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Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION

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INTRODUCTION
Maintenance is an important part of the life-cycle of systems, and must be considered from the design stage through the end-of-life stage of the system. Maintenance covers two aspects of systems - operation and performance. Maintenance is generally performed in anticipation of, or in reaction to, a failure. Maintenance is performed to ensure or restore system performance to specified levels. Improperly performed or timed maintenance can exacerbate problems because of faulty parts, maintainer error, or decreased profits. A systematic and structured approach to system maintenance, starting during the design process, is necessary to ensure proper and cost-effective maintenance.

Past and current maintenance practices in both the private and Government sectors would imply that maintenance is the actions associated with equipment repair after it is broken. The dictionary defines maintenance as follows: the work of keeping something in proper condition; upkeep. This would imply that maintenance should be actions taken to prevent a device or component from failing or to repair normal equipment degradation experienced with the operation of the device to keep it in proper working order. Unfortunately, data obtained in many studies over the past decade indicates that most private and Government facilities do not expend the necessary resources to maintain equipment in proper working order. Rather, they wait for equipment failure to occur and then take whatever actions are necessary to repair or replace the equipment. Nothing lasts forever and all equipment has associated with it some pre-defined life expectancy or operational life. The design life of most equipment requires periodic maintenance

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TYPES OF MAINTENANCES
Over the last 30 years, different approaches to how maintenance can be performed to ensure equipment reaches or exceeds its design life have been developed. In addition to waiting for a piece of equipment to fail (reactive maintenance), we can utilize preventive maintenance, predictive maintenance, or reliability centered maintenance. REACTIVE MAINTENANCE: (Breakdown or Run-to-Failure Maintenance) Reactive maintenance is basically the run it till it breaks maintenance mode. No actions or efforts are taken to maintain the equipment as the designer originally intended to ensure design life is reached.

Basic philosophy
Allow machinery to run to failure. Repair or replace damaged equipment when obvious problems occur.

This maintenance philosophy allows machinery to run to failure, providing for the repair or replacement of damaged equipment only when obvious problems occur. The advantages of this approach are that it works well if equipment shutdowns do not affect production and if labor and material costs do not matter. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE: (Time-Based Maintenance) Actions performed on a time- or machine-run-based schedule that detect, preclude, or mitigate degradation of a component or system with the aim of sustaining or extending its useful life through controlling degradation to an acceptable level. While we will not prevent equipment catastrophic failures, we will decrease the number of failures. Minimizing failures translate into maintenance and capitol cost savings.

Basic philosophy
Schedule maintenance activities at predetermined time intervals. Repair or replace damaged equipment before obvious problems occur.

This philosophy entails the scheduling of maintenance activities at predetermined time intervals, where damaged equipment is repaired or replaced before obvious problems occur. The advantages of this approach are that it works well for equipment that does not run Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION Page 3

continuously, and with personnel who have enough knowledge, skills, and time to perform the preventive maintenance work. PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE: (Condition-Based Maintenance) Measurements that detect the onset of a degradation mechanism, thereby allowing causal stressors to be eliminated or controlled prior to any significant deterioration in the component physical state. Results indicate current and future functional capability. Basically, predictive maintenance differs from preventive maintenance by basing maintenance need on the actual condition of the machine rather than on some preset schedule. You will recall that preventive maintenance is time-based.

Basic philosophy
Schedule maintenance activities when mechanical or operational conditions warrant. Repair or replace damaged equipment before obvious problems occur. This philosophy consists of scheduling maintenance activities only if and when mechanical or operational conditions warrant-by periodically monitoring the machinery for excessive vibration, temperature and/or lubrication degradation, or by observing any other unhealthy trends that occur over time. When the condition gets to a predetermined unacceptable level, the equipment is shut down to repair or replace damaged components so as to prevent a more costly failure from occurring. In other words, Dont fix what is not broke. Advantages of this approach are that it works very well if personnel have adequate knowledge, skills, and time to perform the predictive maintenance work, and that it allows equipment repairs to be scheduled in an orderly fashion. It also provides some lead-time to purchase materials for the necessary repairs, reducing the need for a high parts inventory. Since maintenance work is only performed when it is needed, there is likely to be an increase in production capacity. Depending on a facilitys reliance on reactive maintenance and material condition, it could easily recognize savings opportunities exceeding 30% to 40%. In fact, independent surveys indicate the following industrial average savings resultant from initiation of a functional predictive maintenance program: Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION Page 4

Return on investment: 10 times Reduction in maintenance costs: 25% to 30% Elimination of breakdowns: 70% to 75% Reduction in downtime: 35% to 45% Increase in production: 20% to 25%. CENTERED MAINTENANCE:

RELIABILITY

(Pro-Active

or

Prevention

Maintenance)
A process used to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical asset in its operating context. It recognizes that all equipment in a facility is not of equal importance to either the process or facility safety. It recognizes that equipment design and operation differs and that different equipment will have a higher probability to undergo failures from different degradation mechanisms than others. It also approaches the structuring of a maintenance program recognizing that a facility does not have unlimited financial and personnel resources and that the use of both need to be prioritized and optimized. In a nutshell, RCM is a systematic approach to evaluate a facilitys equipment and resources to best mate the two and result in a high degree of facility reliability and cost-effectiveness. RCM is highly reliant on predictive maintenance but also recognizes that maintenance activities on equipment that is inexpensive and unimportant to facility reliability may best be left to a reactive maintenance approach.

