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Martial Arts Master and Karate Instructor Cave Creek, Chandler, Mesa, Scottsdale www.KarateBuilt.com Karate Classes- Karate for Kids and Martial Arts for Adults Greg Moody CEO and Partner Rev Marketing 2U www.RevMarketing2U.com

Methods Chapter: Martial Arts and Self-Esteem in Children Greg Moody Arizona State University December 6, 2004

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Running head : ASSIGNMENT 3

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Martial Arts and Self-Esteem in Children Part 1: Introduction & Literature Review
Children in todays society are participant to an increasing number of stresses and expectations. While research on improving student education is common, there may not be enough emphasis on some non-academic aspects of the childrens development, such as the related constructs of self-concept and self-esteem. Research has shown these characteristics to be important to childhood development and academic performance (Burke, Ellison & Hunt, 1985). In recent years martial arts has been suggested as a method to help people improve their self-concept (Prince, 1996). While there has been some research regarding martial arts and self-concept, this is largely experimental data resulting from a test/retest model.

Because of the nature of the construct of self-concept, we are presented with some difficulties in doing this research with quantitative methods, namely when a student of martial arts shows (via some kind of instrument) that their self-concept has improved, what does this mean? Is it due to them developing a feeling of accomplishment? Is it based on having positive instruction so they feel positive about themselves? Is it because the parents like the results and therefore are giving positive comments to their children? In addition, instruments designed and normed on children have many factors affecting their results such as the age of the child (both chronological and developmental), their reading comprehension, their family structure, and even the type of food they ate the day of the test. As Gerson & Horowitz (2002, p.203) say:

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Sooner or later all qualitative strategies tend to expose the weaknesses of homogenizing or overdetermined frameworks and to replace them with theoretical approaches that focus on the social contexts that enable or constrain action and the individual actions that shape the organization of social life

Because of the limitations of these quantitative methods in this type of research, To investigate the nature of self-concept improvement from martial arts classes, we propose to use a qualitative approach. The purpose is to know the why the how and the what in more depth than quantitative research would allow. We would like to know this from the participants perspective (in the case of childrens martial arts, both for the parent and the child). Qualitative methods are superior to quantitative methods here because in the quantitative case 1) we only assign a number to the measurement, and 2) the measurement itself is pre-conceived to fit a category. A construct such as selfconcept may not be the same to the participants as this pre-conceived notion. We would like to open up the possibilities of responses to explore the depth of the effects of martial arts on a childs self-concept. To determine the best methods we will review possible methods, select a method and design the study based on that method.

There is a large potential audience for the results of a study like this: Educators seeking alternate activities for their students (some schools have martial arts as their primary physical education program). Developmental pediatricians who already suggest martial arts for ADHD children among others.

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Martial Arts Professionals who would like insight on the effects they have on children and wish to improve them. Researchers who may use the results of this study to determine future direction of both qualitative and quantitative research.

As background information, in Appendix V we review self-concept as a construct and in Appendix VI martial arts is reviewed.

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Chapter 2: Methodology Literature Review


There are many possible qualitative methods which might be used to evaluate self-concept changes in children.

Literature Review of Possible Qualitative Methods

Observational design (as discussed by Webb & Campbell, 1966; Kleinman, 1980; Gerson & Horowitz, 2002) is a possible method the research could use. In some context this would be appropriate for this type of research if we were measuring a more observable construct. The nature of self-concept is too internal to the participant. Observations could be used as back up information to assist in triangulating the data. An obvious participant-observer would be the instructor who teaches the classes to the student. Unfortunately in many martial art schools, there are many instructors and an individual student may not be taught by the same instructor as much as another. This may not be a consistent measurement. In the same way, the participant observation model, (Emerson, 2001) also would suffer from these issues, however if the researcher was the instructor/teacher they may be able to gain insight into self-concept by combining the written notes with an interview. However, this may lead to significant bias as the researcher would largely control the participants entire environment in class.

In Ericksons Analytic Induction method (1986), he states Interpretive research on teaching, then, is not only an alternative method, but an alternative view of how society works, and of how schools, classrooms, teachers, and students work in society.

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In his view the researcher needs to continually write field notes and reflect on them as much as observation in the field. This doesnt really apply to our study directly because as stated above, the nature of self-concept is not readily externally observable.

Similarly, grounded theory (Charmaz & Mitchell, 2001) also does not provide for getting at the internal issues we wish to discover. Generating theory (Morrow & Smith, 2000, p. 213) is not what we are after we already have theories, we are trying to disconfirm or confirm them and investigate the nature of the relationship between selfconcept and martial arts training in depth.

Historical methods of qualitative research based on looking at old transcripts, audio, video or other media are not really available as martial arts instruction for children is a relatively recent phenomena. Future research would be available where school records or video records could follow some students of martial arts.

Case study methods (Stake, 1994) could also be used as this covers bounding the case, selecting phenomena, seeking patterns of data, triangulating key observations, seeking alternative interpretations and generalizing data. Certainly the study is case with limited participation demographics and as such is bounded.

Critical theory and critical ethnography has a goal of freeing individuals from sources of domination and oppression (Anderson, 1989, p. 249). This implies a social or political bias that is not relevant in the subject at hand.

