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Global Maritime and Transportation School

at the United States Merchant Marine Academy

QMED
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION TO THE DIESEL ENGINE DIESEL ENGINE SYSTEMS o INTRODUCTION o OPERATION PROCEDURES o ENGINE PERFORMANCE o BASIC ENGINE COMPONENTS o CYCLE OPERATIONS o COOLING WATER SYSTEMS o AIR INTAKE/EXHAUST SYSTEMS o LUBE OIL SYSTEMS TURBOCHARGERS GOVERNORS 2. SHIPBOARD STEAM POWER PLANTS INTRODUCTION MARINE PROPULSION STEAM SYSTEM COMPONENTS STEAM AND WATER SYSTEMS BOILERS FUEL SYSTEMS STEAM TURBINES TURBINE ACCESSORIES AND AUXILIARIES 3. FUEL OIL SYSTEMS FUEL MAKE UP FUEL/LUBE OIL PURIFICATION FUEL SCHEMATICS 4. AUXILIARY SYSTEMS HEAT EXCHANGERS PURIFIERS LUBRICATION AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT OILY WATER SEPARATORS SANITARY SYSTEMS AIR COMPRESSOR SYSTEMS 5. EVAPORATORS 6. PUMPS/PACKING /VALVES AND STRAINERS 7. GAUGES AND THERMOMETERS 8. HYDRAULICS / STEERING GEAR 9. BEARINGS 10. SHIP CONSTRUCTION 11. GENERAL FIREFIGHTING EMERGENCY SIGNALS LIFEBOATS 12. OIL POLLUTION LEGISLATION OIL RECORD BOOK 13. MACHINE SHOP TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS MACHINE SHOP 14. WELDING AND PIPEFITTING 15. MARINE REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
16. ELECTRICAL

KINGS POINT, NEW YORK 11024-1699 PHONE (516) 773-5120 FAX: (516) 773-5353

QMED

DIESEL ENGINES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DIESEL ENGINES 1. INTRODUCTION 2. BASIC ENGINE COMPONENTS 3. CYCLE TYPES TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE (2 OR 4 STROKE) 4. COOLING WATER SYSTEM 5. AIR INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 6. FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM 7. LUBE OIL SYSTEM TURBOCHARGERS GOVERNORS

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1.. INTRODUCTION TO THE DIESEL ENGINE 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE DIESEL ENGINE


On August 10, 1893, the French born Dr. Rudolph Diesel, working at Machinen Fabrik Augsburg got an engine with a single cylinder, 10 foot in diameter, to run under its own power. However, the operation was not continuous. This engine incorporated the thoughts and ideas put down by Dr. Diesel in a paper titled The Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat Engine. Dr. Diesel was a thermal engineer, a connoisseur of the arts, a linguist and a social theorist. Diesels invention was characterized by three items: 1) heat transfer by natural process, 2) markedly creative design, and 3) it was initially motivated by sociological needs. Primarily Dr. Diesel wanted to use locally available fuels and he found the steam engines very wasteful. The first successful compression-ignition engine was completed on the last day of 1896. It was a collaboration between Dr. Rudolph Diesel and the engineering staff at Machinen Fabrik Augsburg. (Machinen Fabrik Augsburg-Nurmburg is now known as MAN.) This engine was a result of the work on the 1892 engine and the subsequent improvements. The engine produced 20 horsepower at 172 RPM. There was a delay to develop commercial applications and franchising but this was all accomplished by 1898. The first commercial application in the United States was the construction of a Busch-Sulzer engine for the Augustus Busch Brewery (now Budweiser) in St. Louis in 1898. Burmeister & Wain Shipyard, in Denmark, launched the first ocean going diesel vessel in 1912. The original concept of the compression-ignition engine was based on the use of coal dust being blasted into the cylinder by high-pressure air. This would give the needed air and the combustible fuel in the cylinder heated by compression. This did not really work very well. Even when Diesel got around to using liquid fuel, being injected by high pressure air, the engine did not work all that well because of Diesels insistence that the engine run at constant temperature. In 1912 mechanical injection replaced pneumatic (blast) injection for the first time. Over the years the mechanical injection gained acceptance and gradually blast injection disappeared. During the fuel crisis of the mid 1970s coal dust and blast injection was again revisited because of the abundance of coal. Because of advances in metallurgy the engine worked better but subsequent crude oil surpluses (read prices not as high as predicted back in 1973 and 1974) stopped development. At this time engines were also run on a variety of oils including peanut oil. In the late 1960s and early 1970s there was a rapid increase in the size of the cylinders and the horsepower output of the engines installed on ocean going vessels. These engines were built prior to the first oil crisis when bunker oil was quite inexpensive. At the onset of the oil crisis there was a movement to slow many of these super large bore engines down to reduce fuel consumption. Scavenge box fires; metal fatigue and fuel pump problems were encountered. However, in solving these problems the engines became much more fuel efficient, the cooling systems got better, the metallurgy and forces during the cycle became better understood and turbochargers became more efficient. This period also signaled the demise of the ported only engine, because of its inefficiencies. One of the keys to increasing horsepower is increasing the mean effective pressure. To do this required losing the exhaust port and adding an exhaust valve to certain engines.

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During the same time period there was a concurrent movement towards automation on vessels and reduction in crew sizes. This further pushed the engine manufacturers to improve reliability and life of engine components. Oiling of rocker gear on slow speed engines, normally done by the watch, had to be changed. This, coupled with timing issues, brought about hydraulically operated exhaust valves on slow speed engines. Similarly, as the understanding of the metallurgy got better, larger medium speed engines, with a lot more horsepower got produced. While there were a few failures there were great strides made in the construction of engines, the use of better metals, increased mean effective pressures and understanding of the fuel oils that ran the diesel engines. From the mid 1970s to the mid 1980s there were a lot of changes in diesel engines that remain today. One key element in the history of the diesel engine is the fuel available to burn in the engine and the cost of the fuel. Until the late 1940s all diesel engines ran on diesel oil, an oil with a specific gravity of about 0.85. In the late 1940s the British successfully ran a vessel on heavy oil. This was accomplished by heating the oil up to the proper point for atomizing the fuel. Today almost all large horsepower engines run on heavy fuel in the marine world. Today diesel engines are found everywhere because of their longevity and fuel efficiency. Diesels are the predominant engine of choice for marine propulsion, heavy truck and construction equipment.

STEPS TOWARD PROGRESS Better Metallurgy and Lubrication More effective turbocharging Higher MEP Better Cooling Schemes Better control of valve timing

OBJECTIVES OF ADVANCEMENTS Increase fuel efficiency Reduce weight per horsepower Increase reliability Reduce and simplify maintenance Reduce operating and life cycle costs

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ADVANCES IN DIESEL ENGINES THROUGH THE 20TH CENTURY Mechanical Injection Introduced 1930s Supercharging of engines 1940s (late) Proving capable of burning heavy oil 1950s Improved cooling of cylinders (bore cooling) 1960s Advances in Lubrication Development of standards for torque settings Rapid advances in horsepower output Introduction of unattended engine rooms 1970s Degradation of fuel quality Improvements in metallurgy Variable timing on some engines 1980s Super Long Stroke engines introduced

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2.. BASIC ENGINE COMPONENTS 2 BASIC ENGINE COMPONENTS


DIESEL ENGINE VERSUS GASOLINE ENGINE The best way to describe a diesel engine is to compare it with an ordinary gasoline engine such as the one you have in your car. Both engines are of the internal combustion design since they burn fuel within the cylinders, the basic difference being the means of igniting the fuel. The gasoline engine is a spark ignition type engine which utilizes a spark to ignite a fuel / air mixture. The diesel engine is a compression ignition type engine that relies upon the heat generated by compressing the air in the cylinder to ignite finely atomized fuel introduced into the cylinder by an injector. Although they operate with the same major components, the components of the diesel engine (of equal horsepower) are heavier since they must withstand greater dynamic forces and more concentrated stress due to the greater combustion pressure (Figure 1).

FIGURE 1 - SECTIONAL VIEW OF A LIQUID-COOLED DIESEL ENGINE.

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The greater combustion pressure is the result of the higher compression ratio. In a gasoline engine the compression ratio (which controls the compression temperature) is limited by the detonation and pre-ignition quality of the air-fuel mixture. In the diesel engine the compression ratio can be as high as 24:1 or as low as 14:1 because diesel engines compress only air. A high compression ratio is one of the factors, which contributes to the high efficiency of the diesel engine. Gasoline engines are self-speed-limiting because of their air-intake limitations. Engine speed is controlled by the butterfly valve in the carburetor, which controls the airflow into the intake manifold. The airflow meters the gasoline flow and therefore limits the engine speed. Diesel engines are not self-speed-limiting. Intake air for combustion is not restricted, and therefore the cylinders always have more than enough air to support combustion. The engine speed (rpm) is controlled by the amount of fuel injected into the cylinders. Diesel engines can accelerate at a rate of more than 2,000 revolutions per second (rev/s); therefore they require a speed limiter (the governor). A diesel engine requires no ignition system because the fuel is injected (forced into the combustion area) as the piston comes to the top of its compression stroke. The fuel vaporizes and ignites as it comes in contact with the hot air, which has been compressed by the piston. The engine's fuel system controls the quantity of fuel injected by the fuel nozzles into the combustion chamber, when the fuel enters the combustion chamber and for how long the duration of injection exists. CYLINDER BLOCK AND OIL PAN - The cylinder block forms the framework of a liquidcooled diesel engine. It is generally a single unit made from cast iron. The air-cooled diesel engine usually has a separate cast-iron crankcase and individual cylinder blocks. The cylinder block has openings for the cylinder sleeve (cylinder liner), oil and water passages, and bores for the crankshaft and camshaft bearings. The upper half of a water-cooled cylinder block contains the water jackets. The lower half of the cylinder block where the crankshaft, camshaft followers, and pushrods are located is called the crankcase. An oil pan, which is bolted to the crankcase, forms the oil reservoir for the lubrication system (Figure 1). CRANKSHAFT - The crankshaft is made of forged steel and has precision machined and hardened main bearings and connecting-rod journals (Figure 2). The offset cranks of the crankshaft are balanced for proper weight distribution to ensure even force during rotation. Some crankshafts use counterbalance weights (or a gear train) to achieve balancing. The crankshaft rotates in its main bearings and lubricating oil from the drilled passages within the cylinder block feeds the main bearings. Drilled passages in the crankshaft allow lubricating oil to flow to the connecting-rod journals. A crankshaft thrust bearing is used to prevent excessive end movement.

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FIGURE 2 - SCHEMATIC OF A TYPICAL CRANKSHAFT AND COMPONENTS CONNECTING ROD The connecting rod is designed for optimum bearing performance. The H profile spreads the combustion forces over a large bearing area, thus reducing oil film pressure and wear. It is made from drop-forged, heat-treated steel and is the link between the crankshaft and the piston. It is bored at each end, and in the upper bearing bore (piston-pin bore) a bushing is inserted in which the piston pin is placed. The lower bearing bore (crankpin bore), is split in half, with the lower half called the connecting-rod cap. One-half of the connecting rod bearing fits tightly into the rod cap, and the other half fits into the connecting rod. When the connecting rod is fitted on the crankshaft connecting rod journal and the crankshaft rotates, the connecting rod and piston move up and down. There is a separation between the rod and the bearing cap, with the serrated surface at an angle to the two hydraulically tightened bolts for optimal pressure distribution on this area. The connecting rod has an exceptional long service life in comparison with other designs due to the optimized force distribution.

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THE CONNECTING ROD IS A THREE-PIECE MARINE DESIGN, WHERE COMBUSTION FORCES ARE DISTRIBUTED OVER A MAXIMUM BEARING AREA AND WHERE THE RELATIVE MOVEMENTS BETWEEN MATING SURFACES ARE MINIMIZED. PISTON OVERHAULING IS POSSIBLE WITHOUT TOUCHING THE BID END BEARING AND THE BEARING CAN BE INSPECTED WITHOUT REMOVING THE PISTON. THE THREE-PIECE DESIGN ALSO REDUCED THE PISTON OVERHAULING HEIGHT

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STANDARD CONNECTING RODS

ARTICULATED CONNECTING ROD FORK AND BLADE CONNECTING ROD

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7 - NUT 8 - STOP PIN 11 - BODY 12 - CAP 13 - FITTED BOLT

14 - FREE BOLT 27 - LOWER BEARING SHELL 29 - UPPER BEARING SHELL 216 - BUSHING

CYLINDER SLEEVE - The cylinder sleeve (cylinder liner) forms the combustion chamber walls. When the cylinder sleeve is in direct contact with the coolant it is referred to as a wet sleeve. When the cylinder sleeve is indirectly in contact with the coolant (that is, the sleeve is enclosed in the cylinder), it is referred to as a dry sleeve. It is through the cylinder sleeve contact with the coolant or cylinder block that efficient cooling is achieved. Wet sleeves have special sleeve seals that seal the coolant at the lower end of the cylinder sleeve and block. The

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accurately machined surfaces of the sleeve flange, cylinder block, and cylinder-head gaskets form the seal at the cylinder block surface (top deck).

DRY LINERS

WET LINERS

LINER WITH INTEGRAL WATER JACKET

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PISTON AND PISTON RINGS The piston and its piston rings act as a piston pump while moving up and down in the cylinder sleeve. Pistons are made from aluminum or cast-iron alloy. Piston rings are made from cast-iron alloy, and compression rings are commonly chrome-plated. The two main functions of the piston and piston rings are to seal the lower side of the combustion chamber and to transmit the pressure of compression and combustion via the piston pin and connecting rod to the crankshaft. Piston rings also transmit heat from the piston to the cylinder walls and into the water jacket. The piston ring grooves are hardened to maximize the life of the piston. This piston ring pack is designed for top performance and low lube oil consumption. The pack includes two compression rings and two oil scraper rings. The piston pin is made from a solid round bar of extra-high tensile steel. The ends are sealed with frozen-in plugs, thus reducing the stress concentration on the pin.

FIGURE 3 - EXPLODED VIEW OF A K-MODEL CYLINDER-BASED COMPONENTS

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COMPOSITE PISTON WITH NODULAR CAST IRON SKIRT

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CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES - The cylinder head is cast as a one-piece unit, Figure 3. It is the upper sealing surface of the combustion chamber. It may serve one, two, three, four, or six cylinders, and contains either two or four valves per cylinder. The valve guides, which guide the valve stem during the opening and closing of the valve, are pressed into the cylinder head. Intake valves and seats, in conjunction with the valve mechanisms, control the entry of air into the combustion chamber via the intake manifold. The exhaust valve and seat, along with the valve mechanism, control and release the combustion pressure from the combustion chamber into the exhaust manifolds. TIMING GEARS, CAMSHAFT, AND VALVE MECHANISM - The timing gears, Figure 4, transmit rotary motion to the camshaft(s) and at the same time maintain a fixed relation between the crankshaft and camshaft(s). The camshaft rotates on friction bearings mounted in the camshaft housing. The rotary motion of the camshaft is transmitted to the followers, thereby causing the followers and pushrods to move up and down, the rocker arms to pivot, and the valves to open and close. On engines where the camshaft is located above the valve stem

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(overhead), the cam lobes open and close the valves by directly pushing each valve's cam follower.

PROFILES OF INTAKE AND EXHAUST CAMS

TYPES OF CAMS AND CAM FOLLOWERS

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FIGURE 4 - VIEW ONTO TIMING GEARS OF A DETROIT V ENGINE TIMING-GEAR COVER AND VALVE COVER - The timing gear cover encloses the gear train, seals the crankshaft, and sometimes seals the external drive shafts. The timing gear cover sometimes has bearings or support shafts for the timing gear, idler gear, and fuel-injection-pump drive gear. The valve cover encloses the upper part of the cylinder head and the valve mechanism. FLYWHEEL - The flywheel serves three purposes. First, through its inertia, it reduces vibration by smoothing out the power stroke of the cylinders. Second, it is the mounting surface of the clutch pressure plate and the friction surface for the clutch. (When a fluid clutch is used, the impeller is splined or bolted to the flywheel.) Third, the "shrunk on" flywheel ring gear is used for transmitting cranking motor power to the crankshaft.

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FIGURE 5 - SCHEMATIC VIEW OF A VIBRATION DAMPER MOUNTING VIBRATION DAMPER - A vibration damper is a unit, which counteracts the twisting or torsional vibration caused by force variations (usually from about 3 to 10 tons (2,724 to 9,080 kg)) on the piston and subsequently the crank. Torsional vibration is a rhythmic force which occurs within every power stroke The application of force, and its absence a split second later, cause the crankshaft to be alternately twisted out of alignment and then snapped back into place. If preventive measures were not taken against this, the engine would run rough and the crankshaft could break. Vibration dampers of the viscous or rubber element design are fastened to the front of the crankshaft, Figure 5. Since torsion vibration differs with engine design, vibration dampers are constructed to suit specific engines. GASKETS AND SEALS - Gaskets and seals are used to seal between engine components that are fastened to each other and to the cylinder block. DIESEL ENGINE SUPPORT SYSTEMS - Diesel engines require five supporting systems in order to operate: cooling, lubrication, fuel injection, air intake, and exhaust. The various components of each system may be directly attached to the engine or may be located remote from the engine in the adjacent area. The function of each system is equally important to the engine as a whole.

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COOLING-SYSTEM COMPONENTS - The water (coolant) pump, in conjunction with the thermostat, internal cooling passages in the cylinder block and cylinder head, the heat exchanger, and the fan (if fitted), is responsible for maintaining an even cooling temperature during operation, of about 190oF (88oC). LUBRICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS - The oil pump, through the internal passages, supplies lubricating oil to the bearings, gears, and other components, which need to be lubricated and cooled. Most diesel engines have an oil cooler to cool the oil and a filter to clean the oil. FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS - The fuel settling and service tanks are used not only to store the fuel but also to help clean it by permitting sediment and water to settle to the bottom. The fuel filters are required to remove contaminants and water from the fuel. The fuel injection pump and the injectors are responsible for supplying and injecting the required amount of fuel into the cylinders, at the right time. Larger systems may also incorporate centrifugal separators to help in cleaning the fuel. AIR-INTAKE SYSTEM COMPONENTS - The air cleaner, intake manifold, and, on some engines, also the turbocharger and aftercooler are responsible for: supplying clean cool air to the cylinders; for supplying air for scavenging; and for reducing the airflow noise. Two-cycle engines require a positive means to supply air for scavenging. EXHAUST SYSTEM COMPONENTS - The exhaust manifold, pipes, and connections, as well as the muffler, are responsible for directing the exhaust gases into the atmosphere and for the noise level. When a turbocharger is used, it is connected to the exhaust manifold in such a way that escaping exhaust gases spin the turbine. The turbine is connected to the compressor wheel. Therefore, as the turbine and the compressor spin, additional fresh air is forced into the intake manifold.

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3.. CYCLE OPERAITON 3 CYCLE OPERAITON


TYPES TWO CYCLE, FOUR CYCLE (2 OR 4 STROKE)
TWO- AND FOUR-STROKE-CYCLE DIESEL ENGINE OPERATION - The word cycle refers to a series of events that repeat themselves. Cycle in relation to diesel engines refers to the series of events that must occur in an engine for it to operate. The somewhat separate but closely related events, which must occur, are intake, compression, power, and exhaust. For each cylinder in a two-stroke-cycle engine, all four events occur in one revolution of the crankshaft (Figure 6). For each cylinder in a four-stroke-cycle engine, all four events occur in two revolutions of the crankshaft (Figure 7).

FIGURE 6 TWO-STROKE CYCLE

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FIGURE 7 - FOUR-STROKE CYCLE TWO STROKE CYCLE ENGINES OPERATIONAL CYCLE - The exhaust valves are closed as the piston moves upward on the compression stroke. Fuel injection begins approximately 23 crankshaft degrees before top dead center (23 o BTDC) and ends 6o BTDC (Figure 8). The power stroke begins at TDC as the fuel and air in the cylinder ignite and begin to expand. This expansion forces the piston downward, which in turn causes the crankshaft to rotate. When the piston has moved approximately halfway down the cylinder (82 o ATDC) the exhaust valves open and in doing so release what pressure remains in the cylinder. As the piston continues downward it uncovers the intake ports (132 o ATDC / 48 o BBDC) and fresh air is forced into the cylinder by a positive-displacement roots-type blower. The air is forced into the cylinder through the sleeve intake ports and out the exhaust valves. This process is called scavenging. About 44 percent of the total working cycle is needed to remove the exhaust gases and bring in fresh air. A two-stroke-cycle diesel engine requires a blower for scavenging and will not operate without one. The blower must be capable of pumping a large quantity of air at a pressure of 2 to 7 psi (14 to 48 kpa) into the cylinder to replace the exhaust with fresh air. An added benefit of scavenging is that it cools the engine. Positive-displacement blowers operate with little mechanical friction and are lubricated by the engine's lubrication system. As the piston begins its upward travel, it moves past the intake ports, closing them approximately at 48o after bottom dead center (ABDC). The exhaust valves are completely closed at approximately 117o BTDC. This is the beginning of compression. The piston continues to move upward compressing, and thereby heating, the air in the cylinder. Once again fuel injection begins at approximately 23o BTDC, and the process repeats itself. With each downward piston movement there is a power stroke, and with each upward piston movement a compression stroke. The intake and exhaust stroke may be considered a part of the power and compression stroke and begins after completion of the power stroke as the exhaust

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valves open. The intake and exhaust stroke ends after the piston closes off the inlet ports of the cylinder liner on the compression stroke. ADVANTAGES Can burn lower quality fuel. Less cylinders for same output (on large engines) Separation of the combustion spaces from the crankcase-oil cleaner for longer.

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FIGURE 8 - ONE WORKING CYCLE OF A TWO-CYCLE ENGINE

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FIGURE 9 VALVE TIMING OF A TWO-CYCLE ENGINE FOUR STROKE CYCLE ENGINES OPERATIONAL CYCLE - Because a four-stroke engine has intake valves rather than intake ports in the cylinder sleeve, we will find a considerable difference in the way four-stroke engines operate as compared with two-stroke engines (Figure 10). As the piston moves downward from TDC, the exhaust valves close while the intake valves remain open. For this reason, fresh air rushes into the cylinder to fill the void left by the piston (Figure 11). Because of difference in pressure The piston moves upward, compressing and heating the air in the cylinder as it does so. At approximately 28o BTDC, fuel injection begins and, because the air in the cylinder is very hot, the fuel ignites as the piston moves up and past TDC, beginning its downward travel. This downward travel after the fuel ignites is the power stroke, and it continues until the piston has moved downward to approximately 53o before bottom dead center (BBDC), at which time the exhaust valves open. At this point there is enough pressure in the cylinder to force exhaust gases from the cylinder into the exhaust manifold. As the piston reaches BDC and starts moving upward, the exhaust valve remains open and the upward movement of the piston continues to force exhaust gases from the cylinder and into the exhaust manifold. There is a period as the piston nears TDC when the intake valves open, and for just approximately 53 crankshaft degrees, both valves remain open so that the cylinder is completely charged with fresh air. This is called Valve overlap, and it ensures that the cylinder is purged of all exhaust gases before the intake stroke starts. The piston reaches BDC and starts moving upward again. At approximately 43o ABDC, the intake valve is closed and compression begins.

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ADVANTAGES Better volumetric efficiency. Higher Mean Effective Pressure. Less height required for maintenance. Better fuel consumption rates. SOME FACTS ABOUT 4-STROKE CYCLE ENGINES: Cylinder temperature during power stroke can reach 3,000 degrees F Exhaust temperatures 500o F 850o F, these are the best indicators that something is wrong in the respective cylinder, which the oilier checks every watch. If the temperature goes down the cylinder is not getting fuel, if the temperature goes up, after burning. Object of timing exhaust and intake valves: Induce the greatest amount of charge into cylinder Exhaust all combustion gases at near atmospheric pressure

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FIGURE 10 - ONE WORKING CYCLE OF A FOUR-CYCLE ENGINE

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FIGURE 11 VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM OF A FOUR-CYCLE ENGINE, SHOWING THE PROGRESSIVE STEPS IN ONE WORKING CYCLE ENGINE HEAT BALANCE - The thermal distribution of a two-stroke diesel engine is about one-third power, one-third cooling, and one-third exhaust. When turbocharged and aftercooled it is about 38 percent power, 30 percent cooling, and 32 percent exhaust. However, a turbocharged and aftercooled four-stroke engine is more efficient, because more heat energy is produced during combustion and converted into power. An engine of this type may have a thermal distribution of 42 percent power, 30 percent exhaust, and 28 percent cooling. During the periods of combustion, expansion, and exhaust, 28 to 33 percent of the heat, plus heat generated by friction and the rings, is given up by conduction, convection, and radiation. (See Figure 12). Let us define these three terms: 1. 2. Conduction is the transmission of heat through matter without conducting body motion. Convection is the transfer of heat from one body to another through a liquid or gas by motion of its parts.
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3.

Radiation is a transmission of heat in the absence of a gas, liquid, or physical conductor, and by the energy of molecules and atoms undergoing internal changes.

FIGURE 12 - TYPICAL HEAT BALANCE OF TWO AND FOUR/STROKE CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES

FIGURE 13 - PRINCIPLES OF CONDUCTION, CONVECTION AND RADIATION Note that the heat balance diagram, Figure 13, does not include the heat carried away by the lubricating oil of that given up by radiation or convection through the external wall of the engine components.

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The heat balance fFigures given relate to engines at full load. On a four-cycle engine at reduced load the flow of heat through the cooling medium is less than that of a two-cycle engine. RELATION BETWEEN FORCE AND CRANKSHAFT POSITION - When the piston is at TDC and a force is applied on the piston, there is no rotation, but there will be a great force placed on the piston, connecting rod, bearings, crankshaft, and engine crankcase. As the crankshaft rotates to 20o after top dead center (ATDC) the relation between connecting rod and crankshaft creates a 30 percent torque advantage. At about 63o ATDC the centerline of the connecting rod and crank form a 90o angle, thereby achieving the greatest torque advantage. As the crank angle increases, the torque advantage decreases in proportion to that which it gained. SUPERCHARGING - Some of the objectives of diesel engine manufacturers are to increase engine power output (hp), increase thermal efficiency, improve reliability, and hold down maintenance costs while keeping within imposed emission standards. These objectives have been met by modifying air motion, fuel spray characteristics, combustion chamber conFigureuration, compression ratio, injection timing (variable timing), and fuel-injection rate and by supercharging the engine. An engine is referred to as supercharged when the intake manifold pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure. Because the piston controls the start of compression by covering the intake ports, older two-stroke engines were limited in regard to supercharging. Four-stroke engines do not have this limitation and may be heavily supercharged. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CYCLE INTAKE Air or combustible mixture drawn or pumped into cylinder COMPRESSION Piston is pushed up by connection rod and compresses the gas in the cylinder POWER The hot gases of combustion push the piston down and expand doing work EXHAUST Exhaust gases are removed for the cylinder These events take place in one revolution of the crankshaft in a two-stroke cycle engine and in two revolutions of the crankshaft in four-stroke cycle engine. (Figure 14a and 14b) 1. SCAVENGING Exhaust Valve (Ports) and Intake Ports Open 2. COMPRESSION Exhaust Valve (Ports) and Intake Ports Closed 3. INJECTION / IGNITION Fuel injected as piston approaches TDC 4. COMBUSTION Finely atomized fuel and high temperature air allow combustion 5. EXPANSION / POWER Air / Fuel mixture continues to burn and gasses expand 6. EXHAUST Exhaust Valve (Ports) Open, Intake Ports NOT Open

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FIGURE 14a - VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM OF A FOUR-CYCLE ENGINE, SHOWING THE PROGRESSIVE STEPS IN ONE WORKING CYCLE: (1) INTAKE STROKE, (2) COMPRESSION STROKE, (3) INJECTION, (4) POWER STROKE AND (5) EXHAUST STROKE.

FIGURE 14b -FOUR STROKE CYCLE - INTAKE, COMPRESSION AND FUEL INJECTION

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4.. 4

COOLING WATER SYSTEM COOLING WATER SYSTEM

PURPOSE OF COOLING SYSTEM - The purpose of the cooling system is to circulate the coolant in order to absorb, dissipate, and control the heat from fuel combustion and friction. The flow volume that the coolant pump must move through the coolant system, as well as the overall coolant volume, is specifically related to engine horsepower. Combustion heat is dissipated in three ways (Figure 15): 1. Convection, by means of air currents; 2. Radiation, by waves sent out from the vibrating molecules; 3. Conduction, by traveling through the metal into the cooling passages (where the coolant picks up the heat and carries it into the radiator).

FIGURE 15 DISSIPATED COMBUSTION HEAT Heat absorbed by the engine oil is partly removed by conduction. The remainder is removed in the oil cooler and the oil pan by a combination of the methods just described. The dissipation of heat, in itself, would be relatively simple if it were not essential that the cooling system maintain an even temperature at any torque range, at any engine-speed range, and at varying ambient temperatures.' At maximum engine torque and high ambient temperature, the system is forced to dissipate heat at its maximum capacity in order to maintain the top tank temperature around 180oF (82oC). When the engine torque and the ambient temperature are low, the system must nevertheless maintain the engine at approximately the same temperature.