Basic philosophy
Utilizes predictive/preventive maintenance techniques with root cause failure analysis to detect and pinpoint the precise problems, combined with advanced installation and repair techniques, including potential equipment redesign or modification to avoid or eliminate problems from occurring. This philosophy utilizes all of the previously discussed predictive/preventive maintenance techniques, in concert with root cause failure analysis. This not only detects and pinpoints precise problems that occur, but ensures that advanced installation and repair Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION Page 5

techniques are performed, including potential equipment redesign or modification, thus helping to avoid problems or keep them from occurring. One advantage to this approach is that it works extremely well if personnel have the knowledge, skills, and time to perform all of the required activities. As with the predictivebased program, equipment repairs can be scheduled in an orderly fashion, but additional improvement efforts also can be undertaken to reduce or eliminate potential problems from repeatedly occurring. Furthermore, it allows lead-time to purchase materials for necessary repairs, thus reducing the need for a high parts inventory. Since maintenance work is performed only when it is needed, and extra efforts are put forth to thoroughly investigate the cause of the failure and determine ways to improve machinery reliability, there can be a substantial increase in production capacity.

HOW TO INITIATE RELIABILITY CENTERED MAINTENANCE: The road from a purely reactive program to a RCM program is not an easy one. The following is a list of some basic steps that will help to get moving down this path. 1. Develop a Master equipment list identifying the equipment in your facility. 2. Prioritize the listed components based on importance to process. 3. Assign components into logical groupings. 4. Determine the type and number of maintenance activities required and periodicity using: a. Manufacturer technical manuals b. Machinery history c. Root cause analysis findings - Why did it fail? d. Good engineering judgment 5. Assess the size of maintenance staff. 6. Identify tasks that may be performed by operations maintenance personnel. 7. Analyze equipment failure modes and effects. 8. Identify effective maintenance tasks or mitigation strategies.

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IMPORTANT SUB-STATION EQUIPMENTS


The expected life of equipment such as circuit breakers, transformers, etc is 25 years as per O&M manuals of power utilities. However, it is specified to be 35 years in the case of large sized power transformers. This life expectancy is based on the assumption that the equipment is operated and maintained as per standards. Abnormal operation like continuous overloading, non-operation of protective devices, equipment repeated feeding faults, and nonadherence to preventive schedules will also cause premature ageing and reduce the lifetime. The following are the main equipment at 33 / 11 KV Substations.

1) CIRCUIT BREAKERS ( 33 KV, 11 KV):


GENERAL: It is known that low voltage switches and fuses are used at home. The switch is a mechanical device which is used to put ON (make) and put OFF (break) the electric circuit. Thefuse is protective device which blows out during fault condition such as short circuit thereby protecting wiring etc. In the same way, switching and protection in transmission & distribution network at high voltage is done / performed by switchgear. Circuit breaker is the switching and interruption/ breaking device in switchgear. It serves two purposes a) Switching during normal operating conditions for operation &maintenance. b) Switching during abnormal conditions such as short circuits and interrupting the fault current. There are several types of faults and abnormal conditions in power system. The fault currents can damage the power system equipment if allowed to flow longer duration. In order to avoid damage to the equipment protective relaying is provided. The relays sense the fault and send signal to the circuit breaker to open. The circuit breaker opens and clears the faults. So circuit breaker is a mechanical switching device which is capable of making (closing), braking (opening) and carrying current in power system under normal as well as abnormal conditions. All the equipment, associated with Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION Page 7

switching, interrupting and protection is covered by the switchgear. Circuit breaker is the heart of switchgear. Why switchgear, when we have switches and fuses for switching, interruption and protection. It known that a common experience at home to see a spark in the switch when putting off. The spark is seen, because the gap between the contacts of switch becomes conducting and current begins to flow in the gap. The spark is extinguished by the natural flow of air. At higher system voltage, the natural flow of air is not sufficient to extinguish the spark (arc) which is dangerous magnitude. Hence switchgear is must & should used for high voltage system. VARIOUS TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER: When currents are interrupted, an arc strikes between the two contacts (fixed & moving). An arc is column of charged particles moving across the contacts. Various media used to extinguish arc in the circuit breaker is air, oil, gas (SF6) and vacuum. Now a days vacuum technology used for circuit breaker at 33/11KV Sub-stations because of they do not need daily observations and maintenance free and low cost affair. VACCUM CIRCUIT BREAKER:

Fig. Vacuum circuit breaker

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This breaker employs the principle of contact separation under vacuum (in the vacuum interrupter or bottle which is provided in top bushing). VCB is suitable for rapid closing and tripping and its operations i.e. closing and tripping shall be obtained from compressed /or elongation of spring charging mechanism. The closing spring is charged by motor operation /or with manual lever. As soon as the breaker is closed, the tripping spring are get automatically compressed/or elongated. Closing spring and associated to spur gears, closing levers, tripping levers/linkages and trip & close coils are housed in separate operating mechanism box. All breakers shall be provided with 66 trip free mechanisms. These gear and linkages design arrangements are varies company to company. But basic theory is same. In the market the following companies are available and they are used in APCPDCL. 1) S&S (OFVP) 3) System Control 5) SIEMENS 9) G.R.Power 11) A bond strand 13) Kirloskar 15) Andrew Yule 17) CGL VCB 19) BHEL MOCB 21) S&S, SF6 23) BHEL -Bulk oil -vacuum -vacuum -vacuum -vacuum -vacuum -vacuum -vacuum 2) S&S (OFV) -vacuum 4) JYOTHI 6) BHEL 8) VICTORY 10) ABB VCB 12) Mega win 14) VOLTAS 16) A Lind 18) CGL SF6 20) OLG 22) HITACHI -vacuum -Bulk oil -vacuum -vacuum -vacuum & SF6 -vacuum -SF6 -vacuum

