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The Publishing House of "Lucian Blaga"

Blaga" University Sibiu


ISBN 978978-606606-1212-02090209-6

The Red List of Crop Varieties for Romania


Lista Roie a varietilor plantelor de cultur din Romnia

Lista Roie propus reprezint un model pe baza cruia


resursele genetice pentru alimentaie i agricultur pot fi
evaluate cu privire la statutul lor de conservare n scopul
asigurrii securitii alimentare.
alimentare.

M.M. ANTOFIE

The proposed Red List is a model on which genetic resources


for food and agriculture can be evaluated regarding their
status of conservation in order to ensure food security.

Proiect cofinan
cofinanat din Fondul Social European prin
Programul Opera
Operaional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 20072007-2013
Investe
nvestete n oameni !

Maria Mihaela ANTOFIE

The Red List of Crop Varieties


for Romania
Lista Roie a varietilor
plantelor de cultur din Romnia

COALA POSTDOCTORAL PENTRU BIODIVERSITATE ZOOTEHNIC I BIOTEHNOLOGII ALIMENTARE


PE BAZA ECOECONOMIEI I BIOECONOMIEI NECESARE ECOSANOGENEZEI contract
POSDRU/89/1.5/S/63258

The Red List of Crop Varieties for


Romania
Lista Roie a varietilor plantelor
de cultur din Romnia

Maria-Mihaela Antofie

Titlul programului: Programul Operaional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013


Numrul de identificare al contractului: POSDRU/89/1.5/S/63258
Titlul proiectului: coala Postdoctoral pentru biodiversitate zootehnic i biotehnologii
alimentare pe baza ecoeconomiei i bioeconomiei necesare ecosanogenezei
Editorul materialului
Partener Principal Institutul Naional de Cercetri Economice al Academiei Romne
Partener 1 Universitatea Lucian Blaga din Sibiu
Data publicrii: octombrie 2011
Coninutul acestui material nu reprezint n mod obligatoriu poziia oficial a
Uniunii Europene sau a Guvernului Romniei

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei


ANTOFIE, MARIA-MIHAELA
The red list of crop varietis for Romania = Lista roie a varietilor plantelor
de cultur din Romnia / Antofie Maria Mihaela. - Sibiu : Editura Universitii "Lucian
Blaga" din Sibiu, 2011
Bibliogr.
ISBN 978-606-12-0208-
633(498)
Scientific reviewers
Professor Camelia SAND (mentor into the Postdoctoral School University Lucian
Blaga from Sibiu, Romania)
Professor Karl HAMMER (Kassel University, Germany)
Dr. Ehsan DOLLOO (FAO, Rome, Italy).
Citation: Antofie00 (Eds.), 2011, The Red List of Crop Varieties for
Romania - Lista Roie a varietilor plantelor de cultur din Romnia, Publishing
House Lucian Blaga Univresity from Sibiu, 288 pp.
Photos & Cover design: Maria Mihaela Antofie
Adress: Str. Oituz 31, 500337, Sibiu, Sibiu county, Romania
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Food Industry and Environmental Protection
University "Lucian Blaga" of Sibiu
Phone/Fax: +(40) 269 234111
Mobil:
+ (40) 740081274
E-mail: mihaela_antofie@yahoo.com