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COOLING-SYSTEM COMPONENTS - Beginning at the front of the engine, the components which make up an average cooling system are the radiator, fan, coolant pump, engine oil cooler, aftercooler, and the connecting pipes and hoses (Figure 16). The cylinder block and cylinder head are, of course, also part of the system. Some engines have additional components, such as a torque converter oil cooler, a radiator shutter system, a coolant filter, a surge tank, and a second coolant pump. It is the engine and equipment manufacturers who select the cooling-system components to be used on a given engine. They choose the radiator size, the shroud and fan size, the fan design, its rotating speed, and the coolant capacity and flow. Together, these components ensure that 1. The cooling temperature in the top tank of the radiator does not exceed maximum prescribed temperature, that is, about 200oF (93.3oC) 2. The horsepower required to drive the fans does not exceed 6 percent of the engine horsepower 3. The speed of the tip of the fan is not greater than 18,000 ft/min (6,000 m/min) and therefore the fan noise remains at an acceptable level; 4. The airflow does not exceed 1,600 ft3 /min (755.12 L/s) 5. There is no dead area (unswept core area) on the surface of the radiator.

FIGURE 16 COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND COOLING FLOW

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MAINTAINING COOLING SYSTEMS - Quite often, operations and mechanics restrict


their checks of the cooling system to the coolant level, coolant leaks and perhaps, drive belts. Sometimes the cooling liquid is not inspected or changed, and the coolant filter; thermostat; shutter system; and internal radiator, cylinder block, and cylinder-head passages also are neglected. Inefficiency in any of these components can cause the coolant temperature to increase above 200F (93.3) or recede to about 150F (66C), allowing the oil to become sludge. Coolant deposits then form within the engine where the coolant meets hot metal. These deposits reduce the cooling flow to the cylinder sleeve, piston, and valves and thereby accelerate wear. COOLANT DEPOSITS FALL INTO FOUR CATEGORIES Scale from waterborne minerals Products of corrosion Products of chemical incompatibility Petroleum contaminates

COOLANT SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS - The coolant temperature in the top tank of the
radiator should never exceed 200F (93.3) regardless of ambient temperature or engine torque. Temperatures above this can result in head gasket failure and/or cylinder liner seal failure. Both of these failures will result in coolant leaking into the engines crankcase. THE COOLANT SYSTEM MUST BE CAPABLE 1. Raising the coolant temperature quickly to keep the engine wear to a minimum 2. Providing for coolant expansion and an outlet for the coolant to escape. 3. Maintaining a greater than atmospheric pressure at the inlet side of the coolant pump 4. Providing a means for venting itself during the filling operation 5. Providing for deareation. AIR-COOLED ENGINES - The cooling system of an air-cooled engine includes an enginedriven blower to cool the cylinder fins and metal shields. The cooling fins on the cylinder and cylinder head are precisely calculated and designed according to the required heat dissipation of the area. They are enlarged to increase dissipation of heat and reduced to dissipate less heat. Metal shields direct the air around the fins in a predetermined flow and at a predetermined velocity to help achieve an even temperature. When servicing air-cooled engines, it is vital that all shields and shrouds be in place, properly installed and sealed with gaskets or sealant where indicated. Air-cooled engines are light and simple in construction compared to liquid-cooled engines of the same horsepower. The cooling system of air-cooled engines is easily maintained by checking the condition and position of the shields and the fins for breakage, dust and/or oil accumulation, and by checking the blower drive belt and bearings for wear and general condition. CLEANING COOLING SYSTEM - Two types of cooling-system cleaners are used: the alkaline cleaner and the inhibitor acid cleaner. The alkaline cleaner is most effective for

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removing sludge and silicon scale. The inhibitor acid cleaner is most effective for removing rust and carbonate scale. Your cleaning procedure should include three steps: cleaning with an alkaline cleaner, recleaning with an acid cleaner, and flushing the system with a neutralizing fluid. Follow the cleaner manufacturers' instructions regarding the use of their products. Do not hesitate to seek advice on cleaning problems from your local supplier. Simply stated, the cooling-system cleaning procedure is as follows: 1. Drain and, if necessary, flush the system with water to remove as much contamination as possible. 2. Remove the thermostat. 3. When the system has a bypass line (Figure 17), this line must be plugged in order to allow concurrent cleaning of the radiator and to prevent overheating of the cylinder block. 4. Fill the cooling system with your ready-mixed alkaline solution and run the engine for the recommended length of time. (You may have to use the shutters or cover the radiator to raise the coolant temperature to that recommended by the supplier.) CAUTION Do not fill or flush the system with cold water when the engine is hot because rapid cooling distorts the engine castings.

FIGURE 17 DEAERATING-TOP-TANK PIPING (THE ARROW SHOWS THE FLOW OF THE COOLANT)
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5. After the recommended running time, cool the engine down by reducing the speed and removing the cover from the radiator. 6. Drain the system, flush it with clean water, and refill it with the acid solution. 7. When the acid solution is drained from the cooling system, neutralize the system by flushing it with water and refilling it with a neutralizing solution. 8. Fill the coolant system with an antifreeze concentration of not less than 30 percent. COOLING FANS - There are two types of fans-the pusher fan and the suction fan. They have varying airflow capacities and are of contrasting design. A suction fan draws the air through the radiator and then over the engine, whereas a pusher fan draws the air from around the engine and pushes it through the radiator. Reversible fans, which can be used as either pusher or suction fans, are sometimes used (Figure 18).

FIGURE 18 REVERSIBLE FAN Whether a pusher or suction fan will be used depends on the engine application. Loaders and wheel or track machines commonly use a pusher fan since it is less likely to draw as much dirt, sand, and small stones into the radiator as the suction fan. Fast moving vehicles, however, use suction fans since the airflow through the radiator at their normal motor vehicle speed acts against the pusher fan. The manufacturers also consider the weight of the fan as it affects the horsepower requirement, the life of the drive belts, and the bearings. Weight, however, is only one of the factors that have influenced many companies to use fiberglass fans instead of steel fans. The flex of certain fiberglass fan blades provides maximum cooling at any speed. Their fan-blade pitch changes automatically, reducing or increasing with the change in engine speed. Furthermore, fiberglass

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fans require less power than is needed to drive a fixed steel-bladed fan running at the same speed. Bearing and drive-belt life are increased and noise reduced. Fans should be inspected periodically for loose rivets, cracks, or bent blades. Remove any oil or dirt from the fan blades since contamination causes an unbalanced condition, which can lead to blade breakage and bearing wear. TESTING FOR COMBUSTION LEAKAGE INTO COOLING SYSTEM - To determine if air or combustion gases are leaking into the cooling system, run the engine until it reaches normal temperature 180F (82C). Then drain out sufficient coolant to allow removal of the upper radiator hose and thermostat. Remove the thermostat, upper radiator hose, and drive belt(s). Supply the system with coolant until it reaches the level of the thermostat-housing neck. Start the engine and accelerate five or six times while watching the outlet opening for bubbles or a rise of liquid. Appearance of bubbles or a rise of liquid indicates that combustion gases are entering the cooling system. NOTE Perform the test as quickly as possible; otherwise the coolant will boil and steam, and bubbles will rise from the thermostat neck resulting in misleading test results. TESTING FOR AIR LEAKS IN COOLING SYSTEM - Two methods are used to determine if air is circulating within the cooling system. One method is to pressure test the cooling system as previously outlined, the other is as follows: 1. Drain as much coolant from the system as is necessary to place a short transparent plastic tube between the thermostat housing and radiator top tank. 2. Refill the engine and run it until it reaches normal temperature. 3. Observe the coolant flow. Air in the coolant will be visible as white round spots passing out of the cylinder head into the radiator through the plastic hose. COOLANT PUMP DESIGN AND OPERATION -A coolant pump is the heart of the cooling system and is of the centrifugal design. Coolant pumps are driven directly or indirectly by V belts, by a poly V belt from the crankshaft pulley, or by a gear from the timing gears. A typical coolant pump is shown in Figure 19. When the engine operates, the impeller is rotated and creates a low pressure at the center. Coolant enters at or near the center of the impeller, the impeller vanes start the fluid revolving, and centrifugal force accelerates the fluid onto the inner wall of the housing. Because of the snail-shaped housing, the velocity head is converted into a pressure head. The size and design of the impeller, and the rotating speed at which the impeller is driven, depend on the amount of coolant flow required to cool the engine components. .

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FIGURE 19 SECTIONAL VIEW OF A COOLANT PUMP

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COOLANT PUMP FAILURES - A coolant pump is said to have failed when it has lost its pumping capacity, or when coolant leaks to the exterior of the pump. Loss of the pumping capacity can be the result of bearing failure since bearing failure increases clearance between the impeller and the housing and causes increased slippage within the pump. The cause of bearing failure can sometimes be traced to a damaged seal assembly, which has allowed coolant to pass into the bearings. It also may be the result of any one or more of the following: over tightened drive belts, misalignment, vibration of the pump shaft, or overheating of the coolant (hot shutdown). A damaged seal assembly can be the result of bearing failure, overheating, contaminated coolant corrosion, scale buildup, excessive wear of carbon face or ceramic face, excessive wear of seat, or damaged bellows. Loose bearings in the housing or on the shaft can also cause early pump failure because they allow the impeller to come in contact with the housing. Also, when there is scale buildup on the internal housing and on the impeller or when they have become corroded, the resultant rough surfaces will reduce coolant flow. SERVICING COOLANT PUMP - Clean the coolant pump externally and remove the impeller-retainer nut. With a suitable puller, pull the impeller off the shaft and remove the keys. You may have to tap the impeller holes to install the puller bolts. NOTE Use a shaft protector to protect the pump shaft when pulling the hub and impeller off the shaft. If a ceramic sea) is bonded to the impeller, take care not to damage it. Use a hammer puller to remove the front lip-type seal, and then remove the bearing retainer (snap ring). Place the coolant pump on a press, supported by the bearing bore, and press out the shaft and bearings from the impeller side. Remove the other front bearing retainer. Remove the rear lip-type seal and press the coolant seal out. If the pump shaft is reusable, press the bearings from the shaft. Clean all components thoroughly and dry them with compressed air. Check the impeller's ceramic seal face. If it is scored or damaged, you must replace the impeller. If the impeller is damaged externally, or if the vanes are worn, damaged, or cracked, the impeller must be replaced. Check the pump shaft for wear where it contacts the lip-type seal, the bearings, and the coolant seal. Replace the shaft when necessary. Check the pump housing for cracks or other damage caused by worn bearings. Replace all seals and bearings to reduce the possibility of early bearing failure or coolant leakage.

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REASSEMBLING COOLANT PUMP - Reassemble the coolant-pump components in precisely the reverse order in which they were disassembled. When pressing the bearings and seals into place, use the correct adapters and sleeves. If specified in your service manual, pack the bearings and the space between the bearings with applicable grease before you press the assembly into the pump housing. Apply a thin coat of water-sealing compound to the outside diameter of the bearings before installation. NOTE New impellers sometimes have a wax like coating over the surface. Remove this coating before you install the impeller, but take care not to damage the impeller seal surface. When pressing the impeller onto the shaft, make certain that the coolant seal and the impeller surface are clean. Do not apply any kind of liquid to their surfaces. Support the pump shaft, then press on the impeller until the specified clearance between the pump housing and impeller is achieved (Figure 20). COOLANT LIQUID - Any water, whether of drinking purity or not, will produce a corrosive environment in the cooling system. Only water with an acceptable mineral content should be used in the cooling system of an engine. Water that is within the limits specified in Table 1 is satisfactory; nevertheless, proper inhibitors must be added to protect the cooling system against corrosion and sludge. TABLE 1 SUITABLE WATER Parts per million Total hardness (max.) 170 Chlorides (max.) 40 Sulfates (max.) 100 Total dissolved solids (max.) 340 FILTERS AND CONDITIONERS - The coolant filters and conditioners are spin-on, canister, or clamp-on-type elements. Each is connected in parallel (bypass) to the coolant flow. The filter removes any particles such as sand, rust, etc., thus prolonging the coolant and pump service life and ensuring proper operation of the thermostat. The corrosion inhibitors are placed into the elements and are dissolved in the cooling system during operation. Most diesel engines use an ethylene-glycol antifreeze solution consisting of 50 percent ethylene glycol and 50 percent water, since it requires no additional inhibitors. However, this solution must not decrease below 30 percent ethylene glycol in volume, otherwise the inhibitors are no longer strong enough to protect the system against corrosion and sludge. MARINE ENGINE COOLING SYSTEMS - Two types of cooling systems are used on marine engines-the heat exchanger cooling system and the keel cooling system. Both use a water-cooled exhaust manifold (Figure 21), and many use a water-cooled turbocharger turbine housing (Figure 22).

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FIGURE 20 PRESSING THE IMPELLER INTO THE PUMP SHAFT (SECTIONAL VIEW)

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FIGURE 21 MARINE ENGINE WATER-COOLED EXHAUST MANIFOLD The heat-exchanger cooling system combines two separate cooling systems, that is, a conventional engine cooling system and the raw-water cooling system. The components that compose the engine cooling system are a water-cooled exhaust manifold, an engine coolant pump, one side of the heat exchanger, and the expansion tank. The raw-water cooling system consists of a raw-water coolant pump and the other side of the heat exchanger, along with pipe and hose accessories. The raw-water pump, which uses a synthetic vane-type rubber impeller (Figure 23). It is direct-driven by the engine.

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FIGURE 22 WATER-COOLED TURBOCHARGER TURBINE HOUSING

FIGURE 23 SECTIONAL VIEW OF A RAW-WATER PUMP

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HEAT EXCHANGER COOLING SYSTEM OPERATION - When the engine is operating and is at the operating temperature, coolant from the expansion tank flows downward through the freshwater core of the heat exchanger, around the oil cooler, around the reverse-gear oil cooler, through the engine, and then to the inlet side of the engine coolant pump (Figure 24). It is then pumped through the engine cooling passages, through the exhaust cooling passages, onto the thermostat housing, and a portion then flows to the expansion tank. When the thermostat is closed, the coolant flow to the heat exchanger is blocked by the thermostat, and is redirected to the inlet side of the engine coolant pump. NOTE There is a continuous flow of coolant through the exhaust manifold.

FIGURE 24 HEAT EXCHANGER COOLING SYSTEM Whenever the engine is operating, the raw-water pump impeller is rotating, and as the impeller vanes pass the raw-water pump inlet, a low pressure is created. Water from the inlet, below the vessel's water line, is forced into the pump and carried around the pockets formed by the vanes
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and housing. As the vanes pass by the outlet port, the water is forced out of the pump and directed through the heat-exchanger raw-water core (in a horizontal direction) back into the sea. This continuous raw-water circulation maintains cool engine coolant. However, the thermostat controls the engine coolant flow and, therefore, also the temperature. NOTE Zinc electrodes within the system are used to reduce electrolytic action. KEEL COOLING SYSTEM OPERATION - The keel cooling system is a closed system. It consists of the water-cooled exhaust manifold, a high-capacity engine cooling pump, an expansion tank, and the keel cooling coil which is fastened to the hull of the vessel (Figure 25).

FIGURE 25 KEEL COOLING SYSTEM


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When the engine is operating, coolant flows from the expansion tank into the cooling pump, then through the engine oil cooler, marine-gear oil cooler, cylinder block and cylinder head, and through the exhaust manifold passages. Part of the coolant flows directly back to the expansion tank and the remainder flows back to the inlet side of the coolant pump. As the thermostat starts to open, the coolant is directed to (and through) the keel-cooling coil, then back to the inlet side of the coolant pump. NOTE There is a continuous coolant flow through the exhaust manifold.

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5.. 5

AIR INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS AIR INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS

PURPOSE OF AIR-INTAKE SYSTEM - The purpose of the air-intake system is: (1) to supply clean and cool air to each cylinder as required for complete combustion, (2) to supply air for scavenging, (3) to reduce the airflow noise, and in some cases, (4) to cool the air going to the cylinders. AIR-INTAKE SYSTEM COMPONENTS - The air intake system of a naturally aspirated fourcycle engine consists of an air cleaner, connecting elbows, tubes, hoses, and the intake manifold (Figure 26). When a turbocharger is used, the compressor side of the turbocharger becomes part of the intake system (Figure 27).

FIGURE 26 FLOW OF GASES THROUGH AN ENGINE

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If, in addition, an aftercooler (intercooler) is used to cool the air and thereby improve engine efficiency, it then becomes part of the intake system (Figure 27). The air-intake system of a two-cycle engine consists of an air cleaner, connecting elbows, tubes, hoses, and the blowers. The air box, which is part of the engine block, is the manifold. When a turbocharger is used, the compressor side of the turbocharger becomes part of the intake system. If, in addition, an aftercooler is used, it also becomes part of the intake system (Figure 28).

FIGURE 27

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FIGURE 28 - AIR-INTAKE COMPONENTS OF AN AFTERCOOLED ENGINE INTAKE MANIFOLD - Intake manifolds are made of either cast iron or aluminum. While many engines have one-piece intake manifolds, others do use several sections, which are fastened together to form one manifold. The inlet port of the manifold is connected to the air cleaner, the aftercooler, or the compressor side of the turbocharger. Some engine manufacturers place electric heater elements in the intake manifold. These heaters provide heating of the intake air for improved cold weather starting. AIR CLEANER AND SILENCER - The efficiency and service life of an engine depend to a large extent on adequate maintenance and servicing of the air cleaner along with the other components of the air-intake system. There is a wide range of air cleaners available to meet any air demand of a given engine and to provide ample clean cool air to the combustion chamber. Insufficient air, because of air-cleaner restriction, will limit the amount of fuel the engine can burn. This will result in a loss in power output as well as excessive exhaust smoke and high fuel consumption. A damaged or leaking air cleaner, flanges, or hoses can lead to excessive engine component wear, shorter engine life, and higher oil consumption.

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FIGURE 29 - SCHEMATIC VIEW OF A TWO-STROKE AIR-INTAKE SYSTEM HAVING A TURBOCHARGER, BLOWER AND AFTERCOOLER AFTERCOOLER - Most turbocharged engines employ an aftercooler to further improve the brake mean effective pressure (bmep). Aftercoolers (also called intercoolers or heat exchangers) are small radiators positioned between the compressor housing of the turbocharger and the inlet manifold of the engine. We find two basic types of aftercoolers: those that cool air going into the cylinder with water and those that cool the intake air with air from another source. WATER-COOLED AFTERCOOLERS - Coolant enters the aftercooler and passes through the core tubes and back into the cylinder block or cylinder head. Air from the turbocharger (compressor) flows around the tubes and is cooled before it enters the inlet manifold. This increases the power output by about 10 to 20 percent because the incoming air is cooled to within 40oF (22oC) of the engine coolant temperature and, therefore, more air enters the cylinders. The result is lower cylinder pressure, more effective cooling of the cylinder components, and a lower exhaust gas temperature which brings about a higher bmep. Without the aftercooler the air temperature entering the intake manifold increases sharply because of the compression of the air and heat from the turbocharger. This results in a loss in air density and power, and a higher temperature within the cylinder and exhaust gases.

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Note that with a 1oF (0.56oC) increase in air-intake temperature the exhaust temperature increases by 3oF (1.67oC). For example, when the engine is operating at torque speed with a manifold pressure of 35 in. Hg (88.9 cm Hg) and the ambient temperature is 70oF (21oC), compressed air entering the intake manifold would be around 248oF (120oC), which would result in an exhaust temperature of about 1,150oF (621.1oC). If the same engine were aftercooled (by coolant) and were operated under the same conditions, the compressed air entering the intake manifold would be 190oF (87.7oC) and the exhaust temperature around 1,000oF (537.7oC). AIR-TO-AIR AFTERCOOLER - One type of air-to-air aftercooler consists of the components shown in Figure 30 and is called an aftercooler by some manufacturers. The intercooler manifold is bolted to the front cylinder head. The rear inlet manifold is bolted to the rear cylinder head and is connected with a hose to the intercooler manifold. A separate intercooler air cleaner protects the tip turbine from contaminants. The intercooler cores have wide fins even though the compressed air airflow cores have narrow fins.

FIGURE 30 - AIR-TO-AIR AFTERCOOLER COMPONENTS

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When the engine is operating at maximum torque speed, compressed air from the turbocharger (compressor) enters the intercooler header, where it is forced downward through the intercooler core into the intercooler manifold and the rear manifold (Figure 31). At the same time bleed air (60 ft3 /min (283.2 L/s)) from the turbocharger (turbine) enters the tip turbine and forces the tip turbine and fan to rotate at 2,200 rpm. The fan draws air from its air cleaner and forces it in a horizontal direction through the intercooler core out into the atmosphere.

FIGURE 31 - A SIMPLIFIED VIEW OF AIR-TO-AIR AFTERCOOLER OPERATION NOTE: The compressed air from a turbocharger compressor is cooled by the cooler ambient air to about 120oF (48.8oC) above ambient air temperature. Another design of the air-to-air cooler will further reduce the intake temperature (Figure 32). A coolant-to-air core is placed onto the top of the air-to-air core. The left-hand side of the coolantto-air core is connected to the coolant pump. The right-hand side of the core is connected, via the air cooler, to the cooling system. This two-stage coolant-to-air and air-to-air intercooler
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arrangement reduces the air temperature from the compressor by about 180oF (82.2oC), which is about 10 percent greater than the air-to-air intercooler.

FIGURE 32 - AN AFTERCOOLER THAT USES BOTH AIR AND WATER TO COOL INTAKE AIR The last and most efficient type of air-to-air intercooler is shown in Figure 33. You will notice a large radiator-type cooler in front of the radiator. The compressor is connected to the intercooler through pipes and hoses, and from the left-hand side through pipes and hoses to the crossover, and from there to the inlet manifolds. Cooling air is drawn through the intercooler and radiator by the fan and the forward motion of the motor-truck.

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FIGURE 33 - A CHASSIS-MOUNTED AIR-TO-AIR AFTERCOOLER ROOTS-TYPE BLOWER - Two-cycle diesel engines require an air pump (blower) capable of pumping air into the engine cylinders at a pressure of about 2 to 7 psi (13.8 to 48.3 kPa) to replace exhaust gases with fresh air (scavenging). The air volume needed to perform scavenging is about 40 times greater than the cylinder volume. A positive-displacement, Roots-type blower is commonly used as the air pump. It is bolted to the air-box opening flange (Figure 34) and is driven by the engine. The Roots-type blower has two hollow, three-lobe rotors, which revolve with very close clearances within the housing. To achieve efficient sealing and a uniform airflow (volume), one rotor lobe is twisted to the right and one is twisted to the left. The two rotors are timed by two drive gears, which space the rotor lobes to a close clearance. Since the lobes do not come in actual contact with each other or with the housing, the rotor needs no lubricant. Should the drive gears exceed the backlash clearance the rotors will then come in contact with each other. The resultant wear will cause a reduction in volume and pressure. The rotor shafts rotate on double roller bearings in the drive (rear) end plate and on roller bearings in the (front) end plate. Liptype seals seal the rotor shaft. The upper rotor is driven by the camshaft through the rotor drive gear. The ratio between rotor and engine rpm varies between engine series and models and also depends on whether a turbocharger and/or aftercooler is used. In in-line engines the governor is splined to the top rotor, and on V-engines the fuel pump is splined to its left-hand rotor. The fuel pump is coupled to the lower rotor (rear) and the coolant pump is coupled to the front. On V engines the govenor
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weight assembly is splined to the right-hand rear blower rotor. A flexible coupling is used on both blowers to reduce the transfer of torque fluctuation to the blower. On V-type engines, timing, gears, governor, and fuel-pump drive are pressure-lubricated from the main oil gallery. The main oil gallery leads to an oil passage m each blower end plate and oil returns to the crankcase via an oil passage in the cylinder block. On in-line engines, oil from the valve mechanism drains into camshaft or balance-shaft pockets (depending on engine model) and from there through passages into the end plates. A slinger attached to the lower rotor (waterpump side) throws oil onto the bearings and governor assembly. At a certain oil level it drains through passages back into the oil pan.

FIGURE 34 - ROOTS TYPE BLOWER

DESIGN AND FUNCTION OF THE EXHAUST SYSTEM - The purpose of the exhaust system is to direct the engines exhaust gases into the atmosphere and to silence excessive noise by dampening the exhaust pressure waves. In some cases the exhaust system is required to act as a spark arrester as well.
The exhaust system usually consists of an exhaust manifold, turbocharger; exhaust piping (which is low-carbon steel tubing), at least one muffler, (Figure 35) and the clamps and fasteners necessary to hold the system together.

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FIGURE 35 TWO TYPES OF MUFFLER DESIGNS Turbochargers help reduce engine noise and in some instances are approved as spark arresters. In marine and some industrial engine applicators, we find both water-cooled exhaust manifolds and water-cooled turbocharger turbine housings. INSPECTING, SERVICING AND INSTALLING EXHAUST MANIFOLD - In most cases the manifold can be steam cleaned; however, when carbon deposits or scale are present, the manifold must be cleaned with a sand or glass-bead cleaner. This is especially important with a turbocharged engine to prevent loose scale from entering and therefore damaging the turbine. Check the manifold for cracks. Using a straightedge, check the mounting surface for warp. If warp is sufficient to prevent effective sealing, the mounting surfaces must be machined or the manifold replaced. Check the threaded bores for damaged threads or broken studs. If you have not previously checked the stud bolts in the cylinder head for thread damage, do so now. When installing new stud bolts, use an anti-seize lubricant to prevent thread corrosion and seizure. To prevent damage to the engine, before you install the exhaust manifold, make sure that all loose deposits and cleaner dust (residue) are removed from the manifold, particularly when a turbocharger is used. After you have checked the cylinder-head surface, place new manifold gaskets over the stud bolts or install temporary stud bolts.

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When a multi-sectional manifold is used, install the center section first but do not tighten the bolts. Then slide each end section into place or assemble the manifold on the workbench and install it as a unit. Apply an anti-seize lubricant to the threads of the studs or manifold bolts and tighten the manifold bolts to the specified torque, and in the recommended sequence. Check the service manual in the event special washers are required on the manifold bolts. Install the exhaust elbow or the connecting link to the turbine. If the turbocharger is not to be installed immediately, cover the exhaust opening

TURBOCHARGERS - Supercharging, which may be defined as the pre-compression of part or all of the charge (air) outside the working cycle, can be done with a supercharger.
Supercharging, using a turbocharger, employs the normally wasted exhaust energy to drive the impeller (air pump) and therefore most effectively increases power (mean effective pressure) without increasing the engine speed, the number or displacement of the cylinders, the stroke, or the mean piston velocity (Figure 36). The mean effective pressure of today's diesel engines using a turbocharger is between 160 and 230 psi (1,103.2 and 1,585.8 kPa), which is a power gain of 75 to 100 percent for the same engine when not turbocharged. Turbocharging requires, among other things, a very strong engine to carry the increased gas force.

FIGURE 36 INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM COMPONENTS The birth of the turbocharger has come about after many engineering refinements, improved metallurgy, more efficient fuel-injection systems, and better-quality engine oils.

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The modern diesel is highly economical of fuel, and the exhaust emission is relatively clean. However, to achieve the optimum power output, the volumetric efficiency and the scavenging flow must be increased. To accomplish this, the valve overlap is increased and the compression ratio is slightly reduced.