Interviews are another method for inquiry as discussed by Steinar (1996), Miles & Huberman (1994) and Spradley (1979). This can be done not only with audio

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recording and note taking but also with videotaping (Margolis, 1994). Interviews in this context need to be as open as possible. To avoid bias in the interview we need to build rapport, and ask a limited number of open ended questions and let the interview participant guide the process. Spradley (1979) identifies five major types of questions: grand tour (participant is asked to describe a situation, event or time), mini tour (participant describes a smaller unit experience), example, experience, and native language questions. In this study the mini-tour, example and experience questions would be most appropriate, though the native language applies to talking in the language the children would understand in the interview. In this context as well, there is little of the issues that interviewers have such as suggested by Gerson & Horowitz (2002) following the initial recruitment process (such as many trips to see the interviewees, more letters sent, more phone calls made, etc.).

In the Miles-Huberman Systematic model (Huberman & Miles, 1994), they discuss a method of designing the study, analyzing the data and making conclusions. Their basic model relates to data analysis, and can apply to many qualitative methods:

Data collection Data display

Data reduction Conclusion: drawing/verifying

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They further discuss definitions of these iterative stages:

Data

reduction: the data is reduced in an anticipatory way as the

researcher chooses a framework, research questions, cases and instruments. This includes data summaries, coding, finding themes, clustering, and writing stories.

Data display: an organized, compressed assembly of information that


permits conclusion drawing and/or action taking. This is taking a reduced set of data for thinking about its meanings. Structured summaries, synopses, vignettes, network diagrams, matrices with text (not numbers) in cells, or an edited videotape would be an example of data display.

Conclusion

drawing/verifying: drawing meaning from the displayed

data. Examples: comparison/contrast, noting of patterns and themes, clustering, and the use of metaphors to confirmatory tactics such as triangulation, looking for negative cases, following up surprises, and checking results with respondents. Often there are multiple iterative sets of tactics in play.

In this method data management includes having a plan for filing, storage and data management. In addition, during the research, the themes (in our case, regarding selfconcept) are iteratively modified based on the process. Miles and Huberman also discuss cross case analysis. In our case, we can use different participants interviews and tease out multiple exemplars to determine commonalities between the experiences.

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Method Selection

Based on the above review of available qualitative methods, we propose using structured interview design with the parent and the child/student. The interview is the preferred method of research because: 1) The participant (s) are really both the parent and the child. This allows an evaluation of the nature of self-concept from both points of view. 2) The interview allows the participants to relate observation during the process at the later time of interview. 3) Its likely that a well done interview with a participant in the case of selfconcept will reveal more than another method where we assume what is going on in the childs head. 4) Its relatively easy to have the interview since all of the participants would be taking classes in set locations.

For data analysis, the Miles-Huberman model for data analysis will be used.

Also we

will use their concept of iterative research in that the questions and interview process will be re-evaluated during the interview process.

Cross case analysis will also be done both while the interviews are collected, and following the interview process.

Martial Arts Master and Karate Instructor Cave Creek, Chandler, Mesa, Scottsdale www.KarateBuilt.com Karate Classes- Karate for Kids and Martial Arts for Adults

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Greg Moody CEO and Partner Rev Marketing 2U www.RevMarketing2U.com

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Chapter 3: Study Design


Selection of an interview method for our research leads us to design our study, including all informed consent forms for participants, methods to collect, record, analyze and store the data. As part of approval of the project, we will also plan to go through the IRB process (including developing an IRB plan and submitting it to the review board).

Interview Design

The interview will consist of a three part process. Following the treatment (8 weeks of classes) the parent (or parents) will first be interviewed independent of the child. Then the child will be interviewed (with the parent present) and a short follow up interview will be done to asses the parents impressions of the childs response.

Details of design

The interview is intended to solicit as much information as possible without influencing the participant. There will only be 4 to 6 questions the interviewer will always ask. From that point the participant (parent(s) and child) will discuss any aspects of their experience they would like to. The interview will be audiotaped so the interviewer isnt spending time writing notes and can transcribe later.

To solicit disconfirming information, the interviewer will ask disconfirming questions prior to asking questions which allow them to discuss the benefits of the treatment.

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Following the transcription of the data, the interviewer may ask one of the participants additional clarifying information or add additional questions that, based on the prior interviews, may be relevant. The researcher will ask the participants if they would agree to follow phone interviews to elaborate, clarify information or, based on the process of the interview, ask additional open questions.

Assessment of Potential Information Gathered

An interview of this type will explore a variety of subjects related to the participants experience. Some probable information that will need to be coded in the data analysis:

Parent: Impressions of Karate Classes (fun, positive, slow, hard, discipline, learned a lot, surprised) Hurt Self-Concept (none, too hard, too easy) Improved Self-Esteem (none, yes, by learning to protect themselves, by learning new things, becoming better physically, mental benefits)

Child: Impressions of Karate Classes (fun, hard, easy learned a lot) What They Liked (nothing, the forms, the fun activities, the self-defense, discipline) What They Didnt Like (nothing, the forms, the fun activities, the selfdefense, discipline) How They Feel About Themselves (great, OK)

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Additional Information

Information will be collected regarding the number of classes the students has taken (by the end of the treatment), age, where they live, and the other activities they are participating in or have participated in.

Informed Consent

The informed consent form will be filled out by the parent and the informed assent by the child in the pre-treatment session. See Appendix I for these forms as well as all confidentiality information.

IRB Review

This study is not exempt from IRB review is required because as stated in 45 CFR 46.101 (i): IRB The exemption at 45 CFR 46.101(b)(2), for research involving survey or interview procedures or observation of public behavior, does not apply to research with children, Subpart D, except for research

involving observations of public behavior when the investigator(s) do not participate in the activities being observed.

