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Among the 4 alternate answers, One Or More are correct Most favourable conditions for electrovalency are (a) Low charge on ions, large cation and small anion (b) High charge on ions, small cation and large anion (c) High charge on ions, large cation and small anion (d) Low charge on ions, small cation and large anion Molten NaCl conducts electricity due to the presence of (a) Free electrons (b) Free ions (c) Free molecules (d) Atoms of sodium and chlorine In a crystal cations and anions are held together by (a) Electrons (b) Electrostatic forces (c) Nuclear forces (d) Covalent bonds As compared to covalent compounds, electrovalent compounds generally have (a) Low melting points and low boiling points (b) Low melting points and high boiling points (c) High melting points and low boiling points (d) High melting points and high boiling points KCl easily dissolves in water because (a) It is a salt of K (b) It reacts with eater (c) It is an electrovalent compound (d) Its ions are easily solvated Ionic reactions are (a) Fast (b) Slow (c) Very slow (d) None Which of the following is having strongest covalent bond? (a) H Cl (b) Cl Cl (c) C Cl (d) Na Cl For the formations of covalent bond, the difference in the value of electro negativities should be (a) Equal to or less than 1.7 (b) More than 1.7 (c) 1.7 or more (d) None In a double bond connecting two atoms there is a sharing of (a) 2 electrons (b) 4 electrons (c) 1 electron (d) All electrons The compound which contains both ionic and covalent bonds is (a) CH4 (b) H2 (c) KCN (d) KCl The H O H angle in water molecule is about (a) 900 (b) 1800 (c) 1050 (d) 750

1 A 2 B 3 B 4 D 5 A, C, D 6 A 7 B 8 A 9 B 10 C 11 C

Explanatory And Short Answer Type Questions 01. The ionic compounds have a higher melting point than the covalent compounds 02. The dipole moment of water is higher than that of NH3 03. SiCl4 is hydrolysed by water, but not CCl4 0.4 The order of electronegativity and electron affinity of Cl and F are F > Cl and Cl > F respectively. Which end of the ClF molecule will have a positive charge. 05. BeCl2 shows a high degree of covalency in its reaction, where as BaCl2 is predominantly ionic why? 06. The H P H angle in PH3 is smaller than H N H bond angle in NH3. Why? 07. Of the two molecules SnCl2 and BeCl2, SnCl2 has a dipole moment, why? 08. Write down the resonance structures of nitrous oxide? 09. Write the electron dot structures of the following (a) NO2 , CO2 , O2 (b) O3 and COCl2 (c) H 3 PO4 , HNO3 , H 2 SO3 , HClO4 (d) N 3 , C2O42 , BF4 , HCO3 1