TURBOCHARGER DESIGN - Basically there are two types of turbochargers, the constant
pressure and the pulse turbocharger. On a constant-pressure turbocharger the exhaust gas of all cylinders is piped into a common exhaust manifold so that the pressure pulses are smoothed out, resulting in an almost constant pressure in the intake manifold. On a pulse turbocharger, pressure and air velocity fluctuate in the intake manifold because individual exhaust manifolds are used in which flow the exhaust gas of a number of cylinders. The exhaust energy of each manifold is placed on the turbine wheels in the form of pressure energy so that there is a backpressure of varying magnitude in the exhaust manifolds, which affects the exhaust work done by the pistons. The objective when using a pulse turbocharger is to have a pressure higher than the boost pressure in the exhaust manifolds at the time the exhaust valves open which then drops below boost pressure toward the end of the exhaust stroke during the scavenging. NOTE: The pressure rise in the cylinders during scavenging is caused by the inflow of charged boost air. To achieve this pressure fluctuation, a four cylinder or six-cylinder engine requires two exhaust manifolds, whereas eight-cylinder engines require four exhaust manifolds. This also necessitates a turbine housing division into two or four entry volutes. A pulse turbocharger in comparison with a constant-pressure turbocharger has the following advantages: It has No backflow of exhaust gases to the cylinders) which are on the intake stroke at part or fall load A higher scavenging gradient even at full load A greater acceleration potential because of its pulse Superior scavenging, which results in a lower exhaust temperature and reduced emission during acceleration. All turbochargers are similar in design. They consist of three basic systems, that is, the turbine and turbine housing, the bearing housing assembly, and the compressor housing and impeller. The differences lie in the manner in which they arrive at the various desired boost pressures and airflow. The turbine housing, turbine wheel design, and volute or nozzle opening size determine the velocity of exhaust gas flow and the shaft power. The compressor housing (including inlet diameter), scroll, diffuser, and impeller design (blade angle and diameter) must match the shaft power to achieve the desired airflow and pressure. The diffuser's purpose is to convert the air velocity (kinetic energy) into pressure. The heat shield, with its insulating material, minimizes heat transfer to the bearing assembly. The bearing housing assembly supports the turbine and compressor housing and the bearing (bushing) assembly. The bearing supports the common turbine and impeller heel shaft. It may be a one-piece unit or consist of two pieces, one pressed

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into the left and the other into the right-hand side of the bearing housing. If a one-piece bearing is used, its flange serves as a thrust bearing. When two bearings are used, a separate thrust bearing and thrust collar are employed to absorb the thrust placed on the compressor wheel during operation. The bearing assembly receives oil from the engine lubrication system. Pressurized oil enters the bearing housing and is distributed through oil passages to the bearing(s) and shaft, and drains, through gravity, into the lower bearing housing, and then through a drain hose into an oil pan. The average exhaust temperature at lower engine load is about 500F (260C), and the boost pressure is about 5 in. Hg (12.7 cm hg). At maximum engine load (maximum torque), the exhaust temperature may reach 1,000 to 1,200F (537.7 to 648.8C) with a boost pressure of about 35 in. Hg (88.9 cm hg). NOTE: The exhaust temperature varies because of the displacement variation, the boost pressure variations, and whether or not the engine is aftercooled. ACTION IN TURBOCHARGER - The turbocharger, through its turbine housing, is bolted to the outlet of the exhaust manifold. Either the compressor housing or the compressor extension is connected to the inlet manifold or aftercooler. When the engine is started, the exhaust gases leave the exhaust manifold and enter the turbine housing. The exhaust gases flow under pressure, and with relatively high velocity, into the volute-shaped turbine housing (Figure 37). The snail-shaped housing gradually decreases in area, causing a further increase in velocity. The high velocity air is directed through the nozzle onto the turbine wheel and from there discharges through the exhaust pipes to the atmosphere. The exhaust gases force the turbine wheel and the compressor wheel to rotate, which in turn creates a low pressure at the compressor housing inlet. Atmospheric pressure forces air at high velocity into the inlet opening of the compressor housing or compressor extension. The continued increasing rotational speed of the impeller increases the air velocity. As the air is forced through the diffuser and then into the compressor housing, it gradually slows down, converting the kinetic energy into pressure. The diffuser may be in the form of an open passage with a cross-sectional area that gradually increases toward the outer circumference, or it may be in the form of blades. The diffuser, compressor housing, and inlet manifold convert the air velocity to pressure. When the engine operates at its maximum torque rpm, the turbocharger operates at its maximum designed efficiency, that is, it operates at its maximum designed rpm and within its designed boost pressure. Any variation in engine torque reduces the rpm and boost pressure; however, rpm and boost pressure will not reduce proportionately. To balance the quantity of fuel being injected with the boost pressure, various control devices are used. These control devices are designed to prevent excessive turbocharger rpm and boost pressure, and/or to reduce emissions during acceleration and deceleration. One such control device is shown in Figure 38.

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FIGURE 37 GAS FLOW IN THE TURBOCHARGER

FIGURE 38 WASTE GATE FOR BOOST PRESSURE CONTROL

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TWO-STAGE TURBO-CHARGING - To increase the torque range and to increase the mean effective pressure (mep) to an even higher value, some V and in-line engines use two or four turbochargers and aftercoolers (one for each exhaust manifold), or they use two turbochargers in series and an aftercooler (Figure 39). In this type of system air flows from the air cleaner into the first-stage compressor housing (lowpressure turbocharger), from the housing outlet into the second-stage compressor, and from the second-stage outlet into and through the aftercooler into the intake manifold. At this point the airflow temperature is reduced to 223F (106C) and has a pressure of 60.4 in. Hg (204.5 kPa). The exhaust gas from combustion enters the pulse type exhaust manifold and then enters into the second-stage pulse turbine housing. The exhaust gas leaving the turbine housing is routed to the first-stage turbine housing, where it drives the turbine wheel with its remaining energy. It then exhausts into the exhaust pipe system and then into the atmosphere. Through this design the engine gains approximately 75 hp (55.93 kW).

FIGURE 39 SCHEMATIC VIEW OF A TWO-STAGE TURBOCHARGER COMPOUND TURBOCHARGING - Another turbocharging approach soon to be seen on engines is shown in Figure 40. An experimental engine of this design has a proven efficiency of 46.5 percent. The system includes a power turbine wheel and its shaft, connected to a fluid coupling. The turbine of the fluid coupling is connected to a reduction gear train, and its output shaft is connected to the crankshaft. It uses the standard turbocharger.

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FIGURE 40 SCHEMATIC VIEW OF COMPOUND ENGINE WITH POWER TURBINE In this type of system, exhaust gas drives the power turbine wheel, which in turn drives the fluid coupling. The turbine drives the reduction-gear input shaft, and the output shaft helps to rotate the crankshaft. The exhaust gas leaving the power turbine housing is routed to the turbocharger turbine housing, driving the turbine and impeller wheel. The remaining airflow and exhaust gas flow are the same as that of a standard turbocharged engine. TURBOCHARGER FAILURE - The most prevalent causes of turbocharger failure are extreme temperature caused by hot shutdown, a restricted air cleaner, air leaks in the intake system, leaks in the exhaust system, over fueling, higher altitude without compensatory fuelpump adjustment, or a dirty compressor wheel due to a leak in the air-intake system. Secondary causes of turbocharger failure are the failure to pre-lubricate the turbocharger after completion of servicing, after an oil filter change, or after a long shutdown period. A malfunction in the lubrication system or the oil supply will also cause the turbocharger to fail.

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Improper maintenance is another contributor to turbocharger failure. Dirty air cleaners, oil leakage into the airintake system, leaking oil lines, air leaks, exhaust leaks, and loose or over torqued mounting bolts or clamps can also reduce the efficiency of the turbocharger. INSPECTING AND MAINTAINING TURBOCHARGER - Turbochargers (depending on the engine design and torque) are exposed to temperatures of 800 to 1,300F (427 to 704C) or more, and they may be driven at speeds of 6,000 to 20,000 rpm. Therefore, weekly inspection of a turbocharger is advisable if it is to be kept in good running condition. Begin your inspection with the air-intake systems air cleaner because a faulty or dirty air cleaner restricts the airflow. A loss in power is then unavoidable since boost pressure is lowered. The restriction also can cause an otherwise serviceable seal to leak because of the vacuum the restriction creates. Remove the connecting link to the intake manifold and check the compressor housing and connecting link for the presence of oil. NOTE: The compressor housing (and sometimes the connecting link) of all operating turbochargers contains a small but harmless amount of engine oil. This is usually due to the lower pressure behind the compressor under running conditions. However, it can also come from an overfilled oil-bath air cleaner, although if this were the case, the vanes would also show evidence of oil. If you find heavy deposits or wet oil in the compressor housing and connecting link, they are an indication of seal leakage. The turbocharger should then be serviced immediately, otherwise extensive damage will result Check to be sure that all intake piping and components are aligned, that they fit without stress, that they are properly torqued, and that no evidence of leakage is present (Figure 41)

FIGURE 41 TURBOCHARGER OIL-LINE LEAKS


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FIGURE 42 RESTRICTED OIL RETURN LINE


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Check the crankcase breather and the turbocharger oil-return line for restriction. If either is restricted, the oil pressure will build up and cause the turbine end seal to leak (Figure 42). Check, and when necessary, correct the position of the oil-return line. It must allow the oil from the bearing housing to return through gravity flow to the oil pan. If there is oil on the external surface of the turbocharger, check for leaking oil cooler. Check the oil inlet and return line connection and/or the condition of the oil hoses. If either is defective, it is possible that the oil has been blown onto the turbocharger through air circulation. Check the turbine housing for hairline cracks that occur on its outer surface and near the mounting flange (Figure 43). Check the exhaust manifold for gas leakage and the exhaust piping for restriction.

FIGURE 43 1. UNACCEPTABLE AREA FOR CRACKS 2. HOUSING MAY BE USED IF CRACK DOES NOT EXTEND INTO THIS AREA.

CLEANING COMPRESSOR HOUSING AND COMPRESSOR WHEEL - If there is


an oil deposit or dirt on the compressor wheel, housing, or connecting link, the components should be cleaned, otherwise maximum performance (boost pressure) cannot be maintained. Some manufacturers suggest cleaning these components after 50,000 miles (80,450 km) or 1,000 hours of operation.

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When servicing the components you should, at the same time, check the compressor wheel for nicks and burrs. If the compressor components are only lightly covered with dirt or oil, remove only the compressor housing. Take care not to damage the compressor wheel or the diffuser when removing the housing. Use only a recommended metal-cleaner solvent and a bristle or nylon brush to wash the components. Never use a caustic solution, wire brush, sharp object, or glass-bead cleaner because all of these will damage the components. This is particularly true of the compressor wheel, which may lose its balance.

TOLERANCE CHECKS - In order to determine the condition of the bearing(s) and/or


turbine shaft, several checks have to be made. To check the endplay of the turbine shaft, install a dial gauge so that the dial pointer rests on the compressor end of the shaft (Figure 44). When moving the shaft back and forth against the dial indicator pointer, the total indicated dial movement is the total endplay. It should be within 0.004 to 0.006 in. (0.101 to 0.152 mm). If the endplay is less than 0.004 in., it is an indication of carbon or oil residue buildup. If the endplay is more than 0.006 in., the bearings or the thrust bearing are worn. In either case the turbocharger should be serviced immediately.

FIGURE 44 - CHECKING TURBINE-SHAFT ENDPLAY WITH A DIAL INDICATOR To check bearing and shaft wear (radial clearance), remove the oil-return line and in its place install a dial gauge with an extension through the opening created by the removal of the oilreturn line (Figure 45). The extension must pass through the bearing hole and rest on the turboshaft. Exerting equal force on both ends of the shaft, move it against and away from the dial indicator pointer. When moving the shaft back and forth against the dial indicator pointer, the total indicated dial movement is the total bearing clearance. If the total indicated clearance exceeds 0.003 in. (0.076 mm), the turbocharger should be serviced. Servicing a turbocharger
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requires special tools and is usually done in a specialized repair facility. Because of the many types of turbochargers used, you should refer to the manufacturer's service manual when servicing a turbocharger.

FIGURE 45 - CHECKING RADIAL CLEARANCE INSTALLING TURBOCHARGER - Before you install a turbocharger, check the intake and exhaust manifolds for loose foreign materials such as bolts, lock washers, etc. Make sure before placing the turbocharger onto its mountings that all the manifold bolts are torqued to specification, that the mounting flanges are clean, and that the gaskets are in the correct positions. Install all hex bolts finger-tight using an anti-seizing lubricant on the turbocharger mounting bolts. Loosen the V clamps that fasten the turbine housing and compressor housing to the center housing in order to align the compressor and turbine housing outlets; then tighten the mounting bolts and V clamps to the recommended torque. Connect the turbocharger to the inlet manifold (or aftercooler), the oil inlet, and the oil-return line. When you install the oil return line, avoid sharp bends and avoid an angle of more than 30 from the vertical. Keep the airintake cover on to prevent foreign material from entering the turbocharger.

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6.. 6

FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

Fuel-injection equipment before the 1920s was designed and manufactured by the engine manufacturers. Bosch of Germany saw the need for precision mechanical fuel-injection components and developed a "jerk" pump with "port-and-helix" metering. Using these principles and modern manufacturing methods, Bosch was able to produce reliable, positive displacement fuel-injection equipment for engine manufacturers who did not produce their own. The jerk pump is a positive-displacement pump with a close-fitting piston (plunger) in a cylinder (barrel) that displaces whatever fuel is in the barrel when the plunger is forced into the barrel. The intermittent rapid movement of the plunger gives rise to the term jerk pump. Today, the jerk pumping principle is used by the majority of fuel-injection equipment manufacturers. Variations between different types and brands of fuel injection equipment are due mainly to differences in hardware and the fuel delivery requirements of specific engines. BASIC PLUNGER AND BARREL - Let us consider what a plunger and barrel in a fuel pump must do. The plunger must be able to displace fuel at high pressure in varying quantities and throughout a wide range of engine speed. To accomplish this with precise control, a very close fit must be built into the plunger and barrel. The final step of the manufacturing process is the selective fitting of individual plungers to individual barrels. The technician should remember not to touch the finely lapped surfaces of these parts during service and to keep them as a matched set. BASIC TYPES OF FUEL-INJECTION SYSTEMS - The fuel injection system of any diesel engine has six basic functions: 1. To store, clean, and transfer fuel 2. To meter the quantity of fuel required at all loads and speeds and to equalize the fuel quantity delivered to each engine cylinder to ensure equal power between cylinders of multiple-cylinder engines 3. To start injection at the right time within the cycle of the engine in relation to load and speed 4. To ensure quick beginning and ending of injection so that the injected fuel is evenly atomized 5. To inject the fuel at the rate necessary to control both combustion and pressure in the cylinder 6. To direct, distribute, and atomize the fuel uniformly, as required by the combustionchamber design Two basic types of fuel-injection systems are produced today, with many variations of each type. Listed below each group you will find some of the manufacturers of each type of system. GROUP 1 - A gear or cam-driven high-pressure pump, which supplies highly pressurized fuel by way of high-pressure fuel lines to injector nozzles for atomization and injection (Figure 41).

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

American Bosch CAV Caterpillar Robert Bosch Stanadyne 6. Diesel Kik

FIGURE 41 SCHEMATIC VIEW OF A TYPICAL FUEL-INJECTION SYSTEM USING PORT-AND-HELIX METERING PRINCIPLE GROUP 2 - A gear or cam-driven low-pressure pump that supplies fuel to each cylinder's unit injector. The unit injector then highly pressurizes, atomizes, and injects the fuel (Figure 28-2). 1. Caterpillar 2. Cummins 3. Detroit Diesel

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FIGURE 42 FUEL FLOW THROUGH AN 8.2-L DETRIOT DIESEL Recently, the control of fuel injection has begun to shift from mechanical control to computerized electronic control. In later chapters you will become more familiar with some new engine fuel control systems that have electric wiring instead of mechanical linkage between the operator's speed control and the engine!

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REQUIREMENTS OF FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS 1. Accurate metering - amount delivered to each cylinder be the same and according to load. 2. Proper Timing - Injection begins at proper time. Beginning and ending quickly. 3. Suitable rate of fuel injection fuel injection crank angle. 4. Proper atomization facilitates starting and smooth burning conforms to combustion chamber 5. Good distribution and penetration get next to oxygen. 6. Must be able to adjust and hold various fuel settings under operating conditions. 7. Not consume too much power. 8. Be light and economically constructed. 9. Have quiet operation. TWO TYPES OF FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS: 1. Air Injection 2. Mechanical Injection COMPONENTS 1. HP pump 2. HP line 3. Fuel injector nozzle valve MECHANICAL INJECTION (AIRLESS INJECTION) Types: 1. Constant pressure common rail 2. (Jerk) pump controlled injection system a. Meters individual pump for each cylinder. b. One HP pump with distributor 3. Low pressure metering pump and distributor with mechanically HP pump and nozzle at each cylinder. 4. Pre-combustion chamber COMMON RAIL CONSTANT PRESSURE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Components: 1. High pressure, constant stroke and constant delivery pump off camshaft. 2. High pressure fuel header (common rail) 3. High pressure tubing leading from common rail to fuel injectors 4. Spring loaded by-pass valve, which maintains a constant pressure on the header and returns the excess air pumped to the supply tank. 5. Fuel spray injector valves 6. Fuel control wedge 7. Injector Actuation Gear

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COMMON RAIL - CONSTANT PRESSURE INJECTION 1. Fuel oil delivered to the day tank by centrifuge. Oil drops down by gravity to stroke and horsepower fuel oil pumps. 2. Suction strainer- usually of the metal edge type, are installed as indicated .003 clearance 3. HP fuel pump delivers F.O. at 1000 to 5000 psi, depending on load conditions, to the header (common rail). This pump is driven off camshaft and is a constant stroke, constant delivery pump. 4. Isolating valves are installed for each cylinder so the fuel could be shut off the injectors when cranking over for repairs or blowing out cylinders. 5. Receiver is installed in the system to increase the volume of the common rail so that pressure fluctuations caused by pumping and injection valve opening may be reduced. AUTOMATIC SPEED GOVERNING FEATURE Should the engine overspeed the time allowed for injection is automatically reduced. COMMON RAIL - MECHANICAL INJECTION FUEL NOZZLE 1. Metering a. Depends on number and size of orifices. b. Time valve is open, wedge in valve opens sooner and closes later Push rod and wedges will cause uneven meeting. NOTE: SPRING SHOULD BE SET THE SAME FOR ALL VALVES 2. Automatic speed governing feature a. The pressure on the common rail if pressure is doubled volume of fuel will i.e. at 1000# 1 quart delivered i.e. at 2000# 1.414 quarts delivered 3. Timing Injection at precise moment depends upon: a. Cams and cam base circle is correct position b. Wedges in injection starts earlier and ends later c. Push rod length short retards injection, long rod advances injection 4. Rate of injection a. Controlled by size and number of orifices in injector tip b. Fuel pressure at the injector valve 5. Atomization a. Size of holes b. Pressure 6. Penetration and Distribution a. Size and location of holes b. Pressure Good penetration large holes and high pressure up to a point, then the high pressure causes fine atomization and reduced penetration.

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THINGS TO KNOW Tips Marked 5-8-30 5 holes 8 - .008 diameter orifices 30-30-spray angle If holes are worn .001 or more they should be replaced. JERK PUMP SYSTEM 1. Components. The two essential parts: a. HP injection pump b. Fuel injector nozzle other parts c. Primary filter d. Secondary filter e. Day tank f. Booster pump - Booster pump supplies oil to the injection pump g. Overflow regular valve h. Pump actuating mechanism i. Heater and viscosity control 2. Jerk pump unit injector a. Meter and deliver under high pressure and at the exact time an exceedingly small amount of fuel. b. Timing injection period takes about 20 of crank angle = 10 .0017 sec. Injection must start within 1 or 1/12,000 sec. c. Injection pressure from 2000 psi 30,000 psi, 5000-6000 for heavy oil, about 3500 psi for diesel oil #2. BOSCH INDIVIDUAL INJECTION PUMP 1. Driven off the main unit by a camshaft. crankshaft speed for four stroke and crankshaft speed for 2 stroke. 2. Connected with an adjustable coupling 3. Smaller engines may have all pumps in one bloc (housing). Larger engines have individual; pump. FUNCTIONS OF INJECTOR NOZZLES Atomize fuel Distribute fuel to areas of combustion chamber Prevent impingement of fuel on liner and piston head Mix fuel with the air Prompt beginning and ending with proper rate of injection OPEN COMBUSTION CHAMBER The space between the crown and the cylinder head is used for combustion.

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PRE-COMBUSTION CHAMBERS A separate chamber either in the cylinder wall of head and connected to the space above the piston by a small passageway or orifice. The fuel is injected into this chamber where it burns and is expelled to act on the top of the piston. TURBULENCE CHAMBER 50 80% of clearance volume contained in the chamber, air mixing to combustion apace above piston is due to high velocity rotation due to the design of the chamber. AIR CELLS Consist of a main combustion chamber located on the cylinder head with an antechamber on the opposite side of the combustion chamber from the injector nozzle. ENGINE ROOM FUEL SYSTEMS Fuel pumping, heating and treatment systems in, motorship engine rooms vary in detail but the broad principles are common for both slow and medium speed engines burning residual fuel. A diagrammatic arrangement of the residual fuel system for a large crosshead engine is shown in Figure 43. The capacity of the pumps, heaters and storage tanks varies with the engine horsepower, but the settling and daily service (or readyuse) tanks usually hold a 24-36 h supply. In the case of, say, a 10 000 bhp engine the daily fuel consumption will be about 30-33 tons. In a good layout the daily service tanks are in duplicate, with one in use while the other is being filled with cleaned fuel and allowed to settle before being used. The transfer pump (in duplicate) draws oil from the double-bottom or deep tank, through a suction strainer and discharges it into an overhead settling tank. Transfer pump capacities vary, but it is desirable to be able to pump a day's supply of fuel in 1-2 h, which gives it adequate time to settle in the heated primary tank. The drain to the slop tank is opened at intervals to drain off any water or solids, which have settled out. In the arrangement shown in Figure 43 two centrifugal separators are installed in series. A small pump, driven by the separator, draws residual fuel from the settling tank, which is maintained at a temperature of about 55C to assist in gravity separation, and pumps it through a heater to the first stage centrifuge. A second small pump then pumps the cleaned fuel to the second machine where cleaning is completed before being pumped to the clean fuel daily service tank. The preheat temperature varies according to the fuel viscosity and specific gravity, and may be as high as 98C for some current poor quality heavy fuels. From the daily service tank the clean residual fuel flows by gravity through a three-way control valve to a mixing or blending tank. A flow meter in the circuit, flushes through the system and eliminates the risk of waxy deposits. STARTING UP ENGINES Prior to starting up main engines burning residual fuel it is important to thoroughly warm up the engine and to circulate hot fuel through the system. Sulzer, for example, recommends that, prior to starting the engine, heat must be supplied to the main preheater, the line filter, to the traced fuel pipes to the fuel pump and from the fuel pumps to the injectors. The fuel valve cooling water system should be started up but hot water circulated until the engine is started; then changed over to cool water in the normal way. The period of heating

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should be long enough to ensure that all components reach their normal working temperature from 2 to 4 h, depending upon ambient temperature and how long the engine has been stopped. The booster pump is used to circulate fuel through the preheater, fuel lines, filter and fuel pumps, thence back through the fuel return pipe and constant pressure valve to the mixing tank. The cycle is repeated until normal operating temperatures are reached. Some systems are fitted with a pre-warming by-pass located just before the fine filter and linked into the mixing tank return circuit. The by-pass is used initially to speed up circulation of hot fuel through the pipe system. When the predetermined preheat temperature is reached at the fuel pump inlet the high-pressure fuel lines and all fuel injectors are thoroughly flushed through to remove cold fuel and any solids present by opening the priming plugs on the injectors. When flushing through, the pressure in the system is increased by temporarily closing down the constant pressure valve. As soon as hot fuel flows continuously from the priming plug drains the constant pressure valve is returned to its original setting and all primary plugs closed .

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FIGURE 43 DIAGRAMMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF A SHIPS RESIDUAL FUEL SYSTEM.

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NORMAL OPERATION- After the engine has been started up and maneuvering completed, the viscosity controller, which is preset to give the makers recommended viscosity at the injectors, controls the engine operating under the required load the fuel heating system automatically. The injector cooling system is also set, preferably on automatic thermostat control, to give a suitable nozzle-tip temperature. When running at reduced power it is important to ensure that the nozzle temperatures are not too low in order to prevent cold corrosion. It is also most important to ensure that the insulation on the fuel lines from the heater to the fuel pumps, and from the pumps to the injectors, is maintained in good condition. In well-designed systems all these pipes are traced, either with steam or low-wattage electric lines, and these must be used, especially under low engine-load conditions. Without such tracers the temperature drop after the heater can be appreciable, leading to high viscosity at the injectors and resulting in poor combustion and very high pressures in the injector feed lines. MANEUVERING AND STOPPING Maneuvering on residual fuel is now quite common in both crosshead-type and medium-speed engines provided that the normal preheat temperatures can be maintained throughout the system until the engines are shut down. The booster pump must circulate hot fuel through the system and heat maintained on the fuel-line traces. Equally important, the fuel valve or injector nozzle temperature must be maintained at the specified level throughout. After Finished-with-Engines the line preheater can be shut down, but the booster pump should circulate fuel until the system gradually cools down. Similarly, cooling water should be circulated through the injectors until the main engine cools down. MANEUVERING ON DISTILLATE FUEL Particularly with smaller medium-speed, trunkpiston engines it is often preferable to start up and maneuver on Marine Diesel fuel. This can, of course, be carried out without preheating the fuel, but, bearing in mind the sulfur content can be as high as 2.0%, it is desirable to operate the injector cooling/heating system and maintain the nozzle temperature above 120C in order to avoid acid corrosion. FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS The fuel injection system is probably the most single important system of any diesel engine. Without an efficient high-pressure fuel pump and injector the engine cannot perform its functions efficiently. This is even more important with the poorer-quality residual fuels now becoming common for marine bunkers. The development of efficient fuel injection systems has always been one of the major problems in engine design and development, the design problems increasing with the now almost universal use of residual fuels (usually with poorer combustion properties than previously used distillate fuels), in all types of slow-speed, two-stroke as well as medium and medium/high-speed, trunkpiston engines. Some of the main requirements of an efficient fuel injection system may be summarized as follows:

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1. Accurately meter the quantity of fuel required by the individual engine cylinders for all conditions of load. 2. Inject fuel at the correct predetermined point in the engine cycle at all engine speeds and loads. 3. Cease fuel injection at exactly the correct point in the cycle. 4. Commence and complete fuel injection sharply, with no dribbling after injector closes and without causing pressure waves in fuel piping, resulting in intermittent secondary injection. 5. Inject fuel at a suitable rate so as to allow a smooth, controlled pressure rise and efficient combustion in the cylinder. 6. Provide a suitable spray pattern with the right droplet size for all conditions of loading. 7. Distribute the fuel evenly throughout the compressed air charge in the cylinder, giving efficient air/fuel admixture, thereby promoting good combustion. 8. Ensure that residual fuel is preheated to a suitable temperature so as to provide a suitable injection viscosity. 9. Provide a suitable heating/cooling system for injectors in engines burning residual fuel so as to avoid both cold corrosion and injector-tip carbon formation. 10. Design the system so that the engine can burn either distillate or heavy residual fuel efficiently at all engine loads. In the early types of large diesel engines fuel was forced into the engine cylinders near the end of the compression stroke by high-pressure air, the system being known as blast-injection. Although this gave good combustion with the engines and fuels then in use the equipment was complicated and expensive. This has now been replaced entirely by mechanical injection or solid injection, in which carefully metered fuel is discharged at high pressure through fuel injectors or valves into the engine cylinders. Several types of mechanical-hydraulic fuel injection systems have been developed, but the two currently used are: 1. The jerk-pump system, in which individual high-pressure pumps supply fuel to each cylinder through one or more fuel injectors or valves; and 2. The common-rail system, in which a number of engine-driven pumps discharge into a common high-pressure manifold. Fuel from the manifold is supplied to the individual injectors, inlet and cutoff being controlled by a timing valve for each cylinder. JERK-PUMP SYSTEM The jerk-pump system is by far the most widely used for marine propulsion and auxiliary diesel engines of all types as well as similar engines used for industrial applications. Two types of fuel pumps are used, the valve controlled discharge type, as preferred for large crosshead engines by MAN-B & W and Sulzer, and the helix-type, or helical controledge pump, such as the Lucas Bryce or Bosch pump. Helix-type pumps are used for virtually all high, medium/high and medium-speed trunk-piston engines and several slow speed crosshead engines (MAN, GMT, etc.). Valve-type pumps are expensive to make, but it is claimed that they have a long service life and can be more readily balanced to give the correct delivery charge over a wide engine load range.

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Helix-type pumps are cheaper and of simpler design. Fuel output is readily controlled and accurately metered by rotation of the pump plunger in relation to the fixed pump barrel. A pinion on the control determines the position of the plunger sleeve and a rack on a control rod, permitting variable pump discharge from almost zero to maximum output. This system is particularly suitable for variable speed, small automotive engines as well as for diesel generators, which can be governor controlled. A typical helical-edge control, high-pressure fuel pump and associated fuel injector, as fitted to a Pielstick Type PA6-280, 280 mm bore x 290 min stroke, highly pressure-charged four-stroke engine, developing 346 hp (258 kw) at 1050 rev/min, is shown in Figure 44. Despite the fact that the engine is of relatively small bore and runs at a speed which, it was previously believed by many authorities, was above that at which residual fuels could be burnt satisfactorily, SEMTPielstick have carried out extensive tests with this highly pressure-charged engine, with many grades of residual fuels, including 3600s Redwood 1 at 100F (ISO 360) Venezuelan residues, with a Conradson carbon content of 17.6% and asphaltene content 7.9%. The tested and field results have satisfied Pielstick that this highly rated engine will operate satisfactorily on such fuels, as they have demonstrated extensively with their larger Type PC4, PC3 and PC2-6 engines. It has been found that in order to obtain good combustion in highly pressure-charged engines, it is desirable to raise the fuel injection pressure above 1000 kg/cm as well as to maintain a suitable viscosity at the injectors. More recently, SEMT-Pielstick, after further extensive engine tests with poor quality, heavy residual fuels, as well as additional operating experience in both land and marine engine installations, have announced that, subject to certain limitations, the PA5 highly pressurecharged, four-stroke, medium/high-speed engine, and the slightly larger bore and stroke PA6 and PA6 CL engines, may now operate on fuels up to 500cSt (BS-MA100, Class M8) viscosity. However, the Diesel Index must not be below 35, with initial boiling point 180C min., total aluminum plus silicon 30 ppm max and vanadium content 300 ppm max. This somewhat limits the acceptable quality of fuel, as these criteria are not included in BS MA 100, nor in the provisional CIMAC Specification. The larger-bore, medium-speed engines, PC2.5, PC2.6, PC-3, PC4-2 and the most recent, new, in-line, PC-20, PC30 and PC40 engines are also now cleared to operate on all CIMAC Classes except Classes 9 and 11, which are essentially boiler fuels, up to 700 cSt at 50C (up to BSMA100 Class M9). Here again, however, a Diesel Index of 30 max is stipulated as well as an initial boiling point of 180C, neither of which properties are included in these two specifications. The camshaft drives individual fuel pumps for each cylinder on the entablature. For direct reversing engines, following normal practice, separate side-by-side ahead and astern pump operating cams are fitted. The pumps are of the rotary balanced helical plunger type, the plungers being actuated by a large diameter hardened roller bearing on the operating cam.