Acknowledgments
Mulumiri
This book is the result of a complex exercise and
ongoing scientific and technical communication that
reached many levels: scientific, legal, political and
last but not least communication with peasants in
the villages of Sibiu County - all for understanding
the significance for Romanian rural communities of
plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and
the need for their red listing. The research was
conducted under a postdoctoral fellowship granted
within the project POSDRU/89/1.5/ S/63258.
In this way sincere thanks go to:
Professor Alexandru BOGDAN, member of the
Romanian Academy, manager of the Romanian
Postdoctoral School for livestock biodiversity and
food biotechnology based on eco-economy and bioeconomy required to eco-sano-genesis contract
POSDRU/89/1.5/ S/63258, for financial supporting
the completion of this work;
Professor Camelia SAND my mentor in the
Postdoctoral School;
Professor Constantin OPREAN Rector of the
University Lucian Blaga from Sibiu and
Professor Gligor CIORTEA.
Also sincerely thank goes to the entire team of
Postdoctoral School contributing to the project
management for a period of 14 months as well as to
the Lucian Blaga University from Sibiu, the
institution where I conducted this research.
I address my special thanks for the scientific review
of the book to Professor Karl Hammer (Kassel
University, Germany) and Dr. Ehsan Dolloo (FAO).
In the same context sincere thanks goes to
agronomist Samoila GELERIU for his support
through his knowledge of immeasurable value to
shape the final conclusions.
I address special thanks to the Bioversity
International Maccarese Italy for scientific
support. Also, I express my gratitude to Dr. Jan
Engels for facilitating my collaboration with the
Bioversity International.
Special thanks go to Professor Mircea Savatti for
scientific advices.
Thanks go for collaboration n the domain to:
tefan tefnescu, Laurian Gheorghe, Dana
Constantinovici, Liliana Vrtopeanu, Cecilia
Dobrot,
Gheorghe
Budral,
Septimiu
Acelenescu, Vasile Platon, Mircea Opri, Filip
Drguanu, Marius Halmaghi, Rudolf Zilcsak.
Thanks go for communication support to my
colleagues: Ioan Albu, Pompilica Iagru, Mihai
Pop, Mirela Stanciu.
Special thanks I address to my sister Adriana
Antofie, agronomist, for helping me in the reviewing
of the manuscript and lay outing the book.

Aceast carte este rodul unui exerciiu complex i


continuu de comunicare tiinific i tehnic atingnd
mai multe niveluri: tiinific, legislativ, politic i nu n
ultimul rnd comunicarea cu ranii din satele
judeului Sibiu toate n scopul nelegerii
semnificaiei pentru comunitile rurale romneti a
resurselor genetice vegetale pentru alimentaie i
agricultur i necesitatea listrii roii a acestora.
Cecetarea a fost realizat n cadrul unei burse
postdoctorale
acordat
sub
contractul
POSDRU/89/1.5/ S/63258
Pe aceast cale aduc sincere mulumiri:
Dlui prof. univ. dr Alexandru BOGDAN, membru
corespondent al Academiei Romne, managerul
programului colii Postdoctorale pentru biodiversitate
zootehnic i biotehnologii alimentare pe baza
ecoeconomiei
i
bioeconomiei
necesare
ecosanogenezei contract POSDRU/89/1.5/S/
63258, pentru susinerea financiar privind
finalizarea acestei lucrri;
Dnei prof.univ.dr.ing. Camelia SAND tutore - n
cadrul colii Postdoctorale;
Dlui prof.univ.dr. Constantin OPREAN Rector al
Universitii Lucian Blaga din Sibiu i
Dlui prof.univ.dr.ing. Gligor CIORTEA.
De asemenea, adresez sincere mulumiri intregii
echipe care a contribuit la derularea proiectului
pentru o perioad de 14 luni precum i Universitii
Lucian Blaga din Sibiu, instituia sub egida creia
mi-am derulat activitatea de cercetare.
Adresez mulumiri speciale pentru revizuirea
tiinific a crii dlui profesor Karl Hammer (Kassel
University Germania) i dlui dr. Ehsan Dolloo (FAO).
n acelai context aduc sincere mulumiri dlui ing.
Samoil GELERIU care m-a sprijinit prin cunotine
de o inestimabil valoare pentru conturarea
concluziilor finale.
Adresez mulumiri speciale institutului Bioversity
International, Maccarese Italia pentru sprijin
tiinific. De asemenea, aduc mulumiri dlui Dr. Jan
Engels pentru facilitarea colaborarii cu Bioversity
International.
Adresez mulumiri speciale domnului professor
Mircea Savatti pentru sfaturi tiinifice.
Mulumiri adresez pentru colaborare n domeniu:
tefan tefnescu, Laurian Gheorghe, Dana
Constantinovici, Liliana Vrtopeanu, Cecilia
Dobrot,
Gheorghe
Budral,
Septimiu
Acelenescu, Vasile Platon, Mircea Opri, Filip
Drguanu, Marius Halmaghi, Rudolf Zilcsak.
Mulumiri adresez pentru facilitarea comunicrii n
domeniu colegilor Ioan Albu, Pompilica Iagru,
Mihai Pop, Mirela Stanciu.
Adresez mulumiri surorii mele Adriana Antofie,
agronom,
care
m-a
sprijinit
n
revizuirea
manuscrisului i n tehnoredactarea crii.