7) ALSTOM/GEC/AREVA-vacuum

The operating mechanism shall be operated by local electrical control. Manual closing & tripping devices are also provided in the mechanism. Mechanical indicators such as to show the close or open and spring charge position of the breaker are also provided in mechanism box. The VCB / Circuit breaker (except some) shall comprise of three independent poles filled with a common operation mechanism. Each pole of the circuit breaker shall Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION Page 9

consist of a separate breaking chamber. These breaking chambers shall be mounted on a common chassis and connected together for common operation i.e. simultaneously tripping / closing. Every month oiling / or quarterly black grease shall be applied for mechanism parts. Do not pour oil / lubrication for close or trip coil plungers. If it is applied, dust & oil may get jam trip plunger, the breaker will not trip during normal or fault current. Due to, plunger sluggishness, the breaker opening time will be high and it is possible to burn / damage relay trip contact. There by protective relaying purpose is defeated. Thus, it is an operator duty to vigil or daily check up the healthiness of relay contacts. Relay contacts should be always normally open condition i.e. do not make / touch each other. It may be happened sometimes that relay trip contacts are got melted touched each other or broken due to heavy continuous spark which will be generated by trip coil (Auxiliary switch make / brake operation problem).Healthy trip circuit is checked up daily once by operator. Even it is found alright, if relay trip contacts are damaged, the breaker did not trip but relay flag indications will show. MOCB /OCB: When transformer oil is used in oil circuit breakers, the main function of the oil is to extinguish the arc which is formed between the contacts when an electric circuit is opened. In order to effectively quench the arc formed during operation, the oil must have proper characteristics so as to offer less resistance to the moving contacts and avoid the risk of fire. There by, for every 3 No earth faults, the oil shall be replaced with new oil. The arc consists of conducting ionized particles and is of low electrical resistance. Electrical stress and temperature are very high. Therefore oil is de ionize and quench the arc.

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Fig. Bulk oil circuit breaker

Fig. minimum oil circuit breaker

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SF6 BREAKERS: Some breakers poles are used SF6 gas for arc quenching media. All poles are filled with SF6 gas and poles at bottom hermitically sealed so that no leakage of gas happen. The pressure in poles will be 1.5Kgs/Cm2 to 5Kgs/Cm2 and it varies depending upon the company design. The operator should take hourly readings. The pressure of gas varies with respect to ambient temperature and humidity. Whenever pressure shows less than normal value, it indicates there is a gas leakage from any poles and inter connected gas pipes. The leakage of gas will be detected with leakage detector or by applying soap water. Immediate action will be taken for filling up the gas up to normal Kg/Cm2. Otherwise; the limb/poles will be busted.

2) POWER TRANSFORMER ( 33/11KV):


Power transformers are static devices, totally enclosed and generally oil immersed. Therefore, chance of faults occurring on them is very rare. However, the consequences of even a rare fault may be very serious unless the transformer is quickly disconnected from the system. These necessitate providing adequate automatic protection for transformers against possible faults. Small distribution transformers is usually connected to the supply system through series fuses instead of circuit breakers. Consequently, no automatic protective relay equipment is required. However, the probability of faults on power transformers is undoubtedly more and hence automatic protection is absolutely necessary. The transformer is costlier equipment in the substations therefore the proper maintenance of the transformer is very much important.

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3) FEEDERS:
A feeder is a conductor which converts the substation to the area where the power is to be distributed. Generally, no tapings are taken from the feeders so that the current in it remains the same throughout. The main consideration of a feeder is the current carrying capacity while the voltage drop consideration is relatively unimportant. It is because the voltage drop in a feeder can compensate by means of voltage regulating equipment at the substation. As a good voltage regulation of a distribution system is probably the most important factor responsible for delivering good service to the consumers, the design of feeder requires careful consideration.

4) RELAYS:
Function of Protective relays is to cause a prompt removal from service of any element of a power system when it suffers a short circuit or when it starts to operate in any abnormal manner that might cause damage or otherwise interface with the effective operation of the rest of the system. The relaying equipment is added in this task by circuit breakers that are capable of disconnecting the faulty element when they are called upon to do by the relaying equipment.

5) INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS CTs & PTs 33KV, 11KV:


CURRENT TRANSFORMERS: Current transformers shall be of the steroidal core type preferably encapsulated in epoxy resin. The current transformers shall contain no hygroscopic materials, which could affect the moisture contents of the SF6 gas in the CT chamber. The rated short-time thermal current shall not be less than the through fault capacity of the associated circuit breakers. The characteristics of current transformers shall be submitted to the Authority for approval together with details of the protection, instrumentation or measuring equipment with which each current transformer is to be used. Each current transformer shall be capable of providing the necessary output to operate the related devices satisfactorily at the lead burdens involved. Each current transformer shall have a continuous extended current rating of at least l.2 times the rated current. The characteristics and capacities of current transformers used for protection circuits shall be calculated by the relay manufacturer who shall prove by Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION Page 13

calculation, the suitability of the CT's being provided in conjunction with the relay manufacturers requirements for the relays and equipment offered. Where multi-ratio secondary windings are specified a label shall be provided at the secondary terminals of the current transformer indicating clearly the connections required for each ratio. These connections and the ratio in use shall also be shown on the diagram of connections. All connections from secondary windings shall be brought out and taken by means of separate insulated leads to a terminal blocks specially designed for the CT circuits, mounted in the Local Control Cubicle. The secondary windings shall be earthed at one point through a removable link, which shall be in the relay panels for protection and in the control panel for instrumentation. CT terminal blocks located in the local control cabinets shall have shorting/ disconnecting links to allow testing with the circuit in service and on load. It shall be possible to carry out primary injection testing of the CTs including magnetizing curve testing, when the switchgear is fully assembled, or retesting of the CTs during the service life of the switchgear without interruption of supply to adjacent circuits. The secondary windings of each set of current transformers shall be capable of being open circuited for one minute with the primary winding carrying the rated current. Unless otherwise approved, all current transformers shall be installed with the P1 terminals adjacent to the bus bars. The polarity of the primary and secondary windings of each transformer shall be clearly indicated at the respective terminals and in addition labels shall be fitted in a readily accessible position to indicate the ratio, class and duty ofeachtransformer.