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When burning residual fuel, hot fuel from the booster pumps enters the barrel through the side ports on the suction or down stroke. It is discharged via a spring-loaded, non-return valve to the multi-hole injector located at the cylinder head. In the design illustrated in Figure 44 positive cooling is not employed, but water-cooled injectors are usually preferred for residual fuel burning engines, Hot fuel can be circulated through the fuel pumps prior to change-over to residual fuel, but the engines are usually started and stopped on distillate fuel, although some operators prefer to maneuver, start and stop engines on residual fuel. The operating roller, return spring guide and plunger are positively lubricated from the main oil system. An oil pressure seal is fitted to prevent fuel leakage into the oil system. . Any fuel leakage past the injector spindle in its guide is collected at the top and led to a drainpipe outside the enclosed rocker gear. This also prevents fuel contamination of the system oil.

FIGURE 44 - FUEL PUMP AND INJECTOR, PIELSTICK PA6-280 ENGINE.

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A recently introduced fuel pump designed to handle residual fuels at very high pressures (exceeding 1000 kg/CM2) is shown in Figure 45. The pump has a maximum fuel delivery of approximately 2500mm/injection, adequate for medium-speed engines with ratings of up to 350400 bhp/cylinder. The peak injection pressure is 120MN/m (17500lb/in2 or 1195 kg/cM2) when handling residual fuels up to 15W s Redwood 1, preheated to 100T.

FIGURE 45 - HIGH-PRESSURE FUEL PUMP DESIGNED FOR RESIDUAL FUEL OPERATION.

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The pump is of the control helix or helical control edge type, employing a single helix on the hardened steel plunger. The plunger is cam and roller operated from the camshaft, with individual fuel pumps for each cylinder. The base of the plunger has two locating feet, which engage in a slotted control sleeve. The sleeve has a toothed pinion mounted at its upper end that engages with a toothed control rack. The amount of fuel delivered per stroke is determined by the position of the plunger helix relative to the fuel port, and this in turn is determined by the position of the control rack operated by the throttle control and/or the engine governor. Surface finish of both plunger and barrel is extremely fine and the plunger clearance in the element assembly is carefully specified. The reciprocating plunger is lubricated by high-pressure lubricating oil led through a drilled passage in the barrel to two oil grooves. These not only supply adequate lubricant but also act as a seal to prevent any hot, high-pressure fuel passing down through the clearance to the lower end, thence into the engine sump. Additionally, if the fuel is used as a lubricant it tends to form varnish on the plunger, restricting free movement. COMMON-RAIL SYSTEM For many years Doxford used the common-rail (or constantpressure) system of fuel injection. In the jerk-pump system the fuel has to be raised to the very high injection pressures now employed and injected into the cylinder over a very short period, usually 25-30 degrees of crank angle. After the end of injection the pressure in the piping falls rapidly from the peak of up to 1000 bar to as low as 30 bar on the suction stroke of the pump. The wide fluctuation in pressure tends to set up pressure waves in the system. This has the adverse effect of creating injector needle 'bounce', with subsequent poor combustion, and in extreme cases, especially with long lengths of piping of inadequate thickness and where poorly supported, it can cause pipe rupture. In some cases this has resulted in serious fires when the hot fuel has sprayed onto even hotter exhaust pipes. The result of the fluctuating pressure also imposes heavy loads on the pump-operating gear, which can be quite noisy in operation." To avoid severe cam and roller wear wide cams of largediameter and heavy maneuvering gear are required for changing over the cams for astern running (and vice versa). In the Doxford engine, these problems have been overcome by a combination of the constant-pressure system with a timing valve fuel injection system. Figure 12 The current fuel injection system as adopted for the Doxford Type 58JS3C engine is illustrated diagrammatically in Figure 46. Fuel from the daily service tank flows by gravity to the mixing or buffer tank, from which it is pumped by a booster pump at about 5 bar through the main fuel heater and steam jacketed, self-cleaning, 15-m cut-off filter to the suction side of horizontally opposed-piston fuel pumps. The pumps are located at the after end of the engine and are driven by the main timing gears. The multi-plunger pump discharges hot fuel at a pressure of about 700 bar to a high-pressure main connected to the timing valves. The timing valves, one for each cylinder, are cam operated by a chain-driven camshaft mounted on the entablature at the front of the engine. A single ahead and astern cam is used and each timing- valve delivers fuel to two conventional water-cooled fuel injectors, located diametrically opposite each other at the midpoint of the cylinder.

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The timing valves control the start and the period of injection, thereby the load and speed of the engine. Fuel injection timing of each cylinder can be adjusted independently by altering the position of the cam toe.

FIGURE 46 - ARRANGEMENT OF DOXFORD COMMON-RAIL SYSTEM ADVANTAGES OF COMMON-RAIL FUEL SYSTEM As distinct from the jerk-pump system, this common rail system maintains a constant pressure, thus avoiding the wide pressure fluctuation common to the former system. A large volume of high-pressure fuel, stored in the accumulator bottle, ensures an ample supply of fuel to the timing valves and dampens out any pressure fluctuations in the pump discharge system. One of the main advantages claimed for this system is that, for any given setting of the timing valve, the pressure can be controlled by the quantity of fuel delivered by the fuel pump to the high-pressure main. The fuel pump output can be varied to suit engine load and speed by rotation of the helical scroll plunger. A toothed rackand pinion connected to the engine control lever controls this. A pneumatic or hydraulic actuator controls movement of the main shaft, which controls the timing valves by an electronic governor. The engine can be maneuvered and load regulated by a remote-control station and there is an emergency control station located in front of the engine.

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A pneumatically operated priming pump is fitted for circulating hot oil through the system prior to starting and when maneuvering. This automatically maintains pressure in the system at 180 bar and, as soon as the engine is started and the fuel pressure reaches 300 bar, the priming pump cuts out. Even at light engine loads, the pressure in the common pressure main exceeds 300bar, which is 105 bar higher than the nozzle opening pressure. As a result, rapid injector opening is achieved and the reduced fuel charge delivered before the injector closes rapidly. This ensures good combustion and thermal efficiency even under light load conditions. MAN ELECTRONIC INJECTION For many years, MAN used the jerk-pump system with plungers having helical-edge control in their large crosshead engines. In recent engines each fuel pump had two plungers of different diameters. The smaller plunger is designed to discharge at no or light load, when only a small volume of fuel is required which can be accurately metered. As engine load increases, the larger pump discharges the increased amount of fuel required. Taking into account the rapid escalation in fuel prices, the deteriorating quality of residual fuels and the need to ensure maximum thermal efficiency over the entire engine load range, including long periods of operation at reduced engine load, in 1980 MAN developed an electronic injection SySteM.1 3.14 The basic concept is that conventional plunger pumps with helical-edge control discharge to an accumulator, in which the fuel pressure was controlled as a function of engine load by means of a pressure transmitter and a hydraulic actuator of the pump cylinders by means of electronic/hydraulic controlled injection valves. Each valve received its control pulses for beginning and ending fuel injection from the electronic controller. Although the new electronic fuel injection system, developed initially for the MAN KEZ-B and KEZ-C crosshead engine series, gave good results in test bed trials on a range of heavy residual fuels, the electronic control system did not prove entirely satisfactory. It was decided that the system, as designed, was too complicated for arduous marine engine duties. Furthermore, towards the end of 1979, MAN at Augsberg and Burmeister & Wain, Copenhagen, merged and a new company, MAN-B&W Diesel A/S, was formed. After close examination of the various engine designs built by the two original companies it was decided that the longestablished range of MAN low-speed, loop-scavenged two-stroke crosshead engines would be discontinued. In future, only improved B&W pressure-charged, uniflow-scavenged cross-head engines would be built and sold as MAN-B&W engines. Research, design and development work on slow-speed engines would be concentrated in Copenhagen. Because of their wide experience in designing robust and reliable four-stroke, pressure-charged trunk piston engines, in future the medium- and medium/ high-speed engines would be designed and built at Augsberg, also under the new MAN-B & W name. Licensees of MAN and Burmeister & Wain were granted new licenses for building MAN-B & W engines, both crosshead and trunk-piston. CAMLESS ENGINE Operational Safety and Flexibility: Monitoring of the engine (based on CoCoS-EDS) identifies running conditions which could lead to performance problems

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The Overload Protection System ensures compliance with the load diagram and ensures that the engine is not overloaded. Since as new running conditions for the engine are maintained, maintenance costs will be lower (and maintenance easier). The engine diagnosis system indicates faults at an earlier tome. Optimum crash stop and reverse running performance Engine braking may be obtained, reducing the stopping distance of the vessel Faster acceleration of the engine by opening the exhaust valves earlier during acceleration Significantly improved dead slow running with low minimum rpm and stable operation together with improved combustion due to the electronic control of fuel injection Low specific fuel oil consumption: 114 g/bhph of ME engines Layout flexibility, and revolutions down to 12r/min. (6L60ME Bow Cecil) Optimal combination of cylinder wear and cylinder oil comsumption Competitive first cost. High value for the investment Reliable maintenance cost with well-proven key components

MAN-B & W VARIABLE INJECTION TIMING SYSTEM One of the results of the merger was that the electronic fuel injection system was not developed further. Instead, a new, simpler, fuel injection system, incorporating a new fuel injection pump with injection timing control, was designed and is now fitted to the new, ultra-longstroke, L-MC/MCE series of crosshead engines. These engines have a stroke/bore ratio of 3.24:1 as compared with 2.4:1 in the L-GB series. The new variable injection timing (VIT) system was first tested in early 1982 and entered service in mid- 1982. It can be used in the large L-MC/MCE engine range, but the smaller L-42 MQ/MCE and 1-35 MC/MCE engines use a modified system. A diagrammatic arrangement of the L-MC/MCE fuel injection system showing the new fuel pump and VIT control mechanism is shown in Figure 46. The well-proven valve controlled discharge type high-pressure pump is retained but with some modifications. The essential improvement is that the fuel injection timing is now adjusted automatically to provide the most suitable mean effective pressure; also the maximum combustion or firing pressure is now controlled. Two sets of control linkage are used, the lower one controlling the pump output and the upper one the injection timing, by means of a small servomotor actuator and linkage. The timing regulation is by means of a rack on an Acme actuating nut, which meshes with a similar thread on the pump barrel. When the nut is moved in one direction the pump barrel is lifted and when moved in the opposite direction the barrel is lowered. When lowered, the injection timing is advanced, causing the maximum combustion pressure to be increased. When raised, injection timing is slightly retarded, correspondingly reducing maximum pressure." This simple system permits a single adjustment of each pump or a collective adjustment for all fuel pumps, dependent upon the ignition quality of the fuel and the engine load, thus enabling the engine specific fuel consumption to be kept as low as possible. Research work and engine tests carried out by MAN-B & W have shown that the ratio Pmax/mep has a major influence on fuel consumption. The larger the ratio, the better the fuel

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consumption. In the L90 MCE engine, for example, the maximum pressure is about 131 bars and the mep 13 bar at MCR. Therefore: Pmax = 131 Pe 13 The ratio being 10.07/1. The resultant fuel consumption, even with heavy residual fuel, is now down to as low as 118 g/bhph, equivalent to a thermal efficiency of about 52%.

FIGURE 46 - L-MC, MAN B&W VARIABLE INJECTION TIMING SYSTEM SULZER VARIABLE INJECTION TIMING SYSTEM In common with most major engine builders, Sulzer has for some time fully appreciated two of the current most important requirements for large diesel engines burning residual fuel, namely (1) the need to reduce fuel consumption over a wide power output range and (2) to burn increasingly poor combustion quality fuels as efficiently as possible. The recently introduced Sulzer variable injection timing (VIT) system involves some modifications to the fuel pump-operating mechanism. This reduces the specific fuel consumption appreciably as related to the engine load by automatically maintaining the

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maximum permissible combustion pressure in the cylinder over the upper load range. Extremely low specific fuel consumption is obtained over the 75-90 % MCR load range, within which many engines normally operate. Sulzer experimented with several different systems to control maximum cylinder pressures and permit ready adjustment of fuel injection timing, such as electronically controlled systems and electro/ hydraulic systems but rejected these as being too complex and not giving the desired fuel economy over a wide power range. The VIT system was developed to provide maximum reliability and simplicity, while achieving the main targets of better fuel consumption and flexibility to handle various quality fuels. The VIT system, which incorporates the Fuel Quality Setting (FQS) system, is now fitted to all the Sulzer RLB crosshead engines as standard. RLA engines are not fitted with the VIT system as standard but it can be fitted to some engines in the range if requested. Other engines in the series can befitted with the simpler FQS system involving modification of the fuel pump linkage. The modified system can also be applied to existing engines as a retrofit. RND-M engines, as currently designed, cannot be fitted with the VIT system because modifications to the governor and the regulating linkage, as well as lack of space, would involve expensive modifications. However, the manually adjustable FQS system will be fitted to new engines in this range. Retrofitting to existing engines involves relatively minor modifications, thus improving combustion efficiency when burning poor ignition quality fuels. Similarly, the VIT system is not applicable to RND engines. The FQS system can be retrofitted to all the range except the RND 105 engine. Because of a risk of overloading the crosshead bearing under certain conditions, the modification is not usually recommended if a vessel is likely to operate with a heavily fouled hull. RTA UNIFLOW-SCAVENGED RANGE In 1982 Sulzer announced a complete new series of very long-stroke, very slow-speed crosshead engines, the RTA range, the first of which entered service in 1984. They are uniflow-scavenged, valve-in-head engines, as distinct from the cross-scavenged design, which Sulzer has built for the past 70 years. The new range augments, not replaces, RLA and RND-M designs, which will be retained for ships where large diameter propellers cannot be used because of draught limitations. The RTA range, with a power output of from 3720 to 56 400 bhp (2774 to 42 058 kW), utilizes the VIT, valve double controlled fuel injection pump system. The new long stroke design, which permits propeller speeds as low as 56-rev/min, gives the remarkably low specific fuel consumption of 125 g/bhph at 100 % full load (MCR) and even lower consumption of 122g/bhph at the normal service load of 85%. A thermal efficiency exceeding 50 % is claimed by Sulzer for the RTA range, the first time in the history of prime movers.

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FIGURE 46 FUEL REGULATION IN EXISTING SULZER ENGINES CURRENT FUEL PUMP OPERATION For many years, Sulzer crosshead engines have been fitted with positive displacement fuel pumps with double control suction and spill valves, as shown in Figure 46. As related to TDC, the commencement of fuel injection, in terms of degrees of crank angle, is constant over the entire engine load range and is directly related to the closing point of the suction valve. However, the end of injection, which determines the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder, is variable (see Figure 47). The governor, via the regulating linkage and the spill valve, controls this as a function of engine load. As the spill valve is opened the fuel pressure falls sharply and the injector is shut off. At 25% power, for example, full injection is completed before TDC, which could lead to rough running. It is only at MCR that the fuel injection period reaches its maximum and the maximum cylinder pressure obtained. At the usual normal operating load of 85 % MCR the cylinder pressure is about 94 % of the maximum. When burning poor combustion quality fuels the drop in maximum cylinder pressure may be of the order of 2-3% with a corresponding rise in fuel consumption. PRINCIPLES OF VARIABLE INJECTION TIMING The VIT fuel regulation system can be seen diagrammatically in Figureure.47. The governor is connected to the spill valve by means of linkage as shown, thus controlling the end of injection by releasing fuel pressure, according to the engine load. Additional linkage, with a cam and roller and a pneumatic cylinder to maintain the cam against the roller, controls the closing of the pump suction valve, thus determining the beginning of injection.

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FIGURE 47 CONSTANT BEGINNING OF INJECTION

FIGURE 48 FUEL REGULATION WITH VIT COMBINED WITH MANUAL FUELQUALITY SETTING (FQS)

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FUEL-QUALAITY SETTING (FQS) The FQS linkage system enables fuel to be injected into the cylinder by closing the suction valve, thus allowing the fuel pressure to build up and open the injector against its spring pressure. Injection can be advanced or retarded over the entire engine load range. When burning a poor-quality fuel with a long ignition delay period the FQS lever is adjusted by hand to advance injection, giving better combustion and raising the cylinder to its normal value. With VIT, the injection point is usually restricted to +2/-1 degrees of crank angle, which should be adequate for most residual fuels. The variable beginning of fuel injection (also the ending) and its effect is shown in Figure 49. At 85 % full power, injection commences several degrees earlier than at lower powers, so that the cylinder pressure is automatically maintained at the maximum allowable. Thus the specific fuel consumption in the upper load range can be reduced significantly. For engines where fitting of the entire automatic VIT system is not feasible the manual FQS system permits the commencement of injection to be advanced by means of the simple hand control to suit the fuel ignition quality and, with the engine running, raise the maximum cylinder to its original recommended value. The modification to the fuel regulating system is seen in Figure 50. In service the actual ignition properties of a residual fuel when bunkered are seldom known. If it is suspected that ignition quality is poor, as indicated by rough running of the engine, smoke formation and either very high or low combustion pressures, the fuel quality lever is advanced gradually to give smooth running, a clean exhaust, normal exhaust temperatures and normal peak pressures corresponding to the engine load. It is emphasized that the fuel-quality setting should only be used when the cylinder pressure is lower than normal due to poor ignition qualities of the fuel. With good quality residual fuel having good ignition characteristics, advancing the ignition could result in excessive cylinder pressures.

FIGURE 49 EFFECT OF VARIABLE BEGINNING OF INJECTION WITH VIT


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FIGURE 50 FUEL REGULATION WITH SEPARATE MANUAL FUEL QUALITY SETTING (FQS) MICROBIOLOGICAL INFESTATION OF PETROLEUM FUELS AND LUBRICANTS The existence of minute microorganisms has been known since the seventeenth century, but their influence and importance in many fields has not been fully appreciated until relatively recently. Microbiology, the name applied to this subject, is now becoming increasingly recognized, and much research is now being devoted to it in a number of different fields. Many microorganisms are indispensable to man; for example, in the making of foodstuffs, especially bread, and the fermentation of vinegar, wines and spirits. They convert vegetable matter into useful compost and dispose of human sewage, dead animals and birds. Without them the earth would be completely swamped with dead organic matter. Conversely, such organisms can have serious adverse affects upon lubricating oils, fuels and water/ oil emulsions, leading to the formation of objectionable acids and sludge, resulting in line and filter blocking, metal staining, deposits and serious corrosion. Various classes of microorganisms have been identified, such as protozoa, fungi and molds, yeasts and algae, bacteria, mycoplasma and viruses. The largest of these living minute cells are protozoa, their size being approximately 100 um, and the smallest are various viruses (many not yet identified), which range from 4 to 6 nm (40 to 60 Angstrom units). Fungi, moulds and algae may be found in infested oils and emulsions, but bacteria, of several types, present the biggest problem. In a recent comprehensive review, Jackson outlined how bacteria reproduce themselves, the different types found in infested oil systems, and how infestation could be cured. Bacteria are
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more difficult to kill than other microbes and appear to be most active in petroleum products. Therefore they may present a major problem. Bacteria feed on the chemicals present in petroleum and process them in order to grow and multiply and excrete the waste products as slime or sludge. They absorb carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, plus small amounts of elements such as sulfur, phosphorous and manganese. IMPORTANCE OF WATER CONTAMINATION Hydrocarbon fuels produced in an oil refinery, both distillate and residual, are essentially sterile, as the high temperatures used in the various processes would kill any microorganisms which might have been present in the crude oil; they would also drive off any water present as steam. However, once they leave the refinery they may become rapidly contaminated with microorganisms, mainly bacteria and fungi. These may originate from the atmosphere or be picked up during transportation, particularly when this is by sea, either direct to a large consumer or to a storage depot or bulk terminal. It appears that such microorganisms can exist fairly harmlessly in moisture-free fuel, passing through a fuel system and engine without causing any problems. In the presence of water any microorganisms present begin to metabolize, i.e. they grow and reproduce very rapidly. The rate of metabolism is determined by the environmental factors involved, such as the temperature, the amount of water present, its acidity or alkalinity (pH value), the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide, an adequate food supply and control of usable end products. There are a number of microorganisms that can use hydrocarbons as food any time a fuel becomes contaminated with water. Particularly when stored for long periods, some of these microorganisms begin to metabolize rapidly, the rate of reproduction depending upon how well the local environment suits the particular microorganism's needs. Since microorganisms live in the water layer and feed upon the fuel, they can only metabolize at the fuel/ water interface. Conditions are particularly favorable in stagnant areas. This is more likely in large land fuel storage tanks than aboard ship; in the latter, when at sea, there is usually movement of the fuel in the bunker tank due to the ship's motion. There is a greater likelihood of water being present in a ship's bunker tanks, although this is often salt water. Condensation can cause a small amount of moisture to collect in a storage tank, whether on land or aboard ship, but the most likely source is water condensation from a leaking steam-heating coil. Under suitable conditions the oil/water interface at the bottom of fuel storage tanks provides prolific breeding grounds for bacteria. Infestation can grow and reproduce at a phenomenal rate. Starting with a microbiological population of a few hundred, this can increase to 1000 million per milliliter in less than a week! BACTERIAL INFESTATION There are two basic bacteria groups, namely aerobic, which need oxygen to live and multiply, and anaerobic, which conversely need an environment devoid of oxygen. As oxygen is almost invariably present in hydrocarbon fluids stored in bulk, aerobic bacteria present the main problem. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE Bacteria differs in the temperature conditions in which they can live and breed. There is a minimum and maximum temperature range at which growth stops,

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as well as an optimum temperature within the range, which provides the maximum growth. The thermal death point is that temperature which, in a given time, destroys all bacteria present. The thermal death time is the period of time required to kill off microorganisms present in a substance at a given temperature. In other words, if a petroleum product infested with bacteria is maintained above a certain temperature for a certain time, all bacteria will be killed. In general, bacteria may be classified according to their growth within different temperature ranges into three main groups: 1. Psychrophilic - These live in temperatures below 10 C in water, with a minimum temperature of 0C. The maximum temperature in which they can live is 30C and optimum temperature 15-20C. 2. Mesophilic - Minimum temperature 5C, maximum temperature about 45C, optimum breeding temperature 25-30C. 3. Thermophilic - Minimum temperature 25-45C, maximum temperature 60-85C, optimum temperature 50-55C. INFESTATION OF FUELS If fuels can be maintained completely water-free the risk of bacterial infestation is remote. Unfortunately, this is seldom possible, although the risk of water contamination with distillate fuels is less than with higher density residual fuels. With residual fuels, which may be maintained at temperatures of from 40 to 60C for long periods, the type of infestation will be thermophilic, as psychophilic and mesophilic bacteria would be killed. It appears that there is much more likely to be bacterial infestation in land storage tanks. If possible, ship's double-bottom fuel tanks should not be used for water ballast. If this cannot be avoided, the tanks must be thoroughly drained before rebunkering. Care must be taken to avoid bacterial infestation of water/sludge drain tanks holding sludge from the centrifuge. The higher the temperature in the day tanks, centrifuge heat and fuel system line heater, the less the risk of infestation. A contaminated system can usually be detected by the presence of slime and by the objectionable odor, resembling that of rotten eggs. This is actually hydrogen sulfide (HS). Test kits are available which engine operators can readily use. These will confirm the presence of bacteria, the basic type present and the degree of infection. If the bacterial contamination is above a certain level, measures should be taken to kill it. If serious, the advice of a qualified microbiologist should be sought as soon as possible. Various effective biocides are available which, when used under the prescribed conditions, will effectively kill all bacteria present. It is, however, essential to establish the nature and source of the infection. In extreme cases the correct use of a suitable biocide or biostat will overcome the problem but it is then important to flush through the system thoroughly, then clean out and burn all sludge from tanks, heaters, filters, etc. Nevertheless, this emphasizes the importance of avoiding the use of ship's double-bottom fuel tanks as ballast tanks as they are emptied of fuel. If, because of ship stability problems, this is unavoidable, the double-bottom tanks must be thoroughly drained before re-filling with fuel.

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DOUBLE-BOTTOM TANK STEEL CORROSION A number of cases of severe corrosion of hull plating in double-bottom tanks have been reported. These took the form of isolated, ringlike, deeply pitted areas, in some case about half an inch deep (more than halfway through the hull plating). If undetected, in a relatively short time the pitting would have penetrated the hull, with serious results. It appeared that water had separated from the fuel and lain at the bottom of the tank for some time, as it is unlikely that seawater itself contains harmful bacteria. These may have been present in contaminated fresh water in the fuel when bunkered, and subsequently multiplied rapidly. With residual fuel, using tank-heating coils, it is probable that the main trouble was due to thermophilic bacteria. Similar rapid corrosion of land storage tanks has been reported, but such cases are somewhat rare. This is partly because water and sludge can be drained off more readily. A point of some importance is that cracked residual fuels, having high aromatic contents, have low interfacial tension with water and tend to emulsify much more readily than straight-run, paraffinic residuals. The water/sludge forms an excellent breeding ground for bacteria, particularly at the interface. One advantage of heavy residual fuels of high specific gravity is that they have to be preheated up to about 98C for efficient centrifuging. If the time available is adequate, this will kill the bacteria and these should be ejected, with their excreta, along with solids and other sludge from the centrifuge. Any live bacteria should be removed with the water phase. The writer is unaware of serious bacterial infestation of engine-room daily service tanks in plants burning residual fuel, probably because of the short duration time of fuel in the tanks and the high storage temperature, plus the fact that they are drained regularly. There have, however, been a limited number of cases of sludge/slime deposits and corrosion in fuel pumps, filters and pipelines in engines burning distillate fuel, which have been attributed to bacterial infestation. PREVENTION AND CURE Obviously, prevention is better than cure, so every effort should be made to avoid purchasing fuel with a high water content. When heating coils are used it is important to prevent leakage into the fuel. If possible, ships double-bottom fuel tanks should not be used for water ballast. If this cannot be avoided, the tanks must be thoroughly drained before rebunkering. Care must be taken to avoid bacterial infestation of water/sludge drain tanks holding sludge from the centrifuge. The higher the temperature in the day tanks, centrifuge heat and fuel system line heater, the less the risk of infestation. A contaminated system can usually be detected by the presence of slime and by the objectionable odor, resembling that of rotten eggs. This is actually hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Test kits are available that can be readily used by engine operators. These will confirm the presence of bacteria, the basic type present and the degree of infection. If the bacterial contamination is above a certain level, measures should be taken to kill it, if serious, the advice of a qualified microbiologist should be sought as soon as possible.

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Various effective biocides are available that when used under the prescribed conditions, will effectively kill all bacteria present. It is, however, essential to establish the nature and source of the infection. In extreme cases the correct use of a suitable biocide or biostat will overcome the problem but it is then important to flush through the system thoroughly, then clean out and burn all sludge from tanks, heaters, filters, etc.

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7.. 7

LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM

Correct lubrication of any diesel engine is necessary for satisfactory operation, in that the supply of lubricating oil serves the following purposes. 1. Lubrication of bearings, cylinders, piston rings and other moving parts of the engine. 2. Neutralization of the acids that are formed in the combustion of sulfur-containing fuel oils, thereby reducing the corrosion of cylinders, pistons and piston rings. 3. Cooling of bearings and pistons 4. Keeping the insides of the engine clean. 5. Transport of impurities such as dust, rust, water, combustion products away from the engine to filters and separators. Consequently, lubricating oil is a finely balanced mixture of suitable base oil that has a lubricating and cooling effect, and a series of lubrication oil additives that, among other things, must be capable of neutralizing any acid and carrying away impurities. The TBN (total base number) of the lubricating oil normally reduces gradually during operation. How quickly this takes place depends on the sulfur content of the fuel oil, on the tightness of the piston rings, and on the amount of replacement oil that is added to the engine. After a certain time, a balance is established. If during this condition of balance, the TBN is disturbed, it may be necessary to make a correction by adding lubricating oil with a different TBN, and it may be necessary to change completely to lubricating oil with a new TBN. During operation, the lubricating oil in a trunk type engine is slowly polluted by small particles from the combustion in the cylinders. The use of fuel oil normally increases this pollution. Pollution by water (fresh or sea) can also occur. A certain amount of these impurities can exist in the lubricating oil without affecting its lubricating characteristics but in order to maintain a supply of adequately clean lubricating oil, it is necessary for it to be cleaned continuously. The solid impurities are mainly particles that are too small to be removed by the lubricating oil filters. Experience has shown that the most efficient way of cleaning lubricating oil is by centrifuging. Optimal cleaning in a centrifuge is achieved by preheating the oil to 85-95C and leaving it for as long as possible in the centrifugal bowl. The lubricating oil system for a diesel engine is shown schematically in greatly simplified form in Figure 51. A pump (5) sucks oil from a lubricating oil drain tank (3), which in large engines is most often a bottom tank below the main engine. To reduce the possibility of contamination of the lubricating oil in the bottom tank as a result of leaks, all the remaining bottom tanks containing, for example, fresh water, seawater or fuel oil, can be separated from the lubricating oil bottom tank by coffer-dams (2). To safeguard the pump, a coarse-meshed suction filter (4), is inserted between the pump and the bottom tank. The pump forces the oil through a lubricating oil

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cooler (6) and filters (7) to the main engine (1) where the oil is distributed to bearings and pistons.