This research will qualify for an expedited review because it meets 45 CFR 46.110 part (a) and the list of categories of research that qualifies. Specifically: (7) Research on individual or group characteristics or behavior cognition,

(including, but not limited to, research on perception, motivation, identity, language, communication,

cultural beliefs or

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practices, and social behavior) or research employing survey, interview, oral history, focus group, program evaluation, human factors evaluation, or quality assurance methodologies. (NOTE: Some research in this category may be exempt from the HHS regulations for the protection of human subjects.

In addition as stated in 45 CFR 46.110 (b): (b) An IRB may use the expedited review procedure to review either or both of the following: (1) some or all of the research appearing on the list and found by the reviewer(s) to involve no more than minimal risk,

The required paperwork for IRB review is attached in Appendix II. The martial art program guidelines in Appendix IV will also ass additional safeguards standard in martial arts classes of this nature beyond what would be required by the IRB.

Confidentiality

Participants will be assigned a four digit random number the parents will be coded with a suffix P and the children will use the same number coded with a suffix C. The cross-reference between the names and the assigned numbers will be kept by the researcher in a secure location. The cross-reference will only need to be used to enter the demographic and additional information (number of classes actually taken, etc) to the participants number (at the end of the study).

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Participant Selection

Selection and acquisition of the participants will be reviewed by Arizona State Universitys Institutional Review Board. See Appendix I for detailed Informed Consent form, Informed Assent form (child form), and Verbal Scripts to be used in the data collection sessions (pre and post-treatment).

Participants will be selected from various schools in the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area. Children in this area are generally suburban, white, middle class (moderate to high SES). 40 subjects (male and female, ages 7 to 11) will be recruited via a flyer sent home at elementary schools see Appendix III. Additional recruitment efforts will be made if these fail to result in required numbers and representation for study.

Sample Representation

Because of the demographics of the region, it will be difficult to control having a sample group that is representative of an ethnic cross section. This will have to be considered in the data analysis.

Study Process

Pre-Treatment Procedure

All of the subjects will be sent a packet with the proper informed consent, informed assent forms, and a cover letter describing the program and then will be called to schedule an initial pre-treatment session prior to beginning the classes. At the pre-

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treatment session, information will be gathered for basic class participation using a standard information form for martial arts classes as shown in Appendix I.

The participants will also receive a martial arts uniform, white belt, and packet of information about what will be required of them over the next 8 weeks. All persons assisting with the research and instructors in the program will also complete a confidentiality statement (see Appendix I)

Following the Pre-Treatment session, the subjects will undergo a standard 8 weeks of martial arts training by Certified Martial Arts instructors. This training will not allow any sparring or fighting to be performed (no physical contact between students), and students will be supervised at all times. At the end of the 8 weeks of training, they may graduate to Orange belt at a formal graduation where they will demonstrate their material in front of their peers and families. See Appendix IV for an outline of the treatment program.

Post-Treatment Interview

Following the treatment, the interview will be completed with the parent (independent of the child) and also with the child (with the parent in the room, but encouraged not to comment). The child interview will be followed by a short parent follow interview. The interview form will be as follows:

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Parent/Guardian Interview Face Sheet


Interviewer Name: ______________________ Date of Interview: ___/___/___

Interview Location: _____________________

Time: _____ am/pm

Taping Equipment: _____________________

Counter Log: _____

Participant Number: _____P

For a second parent/guardian:

Participant Number: _____P2

OK to Call Later?: Yes/No

Notes:

Martial Arts Master and Karate Instructor Cave Creek, Chandler, Mesa, Scottsdale www.KarateBuilt.com Karate Classes- Karate for Kids and Martial Arts for Adults Greg Moody CEO and Partner Rev Marketing 2U www.RevMarketing2U.com

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Parent/Guardian Interview
Verbal Script (read to parent before interview) May I start the audiotape now? Interviewer start tape, state information from the face sheet. As you know, our research study is to investigate childrens and parents experience of martial arts. We are going to discuss your experience and your observation of your childs experience taking martial arts classes. We are not looking for you to answer in any specific way positively or negatively. Feel free to add any comments or information you would like at any time. We are going to audiotape it and transcribe the information, but your name and your childs name will not appear in any publication and the audiotape and any personal information related to this study will be kept in a locked safe. May we continue with the interview?

Start Questions: Interviewer Notes: These questions are only to start the process, let the interviewee discuss whatever they like. 1) What are your impressions of the Karate classes? 2) In what way has your childs self-concept been hurt by the classes? Can you give me some examples? 3) Do think your child has improved their self-esteem since starting these classes? a. What are some specific examples at home or school or at Karate? b. What other things in their life could account for this? c. How might the martial arts classes account for this?

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4) Do you feel your child has received any benefits of the classes? (ask for specific examples) a. In what way? b. Physically? c. Mental Benefits?

d. Benefits that will help in school? 5) What else would you like to add? Ending Verbal Script (read to parent after interview) Thank you for your time. Now we will ask your child to come in and do a short interview as well. After their interview we will ask you to stay and give any impressions you have on their interview. Turn off audiotape

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Child Interview Face Sheet


Interviewer Name: ______________________ Date of Interview: ___/___/___

Interview Location: _____________________

Time: _____ am/pm

Taping Equipment: _____________________

Counter Log: _____

Number of Classes Taken: _____

Orange Belt: Yes/No

Participant Number: _____C

Both Parents Present?: Yes/No

Parent Interview Completed on: ___/___/___ at _____am/pm (Parent interview must be completed first)

OK to call later?: Yes/No

Notes:

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Child Interview
Verbal Script (read to parent and child before interview both should agree to interview before continuing. May I start the audiotape now? Interviewer start tape, state information from the face sheet. As you know, our research study is to investigate childrens and parents experience of martial arts. We are going to discuss your karate classes. We are not looking for you to answer in any specific way so answer any way you like and say anything you want about your classes. Your name will not be anywhere and no one but us will appear in any publication and the audiotape and any personal information related to this study will be kept in a locked safe. May we continue with the interview?