Fig. 132kv current transformer Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION Page 14

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS: Voltage transformers shall be of electromagnetic type and of metal-enclosed design, which shall be compatible with the switchgear. They shall contain no hygroscopic insulating material, which could affect the moisture contents of the SF6 gas in the VT chamber. The bus voltage transformers shall be provided with motor operated disconnections for disconnecting the VT for maintenance, testing etc. Line voltage transformers shall be supplied with manual disconnections. The voltage transformers shall be capable of discharging the capacitance of line, cables and switchgear, which may remain connected to them during switching operations. The Contractor shall declare any limitations of the equipment for this duty. Voltage transformer secondary and tertiary circuits shall be provided with miniature circuit breakers or fuses as close to each voltage transformer as possible and shall be labeled with winding and phase indication. For single-phase voltage transformers separate earth links for each secondary shall be provided and each neutral lead shall be connected together at a single earth point in the local control cubicle. Earthing of the VT HV winding shall be through a link separate from the LV winding. A fixed ladder or other arrangement shall be provided for each voltage transformer to enable an easy access to the voltage transformer and to the VT MCB/fuse box. The ratio and phase angle errors of voltage transformers shall not exceed the permissible limits prescribed in the relevant Standard and shall be capable of meeting the following additional requirements from 5% rated primary voltage to 90% rated primary voltage: Voltage
error - not exceeding + 3% Phase angle error - not exceeding + l20 minutes. The voltage

transformer shall have a voltage factor withstand rating of 1.2 continuous 1.9 times for 8 hours without saturation. Voltage transformers shall be capable of carrying continuously without injurious heating 50% burden above their rated burden. Damping resistors shall be supplied for VT open delta windings.

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Fig. voltage transformer

6) PLCC AND CONTROL PANEL:


This is relevant in power line career communication (PLCC) systems for communication among various substations without dependence on the telecom company network. The signals are primarily tele protection signals and in addition, voice and data communication signals The line trap offers high impedance to the high frequency communication signals thus obstructs the flow of these signals into the substation bus bars. If there were not to be there, then signal loss is more and communication will be ineffective. The voice signals are converted/compressed into the 300 Hz to 400 Hz range, and this audio frequency is mixed with the career frequency. The career frequency is again filtered amplified and transmitted. The transmission of these HF career frequencies will be in the range of 0 to +32 db.These range is set according to the distance between stations.

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CONTROL PANEL: The relays and its alarms circuit are placed in control panel, which will be placed in the maintained building, the secondary of the CTs and pts will be brought to the panel through the underground cables.

7) EARTHING:
The first step in designing a substation is to design an earthing system. The function of an earthing system is to provide an earthing system connection to which transformer neutrals or earthing impedances may be connected in order to pass the maximum fault current. The earthing system also ensures that no thermal or mechanical damage occurs on the equipment within the substation, there by resulting in safety to operation and maintenance personnel. It also improves reliability of power supply. The earthing is broadly divided as: SYSTEM EARTHING: Connection the part of plant in an operating system like LV neutral of the power transformer winding and earth. EQUIPMENT EARTHING: Connecting bodies of equipment like transformer tank, switch gear box, operating rods of air break switches, LV breaker body, hv breaker body, etc to earth. The system earthing and safety earthing are interconnected and therefore fault current flowing through system ground raises the potential of the safety ground and also cause step potential gradient in and around the substation but separating the two earthing systems have disadvantages like higher short circuit current, low current flows through relays and long distance to be converted to separate the two earths. After weighing the merits and demerits in each case the common practice of common and solid grounding system designed for effective earthing safe potential gradients is being adopted the earth resistance shell be as low as possible and shall not exceed the following limits.

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Power stations EHT stations 33KV Tower foot resistance D/t structures

0.5 ohms 1.0 ohms 2.0 ohms 10 ohms 5.0 ohms

8) BUS BAR:
A bus bar in electrical distribution refers to thick strips of copper or aluminum that conduct electricity within a switch board, distribution board, substation, or other electrical apparatus. The size of the bus bars is important in determining the maximum amount of current that can be safely carried. Bus bar can have a cross-sectional area of as little as 10mm2 but electrical substations may be use metal tubes of 50mm in diameter. At extra high voltages(more than 300KV) in outdoor buses, corona around the connections becomes a source of radio frequency inference and power loss, so connection fittings designed for these voltages are used. The most commonly used bus bar arrangements are: 1) Single bus bar arrangement. 2) Single bus bar with sectionalisation and 3) Double bus bar arrangement.

9) CAPACITOR BANK:
Capacitors are used to control the level of the voltage supplied to the consumer by reducing or eliminating the voltage drop in the system caused by inductive reactive load. They supply fixed amount of reactive power to the system at the point where they are installed. Its effect is felt in the circuit from the location towards source only. It improves the power factor of the system and also decreases KVA loading on the source. The location has to be as near the load point as possible. In practice due to high compensation required it is found economical to prove group compensation on lines at substation.