FIGURE 51 The pressure oil pipe on the engine can be divided to form two branches; a lubricating oil branch and a cooling oil branch. Setting a valve to provide suitable distribution of the oil to the two systems carries out regulation of the oil flowing to these two pipes; the pressure of the lubricating oil at the main engine is usually approximately 3.5 bar. It is of great importance that the clearance of bearings and shells is not allowed to become too large; otherwise the lubricating oil may seep out and not reach to the topmost lubrication points. The shells must therefore always be realigned in time. The lubricating oil runs from the bearings into the crankcase, from there to the engine oil pan, and finally through a sieve in the oil pan to the lubricating oil bottom tank from where it is sucked up again by the lubricating oil pump. The oil that has been used for cooling the pistons flows back through small sight glasses, one for each cylinder, provided on the maneuvering side of the engine. This arrangement allows engine room personnel to keep a continuous check on the amount of piston cooling oil. The sight glasses have built-in thermometers for checking the temperature of the oil. The oil is collected in a common pipe and is fed back to the lubricating oil bottom tank.

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To enable the temperature of the lubricating oil at the inlet of the engine to be regulated, a bypass valve (12) controls the amount of system oil that bypasses the lubricating oil cooler. In most installations the valve (12) is thermostatically controlled. In the event of damage to the lubricating oil bottom tank, for instance as the result of grounding, operation can continue at reduced power by closing valves (10) and (11) and opening valve (13), using the engine oil pan as the lubricating oil drain tank. A lubricating oil tank is provided for supplementing the amount of lubricating oil.

FIGURE 52 The marine inspection authorities demand that single-screw installations have at least two lubricating oil pumps; one in use and one as standby. Double-screw installations normally have three equally large pumps, two of which supply their respective main engines and the third as standby. In such cases, there are two separate lubricating oil bottom tanks, and thus damage to one bottom tank does not prevent the use of the main engines, the lubricating oil system being
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arranged in such a way that both engines can operate on one drain tank. However, in some double-propeller installations, a common lubricating oil bottom tank and only two lubricating oil pumps are provided, one in use and one as standby. As a rule, single-screw ships have only one lubricating oil cooler. Double-screw ships can have one or two. The lubricating oil filters are often of the double type, enabling one to be cleaned or kept as standby while the other is in service. The pressure of the lubricating oil and thus the amount of lubricating oil is regulated by a spring-loaded bypass valve (14). This valve can make a connection between the pressure and suction sides of the lubricating oil pump. The valve (14) is shown in Figure 53.

FIGURE 53

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The force of the spring can be removed from the valve plug, which can be lifted from the valve seat during start-up of the pump with cold oil in the system. The valve functions in the following manner. When the valve plug rests against the valve seat and the dog A is tightened against the nuts B, the spring is compressed by means of nuts C until the opening pressure of the valve is approximately 4 bar. When the hand wheel is turned to the left, the force of the spring is relieved until the dog A rests on nuts D. Further turning of the hand wheel lifts the valve plug until the clearance Y has been taken up and the valve is fully open. When the hand wheel is turned to the right, the valve first closes in the normal way, after which the force of the spring comes into action so that the valve works as a safety and a bypass valve. When used as a bypass valve, the dog A must always be tightened against nuts B. If, when starting the pump, the lubricating oil is so cold that the electric pump driving motor is overloaded, the bypass valve is opened. During subsequent closing of the valve, the load on the electric motor is observed by inserting an ammeter, and the spring is tightened as much as the maximum load of the motor allows. This is continued until the spring is again tightened to the full opening pressure, at which the dog A rests against the nuts B. Regulation other than that described here must not be employed. The lubricating oil system has at least one separator. This is arranged in exactly the same way as the fuel oil separator, and its purpose is to enable removal of heavier impurities from the lubricating oil, including water, that arises as a result of condensation and from leaks at the lubricating oil coolers and drain tank, etc. Of the other heavier impurities are metal particles, which appear as the result of wear on moving parts. These particles are often so small that the normally used lubricating oil filters cannot remove them. These metal particles, particularly if they contain copper, can act as catalysts in the decomposition of the oil. The lubricating oil that is fed to the separator is taken from the piston cooling oil outlet. This is the point in the system at which the oil is at its highest temperature. If the oil temperature is not sufficiently high, the oil flows through a preheater before being fed to the separator. A thermostat often controls the preheater, which usually uses steam as its source of heat. This prevents oil being exposed to superheating, which could otherwise result in fire or explosion. Fresh lubricating oil is added to the lubricating oil system through a filling pipe that leads up to a deck connection. In addition to the normal 50-m filters, the lubricating oil system is often provided with a bypass having finer filters (1 m). Such a filter, of CJC manufacture, is shown in Figure 53. In this Figure are shown: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. O-ring 2 Filter cartridge (cellulose) Rubber ring Manometer Rubber ring Rubber ring Union Wing nut 9. Safety valve 10. Packing ring 11. Box nut 12. Changeover cock 13. Muff 14. Spring guide 15. Spring 16. Filter disc

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At the oil inlet, the filter is provided with a limiting nozzle that ensures that the flow of oil does not become greater than that at which an effective filtration can be maintained. The nozzle is provided with a cleaning needle, which, by a slight pressure from outside, can clear the nozzle of possible blockages that arise when the filter cap is colder than normal. When the filter is provided with clean filter cartridges, the only resistance to flow is in the nozzle. Therefore a pressure drop of 4-5 bar occurs in the nozzle, i.e. the manometer on the filter cap shows I bar, providing that the filter outflow takes place without a pressure drop. Gradually, as impurities are deposited in the filter cartridges, the resistance to the flow results in a reduction in the oil flow. The pressure in front of the filter cartridges thus increases, and this can be observed on the manometer. When the pressure at the manometer has increased to approximately 3 bar, the filter cartridges should be changed. The changeover cock (12) has three-positions: On, Off, and Drain. During operation, the oil in the filter can be heated electrically or by means of cooling water from the engine. Furthermore there is often a cleaning plant for leakage oil from the piston rod stuffing boxes. Figure 54 shows schematically a B&W main lubrication system

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FIGURE 54

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BACTERIAL ATTACK - Attack by bacteria on lubricating oil in the main engines lubricating oil systems has been found to cause rapid corrosion of the crankshaft journals. The problem has been known for many years in connection with cutting oils, but it is only over recent years that it has been identified in lubricating oil systems for marine diesel engines. The effect can be very alarming; the reason being that attack by bacteria can quickly give rise to corrosion of the crankshaft. The process whereby the bacteria promote the corrosion of steel is still not fully known, and there are many different forms of attack. The bacteria are introduced into the lubricating oil from an external source, and the most likely way in which this can happen is via pollution with infected water. In order for the bacteria to propagate, the three following environmental factors must be fulfilled. 1. The temperature of the oil must be within a certain range, for example most bacteria cannot survive if the temperature is more than 50C. 2. There must be an adequate supply of water. 3. There must be an adequate supply of nutrients containing nitrogen. The existence of bacteria in an engines lubricating oil system can manifest itself in the following ways. 1. The lubricating oil becoming emulsified. 2. The lubricating oil having a slimy appearance. 3. The bearing journals having a dark gray or black coating. 4. There is an unpleasant, dank smell in the crankcase. 5. Very severe corrosion occurring suddenly on machined surfaces, and particularly on surfaces that have been recently machined. Portable measuring equipment is available with which it can be ascertained whether there are bacteria present in the lubricating oil. However the only reliable manner in which to, determine their existence and the amount and type of bacteria present, is to tap off a sample in a sterile flask and send it to a laboratory. If the lubricating oil is found to contain harmful bacteria, the following action must be taken. 1. The lubricating oil must be drained and, if possible, burned. 2. The lubricating oil system must be flushed with oil that has been treated with an agent that is soluble in oil and has bacteria-killing properties. The choice of a suitable bacteria killing agent should be made under the guidance of an expert. It is also normally necessary to treat the engines cooling water system with a bacteria-killing agent that is soluble in water. Attack by bacteria on lubricating oil is rare, but in the future it will probably occur more often because, among other things, there is a tendency towards adding nitrogen- containing inhibitors to engine cooling water systems instead of toxic chromates. LUBRICATING OIL PUMPS - As a rule, the lubricating oil pumps are of the gear or screw type, which have the advantage of being self-priming. Newer installations are often provided with centrifugal pumps, which, unlike the first-mentioned types, operate almost silently. However, they are not self-priming, which means that a small gear or reciprocating pump must

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be coupled to fill the housing of the centrifugal pump before starting, or the centrifugal pump must be submerged in the lubricating oil tank. In most cases the lubricating pumps for the main engine are electrically driven. The amount of circulating lubricating oil in turbocharged cross-head engines with pistons cooled by lubricating oil is approximately 0.03 m/h per/HD. The pressure of the oil is approximately 3-5 bar.

FIGURE 55

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Figure 56 shows a gear pump used as a lubricating oil pump for a reversible diesel engine. It is engine-driven through the shaft A. Since the pump must be capable of supplying oil to the engine during both ahead and astern running, it is provided with four spring-loaded check valves, of which E1, and E2 are suction valves at ahead and astern respectively, and F2 and F1 are the corresponding pressure valves. The oil enters the pump at C and discharges at D. The maximum pressure of the lubricating oil is controlled by means of a bypass valve G, which in the open position connects the pressure side of the pump to the suction side. Adjustment of the operating pressure of the lubricating oil is carried out through spindle I and spring H. Hole K serves to ventilate the gear wheel housing. All the bearings in the pump are lubricated from the pressure chamber of the pump, the oil then flowing from the bearings back to the suction chamber. LUBRICATING OIL COOLERS - Figure 56 shows vertical oil cooler with cooling water inlet at D and outlet at E. The lubricating oil enters at M and is forced to cross the cooler pipes several times by the guide plates J. The pipes Hare secured firmly in the pipe plates F and G, which are kept at the correct distance from each other by means of four spacing bolts K provided with spacer tubes. The upper tube plate F is fastened to the outer jacket A of the cooler and to the water chamber C. The tube plate G at the bottom is free to slide up and down, as it is not fastened to the lower water chamber B or the outside jacket A. Tightness at the bottom between the water and oil sides is achieved by means of a special seal L, this being constructed in such a manner that possible leaks from either the water or the oil side can be observed. The lubricating oil pressure is always kept higher than the pressure of the salt water, thus ensuring that the salt water cannot seep into the lubricating oil system in the event of a leak in the oil cooler. The lubricating oil cooler can also be of the plate type.

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FIGURE 56

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LUBRICATING OIL FILTERS - In engine installations, the lubricating oil filters are normally located after the lubricating oil cooler and as close as possible to the engine, thereby reducing the possibility of the lubricating oil being contaminated. The lubricating oil systems are often provided with a further filter of the magnetic type (see Figure 47). This filter, which is manufactured by Philips, consists of a filter housing a containing six filter inserts B with permanent magnets made of Ticonal magnetic steel, which has a very strong coercive force and remanence. Each of the inserts B, consisting of two yokes C, a magnetic core and an iron grid D made in halves, are assembled by means of bolts. The yokes and the grids are made of soft iron. This design causes that the flow cross-section is not reduced by any appreciable amount, even in cases of very strong contamination by iron and steel particles, the reason being that these are collected in the many air slots in the soft iron grid surrounding the core. The filter is easy to clean, the soft iron parts losing their magnetism when they are removed from the Ticonal magnets. The oil is supplied to the filter at E and leaves it at F. Magnetic filters are capable of removing iron and steel particles of less than 1 m (0.001 mm). In addition to contamination of the lubricating oil resulting in increased friction and possible seizing of the bearings etc, the small iron particles can act as catalysts in the decomposition of the oil it is therefore extremely important that they are removed, which is not possible with normal mechanical filtration. The breaking down of the oil normally occurs by oxidation which produces acid and this reduces the lubricating abilities of the oil and can cause corrosion. Large amounts of iron particles in the filter indicate that something in the system is not functioning satisfactorily. The fault must be found and rectified as soon as possible. Figure 8 is a schematic illustration of a gap filter made by Auto-Klean. In the filter housing A, the filter element B is mounted on a spindle E that rotates provided with an external handle with which the filter element can be turned from time to time during operation. The filter element consists of filter plates F and spacing pieces G mounted alternately on the spindle E. A fixed spindle is provided with small plates H of about the same thickness as the distance pieces G, and fitting into the spaces between the filter plates F. The oil enters the filter at C and flows out at D. During its passage through the filter, any dirt in the oil is deposited in the small slots S formed by the distance pieces G between the filter plates F. If the filter becomes so dirty that it is partly blocked, the filter can be cleaned by turning the spindle 1 revolution, the result being that the dirt is scraped out of the slots by the fixed plates H. The dirt collects in the bottom of the filter housing A, from where it can be blown out when the bottom plug J is removed. The complete filter insert must be removed from the filter housing periodically for cleaning. Gap filters are available with spacing pieces G of various thickness (down to 0.005 mm).

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FIGURE 57

FIGURE 58

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Figure 59 shows a B&W lubricating oil filter that can be cleaned during operation by means of compressed air. This takes place as follows (see Figure 60). The cock (1) is opened, thereby opening the air pressure valve while at the same time forming a free flow through a sludge box (2) to the bottom tank. The handle (4) (see Figure 9) is then turned 5 times, which results in the filter insert being turned 1 complete revolution, so that the whole of its surface is blown through with compressed air. The air is fed to the filter at C and passed through the filter material via a series of small holes, thus blowing the dirt through channel D, the cock (1) (see Figure 60) connected at E, and the pipe (10), to a sludge box. The cock (1) is closed again after a final blowing through. A check valve (11) is provided in the compressed air piping to the filter. This prevents lubricating oil flowing into the compressed air system. The lubricating oil and sludge blown out of the filter is collected in the sludge box, the bottom of which is connected by a pipe to a lubricating oil separator. The sludge box is provided with an overflow connection, which through a T-piece (7) and a pipe (9), is connected to the engine piston cooling oil pipe. The filter is vented continuously through pipes (8), channel F and pipe (9). A modern filter material is porous sintered metal, which can be produced from the following alloys: 90% Cu + 9% Sri 18% Cr, 10% Ni + 72% Fe 65% Cu, 12% Ni + 23% Zn The filter inserts are made of a basic material consisting of small balls of one of the abovementioned alloys. During the sintering process the balls bind together at their contact points, thus providing a coherent element, which can be made into any conceivable shape. The porosity of the filter insert depends on the size of the balls in the basic material. It is possible to produce filters capable of filtering out all particles greater than 0.003 mm. The filter insert can be cleaned by means of compressed air, which is blown through the filter in the opposite direction to that used in the filtration process. Filter inserts of sintered material can be used for cleaning both fuel oil and lubricating oil, and it is even possible to use sintered materials for the filtration of gases. However, the material cannot be used at temperatures in excess of 80-100C, because at higher temperatures a structural change takes place which results in the porosity becoming irregular. In newer installations, semi- and fully automatic back-flushing filters are used. These filters can be cleaned automatically without any interruption in operation and are practically maintenance free. Moreover, the automatic back flushing ensures that the sludge from the filtering process is removed completely from the filter and the oil circuit.

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FIGURE 59

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FIGURE 60 The principle of the filter can be seen in Figure 61, 1 and 2, that schematically illustrate the filter in the operating (filtering) and back-flushing positions respectively. In these Figureures are shown: 1. 2. 3. 4. Oil inlet Filter chamber Float Electric Motor 5. 6. 7. 8. Compressed air reservoir Changeover valve (sludge valve) Oil Outlet Sludge Discharge

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FIGURE 61 The electrical control system for the back-flushing process is arranged in a separate box. A differential pressure meter with electrical contacts is provided to check and control the operation. The filter is shown in more detail on Figure 62. In this Figure are shown: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Sludge reservoir Outlet for filtered oil Filter cartridge (paper) Filter chamber Riser pipe Filter chamber Filter elements Float valve for automatic ventilation Manually operated and automatic flushing valve 10. Electric motor 11. Air reservoir 12. Spool valve 13. Selector Valve 14. Valve cone (sludge valve) 15. Drain valve 16. Check valve 17. Differential pressure 18. Shut-off valve 19. Shut-off valve 20. Lower part of filter housing 21. Differential pressure meter 22. Changeover housing 23. Indicator for pressure equalization 24. Check valve 25. Safety valve 26. Inlet for compressed air 27. Compressed air filter 28. Lubrication equipment 29. Pressure reducer

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FIGURE 62 The oil to be filtered flows from below into the selector valve (13) to the filter chambers (6), which are in service, and flows through the filter elements from the outside inwards. The impurities in the oil are retained on the outside of the filter elements, and the filtered oil flows to the filters outlet stub. The compressed air for control purposes flows via a shut-off valve (26), an air filter (27) and a lubricator (28), to an automatic flushing valve (9), and from there to the upper side of the spool valve (12).

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Compressed air is also used for back flushing. After passing through the air filter (27), this air flows through a pressure reducer (29) at a maximum pressure of 4 bar, then through a check valve (24) to a compressed air reservoir (11), and thus also to the underside of the spool valve (12). If the air pressure in the reservoir (11) rises to above 4 bar, the safety valve (25) opens. Since the air pressure acts on a greater area on the upper side am on the lower side of the spool valve (12), the spool valve remains in its lower position, even though the air pressure is the same on both sides. This means that the valve cone (14) remains in its closed position. The impurities that are retained by the filter elements (7) have the effect of increasing the pressure drop across the filter. When this pressure drop exceeds a predetermined value, which is indicated by a differential pressure meter (21), an electric contact charges to provide current to the back-flushing system. When the procedure for back flushing has been initiated, the electric motor (10) turns the selector valve (13) from the filter chamber that is kept as standby to the chamber that has to be cleaned. This changeover to the standby filter chamber results in an immediate drop in the pressure difference across the oil filter. As soon as the selector valve (13) has been turned enough to engage the standby filter, a cam on the spindle of the spool valve (12) activates a limiting switch, and the electric motor is stopped. At the same time, the flushing valve (9) is activated electrically so that the space above the spool valve (12) is vented. The air pressure from the compressed-air reservoir (11) acts on the underside of the spool valve thus pressing it upwards so that the sludge valve (14) opens. At the same time the slide opens for compressed air and this forces the filtered oil though the filter elements (7) from inside out and, whereby the impurities that are deposited in the outside of the filter elements are flushed away, and sludge and back-flushing oil is forced through valve (9) is changed over electrically, and the spool valve is forced downwards by the compressed air introduced from above, and thus the sludge valve (14) is closed. The empty filter chamber is refilled with filtered oil through a channel in the selector valve (13). The air in the filter chamber (6) is forced out through the float valve (8) to the sludge reservoir (1), which is do large that it can accommodate the flushing oil for the flushing of the a filter chamber. Compressed air forces the flushing oil up through the riser pipe (5) to the filter chamber (4), and through the filter elements (3) to the outlet (2) for cleaned oil. As mentioned earlier, the auxiliary engines have separate lubricating oil systems built on the engines. LUBRICATING OILS - When two solid bodies are in contact and move in relation to each other, there arises a resistance to this movement known as friction, i.e. a force is created which attempts to prevent such movement. This force is caused by irregularities such as high and low spots in the adjoining surfaces engaging each other, thereby resisting the movement. This is illustrated on Figure 63, which shows normal bearing surfaces machined in different ways enlarged 2700 times. A and B are ground surfaces, whereas C and D have been smoothturned on a lathe.

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FIGURE 63 Obviously the greater the pressure applied to the two adjoining surfaces, the greater is the resistance or friction. Furthermore, the amount of friction depends on the materials from which the two elements are manufactured and on the nature of their surfaces. Experience has proven, on the other hand, that the friction is independent of the surface areas. Coulombs well-known law can express this:

F=f N
Which, in other words, means that the friction F is equal to the normal force N times the coefficient of friction f. However, we know that the frictional resistance can be reduced considerably when a fluid layer is introduced between the two surfaces moving against each other, thereby converting the external friction between the two solid bodies to an internal friction between the components of which the fluid layer is comprised. The force arising as a result of the internal friction of the liquid can be expressed as follows: F= A u
a

Which is an equation originally concluded by Newton, though with the help of differential calculus of the following form: F= A du
da

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When considering these formulae, it would appear obvious that a liquid or lubricating agent with as low a viscosity as possible should be chosen to reduce the friction. However, this is not strictly true, in that the low viscosity results in a reduction of the thickness of the layer, which means that u/a or du/da increases and contributes to an increase in the friction. In order to be able to evaluate the relationships further, it is necessary to investigate more closely the special types of bearings used. For this purpose, the following is a brief description of the conditions prevailing inside a cylindrical journal bearing. In the stationary condition, the shaft journal in such a bearing rests on the bearing bush along a generating line directly below the center of the journal Figure 64a. If a torque is then applied to the shaft, the journal rolls up the bearing bush because of friction until it reaches the position shown in Figure 64b. At continued rotation, the journal slips in relation to the bearing bush, and any lubricating oil inside the bearing is drawn between the shaft and the bush because of its adherence to the journal and its internal friction. The result of this is that at a relatively low speed of rotation the shaft takes up the position shown in Figure 64c. At higher speeds of rotation, the shaft takes up the position shown in Figure 64d, in that the oil drawn along with it squeezes its way between the shaft and the bearing bush, and that the friction becomes solely that of the liquid. The load distribution is shown in Figure 64e.

FIGURE 64 As a rule, the higher the viscosity of the lubricating oil, the greater is the load to which the bearing can be exposed, and the higher the speed of rotation, the lower the viscosity needs to be for, any given load. To ensure minimum- energy loss, the viscosity of a lubricating oil should not be higher than that with which it can just produce a pressure corresponding to the bearing load. The use of oil with too high a viscosity gives rise to greater friction loss, which in turn results in higher temperatures

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of both the bearing and the lubricating oil. The viscosity of the oil at the higher temperature is lower, which reduces the friction loss, with the result that the temperature falls and again gives rise to a higher viscosity. Hence with the correct choice of lubricating agent, there is the possibility of reaching a condition of balance. This condition, however, arises at a temperature that increases with increasing lubricating oil viscosity. Therefore, when choosing lubricating oil, it must be ensured that it has the correct viscosity at normal operating temperatures. The relationship between the friction F in a bearing and the number of revolutions per min n, is shown in Figure 15. As can be seen, the friction is at its highest when the shaft begins to rotate from its position of rest, the reason being that there is metallic contact between the shaft and the bearing material because no oil wedge has yet formed. Gradually, as the speed increases, more and more oil is drawn between the shaft and the bearing bush, thereby forming momentary or partial oil films, which reduce the friction. Full oil filming occurs at a certain speed, i.e. at a point at which the friction is at its lowest, while a further increase in speed beyond this point gives rise to an increase in friction.

FIGURE 65

FIGURE 66

Figure 66 shows the relationship between friction and viscosity, curve 1 showing. the conditions prevailing with a thin oil, and curve 2 those with thick oil. The broken line of curve I shows the conditions with an oil having the same viscosity but with greater adhesion properties. The foregoing describes only the conditions, which arise with a normal cylindrical journal bearing. However, the same considerations can be taken as being valid for bearings of all types, whether the relative bearing movement is rotative or translative. A classic example of the application of the above is Michells single-collar thrust bearing. The Australian, A G M Michell, invented the single-collar thrust bearing in 1904. The starting point he used for his designs was calculations dealing with the carrying capacities of oil layers, these having been expounded by the Englishman Professor Osborne Reynolds, in 1886.

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Michell investigated the bearing capacity of an oil layer under a square block that slid quickly over-a flat, well-lubricated surface. These investigations showed that although the block could adjust itself freely as it moved, its bottom surface was not parallel to the flat surface upon which it was sliding. Instead, it formed a small angle with the surface, so that the oil, film between the two surfaces was thickest at the leading end of the block, where the oil penetrated between the two surfaces. In other words, the block tilted very slightly backwards in a way that corresponded to the phenomenon known as water skis, Figure 67. The experiments proved that in this tilted attitude, the block had a much greater bearing capacity and less friction than if it was forced to move with its bottom surface parallel to the surface on which it was moving. Michell also discovered that two slightly tilting blocks positioned one behind the other had a greater bearing capacity than a single block of double the length.

FIGURE 67

FIGURE 68
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This principle can be applied to a thrust bearing as shown schematically in Figure 68 and Figure 67 shows curves drawn of the pressure of the oil film and for the directions of oil flow. A further development of the Michell thrust bearing is the bearing constructed by Deutsche Werft in Hamburg, in which each block or thrust pad is supported by a small piston activated by oil pressure. The oil pressure necessary is developed by the lubricating oil in a closed system connected to all oil pressure cylinders of the thrust bearing, the result being that all thrust pads are loaded equally. This enables the working pressure on the oil pressure pistons to be measured by means of a manometer, the scale of which can be graduated in bar or allow a direct reading of the total axial thrust. If this thrust bearing is used as the main thrust bearing in a ship, it can be used to evaluate the resistance to propulsion of the ship. As can be seen from the above, there are certain demands that are made of lubricating oil in order for it to function as an ideal lubricating agent. Naturally, these demands differ widely, both for the different types of engines and the various elements used in their construction. Some of the many factors, which must be taken into consideration, are: a. b. c. d. e. Operating temperature Surface pressure Relative speed between the elements being lubricated The materials used in construction Expected contamination and admixtures from the surroundings.

LUBRICATING OIL ANALYSES - In order to be able to check lubricating oils in use, it is necessary to obtain the most important information as quickly as possible, to keep the number of tests down to a minimum. Normally, these should include the oils viscosity, flash point, solid impurities present, water content and total base number (TPN) or neutralization number. However, there are a number of additional tests, which may be applied to lubricating oils and these may be summarized as follows. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Density Flash point Viscosity Viscosity index Neutralization number Water-soluble acids content TBN Water content i. Emulsification number/demulssification number j. Sediment content k. Pour point and cloud point l. Coking residue m. Sulfate ash

a. Density - The density of most lubricating oils is in the range 0.90-0.98 g/CM3. b. Flash point - The flash point is normally found by using the Pensky-Marten or Cleveland apparatus. These have closed and open cups respectively. When analyzing a used lubricating oil, many of the oil companies consider it necessary to state both flash points, because a lubricating oil containing fuel oil has a low flash point when a closed cup is used and a relatively high flash

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point when an open cup is used, whereas both flash points of a cracked lubricating oil are unusually low. c. Viscosity - The viscosity is determined in a similar manner to that used for fuel oils. The organization for internationals standardization (ISO) has developed a new system for the classification of the viscosity of lubricating oils. The system consists of 18 viscosity intervals from 1.98 cSt to 1650 cSt at 40C. Each interval has been given an ISO VG number (viscosity grade) that corresponds to the average value of the interval (see Table 6 below).

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Table 6 - ISO VISCOSITY GRADES TABLE ISO viscosity Average viscosity at Kinematic viscosity degrees at grades 40C (cSt) 400C (cSt) Min Max ISO VG 2 2.2 1.98 2.42 ISO VG 3 3.2 2.88 3.52 ISO VG 5 4.6 4.14 5.06 ISO VG 7 6.8 6.12 7.48 ISO VG 10 10.0 9.00 11.00 ISO VG 15 15.0 13.50 16.50 ISO VG 22 22.0 19.80 24.20 ISO VG 32 32.0 28.80 35.20 ISO VG 46 46.0 41.40 50.60 ISO VG 68 68.0 61.20 74.80 ISO VG 100 100.0 90.00 110.00 ISO VG 150 150.0 135.00 1.65.00 ISO VG 220 220.0 198.00 242.00 ISO VG 320 320.0 288.00 352.00 ISO VG 460 460.0 414.00 506.00 ISO VC 680 680.0 612.00 748.00 ISO VG 1000 1000.0 900.00 1100.00 ISO VG 1500 1500.0 1350.00 1650.00 If the viscosity of lubricating oil increases during use, this indicates that aging or oxidation of the oil has taken place. The products of oxidation give rise to an increase in the viscosity of the oil, but at the same time a reduction occurs in the lubricating properties of the oil. However, an increase in viscosity can also be due to a high carbon content in the form of soot particles. Fuel dilutions can also affect the viscosity, particularly distillates and light fuels. In this connection it is worth noting that the viscosity of all mineral oils increases with increasing pressure. Figure 69 shows a typical example of this relationship for oil intended for use in oil pressure systems.

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FIGURE 69 d. Viscosity index - All lubricating oils of a mineral nature change in viscosity with changes in temperature. They all get thicker when cooled and thinner when heated. However, there is a great difference in the way the various oils behave in this respect, and the viscosity index is an expression of the characteristics of the oil in this connection. The higher the viscosity index of an oil, the less the viscosity changes with a given change in temperature. The viscosity index for oil depends on the following: (a) The crude oil from which it is manufactured (b) The method used for refining (c) The existence of possible additives. In general it can be said that the viscosity index of oil with a paraffinic base is higher than that of lubricating oil with a naphthenic base. This means that the viscosity of paraffinic-based oils normally changes less as the temperature varies than corresponding naphthenic-based lubricating oils. The viscosity index can be improved considerably by mixing the oil with special additives. The viscosity index (VI) for oil is calculated from the following formulae. For oils of 0 to 100 VI: U = L - [(VI/I 00) (L - H)] For oils of 100 VI and greater: U = antilog (log H - N log Y)

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Where: Y L H U N = = = = = kinematic viscosity of oil in cSt at 100C. kinematic viscosity in cSt at 40C of an oil of 0 viscosity index, and having the same kinematic viscosity at 100C as the oil whose viscosity index is to be calculated. kinematic viscosity in cSt at 40C of an oil of 100 viscosity index, and having the same kinematic viscosity at 100C as the oil whose viscosity index is to be calculated. kinematic viscosity in cSt at 40C of the oil whose viscosity index is being determined. log [0.00715 (VI - 100) + 1].

