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Base-Station-Antennas for optimized Mobile Communication Networks Norbert Ephan, Roland Gabriel KATHREIN-Werke KG, Postfach 100 444,

83004 Rosenheim, Germany

Kathrein-Werke KG
Rosenheim PO Box 10 04 44 Phone:+ 49 (0)8031 184 - 0 Fax: +49 (0)8031 184 991
antennas.mobilcom@kathrein. de www.kathrein.de

Content
1. Polarization - Diversity-Antennas 2. Site-Sharing with Multiband-Antennas 3. Remote Electrical Tilt 4. Adaptive Antennas and Tower Top Electronics

History: Base Station Antennas

Evolution from Eurocell V-Pol. to A-Panel XX-Pol.

1. Polarization Diversity Antennas

Diversity combining
Diversity with two antennas
10 5 Signal Level [dB] 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 Time
8 8

1 Rx 2 Rx 1

- Level difference - Correlation

Diversity Gain [dB] Diversity Gain [dB]

7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 3 1 3 5 7 5 7 9 11 9 11 13 15 13 Signal Difference [dB] 15 17 19 21 Signal Difference [dB] 17 19 21 23 25 23 25

Combined Signal
10 5 Signal level [dB] 0 -5 1 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 Time

Maximal Ratio Combining Maximal Ratio Combining

Diversity gain GSM Diversity gain GSM

1 1 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0 0

CrossCrossCorrelation Correlation

Diversity
Typical Diversity Gain for GSM - System (max. uncorrelated, equal level)
Outage Probability (y<x)
1,E+00

Div-gain 7 dB
1,E-01 Pr ( <x)

single signal
1,E-02

1,E-03

max. ratio comb./ uncorrelated signals

1,E-04 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 10 log (x/ ) [dB]

Diversity
Space Diversity Arrangement
uses two vertical polarized Rx antennas (Rxa and Rxb) with a horizontal spacing of 12-15 Omni base station : 3 omni antennas with the Tx antenna on a higher level

3m 3m

Polarization-Diversity: Xpol construction


65 90

Polarization Diversity Antennas: Radiators


-45-Polarization +45-Polarization

Reflektor
Vektor-dipol -halfpower beamwidth 65- 90 -low crosspol- level -broadband design(1710 - 2170 MHz)

Polarization Diversity Antenna Arrangements

Space-Diversity-Arrangement

Polarization-DiversityArrangement

X-Pol Array Antennas - Vector Dipole Characteristic


Co-/Cross Pol. behavior
15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 0 345 330 315 300 285 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 60 45

Frequency behavior
15 30 0 345 330 315 300 285

Primary radiator design

-30

-20

-10 dB 270 255 240 225

-30

-20

-10 dB 270 255 240

co-pol cross- pol


210

> 25 dB (main direction) > 10dB (+/- 60 Sector)

1710 - 2170 MHz

Site-Sharing with Dual and Triple-Band Antennas

Dualband Antennas / XXpol System


Major Mobile Communication Frequencies

TETRA GSM DVB-H AMPS GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS UMTS LTE WiMax

380 - 430 MHz 450 MHz 512-860 MHz 824 - 890 MHz 880-960 MHz 1710 - 1880 MHz 1920 - 2170 MHz 2500 - 2700 MHz 3.4 - 3.8 GHz

Site Sharing and Multi-Band Antennas


Single-Band-Antennen fr GSM900 und GSM1800

GSM900 (D-Netz)

GSM1800 (E-Netz) XXPol-Dual-Band mit Combiner

Site Sharing and Multiband Antennas

Dualband antennas: XXpol construction

Triple-Band Antennas
Major Mobile Communication Frequencies

TETRA GSM DVB-H AMPS GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS UMTS LTE WiMax

380 - 430 MHz 450 MHz 512-860 MHz 824 - 890 MHz 880-960 MHz 1710 - 1880 MHz 1920 - 2170 MHz 2500 - 2700 MHz 3.4 - 3.8 GHz