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10) INSULATORS:
The over head line conductors should be supported on the poles or towers in such away that currents from conductors do not flow to earth through supports line conductors must be properly insulated from supports. The most commonly used insulators are: 1) Pin type 2) Suspension type 3) Strain type 4) Shackle type insulators. The desirable properties of insulators are: 1) High mechanical strength in order to with stand conductor load, wind load. 2) High electrical resistance of insulator material in order to avoid leakage currents to earth. 3) High relative permittivity of insulators material in order that dielectric strength is high.

11) LIGHTENING ARRESTER:


High voltage power system experience overvoltages that arise due to natural lighting or the inbevitable operations. Under these conditions, the insulation of the power system equipments is subjected to electrical stress which may lead to catastrophic failure. Broadly,three types of overvolatages occur in power system : 1) Temporary over-volatages 2) Switching overvolatages 3) Lighting overvolatages The duration of these overvolatages vary in the ranges of microseconds to sec depending upon the type and nature of overvolatages. Hence the power system calls for overvolatages protective devices to ensure the reliability. Conventionly, the over volatagas protection is obtained by the use of lighting/surgearesters. thus,lighting arrester or surge diverter is a protective device which conducts the high volatages surges on the power system to the ground. It consists of a spark gap in series with non linear resistor. One end of the diverter is connected to the terminal of the equipment to be protected and the other end is effectively grounded. Under normal Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION Page 19

operating volatages, the impedance of lighting arrester, placed in parallel to the equipment to be protected,is very high and allow the equipment to per form its respective function.

OPERATION AND MAINTAINANCE OF VARIOUS SUB-STATION EQUIPMENTS:


Regular inspections and preventive maintenance to be done on each of the above equipment are codified as Preventive Maintenance schedules fixing periodicity for each item. The main objective of the maintenance is to maintain the insulation in good condition and to avoid entry of moisture and to remove dirt. The sustained operating temperature of about 8 to 10 Degrees Centigrade more than the operating temperature of 75 Degrees Centigrade will shorten the life of transformer oil, circuit breaker etc. Hence, over loading should be avoided. As far as possible the temperature of oil and windings shall be maintained at 400 C and 450 C above ambient temperature. If the acidity of oil exceeds 1.0 mg. KOH/Gm of oil, the oil should be replaced with fresh oil. Dielectric strength for H.T. equipment (power transformer circuit breaker etc.) shall be 30 KV for 60 Sec. and 40 KV instantaneous. Earth resistance should not exceed 2 ohms for 33/11 KV sub-stations. Earth pits are to be wetted daily. Fencing should be checked and any missing barbed wire lacings should be replaced to keep away unauthorized persons or animals entering the sub-station yard. Grass and weeds growing in the SS yards must be cleared daily.

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POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER CAPACITANCE BANK

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER CAPACITANCE BANK

CIRCUIT BREAKER

POWER TRANSFORMER

CIRCUIT BREAKER

----I/P---> BLOCK DIAGRAM OF 33/11 KV SUB STATION

---O/P--->

The general operation of sub- station is simple and easy to understand, a sub-station mainly involves Power transforms, circuit breakers, relays. Its main block diagram consists of circuit breakers , potential transforms, the power transformers and capacitor banks .The circuit breakers are given the supply directly from distributor systems then which is, fed to power transformers with a summation of potential transformers and Capacitance bank. The power transformers step up or step down based on requirement then they are again connected with potential transformers and capacitor bank then they are connected to circuit breakers , the entire arrangement of circuit breakers , potential transformers , capacitor banks is for the purpose of detecting the faults which occur transmission. Sub-stations play very important role in distribution hence are must be protected with much care. The circuit breakers are used to detect the faults on incoming as well as outgoing power, incase of any faults the circuit breakers trip s itself and thus protects power transformers from engaging with the fault currents.

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Power transformers at generating stations are used to Step up the voltage for transmission and at receiving stations to step down the voltage for primary and secondary distribution on. Transformers are generally installed up to lengths of rails fixed on concrete slabs having foundation of 1 to 1.5 m deep.

The potential transformers are employed for voltage above 380V to fed the potential coils of indicating and metering instruments and relays. These transformers make the ordinary low voltage, instruments suitable for measurements of high voltage and isolate them from high voltage.

The current transformers are connected in A.C power circuit to feed the current coil of indicating and metering instruments and protective relays. The primary is directly inserted in the power circuit and to the secondary windings, the indicating and metering instruments and protective relays, is connected. The standard secondary rating adopted are 5A or 1A. 1A rating is used for major sub-stations which remote controls.

Vacuum circuit breakers are more popular at distribution voltage level up to 33KV voltage class. They require minimum maintenance except to replace the vacuum interrupter if a leak has occurred. The reasons being they have no fire risk and have high reliability with long maintenance free period. For these breakers the main contacts are housed within a vacuum in an insulating cylinder of glass or ceramic having metal end plates supporting the contacts.

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RECORD & REPORTS


The following records and reports should be maintained so that the cause of the fluctuations in voltages and defects in daily operation can be thoroughly examined and rectified immediately. Some important records and reports are:

1) HOURLY READING BOOK: All the hourly reading of voltmeters, ammeters, energy-meters, Etc. of all the Feeders and equipments are noted. This readings help for calculating M.D. and of the sub-station and it gives us the information about the extra load which it can take up.