The viscosity index of oil can be determined by means of the ASTM D 567 curves shown in Figure 70. The condition for being able to use the diagram is that the viscosity of the oil is known both at 100T and 210T, either in Saybolt Universal Seconds or in cSt. By marking the two known values on the diagram and drawing a straight line between these two points, the line intersects one of the viscosity index curves enabling a direct reading of the index to be taken. The viscosity index of a lubricating oil is a very important and useful value, not only from the point of view of the temperature-viscosity relationships, but also as a means of identifying the crude oil from which the lubricating oil has been manufactured. For a pure mineral oil, i.e. oil without any additives to improve the Viscosity index, a high viscosity index of, for instance, 80100 usually indicates oil with a paraffinic base. A low viscosity index, for example 0 to 40, normally indicates oil having a naphthenic base. Oils with viscosities between 40 and 80 often consist of oil mixtures. There were times when a high viscosity index was looked upon as the first prerequisite for high quality, the reason being that it was assumed that the ability of the oil to resist oxidation was closely connected with a high viscosity index. This is true for many oils not containing additives, but for most applications there are other properties to be taken into consideration. For stability against oxidation, special tests have been prescribed which determine this property considerably better than the viscosity index. With modem lubricating oils whose characteristics are determined by a combination of improved refining and a complicated mixture of additives, it is unrealistic to use the viscosity index for an evaluation of oil properties other than just the relationship between viscosity and temperature. In this respect, the special tests provide much more reliable results.

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FIGURE 70 e. Neutralization number - The neutralization number indicates the amount (in mg) of potassium hydroxide (KOH) required to neutralize the acid in 1 g of oil. This is determined as follows. 10g of the lubricating oil to be tested is weighed into a conical flask. If the acid content of the oil is very low, a larger sample can be used. A solution of 50 ml of alcohol and 1 ml of phenolphthalein is mixed in a second flask, heated to approximately 45C and then neutralized with 0.1M alcoholic potassium hydroxide. The neutralized alcohol is mixed with the weighed oil sample and heated to boiling point in a water bath or on a hot plate. Boiling is maintained for 5 min with continuous stirring, after which 1 ml
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of the phenolphthalein solution is added and the mixture and cooled down to approximately 45C. It is then titrated as quickly as possible with 0.1M potassium hydroxide, and stirred continuously until a color shift occurs. If the amount of potassium hydroxide used is an ml and the amount of oil sample used is b g, the neutralization number is found from the following formula. Neutralization number a 5.611 b Atomic weights for K, 0 and H to be used are, respectively, 39.10, 16.00 and 1.008. The total acid number (TAN) of the oil can be determined by means of potentiometric titration. By this method, titrations to two different pH values are carried out, a curve covering the pH value being drawn gradually as the titration is performed. By this means the strong acid number (SAN) is first determined, which is the amount of acid contributing to a pH value of below 4, and TAN corresponds to the total acid content of the oil. The difference between TAN and SAN is due to the content of weak acids WAN (weak acid number) in the oil, i.e. TAN = WAN + SAN The presence of acid in lubricating oil can be caused by aging or oxidation, by which weak organic acids are generated, but can also be due to contamination from the combustion products, which results in the formation of strong, inorganic acids. When analyzing used oil, the interesting parameter to determine is how great a part of the acid formation is due to the existence of weak and strong acids, thereby enabling a conclusion to be reached concerning the reason for the breakdown of the oil. f. Water-soluble acids (strong acids) content - This acid content is found by determining the amount (in mg) of KOH needed to neutralize the water-soluble acids existing in 1 g of oil. The investigation is carried out by heating 100 g of oil with constant stirring together with 100 ml of distilled water. To this mixture is added 1-2 drops of methyl-orange, which has the property of being yellow at pH values of greater than 4.4, but which changes color to orange-yellow and becomes red at pH values of less than or equal to 3. 1. If the water precipitated is yellow, the oil does not contain any water-soluble acids. If the water turns red, it is filtered through a moistened filter and a quantitative determination is carried out by titrating 50 ml with 0.1M KOH until the red color just disappears. If a ml of KOH is used, the content of water-soluble acids is: 2 - a .5.611 100 g. Total base number (TBN) - The alkali content is defined as the amount of KOH (in mg), which is equivalent to the amount of acid used to neutralize the bases in I g of oil. This is known as the total base number (TBN). The water-soluble alkali content can be determined as follows.

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100 g of oil is heated with 100 ml of distilled water with constant stirring and a few drops of phenolphthalein are added. If the water does not color, the oil does not contain any alkali. If the water turns red, it is filtered through a water-moistened filter, and a quantitative determination is carried out by titrating 50-mi with OAM hydrochloric acid until the red color just disappears. If the amount of hydrochloric acid used is a: the alkali content 2. a .5.611 100

Lubricating oil for diesel engines must be able to neutralize the increased amount of acid that is formed by the increasing use of fuel oil with high sulfur content. This has led to oils being provided with additives of a high base number, forming a reserve for the neutralization of strong acids. The amount of these additives is indicated by the TBN, which can be determined by, for instance, titration with HC104. (This titration should only be undertaken in a laboratory under controlled conditions.) The TBN is the amount of HC104 which, converted to the equivalent amount in mg of potassium hydroxide, is necessary to neutralize all the basic component parts in I g of oil. In addition to the TBN, the initial pH is often stated, which is the pH value of the oil when it is dissolved in an organic solvent. If the initial pH is greater than 4, alkaline additives still remain, and these can be determined by the TBN. If the initial pH is below 4, strong acids are present and these can be determined as the SAN. The TBN of marine oils from most companies has increased considerably during recent years, the result being operation with a TBN of 70 for cylinder oils and up to 30 for system oils, depending on the sulfur content of the fuel oil. The use of oils with a high TBN involves the risk that the large amount of additives, which are necessary, will cause a sediment in the form of hard deposits on the pistons, particularly if the additives are not selected with care. h. Water content - The water content is determined by means of the distillation apparatus shown in Figure 71 and Figure 72. Xylene is added so that a mixture of xylene and water is distilled, from which the water separates.

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FIGURE 71

FIGURE 72

i. Demulsification/emulsification number - Emulsions consisting of oil and water separate relatively quickly if left standing. The tendency of the oil to form emulsions can be expressed by the following. Steam demulsification number - In this test, steam is passed into the oil under carefully controlled conditions until the total volume of emulsion formed is equal to twice the original volume of the oil (20 ml). The emulsion is then placed in a separating bath and the time (in seconds) for the oil and water to separate is taken as the steam demulsification number. Emulsification number - In this test a quantity of oil (40 ml) is mixed with water (40 ml) using a special stirring paddle at a fixed speed of rotation. The emulsion is placed in a separating bath at a given temperature and allowed to stand for I h. At the end of this period the result is expressed as oil/water/emulsion (in ml), i.e. 40/40/0. The apparatus used is shown in Figure 73.

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FIGURE 73 j. Sediment content - Using the so-called precipitation figure, indicating the volume of foreign matter present, indicates the amount of sediment in lubricating oil. The precipitation Figure does not identify the nature of the impurities, but provides a quantitative estimation without any information concerning their origin. The measuring glasses used in this investigation are shown in Figure 74 1 and 2. As a rule, two 10 ml samples of the oil are tested simultaneously, which enables the results to be compared. To each sample is added 90 ml of precipitation naphthene as solvent. Each measuring glass is stoppered and turned upside down several times, after which the contents are heated in a water bath to approximately 35C. The glasses are then mounted in a centrifuge and the amount of sediment recorded after centrifuging at 1500 rev/min for approximately 10 min. They are then centrifuged again for a further 10 min and the sediment measured a second time. This process is continued until the measurement remains constant. The amount of sediment (in ml) is taken as the precipitation figure.

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FIGURE 74 k. Pour point and cloud point - These points are determined in the same way as that described for fuel oils. l. Coking residue - The coking value of lubricating oil is found from the amount of residue remaining after the oil has been heated without exposure to air. It is stated in % by weight and is determined by means of the equipment shown in Figure 75. This is Conradsons testing apparatus and consists of the following parts.

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FIGURE 75 A = Porcelain crucible D = Triangle of chrome-nickel wire B = Skidmore iron crucible E = Cylindrical metal hood C = Pressed steel crucible with the bottom F = Asbestos block covered by dry sand G = Merker gas burner The procedure for finding the coking value is as follows. Two glass beads of approximately2.5-mm. diameters are placed in the porcelain crucible, and the crucible with the beads is weighed. 10 g 5 mg of oil free from impurities is weighed into the crucible. This is then placed in the apparatus, which is assembled as shown in the Figure 75. The burner is lit and the oil heated for a period of 10 1 min until ignition takes Place. Combustion of the oil vapors must take place within 13 1 min. After the oil vapors have been turned off, the bottom part of the steel crucible is heated until it takes on a cherry-red color. This heating should take exactly 7 min, after which the burner is turned off. The period of time from when the burner is lit until it is turned off must be 30 2 min. After a period of approximately 15 min, the covers are taken off the crucibles and the porcelain crucible is weighed. The coking residue is determined as the average of several measurements, which, however, must not deviate from the average weight by more than 10%.

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m. Sulfate ash - This is a test, which is used as an alternative to the coking tests. It consists of producing coke from the oil in a crucible and then treating the residue with sulfuric acid, the result being that the metals such as barium, calcium, zinc, sodium, potassium and tin are converted to sulfates or oxides. The weights of this acid-treated ash can provide a great deal of useful information concerning the oils additive content. The individual components of the ash can be analyzed by chemical analysis and provide an indication of the basic elements contained in the oil. BASE OILS AND ADDITIVES - Virtually all lubricants are a mixture of base oils and oil additives to a formulation selected so that the blend performs a specific function. Its ability to satisfactorily perform this function, although largely controlled by the nature of the additives, depends to a great extent on the quality of the base oil, on its inherent proper-ties, and especially on its response to additives, particularly anti-oxidants. The lubricants used are formulated with petroleum derived mineral-based oils and these are produced from crude oil residue. Although the base oil will have been subjected to various forms of treatment in the refinery, its inherent properties are largely dependent on the nature of the original crude oil and on the molecular structure of the base oil itself. It is said that base oil is either paraffinic or naphthenic and this simply means that there is a predominance of one particular form of molecular structure. Paraffinic molecules have the hydrocarbon atoms arranged in a long chain whereas naphthenics have their atoms arranged in a ring structure. Paraffins are less volatile, less chemically reactive and tend to have better oxidation resistance than naphthenics but the latter have better thermal stability, better additive solubility and lower pour-points. There is a third form of molecular structure, aromatic, which is always present in base oils. Aromatics also have a ring structure with unsaturated, hence unstable, atoms. They are volatile and unstable with poor oxidation resistance; therefore they are not a desirable component of base oils. Nevertheless all three groups are always present. An example of the proportions of constituents in paraffinic base oil might be 60% paraffinic, 28% naphthenic and 12% aromatic. The most important single property of base oil is its viscosity, but its inherent properties affect the demulsibility and foaming tendency of the finished oil. At one time oxidation resistance was also extremely important but today, additive response is more significant since anti-oxidants can extend oils life beyond the bounds of even the best quality base oil. A base oil with excellent inbuilt oxidation resistance may have a poor response to anti-oxidants and will therefore have a shorter life than one which, by itself, has poor oxidation stability but an excellent response to additives. The first use of additives in base oils took place in the 1920s, and since then their use has increased enormously, the result being that almost all present types of lubricating oil contain at least one additive, and many of them can be found to contain as many as five or even more additives of different types. The proportions of the different additives can vary from some few hundredths of a % up to approximately 30%.

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The introduction of additives into lubricating oils has permitted a great many new mechanical designs, not least in the field of diesel engines and gear transmissions. The following is a brief summary of the additives normally to be found in marine lubricating oils, such oils often being known as HD (heavy duty) oils. a. Additives that reduce pour point - These are polymeric materials of high molecular weight, also called pour point depressants, which are thought to function by absorbing into or cocrystallizing with wax crystals, thus modifying the wax crystal structure. Smaller wax particles are formed which do not interlock or congeal so effectively, thus permitting the flow to continue at lower temperatures than untreated oil. b. Additives that change the viscosity index - These compounds, also called viscosity index improvers, are generally polymers of high molecular weight, ranging from 5000 to 20,000. The function of viscosity index improvers is to enhance the rheological properties of oils. According to current theory, they do this by purely physical means. It is thought that, at low temperatures, the polymeric molecules have only limited solubility in the base oil, and that they exist in the form of small, tightly wound coils, having little effect on viscosity. However, as the temperature increases and the molecules become more soluble, they become swollen and unravel, hence contributing their bulk to the viscosity of the solution. Additives, which improve the viscosity index, enable the oil to satisfy the requirements called for by two or more SAE viscosity ranges. Lubricating oils of this type, which are most often relatively thin at low temperatures (no starting difficulties) and relatively thick at operating temperatures, are often known as multi-grade lubricating oils. c. Additives that reduce scum formation (antifoams) - These additives, often in the form of silicone oils, are extremely effective and are consequently normally only added in minute amounts (ppm). The introduction of larger amounts can result in an increase in the degree of scum formation, by reducing the ability to release whipped-in air. Therefore, these additives must be used with the greatest caution, not least in turbine oils. The probable mode of action of anti-foam agents is a lowering of the surface tension at oil-air interfaces, permitting more rapid collapse of air bubbles. d. Additives that reduce oxidation (anti-oxidants) -Most of the time, lubricating oils are in contact with air, frequently at elevated temperatures. Under such conditions the lubricant undergoes a complex series of oxidation reactions with generally harmful results. The main consequences of oxidation are an increase in viscosity and the formation of insoluble resins, varnishes, sludge and acidic materials, all of which may result in the corrosion of bearings and other metal surfaces and can cause interference with oil circulation and heat transfer. The rate of oxidation depends upon oxygen concentration, temperature, and the effect of catalysts such as copper and iron. These additives can act in different ways, for instance by

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having a direct influence on the lubricating oil, or resulting in the neutralization of the metallic catalysts which are always present in the lubricating oil system. e. Additives that improve resistance to corrosion - These are usually known as corrosion inhibitors, the purpose of which is to protect the structural elements of the engine against corrosion. They are often the same as the oxidation inhibitors described above. f. Additives that reduce rust formation - Rust inhibitors are normally chemical compounds that adhere firmly to metal surfaces, thus forming a coherent film that prevents water or moisture coming into contact with the metal surfaces of the engine. These additives often consist of organic phosphorus compounds containing esters and amino soaps and/or amines. Rust inhibitors can be used in all types of lubricating oils and are usually very effective at protecting steel against rust attack. Since rust inhibitors are absorbed by the steel parts of the lubricating system, the amount found in the oil can decrease, which makes it necessary to add more of the additive from time to time. As some rust inhibitors are known to attack certain metal elements, and since there are also other inhibitors, which result in the oil, together with water forming emulsions that are difficult to decompose, the choice of inhibitors should be made only after careful consideration. g. Additives with a cleaning effect - Lubricating oils containing these additives are often called detergent oils or self-cleaning oils. However, it would probably be more appropriate if they were known as cleaning and dispersing agents. All lubricating oils decompose during use, thereby becoming contaminated, but contamination can also appear as metal particles from journals and soot from the combustion process. To prevent these different impurities from sticking together to form large accumulations capable of blocking lubricating oil pipes and sticking to piston rings, the oil is provided with cleaning and dispersing additives, which form a thin film around the various particles. This makes it impossible for them to stick together to form large masses. The small particles thus surrounded by this film are kept suspended in the lubrication oil, i.e. they remain floating in the oil and, since they are very small compared with the thickness of the oil film in a normal journal bearing, they are not harmful. The cleaning and dispersing additives are often organic barium and calcium compounds. h. Additives that reduce bearing wear - The object of these additives, often known as EP (extreme pressure) additives, is to reduce wear on the bearings when an engine is being started, which is the time when there is the greatest possibility of metallic contact between the bearing surfaces and the journals. The additives, usually consisting of fat oils of organic origin, must never be used as lubricating oils for diesel engines. Additives also belonging to this category are those used to increase the ability of the lubricating oil to resist high surface pressure. They are used, for instance, in gear oils, and often contain sulfur, phosphorus and chlorine compounds.

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TYPES OF LUBRICATING OIL - The lubricating oils that are used for diesel engines can be divided into the following main types. a. b. c. Lubricating oil with or without a small amount of self-cleaning additive. This type is used in the main lubricating oil systems of crosshead engines. Lubricating oil with a high content of alkaline additives. These oils are used for the lubrication of crosshead engine cylinder liners and piston rings. Heavy duty, self-cleaning lubricating oils for the lubrication of medium-speed trunk engines.

The following are other types of oils that find application in the marine field. a. b. c. d. Lubricating oil for steam turbines Oil for pressure oil systems (hydraulic oils) Gear oil Lubricating oil for refrigeration plants

a. Crankcase oil for crosshead engines - The most important requirements for crankcase oil for a crosshead engine are that it must be able to lubricate the moving parts in the crankcase, protect the, metal surfaces against corrosion, and resist the effects of oxidation. For many years, these requirements have been satisfactorily met with a simple SAE 30 mineral-based oil with inhibitors against rust and oxidation. This lubricating oil, which became known as R and 0, has a low content of additives, which makes it relatively easy to remove water and un-dissolved particles of dirt by means of centrifugal separation. However, it is used in heavily loaded crosshead engines as the cooling agent in pistons, and thus it is exposed to a greater risk of oxidation and thermal degradation. This has necessitated the use of detergent oils with a low additive content (TBN 5-9) in the crankcase. b. Cylinder lubricating oil for crosshead engines - Where the lubrication of diesel engines is concerned, the most difficult task is probably the lubrication of pistons, piston rings and cylinder liners. Cylinder lubrication oils must not only resist the effects of high temperatures and pressures, in preventing metal-to-metal contact, but also be able to neutralize the highly corrosive acids which are formed during the combustion of sulfur-containing fuel oils. Consequently, cylinder lubrication oils must be highly alkaline and have a high viscosity at room temperature. Usually, a type SAE 50 oil with a TBN of greater than 70 is used. During particularly difficult operating conditions, it may be necessary to use cylinder lubrication oil with viscosity of 24 cSt at 100 C. In order to avoid high degrees of wear due to corrosion of cylinder liners and piston rings, it may be necessary to use cylinder lubrication oil with a TBN of 100. c. Lubricating oil for medium-speed trunk engines - In the case of trunk engines, the oil must lubricate both the crankshaft mechanism and cylinder liners. Even in trunk engines equipped with separate cylinder lubrication systems, the same type of lubricating oil is used for both the cylinder liners and the crankshaft mechanism. Since many of these trunk engines use the same type of heavy fuel oils as crosshead engines, the conditions for the lubrication of cylinders are

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just as difficult as those with 2-stroke crosshead engines, though with the advantage that 4-stroke engines have only one combustion stroke for every other revolution of the crankshaft. This means that lubricating oils with a TBN of 30-40 may be used. Use is normally made of SAE 30 or SAE 40 lubricating oils produced from mineral-based oil with admixtures of alkaline, self-cleaning, dispersive, anti-oxidizing, rust inhibiting and antifoaming additives. d. Lubricating oil for steam turbines - With steam turbines it is necessary to use lubricating oils that can resist the effect of high temperatures and that do not form emulsions with water. Moreover, they must contain additives, which counteract oxidation and rust formation. Care must be taken that turbine oil is not polluted with alkaline oils, which contain dispersive additives. This is because those rust inhibitors that are normally used in turbine oils react with alkaline lubricating oils, the result being the formation of strong emulsions. It has proved that a calcium pollution of greater than 12 ppm. is sufficient to ruin turbine oil. e. Oil for pressure oil systems - Oils for pressure oil systems hydraulic systems are very similar to turbine oils, in that they must have both a high resistance to oxidation and the ability to prevent wear and the formation of emulsions. Moreover, it is normally necessary to use oils that contain additives that improve the oils viscosity index, thus enabling the oil to be used over a wide temperature range. An additional effect of these additives is that the pour point of the oil is reduced, so it becomes relatively thick at higher temperatures. This can be of great significance for ships, which sail in different climatic regions. With regard to pollution, the same conditions apply as those mentioned under turbine oils. f. Gear oil - Lubricating oils used for gears are similar to those used in pressure oil systems, the only difference being that they normally contain additives, which improve their ability to resist the effects of high pressure. g. Lubricating oil for refrigeration plants - Apart from a low pour point, lubricating oils for refrigeration plants are characterized by their solubility in the refrigerant used. In this connection, the oils critical dissolution temperature is stated, which is the lowest temperature at which the oil is soluble in the refrigerant. In almost all refrigeration plants in which Freon (R-12) is used, a part of the oil is dissolved and circulates in the refrigeration system. If the temperature in the condenser coils is lower than the oils critical dissolution temperature, separation of the oil can take place in the cooling agent, the flow of which can be blocked by the separated lubricating oil. Moreover, the oil may give rise to liquid knocking in the compressor, with subsequent damage. Refrigeration oil must therefore be produced from a carefully selected mineral naphthene-based oil, without additives. Over recent years it has become normal to use synthetic oils for refrigeration plants, the reason being that these have a very low pour point and low critical dissolution temperature. They are usually fully miscible with the corresponding mineral-based oils.

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SELECTING SAMPLES OF OIL FOR TESTING - The procedure for taking oil samples has to be standardized; otherwise the results of analyses have no value. This is particularly true if the investigation involves any question concerning guarantee or compensatory claims. Normally, lubricating oil samples are taken while the oil is circulating in the lubrication system, usually after a long period of operation, but before any maneuvers are carried out with the engine. Before the sample is taken, the drain cock, the vessel for the sample, and the piping, must be rinsed thoroughly. As the oil sample must be shaken before analysis, 0.75 liter should be drawn off in a 1-liter vessel. The taking of samples of fuel oil can be carried out with various types of sample collectors. An example known as an immersion sample collector is shown in Figure 76. The collector has a volume of approximately 1 liter and is shown in the closed and open condition. It consists of a cylindrical tube, which is closed at the bottom by a foot valve and at the top by two flaps. When the collector is lowered into a liquid, the foot valve and flaps open and the liquid flows through the tube. The collector is then stopped in its descent at the height from which the sample is required to be taken. When the collector is pulled upwards, the foot valve and the two top flaps close, preventing oil from other levels entering the collector. When taking samples of oil to be analysed, distinction is made between part samples, these being upper samples, middle samples or lower samples. If the level of the oil in the tank from which the sample is selected is h, upper samples are taken at a distance of 0.9 h from the bottom, middle samples from a distance of approximately0.5 h from the bottom and lower samples from approximately 0.1 h from the bottom. Mixtures of these part samples are known as raw samples, whereas bottom samples are understood to be those taken from the deepest place in the tank.

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FIGURE 76 The way in which raw samples are made up is given in Table below SAMPLE SELECTION FOR TESTING TABLE Make-up of sample (parts) Location of raw sample Upper Middle Lower From full, horizontal cylindrical tanks 1 8 1 From vertical tanks with uniform cross-section 1 3 1 After careful mixing of the raw sample, of which there must be at least 4 liters, a laboratory sample is selected. If there is a compensatory claim or a question of guarantee connected with the results of the analyses, the raw sample is normally divided into four parts, each of 1 liter, these being supplied to the parties involved.

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SPECIFIC HEAT, THERMAL CONDUCTION RATING AND COMPRESSIBILITY Other mineral oil properties that may be of interest during operation are: 1. Specific heat 2. Thermal conduction rating 3. Compressibility a. Specific heat - The specific heat c of a mineral oil depends on the temperature t and with fair approximation can be expressed by: c = 2.00 + 0.0003 (t - 100) kJ/C kg b. Thermal conduction rating - The thermal conduction rating lies within the temperature range 20-100C and is on average for mineral oils at approximately 0.13 W/m C. c. Compressibility - The compressibility of a mineral oil is small and is defined by the equation: v2 = 1 - P (p2 p1) v1 where: p2 p1 v1 v2 = = = = = compressibility (in bar) oil pressure (in bar) atmospheric pressure (in bar) volume of the oil measured at atmospheric pressure volume of the same amount of oil, measured at the oil pressure p2.

Figure 77 shows how the density of a mineral oil changes with pressure. The ratio p2/ p1 between the density of the oil at the pressurep2and at atmospheric pressure is the ordinate, and the pressure p2 in bar is the abscissa.

FIGURE 77

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LUBRICATING GREASE - Lubricating grease is usually produced -from mineral oil made gelatinous by the addition of soap. At 20C the consistency of the various types if grease ranges from the fluid state, to products with increasing stiffness, to hard, wax-like materials in blocks or stick form. Lubricating grease is often jelly-like and can be used as a lubricating agent during operating conditions at which oil would flow away and leave the bearings dry. One of the most important properties of grease is its consistency, also called its hardness. This is found by using a system introduced by the American Institute NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute). This system of classification is shown in the table below. The hardness is expressed as the depth in tenths of an mm that a standard cone will sink into grease in 5 s at a temperature of 25C. The unit of measurement is designated penetration. For example, if the penetration of grease is 285, the cone has been found to sink 28.5 mm into the grease after 5 s. CLASSIFICATION OF GREASE HARDNESS TABLE NLGI No. Penetration (mm) 0 355-385 - Soft greases 1 310-340 Soft greases 2 265-295 - Medium greases 3 220-250 - Medium greases 4 175-205 - Hard greases 5 130-160 - Hard greases 6 85-115 - Hard greases The soft greases with the NLGI numbers 0 and 1 are used particularly for lubrication with central lubricating equipment and the lubrication of gear transmissions. The medium greases with NLGI numbers 2 and 3 are normally used for lubrication with grease guns or by means of grease cups. The hardest greases, known as block greases, are used for lubrication of large, slowly rotating shafts, the blocks being pressed against the shafts to provide the necessary amount of lubrication merely by the friction between the two. In addition to the penetration classification of grease, regard must be paid to the viscosity of the oil it contains. As a rule, the viscosity of the oil in the grease must be the same as the viscosity of the oil that would be used if the bearing had been oil lubricated. Another important property is the drip point of the grease, which is the temperature at which the grease becomes fluid. This temperature is normally the highest temperature at which the grease can be used, but as a rule the range of applications for grease is limited to a temperature 10-20C below its drip point. However, there are exceptions to this rule. Some grease is not particularly stable when exposed to strong mechanical forces or vibrations in bearings. In these cases the oil separates from the thickening agent in the grease and flows away from the bearings. This can result in the bearing seizing up for want of adequate lubrication. These greases can therefore only be used for slowly turning shafts.

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An expression for the mechanical stability of the grease can be obtained by measuring the penetration before and after it has been exposed to a strong mechanical force. A small change in penetration indicates that the grease is mechanically stable. Grease packed in the housing of a ball bearing can supply the necessary lubrication for months or even years, whereas lubricating oil would leak out and necessitate constant filling up. Since lubricating grease- is consumed slowly, it is less inclined to splash or leak out of bearings, and so can be used to tighten bearings and prevent any penetration of water or dirt. In the cases where heat has to be led away from the bearing, lubricating grease is not suitable and circulating lubricating oil has to be used. There are many types of lubricating grease for high-speed shafts and lubrication at low bearing loads, greases produced from mineral oil with a low viscosity are preferred, thereby keeping the friction at a minimum. The thicker mineral oils are used as a base for the types of grease intended for use at higher operating temperatures and greater bearing loads. In many cases, a grease will stand up to considerably greater bearing loads than the oil from which it is produced. The soaps used in their manufacture can also contribute towards better lubrication qualities and, furthermore, can have considerably better rust-preventing properties than the corresponding oils. The characteristics of lubricating grease are determined by the soaps used in the manufacturing process. The lubricating greases most commonly used are: Calcium grease Sodium grease Barium and lithium grease Aluminum grease Lead grease

Calcium soaps form the basis of so-called lubricating grease, which has a thick, homogeneous structure having the consistency of soft butter. The consistency varies, however, with the soap concentration. Calcium grease is produced by boiling a mixture of fatty acids, mineral oil and calcium hydroxide together. When the saponification of the calcium with the acid is completed, the water content is regulated and oil is added. Lumps and impurities in the mixture are removed by means of a fine-mesh metal sieve. Calcium grease has a proportion of water that, if removed, results in the soap and oil curdling with consequent collapsing of the lubricating -grease. For this reason, calcium grease cannot be used at temperatures much above 80C, at which the water would quickly evaporate. However, in the latest types of calcium grease the water has been replaced by agents with higher boiling points, making them suitable for use at much higher temperatures. Calcium soaps are not soluble in water and are, in fact, very resistant to water, which makes them usable under circumstances where moisture would otherwise penetrate. The method used for the production of sodium grease is similar to that described for calcium grease, but sodium grease does not need to have any great water content for stabilizing. This makes it usable at higher temperatures. As sodium soaps are soluble in water, sodium grease can be washed off by water. This makes it unsuitable for use as a lubricating agent in places open to penetration by moisture.