Start Questions: Interviewer Notes: These questions are only to start the process, let the interviewee discuss whatever they like. 1) What did you think of the Karate classes? 6) What did you like? a. In what way? 7) What didnt you like? a. In what way? 8) How do you feel about yourself? 9) Do you feel worse about yourself after doing the classes? 10) What else do you want to say?

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Ending Verbal Script (read to parent and child after interview) Thanks for talking to me! If its OK with Mom and Dad, can I call you and Mom/Dad to ask some more questions later? Thanks! Now can you go out with my assistant and he/she is going to teach you some more karate. I have a couple minutes with your Mom/Dad, OK? Be sensitive to child thinking they are in trouble because you are asking them to leave spend any time necessary to explain that they arent in any trouble. Turn off audiotape, Mark face sheet if they assent to follow up call.

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Parent/Guardian Interview Follow Up


This is the script for immediately after the childs interview. The child should not be in the room Verbal Script (read to parent and child before interview both should agree to interview before continuing. May I start the audiotape now? Interviewer start tape, state information from the face sheet and that this is the follow up after the childs interview. Now we want to follow up with you for a few minutes. May we continue with the interview?

Start Questions: Interviewer Notes: These questions are only to start the process, let the interviewee discuss whatever they like. 1) What did you think of your childs answers? 11) Why do you think they liked _____________________? 12) Why do you think they didnt like _____________________? 13) What else do you want to add? Ending Verbal Script (read to parent after follow up interview) Thanks for all of your time. We appreciate your participation in the study. May we call you if we need to clarify any information or ask some additional questions? Turn off audiotape, Mark face sheet if they have consented to be called for additional information.

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Interview Environment

The interview will be held during an otherwise closed time at one of the facilities. It will be done by the researcher or a research assistant. To encourage rapport, the researcher will follow the guidelines from Spradley (1979) in which he identifies four chronological stages of the interview and rapport building process: 1) Apprehension. In this stage the participant may experience slight apprehension to anxiety. The interviewer needs to listen, show interest and be non-judgmental. The researcher will make sure to explain that confidentiality is maintained. 2) Exploration. In this second stage, both the interviewer and the participant are trying out the new relationship. In this stage, the interviewer will be careful to explain that they want to see things from the participants point of view, want to listen (by re-stating and paraphrasing) and ask for use not meaning (ex: How is that a useful skill?). 3) Cooperation: Participant learn to trust the interviewer. We would expect the participant to be more free with information and require less prompting. 4) Participation. The participant also wants to aid the interviewer in understanding their experience. We would expect the participant to guide the interview at this point. The interview (and the script) is designed to speak to the childrens level and language ability.

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Interview

The researcher will be one of the interviewers and will train at least one additional person to be an interviewer. The interviewer will ask the questions and allow the parent (or child) to answer as fully as they choose. While there are structured questions, which will be covered, the participant and the interviewer are encouraged to elaborate on any issues and discuss subjects that are not on the interview agenda.

The audiotapes will be transcribed immediately following the interview. The face sheet information will be attached as a header to the file. Initial coding will be done to determine if the interview basic questions should be modified and / or if the participants should be asked additional or clarifying information.

Data Analysis

Selection of Analysis Methods

While there are many methods of qualitative data analysis, this study requires that the data gathering occur following the treatment leaving out some types of analysis because it evolves during the treatment process. We do have the opportunity to evolve the interview process, but it would not affect the data gathering.

Since we want to discover the characteristics of the experience the participant has, we need to leave the study design open to modification (such as the initial interview questions). In addition, once this is done, we would like to make some interpretations regarding the nature of self-concept change following the treatment and whether there

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be some causal relationships between the practice of martial arts and the results we discover.

In this way some analysis types are not appropriate. Narrative analysis would not provide anything particularly useful because one of the functions of this analysis is to determine if there may be a relationship between martial arts training and self concept (and in what way). Ethnographic methods of analysis (those that evolve like Ericksons Analytic induction) could work as they would look at analyzing and re-analyzing the data and re-confirming with the participants. In fact this will be necessary, but it also implies that the investigator was on site during the treatment. Grounded Theory analysis appears to be a candidate, but we have a theory and we are seeking to dis-confirm it or support it, not develop the theory.

Miles-Hubermans Three-Part Analysis is the best choice for examining the data because it fits the type of research most closely. In this style, we will follow the three steps: 1) Data Reduction Phase (in our case the transcripts will be coded) 2) Data Display Phase (we will use graphing methods to display relationships between the coded data) 3) Conclusion Drawing / Verification Phase (we make tentative statements and re-visit the data to go through the process again, including following up with the participants as necessary).

Cross case analysis will be used to extract any conclusions and support their validity. We will compare the parent and child interviews (within case analysis) and

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follow by parent-parent, child-child and case-Case (what the parents and children said as a whole).

Coding Process

The transcribed data will be coded and re-read by two independent researchers. One will have done the interview and the other will not have participated in it. In this way both researchers have done half of the interviews and coded 100% of the transcripts. The computer program NUDIST will be used to code the data. To improve intercoder reliability, following the first coding process & review, the research team will discuss the coding schema and determine a consistent coding plan. Then they will each re-code the data and review each others coding. This may also result in possible re-interviewing subjects.

