies, respectively.
No solution to cosmological constant problem!
But some hints why


CDM
!
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.43
Quintessence as dark energy
The main idea is that the extra substance in the Universe is not a
-term but a time-dependent scalar eld with an unusual type of
potential (ground state at ). The evolution of the scalar eld is
such that it adapts its energy to the energy contained in matter, so that
its late time evolution practically does not depend on the initial
conditions and is established dynamically (the so-called attractor
solutions).
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.44
Quintessence as dark energy
A simple example is provided
by the exponential potential
V () = V
0
exp(/M
Pl
).
This potential does not have a
ground state and

is nonzero at
all times
V()

Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.45


Tracking solutions
The equations of motion (in conformal time, ad = dt) are:
1
a
2
d
d
(a
2

) +a
2
V

() = 0 ,
H
2
=
1
3M
2
Pl
(
1
2

2
+a
2
V () +a
2

n
) .

n
is a matter density that obeys the equation of state:

n
+nH
n
,
n
1/a
n
,
with n = 3 for matter and n = 4 for radiation.
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.46
Tracking solutions
This system of equations has the following attractor solutions:
if


n
then

scales faster than 1/a


n
if


n
then

varies more slowly than 1/a


n
(

is an
energy density of eld ).
This means that after some time

varies as a dominant component


and

+
n
=
n

2
.
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.47
Tracking solutions
In other words, the scalar eld is self-tuned to the energy density of the
dominant component,

t
overshoot
undershoot
radiation
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.48
Tracking solutions
Thus, the value of

is now not related to initial conditions (as was the


case for the cosmological constant problem) but to parameters of poten-
tial. For this particular model the parameter in the equation of state
is that of the dominant matter component, i.e. = 0 at the present
time, which is in disagreement with the analysis of cosmological data.
Other types of potentials may give different types of behavior: in partic-
ular it is possible to obtain a negative value of at the present stage of
expansion of the Universe, which is consistent with observations.
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.49
Tracking solutions
Main problems:
does not give any solution to the cosmological constant problem
the particle-physics origin of a scalar eld with the necessary
dynamics (existence of a correct attractor solution) remains to be
found
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.50
Conclusions
There is a strong observational evidence in favor of non-zero
cosmological constant or dark energy
Many proposals have been suggested to explain zero or small
cosmological constant ( 2000) papers
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.51
Conclusions
Besides them:
Supersymmetry
Compensation mechanisms
Non-local gravity
Extra dimensions
Quantum gravity: anthropic principle
Quantum gravity: wormholes
others, not discussed
Quintessence
Non of them works in completely satisfactory way
The problem has not been solved
Dolomieu 2004, March 4,5 p.52