Independent adjustable Downtilt

Triple- Band Antennas

6 Systems, independently adjustable 6 Systems, independently adjustable --GSM 900 --GSM 1800 --UMTS GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS

Triple- Band Antennas

Adjustable Electrical DT
Combined radiators 806-960/1710-2170 MHz
C-Filter-Combiner 1710-1880 MHz 1920-2170 MHz DPS-Differential Phase-Shifter

Single radiators 1710 - 2170 MHz

Scheme of Triple-Band-Antenna

Triple- Band Antennas


Downtilt GSM 900 Crosspolar level Halfpower beamwidth Sidelobe level Tracking, Tracking, squint isolation
Isolation +/-45 Triple-Band-Antenna

Complex design: Optimization Parameter of Triple-Band Antennas

VSWR frequency Downtilt GSM 1800

Downtilt UMTS

45 43 41 39 37 Isolation 35 33 31 29 27 25 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Downtilt 900 MHz

6 4 2 0 Downtilt 1800 MHz

Remote Electrical Tilt

Adjustable Electrical Downtilt


maximum flexibility is achieved with adjustable electrical downtilt by combining the adjustability of the mechanical DT and the technical advantage of the electrical DT

Adjustable Electrical Downtilt


Network Extension Support of traffic dependent cell breathing and regulation of softHandover areas Hot spots during special events Dynamical traffic adaptive regulation of cell load
Hot Spot High traffic area

Cell Brathing

Adjustable Electrical Downtilt


Electrical Tilt instead of Mechanical Tilt Manual Adjustable: Team has to climb up the tower RET offers flexible remote control (on site ore via O&M Network)

RET

Adjustable Electrical DT
Schemes of Triple-Band-Antenna

Triple-Band Antenna system 900 MHz +45

Adjustable Electrical DT
Schemes of Triple-Band-Antenna
C-Filter-Combiner

Passive Differential Phase Shifter

DPS-Differential Phase-Shifter

Triple-Band Antenna system 2000 MHz +45

UMTS / WCDMA-Network
Optimization of Service
98 96 Service Propability 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 Number of Subscribers Without RET RET optimized Azimuth optimized

Influence of Downtilt-Optimization - a) RET and Pilot Power - b) RET, Pilot Power and Azimuth adjustment
Based on study results by Symena Software & Consulting GmbH Wien: www.symena.com The value of automated optimization , publishing with allowance of Symena

RET- Scenarios
Network-Planing Tool Dynamical Predefined Modus Scenarios -Optimization Time
-Reaction Time -Administration
OMC Control Network
Smart-BIAS-T

Network-Extension Changed Load Situation (Rush Hour)

Antenna

RCU

TMA BTS
Central Control unit

Feeder lines

Roll-Out of RET-System in Taipei/Taiwan

Adaptive Antennas and Tower Top Electronics

Adaptive Antennas
Antennas with beam-forming: Antennas withbeambeam-forming: - -"SMART" - -Antennas "SMART" Antennas - -Multi-Beam-Antennas Multi-BeamMulti-Beam-Antennas - -Adaptive Antennas Adaptive Antennas - -Increased Capacity Increased Capacity - -Reduced interference level Reduced interference level - -Reduced Transmit-Power ReducedTransmitTransmit-Power - -Reduction of average EM Reduction of average EM fields fields but but -Expensive BTS -Expensive BTS -n xxFeeder Cables -n Feeder Cables -Higher Size -Higher Size - -Reduced Site Sharing Capabilities Reduced Site Sharing Capabilities

Transmit the power to the correct destination.