Write down the electron dot structures of the following (i) SO3 (ii) HCN (iii) CCl3CHO (v) KMnO4 (ix) N 2O5
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(vi) BF3 (vii) Cr2O (x) Ca ( NO2 )2 Zero dipole moment of CCl4 is consistent with tetrahedral structure. If the structures are square planar or pyramidal which will be zero dipole moment? Carbon atom is tetravalent, while is electronic configuration 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 2 predicts that it is bivalent. Explain? Explain why the bond angle is H 2 S is smaller than that in H 2O ? Given a fixed electron negativity for X greater than H, which would you expect to have higher dipole moment, H : X or H : X? O || In acetic acid molecule, what is the hybridization of H 3C - carbon and ( H 3C C O H ) C = O carbon? Which carbon oxygen bond in acetic acid molecule is longer? The hydrogen bonding in HF is stronger than in H 2O but the boiling point of water is 1000 C , while that of HF is only 19.50 C , give reasons The boiling points of water ( 1000 C ) and HF ( 19.50 C ) are quite high as compared to NH 3 , which is only 33.40 C . Explain Predict the shape of species and hybridization at the central atom for each of the following: 2 (a) SCl2 (b) CO3 (c) BF4 (d) BrF3
(e) NO2 (f) NO3 (g) ClO2 (h) Si (CH 3 )4 Write the Lewis structures of the following by indicating bonded electron pair with dash (-) and non bonded electrons or electron pairs with dot( ) (a) Dinitrogen tetraoxide N 2O4 (b) Phosphorous acid, H 3 PO3 + 2 (c) Oxonium ion, H 3O (d) Carbonate ion, CO3 (e) Carbon disulphide, CS 2 Give reasons for (a) Carbon-oxygen bond lengths in formic acid 1.23A0 and 1.36A0 and both oxygen bonds in sodium formate have the same value, i.e., 1.27 A0 (b) Valency of oxygen is generally two whereas sulphur shows, Valency of two four and six? Three carbon oxygen bonds are equal in carbonate ion. Explain? Amongest LiF and LiI which has more covalent character and why? BaO has a lower melting point than CaO, why? F2 is a gas while I 2 is a solid. Explain? Explain why phosphine has a lower boiling point than ammonia? PF5 is known while NF5 is not. Why? Boiling point of hydrogen chloride is lower than that of hydrogen fluoride. Why? When 30 ml. Of ethanol and 30 ml of water mixed, the volume of the resulting solution is less than 60 ml Predict the molecular structure and bond angle for each of the following + (a) I 3 (b) ClF3 (c) IF4+ (d) SF5 2 + 2 (e) SeO3 (f) SeO4 (g) IF6 (h) KrF4 The dipole moment LiH is 1.964 1029 cm and the inter atomic distance between Li and H in this molecule is 1.596A0 . What is the percentage ionic character in LiH ( e charge = 1.602 1019 C ) Express the value of Debye in S.I. unit

(iv) Cl2O (viii) CrO5



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32. Ice floats on water 33. Density of water increases upto 40 C and there after in decreases. Account For the Following 1. The experimentally determined N-F bond lengths in NF3 is greater than the sum of the single bond covalent radii of N and F. 2. Using V S E P R theory, identify the type of hybridization and drawn the structure of OF2 . What are the oxidation sates of O, F? 3. Write the two resonance structures of ozone which satisfy the octet rule. 4. Write the two resonance structure of N 2O that satisfy the octet rule. 5. The % ionic character in HCl is 18.08. The observed dipolement is 1.08D. Find the intermolecular distance in HCl. 6. The C-F and Si-F bond distance in CF4 and SiF4 are 1.32A0 and 1.54A0 respectively. The C-Si bond distance is 1.87 A0 . What is the covalent radius of the fluorine atom confirmed from this? The measured value of covalent radius 0.64 A0 is different from this value. Explain the reason for the variation? 7. The dipolemoment of H-Br is 2.60 1030 esu cm and the interatomic spacing is 1.41A0 . What is the % of ionic character of HBr. 8. Arrange the following as indicated below: + (a) NO2 , NO2 , NO3 in the increasing order of N O bond length (b) O, F, S, Cl, N in order of increasing strength of hydrogen bonding + 2 (c) O2 , O2 , O2 and O2 in order of increasing bond strength (d) NO, NO + , NO in increasing order of bond length (e) CN + , CN and CN in order of increasing bond length + (f) N 2 , N 2 and N 2 in order of increasing bond length 9. Arrange the following in the increasing order of bond order and magnetic moment (a) Oxygen, Peroxide ion, Superoxide ion (b) NO, NO + , NO +2 10. Arrange the following types of interactions in the order of increasing stability covalent bond, Vander walls forces, hydrogen bonding, and dipole attractions Miscellaneous Questions: 1. Of the following species which has the shortest bond length? NO, NO + , NO +2 and NO 1 ? 2. Based up on M.O. theory state reasons for the paramagnetic character of CN, the diamagnetic character of CN and calculate the respective bond orders. 3. Which is expected to have highest melting point and why? PH 3 , NH 3 , (CH 3 )3 N ? + 4. Predict the shape of (a) TeCl3 (b) ClO3 (c) ICl2 5. Explain the geometry of the following molecules: (a) XeF6 (b) XeO3 (c) XeF4 (d) BrF5 6. 7. 8. 9.
2 Has the peroxide ion O2 , a longer or shorter bond length than O2 ? Explain + Will the He2 ion in its ground state is stable for dissociation into He and He + Which of the following molecules has the highest bond order? (a) BN (b) CO (c) NO (d) Na2 (e) F2 Explain how? The bond length in N 2 is 0.02A0 greater than N 2 ? While the bond length in NO + is 0.09 A0 less than a NO. The dipolemoment of a certain diatomic molecule is 1.96 1029 cm . If the % ionic character is 75, what is the interatomic distance [ 1.633A0 ] Find the bind order of + (a) H 2 (b) H 2 (c) He2 (d) Li2 (e) Be2 (f) B2 Give the hybridization and shape of the following molecules + (a) XeF4 (b) ICl2 (c) ICl2 (d) XeOF2