CONTENT
CUPRINS
Methodological approach for red listing crops.................................................................5
Abordare metodologic pentru listarea roie a plantelor de cultur................................5
Introduction..................................................................................................................7
Introducere ..................................................................................................................7
Climate change and crops genetic erosion ..............................................................13
Schimbrile climatice i eroziunea genetic a plantelor de cultur...........................13
Adaptation strategies and red listing of crop species................................................15
Strategii de adaptare i listarea roie a plantelor de cultur .....................................15
International political commitments supporting the conservation of plant genetic
resources for food and agriculture ............................................................................18
Angajamente politice asumate n sprijinul conservrii resurselor genetice vegetale
pentru alimentaie i agricultur ................................................................................18
Red List of crops generalities.................................................................................23
Lista Roie a plantelor de cultur generaliti ........................................................23
Ammendments to the IUCN methodology.................................................................25
Amendamente la metodologia IUCN.........................................................................25
On farm and ex situ conservation .............................................................................29
Conservarea on farm i ex situ..................................................................................29
Crops associated knowledge....................................................................................32
Cunoaterea asociat plantelor de cultur................................................................32
Red List for crops infraspecific level can be developed based on the IUCN
methodology..............................................................................................................36
Lista Roie a plantelor de cultur nivelul infraspecific poate fi dezvoltat n baza
metodologiei IUCN ....................................................................................................36
Why it is important mentioning the IUCN to the scope of the Red List for crops
infraspecific level? .....................................................................................................38
De ce este important referirea la IUCN scopului Listei Roii a plantelor de cultur
nivelul infraspecific? ..................................................................................................38
What is the IUCN Red List? ......................................................................................39
Ce este Lista Roie IUCN? .......................................................................................39
A brief history of the IUCN Red List ..........................................................................40
O scurt istorie a Listei Roii IUCN...........................................................................40
A Red List for Crops species would answer questions such as:...............................41
O List Roie pentru Plantele de Cultur ar putea rspunde la ntrebri de genul: .41
The scope of different criteria....................................................................................42
Scopul diferitelor criterii .............................................................................................42
The Reference Year ..................................................................................................43
Anul de referin ........................................................................................................43
Official and scientific records for crops evaluation....................................................44
Date oficiale i tiinifice pentru plantele de cultur ..................................................44
Quantitative criteria ...................................................................................................45
Criteriile cantitative ....................................................................................................45
Listing process and conservation actions .................................................................45
Procesul de listare i aciunile de conservare ...........................................................45
Data quality and the importance of inference and projection....................................46
Calitatea datelor i importana deduciei i proieciei logice .....................................46
Scale for data analysis ..............................................................................................47
Scala de analiz a datelor .........................................................................................47

Uncertainty degree ...................................................................................................49