Data Display

We can graph and display the data after it is determined what characteristics are most appropriate.

Projection of Conclusions

The purpose of this study is not to prove some hypothesis, but to investigate the nature of self-concept and if it is affected by a treatment program of martial arts. We expect that the data will reveal some parts of this nature and lead toward a conclusion about how the participants self-concept is affected if at all. Both in terms of direction (positive effect or negative effect), degree (how much), and most importantly, what does

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self-concept mean in this case to the child and the parent. Is it the same as what we would expect? What surprises will we encounter?

Validity

There will be 2 different accounts (child and parent) as well as additional data (their level of participation as measured by how many classes were actually taken). This may be followed up with re-interviewing the participants as necessary to clarify and elaborate. In addition the cross-case analysis also supports the conclusions and results of the research. Because the purpose of the study is to explore their experience these sources are primary to that end and support validity of the results.

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What I Learned
The question of what I learned from the project has many answers. Initially I feel I learned the basic procedures to follow to structure an interview project. I also am glad to have gone through the IRB training to learn about getting projects approved (though more to the point about making sure the projects are not harmful to the participant nor cause me or the university undue liability).

In addition, the hard look at all of the various methods helps me appreciate that there the other methods are appropriate for some types of studies. In fact almost every method could be used for different aspects of the investigation into self-concept and martial arts.

Frankly in taking this class, I was not very enthusiastic about qualitative research, yet through looking at the methods and the subjects studied, I see that some issues are not really addressed fully through quantitative approaches. In construct measurement issues such as self-concept - it is such an abstract characteristic to measure, that while there are quantitative measures available they may not uncover the nature of the construct, nor the underlying relationship between the construct and whatever else we are studying.

I look forward to using these methods in combination with other research projects that in my research career.

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Reference
Burke, J. P., Ellison, G. C. & Hunt, J. P.. (1985). Measuring Academic Self-Concept in Children: A Comparison of Two Scales. Psychology in the Schools, 22, July, 260-264. Charmaz and Mitchell. "Grounded Theory in Ethnography" from in Handbook of Ethnography, edited by Paul Atkinson, et al. London: Sage. pp. 160-174 Emerson, et al 2001. "Participant Observation and Fieldnotes." in Handbook of Ethnography, edited by Paul Atkinson, et al. London: Sage. Erickson, F. (1986). Qualitative methods in research on teaching. In M. Wittrock, (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd. ed.) Gary L. Anderson, "Critical Ethnography in Education: Origins, Current Status, and New Directions." Gerson, Kathleen, and Ruth Horowitz. 2002. "Observation and Interviewing." Pp. 17-52 in Qualitative Research in Action, edited by Tim May. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Huberman, A. Michael and Matthew B. Miles (1994) Data Management and Analysis pp 428-444 from Handbook of Qualitative Research Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln. Kleinman, Sherryl. 1980. "Learning the Ropes as Fieldwork Analysis." in Fieldwork Experience, edited by William B. Shaffir, Robert A. Stebbins and Allan Turowetz. New York: St Martins Press. Margolis, Eric. 1994. "Video ethnography: Toward a reflexive paradigm for documentary."

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Miles and Huberman. 1994. "Early steps in analysis." Morrow, Susan L. And Mary Lee Smith. 2000. "Qualitative Research for Counseling Psychology" pp. 199-230 from Handbook of Counseling Psychology 3rd edition Steven D. Brown and Robert W. Lent (Eds). Sage Polkinghorne, D. (1995). Narrative configuration as qualitative analysis. Spradley, James (1979) "Asking Descriptive Questions" from The Ethnographic Interview, Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Stake, Robert. 1994. "Case Studies." Pp. 236-247 in Handbook of Qualitative Research, edited by Norman Denzin and Yvonna Lincoln. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Webb, Eugene J., Donald T. Campbell, Richerd D. Schwartz, and Lee Sechrest. 1966. Unobtrusive measures: Simple Observation

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Appendix I Informed Consent Form Informed Assent Form Verbal Scripts Cover Letter

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Martial Arts and Self-Esteem in Children - Parental Letter Consent For Minors Dear Parent: I am a graduate student under the direction of Professor Sanford Cohn in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Arizona State University. I am conducting a research study to investigate the benefits that martial arts training has on childrens self-concept. Your childs participation will involve an 8 week, two time a week program of martial art training (classes are about 45 minutes). It also requires completion of an interview with you, and a second interview with your child. Your and your childs participation in this study is voluntary. If your child chooses not to participate or to withdraw from this study at any time, there will be no penalty. The results of the research study may be published, but neither your name nor your childs name will not be used. Although there may be no direct benefit to your child, the possible benefit of your childs participation is improvements in any or all of the following selfconcept, physical fitness, body image, self-esteem, attention span in school and at home, self-confidence, and coordination and the ability to protect themselves in dangerous situations.

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If you have any questions concerning the research study or your childs participation in this study, please call me at (602) 325-9108 or Dr. Cohn at (480) 965-1448. Sincerely,

Greg Moody

I give consent for my child ____________ to participate in the above study.