2) DAILY REPORT: Daily Report of the sub-station should be sent to the Engineer concerned, giving full information of operations carried out interruptions caused to the feeders during the day. Load particulars of all the feeders, giving peak load, minimum load, and average loads of each feeder.

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SOME OF THE OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS:

1) A.B. switches are meant for operating on no load. 2) When workmen are on work spot the line or equipment on which they are working, it should be first discharges and earthed property 3) Transformers having different KVA ratings may operate in parallel.

The conditions to satisfy for successful parallel operations of the transformer are as follows: a) They should belong to some vector ground b) Transformers should have the same voltage ratio c) The percentage impendence of the transformers should be equal when each percentage is expressed on the KVA base of its respective transformer. d) It is also necessary that the ratio of resistance in the transformers should be equal

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MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Checking the Colour of silica gel in the breather and also oil level of the oil seal. If silica gel Colour changes from blue to pink by 50% the silica gel is to be reconditioned or replaced. Observation of oil levels in (a) main conservator tank (b) OLTC conservator (c) bushings and examining for oil leaks if any from the transformer Visual check for overheating if any at terminal connections (Red hot) and observation for any unusual internal noises. Checking for noise, vibration or any abnormality in cooling fans & oil pumps of power transformers standby pumps & fans are also to be run condition to be observed. Observation of oil & winding temperatures & recording Visual check of explosion vent diaphragm for any cracks Checking for any water leakage into cooler in case of forced cooling system. Physical examination of diaphragm of vent pipe for any cracks Cleaning of bushings, inspect for any cracks or chippings of the porcelain and checking of tightness of clamps and jumpers Measurement of IR values of transformer with 2.5 KV meager up to 33KV rating and 5.0 KV meager above 33KV rating. Recording of the values specifying the temperature which measurements are taken. Cleaning of Silica gel breather Checking of temperature alarms by shorting contacts by operating the knob. Testing of main tank oil for BDV and moisture content Testing OLTC oil for BDV & moisture content Testing of Buchholz surge relays & low oil level trips for correct operation Checking auto start of cooling fans and pumps Checking of Buchholz relay for any gas collection and testing the gas collected Checking of operation of Buchholz relay by air injection ensuring actuation alarm & trip Noting the oil level in the inspection glass of Buchholz relay and arresting of oil leakages if any. Checking of all connections on the transformer for tightness such as bushings, tank earth connection Lubricating / Greasing all moving parts of OLTC mechanism

Daily Daily Daily in each shift Daily Hourly Daily Daily Monthly Monthly Monthly

Monthly Monthly Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly or during fault Half yearly or during shutdown Monthly Quarterly Quarterly or as given in the manufacturers manual

22.

Checking of control circuitry, interlocks of oil pumps and cooling fans for auto start and stop operation at correct Page 25

Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION

23. 24. 25. 26 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

temperatures and also for manual operation Testing of motors, pumps and calibrating pressure gauge Pressure testing of oil coolers Testing of oil samples for dissolved gas analysis (for 100MVA transformers) Testing of oil for dissolved gas analysis of EHV transformers up to 100KVA capacity Overhauling of oil pumps and their motors also cooling fans & their motors. Testing of oil in main tank for acidity, tan delta, interface tension specific resistively Bushing testing for tan delta Calibration of oil & winding temperature indicators Measurement of magnetizing current at normal tap and extreme taps Measurement of DC winding resistance Turns ratio test at all taps Inspection of OLTC mechanism and contacts its diverter switch

Half yearly Half yearly Half yearly Once in a year Once in a year Once in a year Once in a year Repeats One in a year

35. 36.

37. 38. 39. 40. 41

Once in a year Once in a year Once in a year or number of operation as recommended by manufacturers are completed whichever is earlier. Overhaul of tap changer and mechanism One in a year Replacement of oil in OLTC Once in year or whenever numbers of operations as recommended by manufacturer are completed whichever is earlier. Calibration of thermometers (temperature indicators) and tap Yearly position indicator. Remaining old oil in thermometer pockets, cleaning the pockets Yearly and filing with new oil. Checking oil in the air cell (for transformers of 100 MVA & Yearly above capacity) Bushings partial discharge test and capacitance (EHV Yearly transformers) Filtration of oil / replacement of oil and filtration Whenever the IR values of transformer are below permissible limits and oil test results require filtration / Page 26

Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION

42.

General overhaul (consisting 1) Inspection of core & winding (2) Through washing of windings (3) Core tightening (4) Check-up of core bolt insulation (5) Replacement of gaskets (6) Overhaul of OLTC

replacement of oil One in 10 years

MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE FOR BATTERIES:


S. No. 1. 2. ITEM OF MAINTENANCE Taking specific gravity and voltage of pilot cells. Checking specific gravity and voltage of each cell a) Lead-acid cell. b) Nife cells. Cleaning of terminals applying Vaseline and topping up with distilled water. Over-haul of Nife Battery recommended by manufacturers. Leakage test by lamp or voltmeter method Checking all connections of charger and battery for lightness PERIODICITY Daily. (Before and after charging. Weekly when trickle charge exists) Monthly. Weekly for Lead-acid batteries. Yearly. Each shift Quarterly

3. 4. 5. 6.

EARTHING: Maintenance schedule of station earths includes transformer, and lightening arrestors earths.
S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. ITEM OF MAINTENANCE Combined earth resistance Checking earth connection at joints Watering of sub-station earth Water distribution transformer earth PERIODICITY Monthly Monthly Daily Twice a week (Earth)

RECOMMENEND MAINTAINENCE SHEDULE FOR CERTAIN IMPORTANT FACTORS:


S. No. INSPECTION FREQUENTLY Hourly Hourly ITEMS TO BE INSPECTED Ambient temp. Winding temp. INSPECTION NOTE ACTION REQUIRED IF INSPECTION SHOWS UNSATISFACTORY CONDITIONS Shut down the Transformers and investigate if temp. is persistently higher than normal.