Gradul de incertitudine ..............................................................................................49
Listings implications..................................................................................................50
Implicaiile listrii .......................................................................................................50
Documentation ..........................................................................................................51
Documentarea...........................................................................................................51
Threats and priorities.................................................................................................52
Ameninri i prioriti................................................................................................52
Reevaluation ...........................................................................................................52
Reevaluarea ..............................................................................................................52
Transfer between categories.....................................................................................53
Transferul ntre categorii ...........................................................................................53
The use at regional level ...........................................................................................54
Utilizarea la nivel regional .........................................................................................54
Proposed Categories for crops .................................................................................56
Categorii propuse pentru plantele de cultur ............................................................56
AE Criteria Discussion.............................................................................................61
Discuii privind criteriile de la A la E ..........................................................................61
Red Listing Crops in Romania.......................................................................................63
Listarea Roie a plantelor de cultur n Romnia .........................................................63
Generalities ...............................................................................................................65
Generaliti ................................................................................................................65
International legal framework ....................................................................................68
Cadrul juridic internaional.........................................................................................68
National legal framework...........................................................................................70
Cadrul juridic naional................................................................................................70
Historical base year...................................................................................................70
Anul istoric de referin..............................................................................................70
Methodological assessment ......................................................................................71
Metodologia de evaluare ...........................................................................................71
Policy and crops plant genetic diversity ....................................................................73
Politica i diversitatea genetic a plantelor de cultur ..............................................73
Historical shifts in crops genetic diversity for Romania.............................................75
Schimbri istorice n diversitatea genetic a plantelor de cultur din Romnia........75
Study Case - Sibiu County ........................................................................................81
Studiu de caz - Judeul Sibiu.....................................................................................81
Socio-economic vulnerabilities ..................................................................................82
Vulnerabilitile socio-economice..............................................................................82
Landscape approach.................................................................................................83
Abordarea de tip peisaj .............................................................................................83
Conclusions and Recommendations.........................................................................90
Concluzii i recomandri ...........................................................................................90
Red List of Crop Varieties for Romania under Annex I of the Plant Treaty List of crops
covered under the multilateral system..........................................................................93
Lista Roie a varietilor plantelor de cultur din Romnia sub Anexa 1 a Tratatului
Plantelor Lista plantelor de cultur acoperite de sistemul multilateral ........................93
Avena.............................................................................................................................95
Avena sativa L...........................................................................................................95
Beta..............................................................................................................................101
Beta vulgaris L.........................................................................................................101
Beta vulgaris L. var. altissima Dll. .....................................................................101
2

Beta vulgaris L. var. rapacea Koch.....................................................................106


Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris ..........................................................................110
Brassica .......................................................................................................................113
Brassica napus L.....................................................................................................113
Brassica napus var. napobrassica (L.) Rchb. .....................................................113
Brassica napus var. napus..................................................................................115
Brassica oleracea L.................................................................................................118
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.........................................................................118
Brassica oleracea var. capitata L........................................................................120
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera DC. ...............................................................127
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L..................................................................129
Brassica oleracea L. var. rubra DC.....................................................................131
Brassica oleracea var. sabauda L. .....................................................................133
Brassica oleracea var. viridis L. ..........................................................................135
Armoracia ....................................................................................................................139
Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertn. et al. ......................................................................139
Raphanus ....................................................................................................................143
Raphanus sativus L.................................................................................................143
Raphanus sativus L. var. niger J. Kern...............................................................143
Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus ........................................................................145
Sinapis .........................................................................................................................149
Sinapis alba L..........................................................................................................149
Sinapis alba L. ssp. alba .....................................................................................149
Daucus.........................................................................................................................153
Daucus carota L. .....................................................................................................153
Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus (Hoffm.) Schbl. & Mart. .....................................153
Helianthus....................................................................................................................157
Helianthus annuus L................................................................................................157
Hordeum ......................................................................................................................161
Hordeum vulgare L..................................................................................................161
Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare convar. distichon (L.) Alef. .............................161
Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare convar. vulgare ..............................................164
Malus ...........................................................................................................................167
Malus domestica Borkh. ..........................................................................................167
Oryza ...........................................................................................................................171
Oryza sativa L. ........................................................................................................171
Phaseolus ....................................................................................................................175
Phaseolus vulgaris L. ..............................................................................................175
Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. nanus Aschers..........................................................177
Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris .....................................................................180
Pisum ...........................................................................................................................183
Pisum sativum L. .....................................................................................................183
Secale..........................................................................................................................187
Secale cereale L......................................................................................................187
Solanum.......................................................................................................................191
Solanum melongena L. ...........................................................................................191
Solanum tuberosum L. ............................................................................................193
Sorghum ......................................................................................................................197
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench..................................................................................197
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. bicolor ..........................................................197
Triticosecale.................................................................................................................201

Triticosecale Wittm. ...............................................................................................201