_______________________________ Signature of Parent of Legal Guardian

_______ Date

If you have any questions about your or your childs rights as a participant in this research, or if you feel you or your child has been placed at risk, you can contact the Chair of the Human Subjects Institutional Review Board, through Karol Householder, at (480) 965-6788

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Informed Assent Form (for Kids) I _________________, understand that my parents have given permission for me to participate in a study about benefits of martial arts (Karate) classes for kids. I will get a uniform and if I do all 8 weeks of classes two times a week I may earn my Orange belt. At the end I will do an interview with an adult. I am taking part because I want to. I know I can stop at any time I want and it will be okay. ________________________ Name __________ Date

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Martial Arts and Self-Esteem in Children

Confidentiality Statement As a researcher working on the above research study at Arizona State University, I understand that I must maintain the confidentiality of all information concerning research participants. This information includes, but is not limited to, all identifying information and research data of participants and all information accruing from any direct or indirect contact I may have with said participants. In order to maintain confidentiality I hereby agree to refrain from discussing or disclosing any information regarding research participants, including information described without identifying information, to any individual who is not part of the above research study and in need of the information for the expressed purposes of the research program.

________________________ Signature

__________ Date

ASSIGNMENT 3 39

Martial Arts and Self-Esteem in Children Verbal Script for Recruitment or Information Calls I am a graduate student under the direction of Professor Sanford Cohn in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Arizona State University. I am conducting a research study to investigate the benefits that martial arts training has on childrens self-concept. The purpose of the research is to measure kids self-concept after an 8 week martial arts course. I am recruiting participants participate in an 8 week martial arts course called Karate for Kids, which is specially designed for kids in your childs age range. They will also receive a uniform, and belt and if they participate for the entire 8 weeks they may graduate to Orange belt (the first belt after white belt). At the end of the 8 week period, you will be asked to participate in a 30 to 45 minute interview about your childs experience and your child will be asked to do a separate interview as well (with you in the room). Your childs participation in the study is voluntary. If your child chooses not to participate or to withdraw, He or she may do so at any time. The results of the research may be published but your and your childs names will not be used. Follow by asking for required information: Name, Address and give out required times and dates. If you have any questions concerning the research study, please call me at (602) 325-9108.

ASSIGNMENT 3 40

Attach SI Form

Appendix II IRB Paperwork

Attach IRB Paperwork

Appendix III Recruitment Flyer

Attach RecruitmentFlyer

Appendix IV Treatment Outline

Treatment Summary and Outline


Treatment

A martial arts program like the Taekwondo program following the American Taekwondo Associations standards and procedures may improve overall self-concept. The program used for the study is specifically for children and is called Karate for Kids (there are other ATA programs for adults and pre-school age kids). This is a

standardized method of teaching Taekwondo in a structured and fun way, developed by the American Taekwondo Association (ATA), and is being used in over 800 locations around the United States and around the world.

Features of Karate for Kids / Taekwondo

The features of the Taekwondo program are based on the concept that each student is different and has different needs. Different methods are used to teach students many things that will apply after the lesson is over. The building blocks for this are based on 12 themes that are integrated into classes such as goal setting, self-control, courtesy, integrity, friendship, confidence, self-awareness, self-esteem,

perseverance, self-improvement, respect, and dedication.

The instructors use the following 10 class management ideas in each class:

Set Mood and Tone of Class Use a Personal Approach Give Thoughtful Feedback to Student Response Give Realistic Praise Refer to Student by Name

Create Positive Climate Set Direct Goals Reinforce Positive Behavior Use Positive Correction Instead of Criticism Teach Concept of Personal Victory

Each child wears a V patch on their uniform. This signifies personal victory. Personal victory means that their achievement is relative to them - not being better than their peers. On this patch they put small star patches. Blue stars signify great performance in class, at home or at school. Red stars are given when a child has to perform in public (i.e. competition, oral book report, etc.). Gold stars are awarded when a child has great school achievement.

A typical day will begin with a class bowing to show respect and self-control. The bow is also a promise not to hurt other people. The student says their student oath : Each Day I Will Live By Honoring My Parents And Instructors, Practicing To The Best Of My Abilities, And By Having Courtesy And Respect For Everyone I Meet. This is discussed and provides a philosophy for how the student is expected to be in class and everywhere.

During the main part of class, the student will be given positive feedback when they are demonstrating not only the physical moves they are learning, but also when they are following directions, staying on task, treating other students and instructors with respect and by having a good attitude. Negative feedback (i.e. verbal, frowns, time outs, etc.) is used occasionally as well. Positive feedback will come in many forms such as verbal recognition, stickers (happy faces, dragons, etc.), having a student lead class and special written awards that are later exchanged for bigger awards.

The curriculum in the beginner program is broken down into two month blocks labeled A, B, and C. Each block is a set of forms or poomse (the Korean word) and one-steps that will be learned in the two month period. When students complete the material covered they may graduate to their next belt level. Beginners start at white belt, and should graduate to orange belt following their first two month period if they attend two to three times per week. Following orange belt they will advance to yellow, camouflage, green, purple, blue, brown, red, and then different levels of black belt. Forms are a sequence of 18 to 28 moves that are learned in order. The form is a vehicle for working on the basic moves, as well as flexibility, balance, memory, timing, rhythm, power, focus and concentration. One-steps are a transition utility which are designed to help students react to a potential attack with a predetermined sequence of moves. While forms help students practice

balance, 1-steps help students react appropriately to an attacker. The material used in the study from the Karate for Kids manual will be block C material.

Individual moves they learn include hand techniques (blocks and attacks), kicks, and stances. Blocks are designed to deflect an attackers move without incurring physical harm to oneself. An example of a block is a high block, which will defend against a punch to the face. The student moves their forearm in an upward motion in front of their face and stops when the arm gets to the top of their head. Hand attacks include punches and knife hand strikes. In a knife hand strike the student starts with an open hand, fingers together and strikes with the outside edge (knife edge) of their hand. Kicks learned at the beginner level include front kicks, side kicks and round kicks. Executing a front kick involves raising the bent leg (chamber), extending out the foot and making contact with the ball of the foot (extension), returning the foot (re-chamber) and setting it down (return). Front, middle and back stances are the beginner stances. These are specific positions to stand involving an upper body position, foot position and weight distribution. For example in a front stance the feet are pointed straight ahead, one foot three feet (of students feet length, non twelve inches) in front of the other , the body is upright and the weight distribution if 50-50.