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The consistency of sodium grease is almost fibrous, which is why it is often called fiber grease. It has a greater stability and internal coherency than calcium grease and is widely used for the lubrication of high-speed ball and roller bearings. If the roller or ball bearings are operating under moist conditions, the lubrication problem must be solved by a compromise. The calcium grease is preferred at low rotation speeds under moist conditions because of its resistance to water, but if the speed of rotation is so high that this lubricating agent decomposes, sodium grease must be used instead and extra precautions taken to keep water away from the bearings. Mixtures of calcium and sodium grease result in lubricating agents with characteristics between those already described. Grease produced from barium or lithium soaps are water resistant and can be used at higher temperatures and therefore in ball and roller bearings. This type of grease is more expensive than calcium grease and is normally used only under special conditions. Aluminum grease comes in two types, one being of a butter-like consistency and the other being fibrous. The former resembles the calcium-based greases and can be used for similar purposes. The latter type, which can be pulled out in threads of more than 1 m, can be used for large, slowturning shafts in cases where other types of grease would be squeezed out of the bearings. Lubricating agents of this sort can be supplemented with graphite or mica. Long-threaded aluminum greases can be supplied with a very fluid consistency which enables them to be used in oilcans and drip-feed lubricators. Similar fluid greases can be produced on the basis of calcium soaps, but these do not have a fibrous structure and are sometimes known as non-flowing oils because they do not flow out of the bearing at low pressures. Very soft calcium greases such as these are used only in cases where very little friction is generated. Ordinarily, lead soaps are only used to a small degree in lubricating greases with a gelatinous structure. They are used to achieve good supporting qualities at high bearing loads, the reason being that they are considered to improve the adhesion properties of the lubricating oils with which they are mixed. These greases are used for the lubrication of gears, particularly those operating under difficult conditions. They are very resistant to water and can be used for bearings, which are exposed to wind and weather. Mineral oils can be made gelatinous by the addition of materials other than soaps, but lubricating greases produced in this manner find very few fields of application. In the same manner that lubricating oils are provided with additives to improve their characteristics, additives are also used to a great extent in the production of the different types of lubricating grease. FUNCTIONS OF LUBE OIL IN DIESEL ENGINES 1. Form a film between mating surfaces to reduce wear and friction (about 900 Btu/lb. out of 18,500 used to cover 2. Act as a cooling agent - sometimes for piston 3. Clean and carry away dirt and metal particles (alkalized to neutralize combustible acids) 4. Assist in sealing the piston - cylinder wall clearance

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5.

Protect metal surfaces from corrosion - especially cylinder liner

Composition - Carbon 82-85% and Hydrogen 15-18% (Hydrocarbons) Places Lubricated Different Systems - Engine can have 1-5 systems Main Lube Oil Crosshead Lube Oil Camshaft Lube Oil Rocker Arm Lube Oil Cylinder Lube Oil Viscosity - Friction HP engine wear and oil consumption depend on viscosity. Varies with temperature measured 1. At 100 range from 200 to 1000 SSU at 210 range from 42 to 70 SSU 2. Temperature viscosity chart 3. Rate of change of viscosity varies with different oils. Viscosity Index (VI) rates oils relative to their viscosity chart It is advantageous to have a high VI because these oils will have low starting resistance yet maintain goo. Lube oil - Additives- vary from very small to 10% Inhibitors - Inhibitors increase alkalinity for acid neutralization - to counteract combustion products C02 + S02 from mixing corrosion inhibitors. Detergents - Prevent deposits on engine parts by keeping oxidation products in solution. Dispergents - Aid detergents by keeping OXI products in solution. Film strength Helps maintain oil film under high load pressure Prevent galling and scoring when metal to metal contact is made Metal deactivators - Reduce rate of change of viscosity with temperature rises. Foam inhibitor reduce foaming as oil is churned and pumped Selection of oil - Depends on: 1. Size and type of engine (2,4 stroke, crosshead or trunk) 2. Type of fuel 3. Environment (cold, salty etc.) 4. Type of filtering and centrifuging and type of lube oil system 5. Application of engine - continuous or intermittent Oil Requirements - Oil should provide the following protective services:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Good film Prevent sticking of rings and valves Seal cylinder from crankcase Leave no carbon deposits on crown or ports No corrosion Low combustion Good cold starting Use any kind of filter

9. Alkalinity 10. Detergency 11. Thermal stability 12. Oxygen stability 13. Load carrying ability 14. Anti-rust 15. Water separation ability 16. Anti-foam characteristics

Methods of Cleaning Oil 1. Strainers a. Metal edge b. Basket 2. Filters a. Filter beds b. Pressure filters 3. Clarifiers- paper edged filters 4. Chemical treatment 5. Centrifugal a. Purifying - removing solids and water b. Separating - separating water from oil c. Clarifying - separating solids from oil Oil Consumption - Depends on: 1. Percent of rated load carried 2. Type of service 3. Engine age and condition 4. Engine design and type Lube Oil System - Deliver clean oil in proper quantity, pressure and temperature (viscosity) to all areas requiring lubrication. Friction Surfaces - (could be 4 systems on one engine) 1. Pistons and cylinder liners 2. Crankshaft main bearings 3. Crank pins and their bearings 4. Crossheads and guides 5. Wrist pins and their bearings 6. Valve gear - camshaft bearings, cams, followers, push rods, etc. 7. Drive gear for pumps etc. Types 1. Method of oil storage: a. Crankcase sump (wet sump) b. Separate sump (dry sump)

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2.

Method of filtration or purification a. Full flow b. Bypass c. Sump system d. Batch 3. Forced and pressure a. Forced -oil pushed directly into lubricated area -cylinder lubricators b. Pressure - system provided head pressure from pump gene rally to a header (gallery)

Components 1. Storage tanks sump separates about 1200 gallon capacity for main engine. New oil tank, Clean oil tank 2. Pumps positive display rotary 3. Strainers 4. Filters (purifier) 5. Header or gallery - (35-65 psig) (120-1300 0 6. Cooler 7. Thermostatic temperature control Cylinder lubrication - Three methods: A. Splash B. Pressure feed C. Via piston pin 1. Uses separate oil a. Higher viscosity 250-350 SSU at 1000 F b. Higher alkalinity to combat combustion gases c. Higher flash point 2. Check valve provided 3. Glycerin and water in flow path at sight glass a. Give positive indication of oil delivery b. Permit visual adjustment of amount delivered 4. Generally supplied with manual method of pumping to assist in starting Check new type mechanical lubricators. 5. Not lacquer piston or cylinder surfaces 6. Prevent wear of bearings 7. Cleanse the interior of the engine 8. Not form sludge, clog oil lines, strainers and filters, or leave deposits in the oil cooler 9. Be usable with any kind of filter 10. Have a low consumption rate 11. Permit long intervals between renewals 12. Have good cold starting properties a. Pumps a certain amount of oil into cylinder from its own supply reservoir measured in drops and pints

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b. Location - on single acting 4 stroke engines the hole discharging the oil is located between the 1st and 2nd ring combustion chamber. c. On double acting the oil holes are located halfway between the cylinder ends and are open to the combustion chamber at certain times so a check valve must be put in the system. d. Timing - 4 stroke (once in 10 revolutions) oil pumped during the beginning of the compression stroke and rings of compression. Oil delivered to 4-8 equally spaced points from one lubricator on larger engines. Sources of Lube Oil Contamination: 1. Carbon deposits on cylinder from burned lube oil or fuel oil is scraped off and gets into oil in crankcase. 2. Dust particles from intake air collect on cylinder wall and eventually get into crank case 3. Water vapor from exhaust gases, which might blow by into crankcase. 4. Metal particles from wear in cylinder, bearings, bushings, broken piston rings etc. 5. Fuel oil dilution - unburned fuel oil running down sides of cylinder or leaking at Injection pump joints that pass through the cylinder wall. Maximum fuel oil dilution is 5%, can be detected by a pressure drop or by Lube oil analysis. 6. Salt water from lube oil cooler

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FIGURE 78 - VIEW OF A TYPICAL PRESSURE LIBRICATION SYSTEM

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FIGURE 79 - MAIN ENGINE LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM

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FIGURE 80 - LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR SULZER RND. M ENGINES CYLINDER LUBRICATION (SULZER DRAWING)

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FIGURE 81 - LUBRICATING OIL PURIFICATION SYSTEM (ALFA LAVAL)

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FIGURE 82

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FIGURE 83

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FIGURE 84 SULZER LUBE OIL SYSTEM

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GOVERNORS
The UG8 dial type governor is of the hydraulic type and is normally isochronous (will maintain same engine speed regardless of engine load). Speed adjustment (synchronizer), speed droop and load limit controls are standard features. The stalling work capacity of the governor is eight foot pounds. THE SYNCHRONIZE -The synchronizer , or speed adjusting control, is used to change the engine speed when running alone or to change the engine load when the engine has been paralleled with other units. The synchronizer indicator located directly below the synchronizer merely indicates the number of revolutions of the synchronizer knob.

THE SYNCHRONIZING MOTOR - A synchronizing motor may be mounted on a special cover for the UG8 governor to provide remote speed control. Its use enables the switchboard operator to match the frequency of an engine driven alternator with that of other units, or a system, before synchronizing and to change load distribution after synchronizing. The motor used is of the split field, series wound, reversible type. It can be used on either direct current or alternating current at its specified voltage. A friction type coupling is provided between the motor shaft and the synchronizer adjusting gear to allow the engine operator to adjust speed by turning the synchronizer control knob on the governor. THE SPEED DROOP - The speed droop control can be set to automatically divide and balance load between engines driving the same shaft, or paralleled in an electrical system. Droop is incorporated in the governor through a linkage which varies the compression of the speeder (speed adjusting) spring as the terminal shaft rotates. Increased fuel reduces spring compression, reduces the governor speed setting accordingly, and the unit will gradually reduce its speed as load is applied. This relationship between load and speed acts as a resistance to load changes when the unit is interconnected with other units either mechanically or electrically. As droop is reduced toward zero the unit becomes able to change load without changing speed. As a general rule, units running alone should be set on zero droop, interconnected units should be run at the lowest droop setting that will give satisfactory load division. A.C. generating units tied in with other units should have droop set sufficiently high (30 to 50 on the dial) to prevent interchange of load between units. If one unit in the plant, or system, has enough capacity, its governor may be set on zero droop and it will regulate the frequency of the entire system. This unit will take all the load changes within the limits of its capacity and will control frequency if its capacity is not exceeded.

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The system frequency is adjusted by operating the synchronizer of the governor having zero droop. The distribution of load between units is accomplished by operating the synchronizers of the governors having speed droop. THE LOAD LIMIT - The load limit control hydraulically limits the load that can be put on the engine by restricting the angular terminal shaft rotation of the governor, and consequently, the quantity of fuel supplied to the engine. The control may also be used for shutting down the engine by turning it to zero. CAUTION: Do not manually force engine linkage to increase fuel without first turning load limit knob to 10. INSTALLATION - When the governor is installed on the engine, particular care should be exercised to see that it is mounted squarely and that the drive connection to the engine is aligned properly. A gasket should be placed between the base of the governor and the mounting pad on the engine. If the governor is equipped with a serrated drive shaft, it should slip into the internal serrations of the drive freely enough to drop into place of its own weight. CAUTION: Do not drop or rest the governor on its drive shaft. If a keyed type governor drive shaft is used, the gear placed on this shaft should be checked to insure that it is meshing properly. There should be neither excessive backlash nor binding. Irregularities caused by uneven gear teeth, shaft runout, etc. will be picked up by the governor, transmitted to the fuel control system, and will result in erratic governing. Since the load limit device operates hydraulically rather than mechanically, the load indicating pointer position cannot be changed by turning the load limit control unless the governor is running (or has oil pressure in its accumulators). When installing the governor, turn the load limit knob to 10 before rotating the terminal shaft with a lever to obtain no fuel (zero load) position. The linkage from the governor terminal shaft to the fuel control system should be free from lost motion or excessive friction. It is often desirable to install a light spring acting to decrease fuel for the purpose of taking up lost motion due to wear. Avoid exceeding the working capacity of the governor by using too strong a spring. OIL SPECIFICATIONS - Proper selection of the oil used in the governor is necessary to realize best governor performance and longest service life. The oil should have a minimum tendency to foam, retain air, form sludge, or deposit varnish. It should protect governor parts from corrosion, and not be detrimental to seals or paint. Synthetic oils are not usually recommended. The oil selected should have a high viscosity index; the viscosity should be within the range of 100 to 200 Saybolt Universal Seconds at normal operating temperatures. Usually, if the average operating temperature of the governor oil is below 1200F., S.A.E. 10 oil is satisfactory; if between 1200F. and 1400F., S.A.E. 20 oil- from 1400F. to 1600F., S.A.E. 30 oil; between 1600F. and 1800F., S.A.E. 40; and above 1800F., S.A.E. 50 oil. The oil in the engine may be used in the governor if it meets these requirements.

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Oil contamination is the major cause of governor troubles. Use only new oil or filtered oil. Containers used for governor oil must be clean, and should be rinsed with a light grade of the same oil before being used. Anytime the governor oil appears to be dirty or breaking down from contaminants or excessive temperatures, drain the governor while it is hot, flush with the lightest grade of the same oil, and refill with fresh oil Should a solvent be used to clean the governor, it must be a type which does not damage oil seals or gaskets. Solvents contaminate governor oil and must be completely flushed out before the governor is filled with fresh oil STARTING ENGINE - When starting the engine, set the load limit (fuel limit) at 5 on the dial. This prevents the engine from getting excessive fuel and accelerating too rapidly. After the engine has warmed up, turn the load limit to 10. By means of the synchronizer adjust engine to its normal speed. Experience will determine if it is necessary to further limit the fuel on future starts. COMPENSATING ADJUSTMENTS - Although the governor may appear to be operating satisfactorily because the engine runs at constant speed (without load) the governor still may not be adjusted correctly. High overspeeds and underspeeds after load changes and slow return to normal speed are results of incorrect compensation adjustments. After the temperature of the engine and the oil in the governor have reached their normal operating values, make the following compensating adjustments without load on the engine to be certain that the governor gives optimum control: 1. Loosen the nut holding the compensation adjusting pointer and set the pointer at its extreme upward position (maximum compensation). See Fig. 1. 2. Remove the plug and open (unscrew) the compensating needle valve three or more turns with a screwdriver. Be sure that the screwdriver fits into the shallow slot of the compensating needle valve and not into the deep slot located at right angles to the shallow screwdriver slot. Allow the engine to hunt or surge for about one-half minute to bleed trapped air from the governor oil passages. 3. Loosen the nut holding the compensating adjusting pointer and set the pointer at the extreme downward position (minimum compensation). Gradually close needle valve until hunting just stops. Do not go beyond this position. Now check the amount of needle valve opening by dosing the valve completely, noting the amount of a full rum required to close. Open the valve to the previously determined opening at which hunting stopped. Test compensating adjustments by manually disturbing engine speed. If the engine speed settles out properly and the needle valve is more than 1/8 rum open in a governor having but one compensating spring or more than 3/8 turn open in governors with two compensating springs, the adjustments are satisfactory and steps (4), (5), and (6) may be ignored.

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FIGURE 1 4. If hunting did not stop with the needle valve at the minimum openings given in step (3), raise the compensating pointer two divisions of the scale. Open the needle valve again and allow the engine to hunt. 5. Repeat instruction (3) 6. If necessary, repeat (3), (4), and (5) until adjustment is satisfactory. Desirable opening of the needle is from 1/8 to 1/4 turn on governors with one compensating spring and from to turn on governors with two compensating springs.

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7. It is desirable to have as little compensation as possible. Closing the needle valve farther than necessary will make the governor slow to return to normal speed after a load change. Excessive dashpot plunger travel caused by adjustment of the compensation adjusting pointer too far toward maximum position will cause excessive speed change upon load change. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM - The schematic diagram shows a UGS dial control governor without auxiliary equipment. A differential type of servomotor is used in this governor. There is always full accumulator oil pressure on the top area of the power piston (regardless of pilot valve position) which will turn the terminal shaft in the direction to shut off fuel if there is no pressure (or low enough pressure) on the bottom area of the piston. The pilot valve will supply this same oil pressure to the bottom area of the power piston if the valve is moved down. Due to the difference of areas on the top and bottom of the piston a greater force on the bottom will then overcome the force on the top side and will move the piston turning the terminal shaft in the direction to increase fuel. If the pilot valve is moved up the area under the piston is opened to sump, reducing the force exerted on the bottom of the piston. The force exerted by the oil pressure on the top will then be greater and will move the piston, turning the terminal shaft in the direction to decrease fuel. The spring under the pilot valve supports the weight of the pilot valve, floating lever,,etc., and has no effect in the operation of the governor. The spring above the compensating actuating piston acts to eliminate lost motion in the compensating linkage and has no effect in the normal operation of the governor.

FIGURE 2 - WIRING DIAGRAM FOR SYNCHROZING MOTOR

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FIGURE 3

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DESCRIPTION OF OPERATION - The photographs showing operation of the governor, Fig. 4 to 10 inclusive, have been simplified by removing the top cover, panel, load limit mechanism, and load indicating mechanism. In addition, the synchronizer or speed adjusting mechanism has been simplified. Speed changes as a result of load changes have been considered, but the same sequence of governor movements would occur if a difference between actual governor speed and governor speed setting is produced by turning the synchronizer adjusting knob (Speed Adjustment). Movements of the operating parts of the governor are actually proportional to the amount of speed change, but have been greatly exaggerated in the photographs to make them more visible.

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FIGURE 4 1. Engie is running at normal speed under steady load 2. FLYBALLS, SPEEDER ROD, PILOT VALVE PLUNGER, and RECEIVER COMPENSATION PISTON are in normal positions; REGULATING PORT in PILOTING VALVE BUSHING is covered by land on PILOT VALVE PLUNGER. 3. POWER PISTON nd TERMINAL SHAFT are stationary.

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FIGURE 5 LOAD REDUCTION 1. Load is decreased and speed increased. 2. As speed increases, FLYBALLS move out raising SPEEDER ROD and inner end of FLOATING LEVER, thus raising PILOT VALVE PLUNGER and uncovering REGULATING PORT in PILOT VALVE BUSHING. 3. Uncovering of REGULATING PORT opens bottom of POWER CYLINDER to sump and will allow oil pressure in top of POWER CYLINDER to move POWER PISTON down.

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FIGURE 6 1. Oil pressure moves POWER PISTON down rotating TERMINAL SHAFT in the direction to decrease fuel. 2. As POWER PISTON moves down, ACTUATING COMPENSATING PISTON moves up and drawes RECEIVING COMPENSATING PISTON down compressing COMPENSATING SRRING and lowering outer end of FLOATING LEVER and PILOT VALVE PLUNGER. 3. Movement of POWER PISTON, ACTUATING COMPENSATING PISTON, RECEIVING COMPENSATING PISTON and PILOT VALVE PLUNGER continues until REGULATING PORT in BUSHING is covered by land on PLUNGER. 4. As soon as REGULATING PORT is covered, POWER PISTON and TERMINAL SHAFT are stopped at a position corresponding to decreased fuel needed to run engine at normal speed under decreased load.

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FIGURE 7 1. As speed decreases to normal, FLYBALLS return to normal position lowering SPEEDER ROD to normal position. 2. RECEIVING AND COMPENSATING PISTON is returned to normal position by COMPENSATING SPRING at the same rate as SPPEDER ROD thus keeping REGULATING PORT in PILOT VALVE BUSHING covered by land on PILOT VALVE PLUNGER; flow of oil through COMPENSTING NEEDLE VALVE determines rate at which RECEIVING COMPENSATING PISTON is returned to noraml. 3. At completion of cycle, FLYBALLS, SPEEDER ROD, PILOT VALVE PLUNGER, and RECEIVING COMPENSATING PISTON are in normal positions; POWER PISTON

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and TERMINAL SHAFT are stationary at a position corresponding to decreased fuel necessary to run engine at normal speed under decreased load.

FIGURE 8 LOAD INCREASE 1. Load in increased and decreases. 2. As speed decreases, FLYBALLS move in lowering SPEEDER ROD and inner end of FLOATING LEVER, thus lowering PILOT VALVE PLUNGER and uncovering regulating port of PILOT VALVE BUSHING.

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3. Uncovering of REGULATING PORT admits pressure oil to bottom of POWER CYLINDER; since bottom area of POWER PISTON is greater than top area, oil pressure will move PISTON up.

FIGURE 9 1. Oil pressure moves POWER PISTON up and rotates TERMINAL SHAFT in direction to increase fuel. 2. As POWER PISTON moves up, ACTUATING COMPENSATING PISTON moves down and forces end of FLOATING LEVER and PILOT VALVE PLUNGER. 3. Movement of POWER PISTON, ACTUATING COMPENSATING PISTON, RECEIVING COMPENSATING PISTON, and PILOT VALVE PLUNGER continues until REGULATING PORT in PILOT VALVE BUSHING is covered by land on PLUNGER.

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4. As soon as REGULATING PORT is covered, POWEER PISTON and TERMINAL SHAFT are stopped as a position corresponding to increased fuel needed to run engine at normal speed increased load.

FIGURE 10 1. As speed increases to normal, FLYBALLS return to normal position raising SPEEDER ROD to normal position. 2. RECEIVING COMPENSATING PISTON is returned to normal position by COMPENSATING SPRING at the same rate as SPEEDER ROD thus keeping REGULATING PORT in PILOT VALVE BUSHING covered by land on PILOT VALVE PLUNGER; flow of oil through COMPENSATING NEEDLE VALVE determines rate at which RECEIVING COMPENSATING PISTON is returned to normal.

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3. At compleation of cycle, FLYBALLS, SPEEDER ROD PILOT VALVE PLUNGER, and RECEIVING COMPENSATING PISTON are in normal position; POWER PISTON and TERMINAL SHAFT are stationary at a position corresponding to increased fuel necessary to run engine at normal speed under increased load.

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OUTLINE DRAWING OF TYPICAL UG 8 DIAL CONTROL GOVERNOR

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VARIABLE SPEED OIL PRESSURE GOVERNOR WITH SELF CONTAINED OIL PUMP AND ACCUMULATORS. SPEED RANGE APPROXIMATELY 2.2:1 RATION UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIALLY ORDERED. CAPACITY: 8FT LBS (WORK) IN EITHER DIRECTION THROUGH TERMINAL SHAFT ROTATION JOF 42 THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE SERVOMOTOR. OCCASIONALLY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS NECESSITATE REDUCING THE CAPACITY TO 4FT. LBS. HEIGHT: 50 LBS APPROXIMATE WITHOUT AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT. POWER: APPROXIMATELY 1/10 H.P REQUIRED AT DRIVE SHAFT.

STANDARD FEATURES 1. SPEED DROOP ADJUSTABLE BY KNOB FOR ISOCHRONOUS OPERATION OR ANY SPEED DROOP UP TO 75 RPM FOR FULL GOVERNOR STROKE (PROPORTIONATELY LESS FOR SHORTER STROKE). 2. SPEED ADJUSTMENT SPEED MAY BE ADJUSTED BY KNOB WITH GOVERNOR RUNNING. FIXED STOPS LIMIMT SPEED RNAGE. 3. LOAD LIMIT MANIALLY CONTROLLED BY KNOB FROM FRONT OF GOVERNOR, MAY BE USED AS MANUAL SHUTDOWN. 4. LOAD INDICATOR PROVIDED ON PANEL 5. COMPENSTING ADJUSTMENT AND COMPENSATING NEEDLE VALVE EXTERNALLY CONTROLLED. 6. SIGHT OIL GAUGE AN OIL CUP FULLER PERMITS ADDOING OIL IN FIELD AS REQUIRED. 7. DRIVE SHAFT SPEED RANGE 375-1500 RPM. DRIVE IS VERICAL (FROM BELOW) AND MAY ROTATE EITHER WAY. A BUILT-IN SPRING DRIVE IS PROVIDED. AUXILIARY AND OPTIONAL FEATURES; SYNCHRONIZING MOTOR OTHER EQUIPMEMT FURNISHED TO ORDER. INFORMATION AND PARTS REPLACEMENT - When requesting information concerning governor operation and maintenance or ordering replacements parts, it is very essential that the following information accompany the request: 1. Governor serial number (shown on governor nameplate); this is needed since the bulletin part numbers shown do not identify the exact part number required for any one governor. 2. Bulletin number. This is bulletin No. 03004. 3. Part number, name of part, or description of part. OIL CHANGES - See Oil Specifications at beginning of the chapter. The governor oil should be clean and free of foreign particles. Under favorable conditions, the oil may be used for

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approximately six months without changing. If the governor does not operate properly, dirty oil may be the cause of the trouble. To change the oil, take off the top cover, remove the governor from the engine, drain by turning upside down, and flush thoroughly with clean light grade fuel oil to remove any foreign matter. The friction cover may fall out, if loose, but no other parts of the governor will come out unless intentionally disassembled. Drain thoroughly and refill with clean governor oil. Follow the above procedure whenever the governor is removed from the engine. If it is not possible to shut down long enough to remove the governor from the engine, drain the oil from the governors fill with clean light grade fuel oil, run for approximately thirty seconds with the Needle Valve open, drain, and refill with clean governor oil. If the Governor is stored, it should be filled with oil. WORK REQUIREMENTS - It is suggested that the best mechanic available (preferably one experienced with small parts assembly) be permanently assigned to all governor repair work. Cleanliness of tools and workspace is essential. A workbench, vise, arbor press, speed lathe, airline, and containers for cleaning solvents should be provided if possible. The usual small hand tools are required, and a few special Woodward governor tools are desirable if subassemblies are to be disassembled. GENERAL INSTRUCTION - The governor consists of seven main subassemblies; A, top cover; B, panel; C, case; D, ballhead; E, controlet; F, base; and G, drive shaft. If the governor is to be completely disassembled it should be taken apart in order: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. If only a part of the governor is to be repaired or adjusted, refer to the particular instruction for that work only, and considerable time and work may be eliminated. No force is required to separate or reassemble the governor into its subassemblies. Connecting pins are slip fit and should not be marred with plier jams.

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GOVERNORS

FIGURE 1

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FIGURE 12 B. PANEL (SEE FIG 1 AND 12) 1. Drain governor oil by inverting governor, flush with fuel oil and drain again. 2. Turn speed droop knob to zero. 3. Turn synchronizer knob clockwise until it stops. (High Speed Position). 4. Set load limit knob at 10. 5. Rotate terminal shaft with special wrench or linkage lever to set load indicator. Pointer to 8.5 approximately. When rotating terminal shaft lever downward, push down on load limit strap to release trapped oil. See Fig. 14 for location of strap. 6. Remove screens and take dial plate off.

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7. Scratch mark position of load indicator pointer disk on side of panel boss. This is the 8.5 position. (See Fig. 12) 8. Unhook speed droop spring, either end. 9. Remove speed droop pin. 10. Push speed droop adjusting lever back slightly and lift up speed droop lever releasing speeder spring tension. (Fig. 13) Do not turn speed droop lever and screw now or later in the work; it will change the maximum or minimum speed adjustment limit of the governor.

FIGURE 13 11. Remove eight panel screws and washers.

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12. Tap panel with plastic hammer or wood block to break loose from case, if necessary. 13. Lift load Limit Strap and pull out bottom of panel approximately . Rotate terminal shaft as shown by arrow to get power lever down out of the way. (Fig. 14)

FIGURE 14

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Hold up speed droop lever and push bottom of panel in, and top of panel out. (Fig. 15.)

14. Insert medium size screw driver in upper coils of speeder spring, press down on spring, and turn top of spring into space. Remove spring. 15. Lift up load limit strap again and remove panel turning sideways if necessary to clear other parts.

FIGURE 15

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C. CASE 1. Remove cotter and pull out power link pin Figure 16. 2. Remove center and push out compensating link pin with bent wire or hook scriber. 3. Invert governor on bench (no parts will fall out). Remove the four outside nuts. 4. Hold case and base together and set governor upright. It may be necessary to tap case lightly to break gasket joint loose.

FIGURE 16

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GOVERNORS

FIGURE 17

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2. Lift up inner end of floating lever, push down on rod end with screwdriver, slip lever backwards releasing lever from rod end pin. (Fig. 18.) 3. Remove lever. Lift out ballhead assembly.

FIGURE 18

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FIGURE 19 F. BASE 1. Clamp base inverted in vise, cut lock wire and remove three screws and retainer plate. (Fig. 20.) 2. Pull out drive shaft assembly, oil seal retainer, and remove seal gasket in bearing bore. 3. If ground surface of base is not perfectly flat, has deep scratches, or is grooved from the pump gears, it must be resurfaced. Drive out dowel pins and surface grind not more than .010 or, if not possible to surface grind, lap smooth on a flat plate.

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FIGURE 20 G. Drive Shaft 1. Pull off oil seal retainer if on shaft. 2. Remove snap ring if used. See Fig. 21. 3. Press drive shaft out of bearing.

FIGURE 21

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MAXIMUM OR MINIMUM SPEED LIMIT ADJUSTMENT 1. This adjustment may be made with the engine running. Remove dial plate, (Fig. 1.) Turn synchronizer to run engine at high maximum or low minimum speed desired. 2. Remove synchronizer indicator knob. The knob may be taper pinned to the shaft in addition to having a setscrew. (See Fig. 22.) 3. Pull gear out of mesh; turn clockwise until gear pin contacts idler gear for setting high speed stop. Turn counter-clockwise until gear pin contacts idler gear for setting low speed stop. 4. Pointer disc may be carefully pried off and reset if necessary. Insert screwdriver inside governor to back up shaft when reinstalling.