Triticum ........................................................................................................................205
Triticum aestivum L. ................................................................................................205
Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum.....................................................................205
Triticum durum Desf. ...............................................................................................207
Vicia .............................................................................................................................211
Vicia faba L..............................................................................................................211
Vicia faba L. var. faba .........................................................................................211
Vicia faba L. var. minuta Peterm. em. Harz ........................................................213
Vicia pannonica Crantz ...........................................................................................215
Vigna............................................................................................................................219
Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ...................................................................................219
Zea...............................................................................................................................223
Zea mays L..............................................................................................................223
Zea mays L. ssp. mays .......................................................................................226
Lotus ............................................................................................................................229
Lotus corniculatus L. ...............................................................................................229
Medicago .....................................................................................................................233
Medicago sativa L. ..................................................................................................233
Onobrychis...................................................................................................................237
Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. ......................................................................................237
Trifolium .......................................................................................................................241
Trifolium repens L....................................................................................................241
Trifolium pratense L.................................................................................................243
Agropyron ....................................................................................................................247
Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn..............................................................................247
Dactylis ........................................................................................................................251
Dactylis glomerata L................................................................................................251
Festuca ........................................................................................................................255
Festuca arundinacea Schreb. .................................................................................255
Festuca pratensis Huds...........................................................................................257
Festuca rubra L. ......................................................................................................259
Lolium ..........................................................................................................................263
Lolium multiflorum Lam. ..........................................................................................263
Lolium perenne L.....................................................................................................265
Phleum.........................................................................................................................269
Phleum pratense L. .................................................................................................269
Poa...............................................................................................................................273
Poa pratensis L. ......................................................................................................273
Annex I - The status of seed certification............................................................277
Anexa nr. 1 - Statutul certificrii seminelor ........................................................277
Annex II - Country of origin .................................................................................277
Anexa nr. 2 - ara de origine ..............................................................................277
Annex III - Taxa maintainers registered for 2011...............................................279
Anexa nr.3 - Lista menintorilor soiurilor nregistrate n 2011 ...........................279
REFERENCES....................................................................................................283
BIBLIOGRAFIE ...................................................................................................283

Methodological approach for


red listing crops
Abordare metodologic pentru listarea
roie a plantelor de cultur

Methodologicalapproachforredlistingcrops
Abordaremetodologicpentrulistarearoieaplantelordecultur

Introduction
Introducere

During more than ten thousands years of

n decursul a mai bine de zece mii de ani

history, with the exception of the last two

de istorie, cu excepia ultimelor dou secole,

centuries, it is estimated that around seven

se estimeaz c, aproximativ apte mii de

thousands species have been domesticated

specii au fost domesticite prin preluarea lor din

after being taken from the wild (Khoshbakht

slbticie (Khoshbakht and Hammer, 2010).

and Hammer, 2010).


Nikolai Vavilov noticed for the first time,

Nikolai Vavilov a observat, pentru prima

starting with his first mission in Iran 1916, that

dat c, ncepnd cu prima lui misiune din

crops existing in those times (species and

Iran, n 1919, plantele de cultur existente

varieties) moved from the areas where they

acelor vremuri (specii i varietii), au fost

were wild to other places where they have

scoase din arealul formelor slbatice i

been cultivated as domesticated varieties

cultivate n altele, ca varieti domesticite

(Loskutov, 1999).

(Loskutov, 1999).

Following the collection mission done in

Urmnd

misiunea

colectrii

din

Iran,

Iran, Vavilov put forward for the first time a

Vavilov a avansat, pentru prima dat, ipoteza

hypothesis of cultivated rye development from

domesticirii secarei pornind de la forma

its weedy state which had contaminated the

slbatic care, ulterior, a contaminat centrul de

original ancient wheat. He reported these

origine

results in 1916 to the Russian Botanical

rezultate, n 1916, Societii Regale a Rusiei i

Society

this

ulterior a publicat aceste observaii n Buletinul

observation in the Bulletin of the Bureau for

Biroului de Botanic Aplicat. Tot Vavilov a

Applied Botany. Also Vavilov published in

publicat prima hart cu centrele de origine a

1935 the first map of crops centres of origin.

speciilor plantelor de cultur n 1935.

and

further

he

published

al

grului. El

raportat

aceste

It is estimated now that only one hundred

La nivel mondial se estimeaz acum c

of crops species are of greater importance and

numai o sut de specii de plante sunt de

only thirty species belong to the most

importan major i treizeci de specii fac parte

important world crops (FAO, 1996). It is

din cele mai importante culturi (FAO, 1996). De

M.M.Antofie

considered today, based on economical data,

asemenea, n baza datelor economice, cel

that at least seven crop species constitute the

puin apte specii de plante de cultur

columns of world nutrition (Brucher 1982,

constituie "coloanele de nutriie ale lumii"

cited by Hammer and Khoshbakht 2010).