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+ (e) XeOF4 (f) ICl4 (g) ClF3 (h) NH 4 (i) NH 2 (j) ClO4 In the hexagonal ice structure, each oxygen is coordinated tetrahedrally with 4 other oxygens, with an intervelling hydrogen between adjoining oxygens. All of sublimation of ice at 00 C is 51.0 KJ/mole H 2O . It has been estimate by comparison with non-hydrogen bonded solids having intermolecular Vandor walls for as similar to those in ice that the H of sublimation would be only 15.5 KJ/mole H 2O , if ice were not hydrogen bonded. Estimate the strength of the hydrogen bond in ice. In solid ammonia, each NH 3 molecule has six other NH 3 molecules as nearest neighbour H of sublimation of NH 3 at the m.p is 30.8 KJ/mole and the estimated H of sublimation in the absence of H bonding is 14.4 KJ/mole. What the strength of a hydrogen bond is solid NH 3 . Calculate the electron affinity of I (all values in K. Cal/mole) U ( Nal ) = 82.2 ; H f ( Nal ) = 648 ; H sub ( Na ) = 25.9 IP ( Na ) = 118.4 , 1/ 2[H sub ( I 2 )] + H dis ( I2 ) = 25.5 Calculate the lattice energy of MgS using the following data (all in K.Cal/mole) H ( MgS ) = 82.2 ; H sub ( Mg ) = 36.5 ; IP + IP2 = 520.6 1 Hatom (g) = 133.2 ; EA1 + EA2 = 72.4


Explain the following: (a) The order of acidity of oxyacids of chlorine HClO < HClO2 < HClO3 < HClO4 (b) In sulphate ion, all the four S-O distances are same i.e., 1.49A0 (c) Phenols are acidic. Alcohols are neutral (d) Amines are basic, amides are neutral imides are acidic why? (e) NH3 is more basic, than aniline (f) 1, 3 butadiene is more stable than 1, 4 pentadiene. Why? (g) Benzene prefers substitution to addition reactions (h) P-nitrophenol is more acidic compared to phenol. Why? (i) 2, 4, 6 trinitropheol is called picric acid, even though it does not contains any carboxylic group ( COOH ) (j) Conjugated dienes are more stable compared to non conjugated dienes. Why? (k) The order of stability anthracene > naphthalene > Benzene (l) Carbonate are more stable compared to Bicarbonates? (m) In electrophilic addition reaction to 1, 3 butadience, not only 1, 2 products, but also 1, 4 product is formed why? (n) The dipolemoments for the methyl halides are CH 3 F (1.82 D) ; CH 3Cl (1.94 D) ; CH 3 Br (1.74 D) ; CH 3 I (1.64 D) . Explain (o) CO2 has no dipolemoment, but SO2 does ( = 1.60 D ) (p) BH 3 is un stable but BF3 is stable why? (q) HNO3 is more stronger compared to HNO2 but H 3 PO2 , H 3 PO3 , H 3 PO4 all have comparable acidities.