1. 2.

Check that temp. rise is reasonable

Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Hourly Hourly Hourly Daily Daily Daily Quarterly Quarterly

Oil temp. Load (amperes) Voltage Oil level in Transformer Relief vent diaphragm Dehydrating Breather Bushing Oil in Transformers Dehydrating breather Oil in Transformers

Check against rated figure Check against oil gauge Check colour of the active agent Examine for crack and dirt deposits Check the electric strength and water content (B.D.V , P.P.M) Check oil level in oil cap and that air passages are free. Check for acidity and sludge

Note: An improper tap position can cause Transformers failure. If low, examine the Transformers for leak. Replace if cracked or broken If silica gel is pink, change it with new one Clean or replace Take suitable action to restore quality of oil Make up oil , required Filter or replace

11. 12.

Quarterly Yearly or earlier if Transformer can conveniently be taken out for checking Yearly or earlier if Transformer can conveniently be taken out for checking Yearly or earlier if Transformer can conveniently be taken out for checking Yearly or earlier if Transformer can conveniently be taken out for checking Yearly or earlier if Transformer can conveniently be taken out for checking Yearly or earlier if Transformer can conveniently be taken out for checking Yearly or earlier if Transformer

13.

Insulation resistance

Compare with value at time of commissioning

Filter or replace

14.

Gasket joints

Tighten the bolts evenly to avoid uneven press.

15.

Relays , alarms , their circuit etc.

16.

Temperature indicator ; WTI, OTI Dial type Oil gauge

Examine relay and alarm contacts and their operations, fuses etc. check relay accuracy etc. Pockets holding the thermo meter should be checked. Check pointer for freedom

Clean the components or replace contacts and fuses if necessary. Change the setting if necessary. Oil to be replenished if required

17.

Adjust if required

18.

Earth resistance

Take suitable action, if resistance is high.

Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION

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19. 20

can conveniently be taken out for checking Two- yearly Two yearly

Oil conservator Buchholz relay

Internal inspection Mechanical inspection

Should be thoroughly cleaned Adjust floats, switches etc as required.

COMMON DEFECTS NOTICED AND THE CAUSE

S. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

PARTS Tank Radiators Conservator Breather Explosion Core Winding

DEFECTS a. Leakage of oil b. Deformation c. Overheating a. Leakage of Oil b. Deformation c. Overheating a. Leakage of Oil b. Deformation c. Overheating Ineffective Glass broken a. Loose b. Increased Losses c. Excess Noise a. Short Circuited b. Loosening c. Insulation Brittle d. Open circuited a. Discoloration b. High Acidity c. Low BDV d. Sludge a. Breakage b. Leakage of Oil a. Inoperative Broken lever b. Burnt Contact c. Short Circuit

CAUSES Corrosion / mechanical damageGaskets worn out excessive internal pressureImproper circulation of cooling oil and / or inadequate ventilation. Corrosion / mechanical damageGaskets worn out excessive internal pressureImproper circulation of cooling oil and / or inadequate ventilation. Corrosion / mechanical damageGaskets worn out excessive internal pressureImproper circulation of cooling oil and / or inadequate ventilation. Inlet choked Silica gel saturated Mechanical Bolts loosening up change in characteristics due to heating vibration of stampings Overloading Air bubbles loss of insulation shrinkage displacement Overheating decomposition burn out. Contamination Increased moisture Decomposition chemical action with other parts. Strain Gasket Worn out Loose fit. Mal operation Insulation failure Failure of operation mechanism overheating

8.

Oil

9. 10

Terminal Bushing Tap Switch

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Types of faults against which Buchholz relays gives successful protection:


Visible or Audible Alarm (Upper Float Actuates) Core bolt insulation failure Short circuited core laminations Bad electrical contacts Local overheating Loss of oil due to leakage Ingress of air into the oil system Trip Circuit Operates (Lower Float Actuates) 1. Short circuit between phases 2. Winding earn fault 3. Winding short circuits 4. Puncture of busing

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CONDITIONS FOR THE PARALLEL OPERATION OF TRANSFORMERS:

The conditions that must be observed for the parallel operation to transformers both primary and secondary side.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Same voltage ratio. Same polarity. Same phase sequence and Zero relative phase displacement.

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ALARMS S. No 1. ALARMS ACTION TO FOLLOW Oil temperature Alarm Cancel the alarm and feel temperature by touching for a transformer transformer body and verify winding temperature also and compare with the other transformer. If no-abnormality is observed. It is a false alarm. Inform AE & ADE. If excess temperature is observed cut-off few loads and inform AE & ADE & ECR. Winding Temperature - DO Alarm for a transformer Buchholz Alarm Cancel the Alarm and isolate if both from HV and L.V. side. Restrict the loads to the available capacity. Inform AE, ADE, ECR & MRT. Buchholz TRIP Cancel the Alarm and disconnect the leads connecting to trip and isolate the transformer. Restrict loads to available capacity. Neutral displacement Cancel alarm, isolate the bank and inform to ADE, MRT. relay of capacitor bank Any feeder breaker Cancel the alarm and follow for operating instruction.