(Brucher 1982, citat de Hammer i Khoshbakht


2010).

Considering crops at the species level

Avnd n vedere plantele de cultur la nivel

historically cultivated in the world it would

de specie, istoric cultivate n lume, acestea ar

represent 2.17% of the total 321,212 plant

reprezenta 2,17% din totalul celor 321.212

species described today or only 1.79% of the

specii de plante descrise sau doar 1,79% din

total 390,800 plant species estimated to exist

cele 390.800 de specii de plante total estimate

in the world (Nexus, 2011).

a exista astzi la nivel mondial (Nexus, 2011).

Since

the

green

revolution

(1960),

Avnd n vedere c, la nivel global, mii de

thousands of varieties all over the world are

soiuri de plante sunt permanent create i puse

constant created and placed on the market

pe pia, ncepnd cu revoluia verde (1960),

and in the same time lot of them are forgotten

n acelai timp, foarte multe dintre acestea

and continuously removed from the market

sunt uitate i eliminate continuu de pe pia.

place.
Usually crops species are characterized by

De obicei, speciile plantelor de cultur sunt

a high genetic variation which often excels that

caracterizate

of wild plants (Khoshbakht and Hammer,

ridicat, care adesea o depete pe cea a

2010). In addition, most of them are extremely

plantelor slbatice (Khoshbakht i Hammer,

inbred because the farmers or breeders are

2010). n plus, cele mai multe dintre ele sunt

trying to retain the most desirable genetic

extrem de consangvinizate, deoarece fermierii

features

sau amelioratorii ncearc s pstreze cele mai

associated

with

cultivation

and

productivity.

de

variabilitate

genetic

dorite caracteristici genetice asociate cultivrii


i productivitii.

According to Hendry and collaborators this

Potrivit lui Hendry i colaboratorilor acest

was possible because: (i) humans learned to

lucru a fost posibil deoarece: (i), oamenii au

and provide beneficial conditions for cultivation

nvat s ofere condiii benefice cultivrii i

and breeding, (ii) frequently use of polyploidy

reproducerii, (ii) utilizeaz n mod frecvent

buffers crops to avoid inbreeding problems,

culturi

and (iii) deleterious mutations were likely

problemele consangvinizrii, i (iii) mutaiile

tampon

poliploide

pentru

evita

Methodologicalapproachforredlistingcrops
Abordaremetodologicpentrulistarearoieaplantelordecultur

purged through past bottlenecks and selection

duntoare au fost probabil eliminate prin

(Hendry et al., 2010) in the same manner they

blocaje i selecie (Hendry et al., 2010), n

occur in natural populations (Crnokrak and

acelai mod n care se manifest n populaiile

Barrett, 2002).

naturale (Crnokrak i Barrett, 2002).

However, it is generally accepted that

Totui, astzi este acceptat faptul c

inbreeding reduces population mean fitness

procesul de consangvinizare reduce media

and

also

its

adaptive

capacity

to

environmental changes (Hendry et al., 2010).

fitness

populaiilor

capacitatea

de

i,

de

asemenea,

la

modificarea

adaptare

factorilor de mediu (Hendry et al., 2010).


Based on this conclusion threatened crops

Bazat pe aceast concluzie plantele de

can be assimilated with plant species evolving

cultur ameninate pot fi asimilate cu speciile

low dispersal which will made them more

care

vulnerable

facing

reduse, fcndule mai vulnerabile la extincie

anthropogenic disturbances, habitat loss and

atunci cnd se confrunt cu tulburri de origine

to

extinction

when

climate change (Kotiaho et al., 2005).

evolueaz

dup

modelul

dispersiei

antropic, pierderi de habitat i schimbri


climatice (Kotiaho et al., 2005).

Thus, neglected and underutilized crops

Astfel, plantele de cultur neglijate i

species and varieties including wild crops

subutilizate specii i varieti, inclusiv rudele

relatives constitute today a valuable genetic

lor slbatice, constituie astzi un valoros

pool for supporting food security under climate

rezervor genetic pentru susinerea securitii

change conditions (Padulosi et al., 2008).

alimentare n condiiile schimbrilor climatice


(Padulosi et al., 2008).