Consistent exercising in Taekwondo will develop the body in many areas. Hand techniques develop arm, abdominal, back and general

upper body strength. Kicks and stances help develop leg strength, balance and promote flexibility. Conditioning drills (push ups, crunches, curl ups and other drills) will also contribute to the students physical growth.

The end of class contains an awards presentation where students collect their stars for their performance at home, at school, and in their martial arts class. These awards are primarily to reinforce

behavior outside of the martial arts school. In this way the activity reaches into many areas of a childs life.

Appendix V Self-Concept

Self-Concept Review
There is not universal agreement about the definition of selfconcept. A common assumption is that self-concept as it emerges in young children during the preschool years is a global orientation that influences behavior in social settings (Jensen, 1985). As children mature, they make more discrete self-judgments about their worth in different areas. These differential judgments do not occur until apparently about the age of 8 (Harter, 1982). Content dimensions of self-concept appear to be present in early self-concept. There are many theories of development of self-concept. Denzin (1972) presents a comparative analysis of Mead, Cooley and Piaget:

These three theorists agree with each other on five major points. First, they emphasize the importance of affective and cognitive processes in self-development. Second, they view each stage of development as qualitatively different from the previous stage. Third, they emphasize the role of interactional processes in cognitive

development and in early self-hood. Fourth, they reject associationist and stimulus-response theories of learning. To them, the organism progressively acquires the ability to stimulate its own conduct and to formulate its own plans of action: objects and stimuli carry no intrinsic meaning.

(According to Kohlberg (1969;347-361),

Piaget treats

learning as a complex process of differentiation and assimilation, development which of is in itself contingent on the they

language

acquisition.)

Fifth,

emphasize comparable empirical methods for the study of self. Each used a variation on the ethnographic, casestudy method.. Each emphasized the importance of linguistic utterances as central indicators of self-hood Each attended to gestures, to performances, and to nonverbal actions as indicators(p 293-294).

The effect of a high self-concept on academic achievement has been a subject of much study (Bridgeman & Shipman, 1978;Brookover, Thomas & Paterson, 1964; Harter, 1983; Midkiff, Burke & Hunt, 1984; Purkey, 1970; Shavelson & Bolus, 1982; Glanz, 1994). Recent efforts have focused on improving the instruments by which to measure selfconcept. This is due to the fact that while there has been a significant and consistent relationship between self-concept and academic achievement, the measurements of self-concept have not been so consistent(Burke, et al, 1985). Nevertheless, while the measurement instruments have been debated, it seems clear that a high self-concept will have a positive effect on academic achievement. Therefore, if martial arts training improves self-concept, we can expect a resultant improvement in academic performance.

Reference for Self-Concept Appendix V


Burke, J. P., Ellison, G. C. & Hunt, J. P.. (1985). Measuring Academic Self-Concept in Children: A Comparison of Two Scales. Psychology in the Schools, 22, July, 260-264. Glanz, Jeffrey (1994). A School/Curricular Intervention Martial Arts Program for At-Risk Students, Paper Presented at the annual meeting of the safe schools coalition on Gangs, Schools & Community (2nd, Orlande FL, May 15th, 1994). Harter, S., (1981). A Model of Mastery Motivation In Children: Individual Differences and Developmental Change, In W. A. Collins (Ed.), Aspects of the Development of Competence: The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Shavelson, R. J., and Bolus, R., (1982) Self-Concept: The Interplay of Theory and Methods, Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 1, 3-17. Shavelson, R. J., Hubner, J. J. and Stanton, G. C., (1976) SelfConcept: Validation of construct Interpretations, Review of Educational Research, 46, 407-441.

Appendix VI Martial Arts Review

Review of Martial Arts


Martial arts can be generally defined as any structured system of fighting. Systems of martial arts have been around for thousands of years. While there is no exact time known, the earliest martial art is believed to have begun 3000 years ago in China. The difficulty in determining when and where martial arts began, is due to the sparse historical records available in Asia. Though originally there were only a few systems, over time a large number of martial arts styles was

practiced. Some of the ones taught today include Tai Chi, Kung Fu, Karate, Judo, and Taekwondo. Even within these styles of martial arts there are many variants and within these systems there are many variants. Some are based on the unique characteristics of the founder of the style, others are focused on a particular fighting method (Urban, 1993). Often these styles are difficult for children because they are

either too militant, require too much fighting contact, are not presented in a way that kids can understand (low level of teaching training for instructors), or the curriculum is not structured for kids.

Our study will focus on the American Taekwondo Association (ATA), the largest centrally administered (single style) martial arts association in the world. (Lee, 1993) This style has programs for children in over 900 of schools across the United States and the world. Although the roots of Taekwondo can be traced back to 300 B.C., The

actual word Taekwondo was not adopted until the year 1955. Because of the Japanese occupation of Korea, the martial arts in Korea were only taught in secret. After Korean liberation from Japan, a war general, Hong Hi Choi began a movement to unify the styles of training into one body. The words used at that time reflected the Japanese and Chinese influence on the martial arts so he presented the name Taekwondo at a conference on April 11, 1955. It became recognized then as the national art of Korea. Taekwondo is made up of three words: Tae which means to kick or jump, Kwon which means the fist or the hand, and Do which means the way or path as a way of life. Altogether this can be translated as the way of the hand and foot (Lee, 1993a). One Taekwondo program from the ATA is called Karate for Kids . This program is designed for kids 7 years of age and up. The features of this Taekwondo program are based on the concept that each student is different and has different needs. The building blocks for this are based on 12 themes that are integrated into classes such as goal setting, selfcontrol, courtesy, integrity, friendship, confidence, self-awareness, selfesteem, perseverance, self-improvement, respect, and dedication.