Adaptive Antennas - Control principles


Adaptive Antenna Control Options

Standard BTS Control via: -Handover (Switched) -Soft Handover (MakroDiversity) -Backbone network takes over high traffic -or increased handovers required -2X...4X dual beam antennas -common 6-sector arrangements

Special BTS for n Sensors Beam-Forming Algorithm -Switched fixed beam -MRC principle Pilot carrier (BCCH) has to been distributed within the whole cell

2X...4X array antennas option: flat frequency phasedependency for FDD

Adaptive Antennas
For QPSK-Modulation, uncorrelated carriers:
BER MRC-Receiver, noncorrelated signals
1,E+00

Pb, MRC

2r 1 2 1 = r 4 2 2 r =0
M 1

1,E-01 Diversity-gain 1,E-02

Pt 2 Pt + n

Tx-Power noise

1,E-03 BER 1,E-04 Single Sensor 2 sensors 3 sensors 1,E-06 4 sensors 1,E-05 1,E-07 -19 -17 -14 -12 -10 -7 -5 -3 0 2 5 7 9 12 14 16 19 21 24 26 28 31 SNR [dB]

MISO- Multiple Input- Single Output

MRC
M=4 M=8

Adaptive Antennas
Array Gain

14 12 10 Gain [dB] 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

- 2..4 sensors offer attractive ratio of gain/costs

Array Gain (correlation=1) typical gain max gain(correl=0)

Number of sensors

Antenna /Sensor T yp Single Path Two Path Four Path 8-Path

Array gain (total correlated) 0 dB 3 dB 6 dB 9 dB

M axim um T ypical G ain (non gain correlated) 0 dB 0 dB 8 dB 10.5 dB 13 dB 4..5 dB 6..10 dB 8..11 dB

Adaptive Antennas: 4x-solution


Dual-polarized Array-Antenna 4x 4 x Tx +4 x Rx Diversity

Digital data processing Beam steering algorithm

(1x phase calibration) M=8 Improved Rx-signal, reduced Tx power

6-Sector-Arrangement: Switched Beam Adaption


6-Sektor Arrangements: -Increased Coverage -Equivalent Traffic/Cell -Reduced Interference

d6sect=1.41d3sect

area subscriber = cons sec tor sec tor r6 sec t = 2 r3sec t


Required additional gain for increased radius (OkumarataHata-Model) 4,5..6 dB

6-Sector Ultra High sites Increased Coverage due to increased height of the Tx Antenna
path loss

Ultra High sites


Path loss [dB]

140 130 120 110 100 90 80 0,1 0,3 0,5 0,7 0,9 1,1 1,3 1,5 1,7 1,9 Distance [km] f=2GHz, gTx=18 dBi, Okumurata-Hata

Increased coverage h= 10 m h=20m h=40m h=100m

Adaptive Antenna: Dual Beam (2X) Dual-Beam-Antenna ( 2 Columns)

3dB-Hybrid

Adaptive Antenna: Dual Beam (4X) Dual-Beam-Antenna ( 4 Columns)


Beam 1 Beam 2

Frequenz

HPBW

Azimuth

Frequenz

HPBW

Azimuth

4x2 Butler-Matrix

Adaptive Antennas: Tracking 2X Smart Antenna ( 2 Columns, 65 HPBW)


Phase Shift (Columns)
0 degree 30 degree 60 degree 90 degree 120 degree

Horizontal Scan-Width
0 degree 5 degree 10 degree 15 degree 20 degree

Adaptive Antennas: MIMO-Systems

MIMO-System: Combination of Pattern and Polarization-Diversity

Tower Top electronics

transmission= 20 W

M CPA
TM A
dissipation2= 5W

No ise Fig ure

MultiRRH
dissipation1= 25 W

CPRIInterface

PTx= 50 W = 10%

BTS

BTS

Pin= 500 W

Tower- Top Electronics: Multi-RRH


4x Antenna Array

Adaptive Antenna Array with Multi-RRH 4 x Tx, 8 x Rx


Re IM Up-Conv Re Im DownConv.

Re Im DownConv

Digital Predist. CPRI

CPRI

RET control Tx-Linearization control Power Supply RET Power

CPRI

Rx2-Control of Amplitude/Phase

Tx

Rx1

Rx2