Therefore,

for

food

security

the

Prin urmare, pentru securitatea alimentar,

conservation of all plant genetic resources for

conservarea

food and agriculture is of outmost importance

vegetale pentru alimentaie i agricultur este

and appropriate measures should be adopted

foarte important i msuri adecvate ar trebui

and implemented (Pauw, 2007; Willis et al.,

s fie adoptate i puse n aplicare (Pauw,

2008). In addition, such measures are also

2007; Willis et al., 2008). n plus, astfel de

required by the International Treaty on Plant

msuri

Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

internaional

(ITPGRFA) or Plant Treaty.

vegetale

tuturor

sunt

resurselor

solicitate
privind

pentru

de

resursele

alimentaie

genetice

Tratatul
genetice
agricultur

(ITPGRFA) sau Tratatul Plantelor.

M.M.Antofie

Furthermore, developing coherent joint

Mai

mult,

dezvoltarea

de

programe

breeding and conservation programmes it will

comune, coerente, de ameliorare i conservare

be a must as crops evolutionary limits have

va fi o obligaie innd cont de faptul c au fost

frequently

and

frecvent invocate limitele evolutive ale plantelor

diseases (Denison et al., 2003), temperature

de cultur fa de boli i duntori (Denison et

tolerance and drought (Hendry et al., 2010) as

al., 2003), tolerana la variaiile de temperatur

the main threats of the climate change.

i secet (Hendry et al., 2010), ca principale

been

invoked

for

pests

ameninri ale schimbrilor climatice.


Since it is difficult to preserve all genetic

ntruct este dificil conservarea tuturor

resources for food and agriculture it is

resurselor

genetice

necessary to prioritize these efforts in a cost

agricultur

se

effective manner. In this sense, a Red List of

eficien a acestor eforturi. n acest sens, o

crop plants would support future strategic

List Roie a plantelor de cultur ar sprijini

guidance on food security support (Germany,

viitoarele orientri strategice cu privire la

NBSAP, 2008).

pentru

impune

alimentaie

prioritizarea

cost

susinerea securitii alimentare (Germany,


NBSAP, 2008).

Regarding climate change, considering the

n ceea ce privete schimbrile climatice,

diagram proposed by Dessai and Hulme in

avnd n vedere diagrama propus de Dessai

2003, such a Red List, should be part of

i Hulme n 2003, o astfel de list roie, ar

vulnerabilities assessment at the social level

trebui

mainly because maintaining crops on farm (i.e.

vulnerabilitilor la nivel social, n principal,

landraces or neglected species) it is a matter

deoarece meninerea culturilor n cadrul fermei

of identity and societal choice and needs the

(de ex. soiuri locale sau specii neglijate)

bottomup

the

reprezint o chestiune de alegere i identitate

adaptation

social i necesit o abordare de jos n sus

success

in

approach

for

implementing

grounding
any

strategy.

pentru

fac

parte

fundamentarea

din

cu

evaluarea

succes

implementrii oricrei strategii de adaptare.


Considering that adaptation measures can

Avnd n vedere c msurile de adaptare

be implemented either in a proactive either in

pot fi implementate, fie printro abordare

a reactive manner (Iglesias et al., 2009), crops

proactiv, fie reactiv (Iglesias et al., 2009),

cultivation already implies an existing capacity

cultivarea plantelor de cultur presupune deja

which is sufficient for specific adaptation

existena unei capaciti suficiente pentru

10

Methodologicalapproachforredlistingcrops
Abordaremetodologicpentrulistarearoieaplantelordecultur

measures development.

dezvoltarea msurilor de adaptare specifice.

Thus, such a Red List should be a

Prin urmare, o astfel de List Roie ar

proactive tool deployed in climate change

trebui s fie, n plus, un instrument proactiv

adaptation

adaptation

pentru facilitarea implementrii strategiilor de

measures covering general and specific crops

adaptare la schimbrile climatice, prin msuri

management (crops, agroecosystems), their

de adaptare, care s acopere managementul

strategies

through

associated knowledge and not least the food

general i specific al plantelor de cultur

safety of rural communities.