A review of martial arts literature will focus on current martial arts research in related areas. The literature surrounding martial arts comes from a variety of sources. Some is academic research, some is historical, and some are from individuals with years of martial arts training, but little academic or scientific background. While all of these

sources are valid and useful, we will primarily examine scholarly research.

Prince (1996) studied the differences between the self-concept of beginning, intermediate and advanced martial arts students. Students from five different martial arts schools participated, and took the Tennessee Self-concept Scale. It is a 100 question test that measures several kinds of self-concept including physical self, moral-ethical self, personal self, family self, social self, self-satisfaction, behavior and the overall self-concept. The five martial arts styles studied were: Kenpo, Isshinryu, Aikido, Jujitsu and Hapkido. A statistically significant difference was found between the scores of the beginning level students and the intermediate and advanced level students. No significant difference was found between the scores of the intermediate and advanced level students. The participants were between 18 and 44 years old. This study shows that early training (to an intermediate level) may help build a positive self-concept. However this was a survey type study and was limited to 18 to 44 year old participants. In addition, it did not measure a specific treatment because it reviewed five different styles of martial arts.

In a study by Glanz (1994), students classified as at-risk have been part of a program that integrated martial arts training into the overall curriculum. The students who participated were 4th and 5th graders, currently in gangs, or likely to join them. This program was a

structured martial arts class focused on concentration and self-control. Based at P.S. 49 in Brooklyn, New York, classes had been conducted for three years, two times a week for twenty to thirty students. The school itself served approximately 1500 students and was identified as a school in need of assistance because of its low reading scores. Socioeconomic data indicated 95% of the students were eligible for a free lunch. Their conclusion was that it has proven quite successful for some students at-risk(p. 3). This may suggest an improved level of selfconcept based on their later improved performance in school. In addition it shows effectiveness of martial arts training for kids in the 9 to 11 year age range. The study does not address effects of martial arts training in more mainstream environments.

Columbus and Rice (1988) did a phenomenological review of martial arts participants to understand what meaning martial arts has for North Americans. This was a study of 10 men and 7 women, ages 20 to 46 (mean age of 25) at a small college in the southeastern United States. Participants were given a request to Please describe in writing your experience of an everyday life situation in which you realized that training in a martial art is, or would be, a worthwhile activity. (p. 18) The results were organized into four categories that the participants felt martial arts would be good to know:

Criminal Victimization: Martial arts would be a

valuable skill in defending or preventing a physical or sexual assault.

Growth and Discovery: Martial arts assists in the

process of becoming more aware emotionally, mentally and spiritually.

Task Performance: Skills learned in martial arts

classes apply toward, successful completion of tasks in everyday life such as test taking or competition in other sports. (p. 23)

Life Transition: Discipline and organization from

martial arts helped participants going through life transitions such as divorce, adaptation to college life and other out of control situations.

Therefore, at least for adults, the results of the study indicate a wide range of benefits martial arts training has beyond physical fitness. Perhaps these benefits can also extend to younger age children.

To study effects of Aikido training on self-esteem, anxiety and anger, a total of 69 college age students were trained in Aikido (20 students), Karate (24), Golf with a pre-test (13) and Golf without a pretest (12). Results from the Self-esteem scale, State-Trait Anxiety

Inventory and the Anger Expression Scales (from the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory) were performed before and after the 8 weeks of training. The only significant finding was the Karate group showed significantly lower means on Trait-Anxiety). The conclusion was that the subjects should be studied for several years to evaluate changes in test scores (Foster, 1997).

Upon review of the literature on martial arts training, we can arrive at a few conclusions. Most studies are done with adults, yet thousands of kids are participating in martial arts training, though there is very little scientific study of the benefits of this training, particularly experimental data regarding self-concept. None of these studies used experimental designs. Therefore a study is needed to examine these benefits for children using a controlled experimental design. The purpose of this effort is to investigate the effect of martial arts training on childrens self-concept, and physical development.

Reference for Martial Arts - Appendix VI


Columbus, P. J. & Rice, D. (1998). Phenomenological Meanings of Martial Arts Participation, Journal of Sport Behavior, 21, 1, 1629. Foster, Y. A., (1997). Brief Aikido Training Versus Karate and Golf Training and University Students Scores on Self-Esteem, Anxiety, and Expression of Anger, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 609-610. Glanz, Jeffrey (1994). A School/Curricular Intervention Martial Arts Program for At-Risk Students, Paper Presented at the annual meeting of the safe schools coalition on Gangs, Schools & Community (2nd, Orlando FL, May 15th, 1994). Lee, H. U. (1993). ). The Way of Traditional Taekwondo Volume One: White Belt, Little Rock, AR: American Taekwondo Association. Lee, H. U. (1993a). The Way of Traditional Taekwondo Volume A: Philosophy and Tradition, Little Rock, AR: American Taekwondo Association. Prince, D. S. (1996). Self-concept in Martial Arts Students, Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and

Engineering, 57(2-B), 1451. Urban, P., (1993). The Karate Dojo: Traditions and Tales of the Martial Arts. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Publishing Co.

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