2 3 4 5 6

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STATION BATTERIES
PRINCIPLE OF CHARGING AND IDENTIFICATIONS:

TYPE OF BATTERY USED: LEAD ACID BATTERIES The A.C. 3 phase 11KV supply volts which are stepped down by the STATION TRANSFORM to 3 phase 440V supply with a neutral. A single phase 230 volts which is available from 3 phase with a neutral is sufficient for the station batteries to get charged. A RECTIFIER UNIT is used to convert the A.C. current to unidirectional current. The output of the rectifier is directly given to the batteries for charging. When the cells are full charged, the voltage ceases to raise the co lour of plates; on full charge is deep chocolate brown for positive plate and grey for negative plate. The approximate value of the E.M.F. is 2.1V. During charge in the density of electrolyte increases due to absorption of water or the Electrolyte assumes a milky appearance the specific gravity can be measured with a suitable Hydrometer. NUMBER OF END CELLS:

When the battery is fully charged with each having an emf of 2.1 V, then the number of cells required is volts/2.1 =110 cells. TRICKLE CHARGING: It is essential that the batteries should be fully charged and ready foe service when an emergency rises. To keep it fresh, the battery is kept on a trickle charge. The rate of trickle charge is small and is just sufficient to balance the open circuit losses. It keeps the sells fully charges with out any passing in good conditions.

Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION

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MAINTENANCE OF STATION BATTERIES: 1) The level of the electrolyte should be 10 to 15mm above the top of the plates and must not be exposed to air. 2) The battery terminals and metal and supports should be cleaned down to bars metal and covered with Vaseline or petroleum jelly. 3) The acid and the corrosion on the battery top should be washed off with a cloth moistened with baking soda or ammonia and water. 4) It must be taken care that the batteries should not be left in discharged condition for long. Since acid does not vaporize, none should be added

Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION

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SAFETY MEASURES

SAFETY MEASURES FOR SUB-STATIONS: 1) Lifting of should be made by lugs or jacks wheels, never by cooling tubes. 2) Transportation of transformer should be on large diameter wheels unless strength and acidity. 3) Transformer oil should be tapped periodically for checking of dielectric strength and acidity. 4) Co lour of breather needs daily watch. 5) For proper rating, instrument fuses should be checked. 6) No cotton waste would be used to clean the dirty/dust. 7) At every shift D.C. supply may be checked. It is essential for safety. 8) Maintenance registers of sub-station should be studied thoroughly to gain lot of future warnings. 9) In order to reduce fire troubles, cable trenches must be fill with sand. 10) Insulators should not be able to work while O.C.B. is closed and so interlocking system should be checked. 11) No new comers should be allowed to switch gear. Visitors should have authorized person of sub-station. 12) Do not take chance without safety measures.

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PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE IN TRANSFORMER: 1) Transformers should be installed at a reasonable place from inflammable material. 2) For out-door sub-stations. a) Provided with drainage. b) Stone chippings are filled around the plinth area. 3) For in-door sub-station a) Stop the spreading of oil. b) The floor should be non-flammable. c) The main space between the transformer and walls should be one meter. 4) Fix fighting equipment should be installed. 5) Emergency relief pipe should point in a safe direction. In case of fault condition, burning oil may be ejected from it. PRECAUTIONS AGAINST SHOCK: 1) All parts of the metal tank should be effectively bonded together and properly earthed. 2) The transformer should be fully protected with cable boxes, terminals boxes so that live metal parts are totally enclosed. 3) When the transformer is energized an enclosure to the transformer with a door or gate which our be kept locked, should be provided. 4) Precautions should be taken against exposed metal ends of bushings.

Maintenance and operation of 33/11KV SUBSTATION

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CASE STUDY
At a 33/11kv substation we find many number of equipments involved in it starting from the input to the output feeders. A 33kv from jubilee hills provided at the input feeder and with the help of AB switches the direction of the flow is changed depending up on the requirements. At first the 33kv input is given to the LV side of the first transformer of 12MVA and only up to 800MW it is used. We are provided with the group circuit breakers (GCB) where the charging takes places after that only the transformer will be oned. Another transformer with 33kv is provided on the HV side then it gets step down to 11kv on LV side. From the LV side we have four individual feeders they are city City centre, Rainbow, Tata rao & Erramanzil. From these four feeders the supply to the required area can be given through transmission system. The GCBS provided will have energy meters as well as relays which operate at the time of faults.

Sample readings of energy meter: Daily reading: Feeder1(MWH) 9955.49 9961.88 9968.12 Monthly reading: Feeder1(MWH) 435620 Feeder2(KWH) 668040 Feeder3(KWH) 936140 Feeder2(KWH) 1810157 1811468 1812709 Feeder3(KWH) 2199307 2200286 2201234

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CONCLUSION
With the high demand of power, it has become necessary to have high voltage distribution thus casing construction of high voltage sub-station like 66 KV, 132 KV, and 200 KV and so on. For operating the high voltages, the need for reliable protective devices and switch gear has become paramount important. When short circuit occurs, an enormous power can be fed into the fault with considerable damage and interruption of service.

As it is equipped with many protection circuit breakers for the protection of various buses or lines from faults, even if the faults remains for a moment then, due to high current all the equipments connected to the line would damage. At the same time identifying and isolating the faults is important which is done by various relays and circuit breakers in the substation. If the fault is not cleared then the faulty line is isolated by using the bus couplers in substation.

Thus maintenance and operation of substation is very important and it will represent the healthy network.

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REFERENCE
1. Technical reference book of substation (aptransco).

2. www.whitepapers.com
3. www.technologyreview.com 4. www.onlinetaken.com. 5. Wikipedia (Google search).

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