(plante

de

cultur,

agroecosisteme),

cunoaterea asociat acestora i nu n ultimul


rnd sigurana alimentar a comunitilor
rurale.
The proposed methodology for red listing

Metodologia propus pentru listarea roie

assesses only the crops species listed in the

evalueaz doar speciile listate n Tratatul

Plant Treaty based on the history of their

Plantelor

baza

istoricului

introducerii

placing on the Romanian market before 1989.

acestora pe piaa romneasc nainte de 1989.

Basically as a history reference date is chosen

Practic ca punct de referin istoric este ales

reporting year under the Kyoto Protocol.

anul de raportare sub Protocolul de la Kyoto.

Crops developed in Romania, before 1989,

Plantele de cultur ameliorate n Romnia,

can be considered as natural resources of

nainte de 1989, pot fi considerate resurse

national interest because they have been

naturale de interes naional ntruct au fost

developed

and

dezvoltate prin programe publice de cercetare

breeding programs which is in line with the

i ameliorare fiind n accord cu prevederile art.

provisions of art. 135 of the Constitution of

135 al Constituiei Romniei. n plus, evaluarea

Romania.

through

In

public

addition,

the

research

of

cunoaterii tradiionale asociate plantelor de

traditional knowledge associated with crop

evaluation

cultur sprijin expresia identitii culturale a

plants supports the expression of cultural

comunitilor rurale - element important pentru

identity of rural communities an important

reziliena

element for

factorilor socioeconomici fiind n acord cu art.

their resilience towards the

change of socioeconomic factors being in

acestora

fa

de

schimbarea

6 al Constituiei.

line with art. 6 of the Constitution.


Also, this methodology may be used as a

De asemenea, aceast metodologie poate

model for further developing a complete red

constitui un model de dezvoltare a listei roii

11

M.M.Antofie

list for crops in our country.

complete pentru toate plantele de cultur de la


noi din ar.

This methodology, being a cross-cutting

Metodologia listrii roii, fiind un subiect

issue, is proposed to the scientists working in

intersectorial, este propus cercettorilor din

agriculture and biodiversity conservation to

domeniul agricol i al conservrii biodiversitii

further

and

spre dezbatere, dezvoltare i mbuntire.

The proposed Red List is a

Lista Roie propus reprezint un model pe

debate,

improvement.

development

model on which genetic resources for food

baza

and agriculture should be evaluated regarding

alimentaie i agricultur ar trebui s fie

their status of conservation in order to ensure

evaluate cu privire la statutul lor de conservare

food

security

by

institutions

cruia

resursele

genetice

pentru

officially

n scopul asigurrii securitii alimentare, de

nominated at national level; for Romania

instituii care s fie oficial nominalizate la nivel

under the aegis of the Romanian Academy of

naional;

Agricultural and Forestry Sciences Gheorghe

Academiei

Ionescuieti.

Gheorghe Ionescuieti.

Once accepted such a Red List the

pentru
de

Romania,

tiine

Agricole

sub

egida

Silvice

Odat acceptat o astfel de list roie,

joint

societatea romneasc trebuie s pun bazele

programs for conservation and breeding in the

unor programe comune de conservare i

Romanian

society

should

establish

support of food security under socio

amelioare

pentru

economic vulnerabilities and climate change

alimentare

asigurarea

manifestations, having the full participation of

vulnerabilitilor socio economice i a

rural communities.

schimbrilor climatice cu participarea efectiv

condiiile

securitii
manifestrii

a comunitilor rurale.
The

Lista Roie pentru plantele de cultur poate

fundamental tool in ensuring a sustainable bio

fi un instrument fundamental n asigurarea unei

ecoeconomy

the

ecoeconomii i bioeconomii sustenabile pentru

Romanian society essential for achieving

societatea romneasc esenial pentru

ecosanogenesis (Bogdan et al., 2011). The

atingerea ecosanogenezei (Bogdan et al.,

feedback mechanisms of constant evaluation

2011). Mecanismele feedback de evaluare

of system performance should be integrated

constant a performanelor sistemului trebuie

into a performing management.

s fie integrate unui management performant.

12

Red

List
and

for

crops

can

bioeconomy

for

be