FIGURE 22 SYNCHRONIZING MOTOR - If governor fails to respond to the control switch on switchboard, it may be due to any of the following causes: 1. Low voltage. 2. Short in wiring. 3. Friction drive not properly adjusted. See adjustment procedure below.

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4. Motor shaft drive pin slipping out of slot in friction drive cover. Invert cover over a bushing, place a 3/8 steel ball over center hole and strike sharply with hammer to increase crown of cover. 5. Dial plate binding dials or discs. 6. Motor shaft not linking up with friction drive cover. Loosen motor mounting screws and reposition motor. ADJUSTMENT OF FRICTION COUPLING -This coupling must be tight enough to avoid a speed adjustment change due to vibration, and also tight enough to enable the synchronizing motor, if used, to turn the speed adjusting gear. Do not tighten so that the speed cannot be adjusted manually by turning the synchronizer knob. The friction of the coupling may be increased by removing the cover from the governor, prying the drive cover out of the coupling and turning the nut on the shaft clockwise while holding the speed adjusting knob. If the special nut turns too freely, replace it with a new one. (See Fig. 22.)

FIGURE 22

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FIGURE 23 ZERO SPEED DROOP ADJUSTMENT - Full 42o rotation of the governor terminal shaft should cause no vertical movement of the speed adjusting gear (that is, no change of governor speed setting) if the speed droop adjusting knob is set on zero. Since perfect adjustment is impractical .002 movement of the gear is allowable. A dial indicator as shown in Fig. 23 is used in the factory to measure the speed adjusting gear movement. Turn speed droop zero adjustment screw counterclockwise to reduce movement of gear. (See Fig. 24.) COMPENSATING SPRING ADJUSTMENT: 1. Make disassemblies A, B, C and D. 2. Remove compensating needle valve plug and open compensating needle valve four or five full turns. (Fig. 25.) 3. Plunge assembly into solvent. Move compensating link up and down several times to Rush out oil. Blow out controlet and base assemblies with air hose. 4. Remove dashpot cover. (See Fig. 17.)

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5. Unlock rod end and lock nut. Use floating lever for wrench on rod end. (Fig. 25.) Remove rod end. Unscrew lock nut to make clearance between nut and spring collar when nut is lifted. (Fig. 26.) Replace rod end.

FIGURE 25

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FIGURE 26

FIGURE 27

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6. Measure precompression (Fig. 27.) With the weight of the compensating receiving piston supported by the upper spring collar, the top surface of the collar should be from .000 to .005" above the machined face of the controlet. A special Woodward gaging tool is available for checking this "Precompression" dimension. Shims are used between the spring and the upper spring collar to make corrections in this dimension, if necessary. Do not change the amount of precompression unless instructions given in Compensation Adjustments, Installation, and Oil Specifications, Part One, and Oil Changes, Part Two, have been followed and operation is still not satisfactory. After once being set for the particular engine and load characteristics, the setting should not be changed. Operating troubles are usually caused by some other factor. 7. Tighten nut on piston stem until upper spring collar becomes exactly flush with machined surface. Sight over top as shown in Fig. 28 while making this adjustment. 8. Replace rod end and lock to nut using floating lever as a rod end wrench. Do not disturb flush adjustment 9. .Replace dashpot cover. 10. Test for lost motion by very delicately moving the rod end up and down with the fingertips (Fig. 29.) No end play or lost motion allowed. (Use no force. The compensating spring will be compressed and the test will be worthless.) 11. If lost motion is felt, it indicates the upper spring collar is not flush with the machined surface as shown in Fig. 28.

FIGURE 28

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FIGURE 29 PILOT VALVE ADJUSTMENT: 6. Make disassemblies A, B, and C. 7. Remove pipe plug in passage to control port, (Fig. 30.) Use flashlight to inspect port opening. 8. Pushdown on speeder rod, (Fig. 31.) This will move flyballs to inner position. Note amount of port opening. 9. Continue pushing down on speeder rod and move flyballs to outer position raising the pilot valve land, (Fig. 32.) Note amount of port opening. 10. The amount of opening for inner and outer positions of the flyballs should be the same and should be correct to within .005. 11. If the pilot valve land needs to be raised, turn speeder rod nut clockwise and vice versa. Recheck adjustment. 12. Replace pipe plug.

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Figure 31

FIGURE 32

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GENERAL REPAIR INSTRUCTIONS - Most of the repair work consists of cleaning and polishing of the governor parts. All pistons, plungers, valves, and rods should move freely without bind or catching. The small dashpot piston and its spring collars frequently give trouble from this cause. Use three-cornered scraper to break milled slot and bored hole edges. Do not lap in parts if possible to free up by other means. Be extremely careful when polishing the pilot valve plunger land; broken corners on the Ian will ruin this part. Leave corners sharp. DIAL PANEL LEAKAGE - If oil is visible at the dial panel, remove the dial plate and tighten the panel screws. If this does not eliminate the leak, inspect the load limit oil seal (See Instructions and Fig. 33) and the oil gauge. The panel oil seals seldom leak, do not replace them unless necessary. OIL SEALS - If necessary to add a small quantity of oil to the governor more ofter than once a week, all of the oil seals should be inspected for leakage. If there is no external indication of a leak, the drive shaft oil seal has been worn or damaged, allowing oil to leak from the governor into the engine housing. See instructions below. DRIVE SHAFT OIL SEAL AND DRIVE SHAFT BEARING: 6. Make disassembly A-1. Drain oil out of governor, flush and invert. 7. Make disassembly F-l and 2 and G-1. (Fig.20.) 8. Replace oil seal with lip towards chamfered end of oil seal retainer. 9. Inspect drive bearing for wear and freeness of rotation and the shaft for wear from oil seal. Polish or replace if necessary. Remove snap ring if used. Press bearing off shaft and replace if worn or rough turning. 10. Replace bearing and snap ring if used. Insert oil seal and retainer on shaft, using special care not to damage leather lip of oil seal. LOAD LIMIT OIL SEAL - This seal is of the refrigerator type and depends on perfect contact between lapped surfaces, in addition to the synthetic rubber ring seal on the shaft. (Fig. 33.) 6. Loosen set screw and drive out the 6/0 taper pin. 7. Remove knob and spring. 8. Inspect surfaces of bronze washer and end of load indicating shaft. Lap together, if necessary. 9. Inspect synthetic rubber seal washer for snug fit on shaft. Replace if necessary. 10. If reason for leakage is not obvious, stretch load limit seal spring to increase sealing pressures. 11. Reassemble. CAUTION: Be sure taper pin holes are not 180o off when driving taper pin.

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FIGURE 33 ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTION - A few precautions must be taken when reassembling the governor. I. Do not drop or rest governor on its drive shaft. II. Assembly of Drive Shaft Assembly to Base Assembly. 1. Be certain that the vellumoid gasket is in place in the bearing bore between the shoulder and the oil seal retainer. Use new gasket if it appears to be reduced in thickness (Fig. 20.) 2. Do not press the drive shaft assembly into the bore of the base with an arbor press. 3. Avoid tightening the retainer plate screws too much; it is not necessary, and may bend the plate. There should be 1/8 space between the plate and the boss. III. Assembly of Controlet Assembly and Base Assembly.

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1. Check all pistons and plungers for free movement in bores. Do not lap in if it is possible to free up by removing burrs. 2. Do not shellac the gasket between the base and controlet. If the old gasket is damaged or less then .0025 thick, replace it with a new one. (See Fig. 19.) Inspect controlet surface for scratches, nicks, dirt, particles, etc. Coat controlet surface with oil, place gasket on controlet (if used), space it evenly around bores for pump gears, place 3/16" or 1/4" diameter ball on gasket at pin holes and tap the ball to cut out for dowel pins.

FIGURE 34 NOTE:

FIGURE 35

A gasket is not used if controlet has an oil groove. (See Fig. 19.)

3. The pilot valve bushing, pilot valve, pilot valve spring, and spring tip must be in place before setting on the base. 4. Clamp controlet lightly in vise (inverted), place base assembly, (Fig. 19), and turn drive shaft to cause lug on shaft to drop into slot in pilot valve bushing, (Fig. 34.) 5. Place and tighten nuts. Use cylinder head method for drawing down. Do not exert too much force; the threads may strip 6. Turn drive shaft. If not free, it must be aligned by loosening nuts and striking at corners of base with plastic or light babbit hammer until shaft turns free, (Fig. 35.) IV. Assembly of Ballhead and Controlet. 1. Place ballhead assembly in controlet. Slide floating lever on speeder rod pin, press down on rod end, and slip lever on rod endpin, straddling pilot valve. (Fig. 18.) Insert pilot valve pin, (Fig. 17.) If it will-not enter easily, turn pilot valve 180o and try again. Do not cotter yet. 2. Test for free action of floating lever.

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a. Push down lightly on speeder rod. b. Move one flyball through full travel several times. (Fig. 36.) c. Press down V4' approximately on rod end, and move flyballs through full travel. (Fig. 37.) d. Lift rod end approximately and move flyball through full travel. (Fig. 38.) 3. If floating lever is not perfectly free under any of the conditions under 2, it will be necessary to try various arrangements of positions of the speeder rod pilot valve, rod end, and floating lever. e. Invert floating lever and test. f. If unsatisfactory, turn pilot valve 180o, and test. g. If still unsatisfactory, try turning rod end or speeder rod 180o, or invert floating lever again. h. Continue with combinations of positions of the parts until free action is obtained. 4. Insert cotter pin through pilot valve pin and secure. 5. Check piilot valve adjustment and remove temporary dashpot assembly pin if in large dashpot link hole.

FIGURE 36

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FIGURE 37 V. Assembly of Panel Assembly to Governor. 6. Reinstall speeder spring. 7. Check to see that load indicator pointer is on 8.5 mark of panel boss, (Fig. 12.) This may have been accidentally changed at some time during the assembly work. 8. Use special wrench or linkage lever to rotate terminal shaft and power lever prong down. Turn drive shaft to re-mesh ball head gears if necessary. 9. Insert panel. Push up on bottom of load limit strap to get bottom of panel in, (Fig. 39.) 10. Insert speeder spring into place while lifting up speed droop lever, (Fig. 15.) 11. Rest bottom of strap on panel opening shelf. Keep bottom of panel out and top in against pad. 12. Rotate terminal shaft to raise power link prong to highest position. 13. Match panel outline to outline of pad on sides only. 14. Push panel on gently and rotate special wrench down very slowly a small amount until power link prong goes into slot of rack and panel contacts pad surface, (Fig. 40.) Secure with two panel screws.

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FIGURE 38

FIGURE 39

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15. Rotate terminal shaft once or twice with special wrench. If an oil film remains in controlet, it will be necessary to release pressure in power cylinder when rotating terminal shaft lever downward by pushing down on load limit strap. The load-indicating pointer must travel from 0 to 10. If it does not travel both ways, remove panel and try again, starting with 2. If the panel cannot easily be removed, push down on the rack, with a screwdriver or pull up with a hook until load indicator is at 8.5 position. (See Fig. 42 and Fig. 12.)

FIGURE 40 16. Press down on top of load limit strap. Spring load should be felt, but the strap should move down 3/16. If not, remove panel and try again starting with 2. 17. Secure panel with lock washers and screws. 18. Push down with speed droop lever as shown in Fig. 41. 19. Push speed droop adjusting lever back and turn speed droop lever down. 20. Install speed droop link pin, (Fig. 12.) 21. Install speed droop spring, (Fig. 12. 22. )Install dial plate. Turn knobs and rotate terminal shaft to be sure dial plate does not bind. If binding occurs, loosen dial plate screws and center dial plate or ream out holes with three corner scrapers.

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FIGURE 42

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Figure 42

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FIGURE 43
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FIGURE 44

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FIGURE 45

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STEAM SYSTEMS

BOILERS BOILERS
The function of a boiler in the steam cycle is to convert water into steam. Reliability in operating boilers and associated equipment is important for the power plant to operate at maximum efficiency. The complex design of boilers requires a high degree of technical knowledge and skill on the part of the fireroom personnel responsible for boiler operations. All engineers should have some knowledge of the principles of combustion, how combustion occurs in a boiler, and the combustion requirements for operating a boiler more efficiently. This section describes boilers commonly used in propulsion plants of steam-driven surface ships. This information is general in nature and does not relate to any one class of ship. For detailed information on the boilers in any particular ship, consult the manufacturer's technical manuals furnished with the boilers. Upon completion of this section, you will have the knowledge to be able to identify and understand boiler terminology, the basic types of boilers and their operating principles, interpret gauges and indicators that aid in monitoring operating parameters of boilers, and understand boiler construction. You should be able to identify the major parts of a boiler and its functions. Also, you will learn about safety precautions that must be observed during boiler light off. BOILER TERMINOLOGY - Before studying the types of boilers used in propulsion plants you need to know the boiler terms and definitions used most frequently by shipboard personnel. In this section we have listed some of the terms used by fireroom personnel on the job. It is not an all-inclusive list, but it will help form a basis for your understanding of the information presented on boilers. Fireroom - The fireroom is a compartment containing boilers and the operating station for firing the boilers. Boiler room - The boiler room is a compartment containing boilers but not containing the station for firing or operating the boiler. Main Machinery Room - The main machinery room is a compartment containing boilers and the station for firing or operating the boilers and main propulsion engines. Boiler Operating Station - The boiler operating station is a station from which a boiler or boilers are operated, applying particularly to the compartment from which the boilers are operated. Steaming Hours Steaming hours, is the time during which the boilers have fires lighted until fires are secured. Boiler Full-Power Capacity - Boiler full-power capacity is specified in the contract specifications of a ship. It is expressed as the number of pounds of steam generated per hour at the pressure and temperature required for all purposes to develop contract shaft hp of the ship divided by the number of boilers installed. Boiler full-power capacity is listed in the design data
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section of the manufacturer's technical manual for the boilers in each ship. It may be listed either as the capacity at full power or as the designed rate of actual evaporation per boiler at full power. Boiler Overload Capacity - Boiler overload capacity is specified in the design of the boiler. It is usually 120 percent of boiler full-power capacity, for either steaming rate or firing rate, as specified for the individual installation Superheater Outlet Pressure - Superheater outlet pressure is the actual pressure at the superheater outlet at any given time. Steam Drum Pressure - Steam drum pressure is the actual pressure carried in the boiler steam drum at any given time. Operating Pressure - Operating pressure is the constant pressure at which the boiler is being operated. This pressure may be carried at either the steam drum or the superheater outlet, depending on the design feature of the boiler. Operating pressure is specified in the manufacturer's technical manual. Design Pressure - Design pressure is the maximum pressure specified by the boiler manufacturer as a criterion for boiler design. Design pressure is not the same as operating pressure. It is somewhat higher than operating pressure. Design pressure is given in the manufacturer's technical manual for the particular boiler. Design Temperature - Design temperature is the maximum operating temperature at the superheater outlet at some specified rate of operation. For combatant ships the specified rate of operation is normally full-power capacity. Operating Temperature - Operating temperature is the actual temperature at the superheater outlet. Operating temperature is the same as design temperature ONLY when the boiler is operating at rate specified in the definition of design temperature. Boiler Efficiency - The efficiency of a boiler is the Btu's per pound of fuel absorbed by the water and steam divided by the Btu's per pound of fuel fired. In other words, boiler efficiency is output divided by input, or heat used divided by heat available. Boiler efficiency is expressed as a percent. Superheater Surface - The superheater surface is that portion of the total heating surface where the steam is heated after leaving the boiler steam drum. Economizer Surface - The economizer surface is that portion of the total heating surface where the feed water is heated before it enters the boiler steam drum. Total Heating Surface - The total heating surface area is the area of the generating, economizer, and superheater tube banks exposed in the boiler furnace. These tubes are that part of the heat transfer that exposes one side to combustion gases and the other side to the water or steam being heated.

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BOILER CLASSIFICATION - Boilers vary considerably in detail and design. Most boilers may be classified and described in terms of a few basic features or characteristics. Some knowledge of the methods of classification provides a useful basis for understanding the design and construction of the various types of boilers. In the following paragraphs, we have considered the classification of boilers according to intended service, location of fire and water spaces, type of circulation, arrangement of steam and water spaces, number of furnaces, burner location, furnace pressure, type of superheaters, control of superheat, and operating pressure. INTENDED SERVICE - A good place to begin in classifying boilers is to consider their intended service. By this method of classification, boilers are divided into two classes, PROPULSION BOILERS and AUXILIARY BOILERS. Propulsion boilers are used to provide steam for ships' propulsion and for vital auxiliaries' services. Auxiliary boilers are installed in diesel-driven ships and in many steam-driven combatant ships. They supply the steam and hot water for galley, heating, and other hotel services and for other auxiliary requirements in port. LOCATION OF FIRE AND WATER SPACES - One of the basic classifications of boilers is according to the relative location of the fire and water spaces. By this method of classification, boilers are divided into two classes, FIRE-TUBE BOILERS and WATER-TUBE BOILERS. In the fire-tube boilers, the gases of combustion flow through the tubes and thereby heat the water that surrounds the tubes. In water-tube boilers, the water flows through the tubes and is heated by the gases of combustion that fill the furnace and heat the outside metal surfaces of the tubes. All propulsion boilers used in ships are of the water-tube type. Auxiliary boilers may be either fire-tube or water-tube boilers. TYPE OF CIRCULATION - Water-tube boilers are further classified according to the method of water circulation. Water-tube boilers may be classified as NATURAL CIRCULATION BOILERS or FORCED CIRCULATION BOILERS. In natural circulation boilers, the circulation of water depends on the difference between the density of an ascending mixture of hot water and steam and a descending body of relatively cool and steam-free water. The difference in density occurs because the water expands as it is heated, and thus, becomes less dense. Another way to describe natural circulation is to say that it is caused by convection currents, which result from the uneven heating of the water contained in the boiler. Natural circulation may be either free or accelerated. In a boiler with free natural circulation, the generating tubes are installed almost horizontally, with only a slight incline toward the vertical. When the generating tubes are installed at a much greater angle of inclination, the rate of water circulation is definitely increased. Therefore, boilers in which the tubes slope quite steeply from steam drum to water drum are said to have natural circulation of the accelerated type. Most boilers are designed for accelerated natural circulation. In such boilers, large tubes (3 inches or more in diameter) are installed between the steam drum and the water drum. These

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large tubes, or DOWNCOMERS, are located outside the furnace and away from the heat of combustion. They serve as pathways for the downward flow of relatively cool water. When enough downcomers are installed, all small tubes can be generating tubes, carrying steam and water upward, and all downward flow can be carried by downcomers. The size and number of downcomers installed varies from one type of boiler to another, but downcomers are installed in all boilers. Forced circulation boilers are, as their name implies, quite different in design from the boilers that use natural circulation. Forced circulation boilers depend upon pumps, rather than upon natural differences in density, for the circulation of water within the boiler. Because forced circulation boilers are not limited by the requirements that hot water and steam must be allowed to flow upward while the cooler water flows downward, a great variety of arrangements may be found in forced circulation boilers. ARRANGEMENT OF STEAM AND WATER SPACES - Natural circulation water-tube boilers are classified as DRUM-TYPE BOILERS or HEADER TYPE BOILERS, depending on the arrangement of the steam and water spaces. Drum-type boilers have one or more water drums (and usually one or more water headers as well). Header-type boilers have no water drum; instead, the tubes enter many headers, which serve the same purpose as water drums. What is a header, and what is the difference between a header and a drum? The term header is commonly used in engineering to describe any tube, chamber, drum, or similar piece to which tubes or pipes are connected in such a way as to permit the flow of fluid from one tube (or group of tubes) to another. Essentially, a header is a type of manifold or collection point. As far as boilers are concerned, the only distinction between a drum and a header is size. Drums may be entered by a person while headers cannot. Both serve basically the same purpose. Drum-type boilers are further classified according to the overall shape formed by the steam and water spaces that is, by the tubes. For example, double-furnace boilers are often called M-type boilers because the arrangement of the tubes is roughly M-shaped. Single-furnace boilers are often called D-type boilers because the tubes form a shape that looks like the letter D. NUMBER OF FURNACES - All boilers commonly used in the propulsion plants of ships may be classified as either SINGLE-FURNACE BOILERS or DOUBLE-FURNACE BOILERS. The D-type boiler is a single-furnace boiler; the M-type boiler is a double-furnace (divided-furnace) boiler. BURNER LOCATION - Boilers are also classified on the basis of where their burners are located. Most burners in propulsion plants are located at the front of the boiler. These are called FRONT-FIRED BOILERS. Other ships have their burners on the top of the boilers. These are called TOP-FIRED BOILERS. FURNACE PRESSURE - Another convenient boiler classification is based on the air pressure used in the furnace. Most boilers in use in propulsion plants operate with a slight air pressure (seldom over 5 psig) in the boiler furnace. This slight pressure is not enough to justify calling

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these boilers pressurized-furnace boilers. However, some boilers installed on ships are truly pressurized-furnace boilers. They are called PRESSURE-FIRED or SUPERCHARGED BOILERS. These furnaces are maintained under a positive air pressure of about 65 psia (about 50 psig) when operated at full power. Special air compressors called superchargers maintain the air pressure in these boiler furnaces. TYPE OF SUPERHEATERS - On almost all boilers used in the propulsion plants of ships, the superheater tubes are protected from radiant heat by water screen tubes. The water screen tubes absorb the intense radiant heat of the furnace, and the superheater tubes are heated by convection currents rather than by direct radiation. These superheaters are called CONVECTION-TYPE SUPERHEATERS. In a few older ships, the superheater tubes are not screened by water screen tubes but are exposed directly to the radiant heat of the furnace. Superheaters of this design are called RADIANT TYPE SUPERHEATERS. CONTROL OF SUPERHEAT - A boiler that provides some means of controlling the degree of superheat independently of the rate of steam generation is said to have CONTROLLED SUPERHEAT. A boiler in which such separate control is not possible is said to have UNCONTROLLED SUPERHEAT. Normally, the term superheat control boiler is used to identify a double-furnace boiler. The term uncontrolled superheat boiler is used to identify a single-furnace boiler. OPERATING PRESSURE - For some purposes, it is convenient to classify boilers according to operating pressure. Most classification of this type is approximate rather than exact. Headertype boilers and some older drum-type boilers are often called 400-PSI BOILERS even though their operating pressures range from about 435 psi to 700 psi. The term high-pressure boiler is at present used rather loosely to identify any boiler that operates at a substantially higher pressure than the so-called 600-PSI BOILERS. In general, we will consider any boiler that operates at 751 psi or above as a high-pressure boiler. Many boilers in ships operate at about 1200 psi. These boilers are referred to as 1200-PSI BOILERS. As you can see, classifying boilers by operating pressure is not very precise since actual operating pressure may vary widely within any one group. Also, any classification based on operating pressure may easily become obsolete. What is called a high-pressure boiler today may well be called a low-pressure boiler tomorrow. BOILER COMPONENTS - Boilers used onboard ships have essentially the same components: steam and water drums, generating and circulating tubes, superheaters, economizers, and accessories and fittings for controlling steam pressure and temperature and other aspects of boiler control and operation.

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Figure 1 shows a cutaway view of a D-type boiler. You should refer to this Figure as a guide to the arrangement of the boiler components. As we discuss the boiler and its components, imagine that you are assembling a similar boiler. As you add each part to your boiler, follow the line drawings introduced in the following paragraphs that describe the position of each component. STEAM (MUD) DRUM - The steam drum is a cylinder located at the top of the boiler. It runs lengthwise (Figure 1) from the front to the back of the boiler. The steam drum provides a space for the saturated steam generated in the tubes and for the separation of moisture from the steam. (Remember, saturated steam is steam that has not been heated above the temperature of the water from which it was generated). The steam drum also serves as a storage space for boiler water, which is distributed from the steam drum to the downcomer tubes. During normal operation, the steam drum is kept about half full of water. The steam drum either contains or is connected to many of the important controls and fittings required for the operation of the boiler.

FIGURE 1 CUTAWAY VIEW OF A D-TYPE BOILER

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At the bottom right side of the boiler you will find the water drum, and on the bottom left side is the sidewall header (Figure 2). Notice the header is smaller than the water drum. Most boilers have more than one header. They are identified by their location. For example, a header at the back of the boiler is called a rear wall header. A header on a screen wall is called a screen wall header. WATER DRUM - The water drum is larger than the header, but both are smaller than the steam drum. The water drum equalizes the distribution of water to the generating tubes. Both the water drum and the header collect the deposits of loose scale and other solid matter present in the boiler water. Both the drum and the header have bottom blowdown valves. When these valves are opened, some of the water is forced out of the drum or header and carries any loose particles with it. DO NOT OPEN THE BOTTOM BLOWDOWN VALVES ON A STEAMING BOILER. Opening these valves will interrupt the circulation of the steam cycle. DOWNCOMER TUBES - At each end of the steam drum are a number of large tubes (Figure 3) that lead to the water drum and sidewall header. These tubes are the downcomers through which water flows downward from the steam drum to the water drum and the header. The downcomers range in diameter from 3 to 8 inches.

FIGURE 2 STEAM DRUM, WATER DRUM AND HEADER

FIGURE 3 DOWNCOMMER TUBES

GENERATING TUBES - Many tubes link the steam drum to the water drum and to the header. The tubes that lead from the water drum to the steam drum are the generating tubes (Figure 4). They are arranged in the furnace so the gases and the heat of combustion can flow around them. The large arrows in Figure 4 show the direction of flow of the combustion gases.

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The generating tubes are made of steel that is strong enough to withstand the high pressures and temperatures within the boiler. In most boilers these tubes are usually 1 to 2 inches in diameter, but some may be 3 inches. These small tubes present a large surface area to absorb furnace heat. A 2-inch tube has twice the surface area of a 1-inch tube but four times the volume. A 3-inch tube has three times the surface area of a 1-inch tube but nine times the volume. The smaller the diameter of the tube, the higher is the ratio of absorption surface to the volume of water. Normally, only one row of tubes leads from the steam drum to the sidewall header. These are the sidewall (water wall) tubes. Their function is to cool and protect the sidewall of the furnace. So far, we have assembled the drums, header, downcomers, and generating tubes. Before going any further with the assembly, let us trace the path of the water through the boiler. As the water is heated, it becomes less dense, and steam is formed in the tubes. The water in the steam drum is much cooler than the steam and has greater density. As the hotter water and steam rise through the generating tubes, the cooler more dense water drops through the downcomers to the water drum and headers. The arrows in Figure 5 show the circulation path of the water as it leaves the steam drum and returns to the steam drum as steam. Notice - that the caption under Figure 5 states that it is an accelerated type. This is indicated by the inclination of the tubes. The tubes shown are almost vertical, the greater the incline, the greater the acceleration. So far, we have learned how the steam is formed in a boiler. Next, let's find out what happens to the steam once it returns to the steam drum from the generating tubes.

FIGURE 4 GENERATING TUBES AND FURNACE AREA

FIGURE 5 NATURAL CIRCULATION (ACCELERATED TYPE)

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INTERNAL FITTINGS - Components of the steam drum area are known as INTERNAL FITTINGS. The internal fittings we will discuss are the feedwater distribution, the chemical injection, and the steam and water separator. This equipment is used to direct the flow of steam and water within the steam drum and the desuperheaters, which are located either in the steam drum or the water drum. We will also discuss the economizer in this section. This component is not considered an internal fitting, but its role is important to the function of the steam drum. The design and arrangement of a steam drum's internal fittings will vary somewhat from one type of boiler to another and from one boiler manufacturer to another. Figure 6 shows the arrangement of the steam drum internal fittings in a single-furnace boiler. The feedwater pipe receives feedwater from the economizer and distributes it throughout the length of the steam drum. The chemical feed pipe is used to inject chemicals into the boiler to maintain the proper pH and phosphate balance in the boiler water. The surface blowpipe is used to remove suspended solid matter that floats on top of the water and to lower the steam drum water level, when necessary. The surface blowpipe is also used to blow water out to lower the chemical level in the boiler when it becomes too high. The dry pipe is used to direct the steam to the steam drum outlet nozzle after it leaves the scrubbers. The vortex eliminators are used to reduce the swirling motion of the water as it enters the downcomers. The baffle plates are used to direct the steam to the steam separators. The cyclone steam separators remove moisture from the steam. This is accomplished by the steam spinning or changing direction. The water drains back into the steam drum while the steam continues upward through a screen and scrubber that removes still more moisture.

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FIGURE 6 ARRANGEMENT OF INTERNAL FITTINGS IN A SINGLE-FURNACE BOILER

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After the steam leaves the scrubbers, it goes to the dry pipe (Figure 6). From there it leaves the steam drum through the steam drum outlet. Figure 7, view A, shows the steam going to the inlet header of the superheater and passing through the U-shaped tubes of the superheater to the next header (Figure 7, view B). This header is called the first pass or intermediate header. Steam may pass through the U-shaped tubes several times before passing to the outlet header. Each time the steam goes from one header to the next header it is called a pass. The number of passes the steam makes in a superheater varies with different boilers and the degree of superheat that is required for a particular ship. As the steam passes through the superheater tubes, it is heated by the hot gases from combustion, which flow around the tubes. In some boilers, the superheater headers are installed parallel with the water drum; and the tubes are installed vertically (Figure 8). These are called vertical superheaters. Another boiler internal fitting is the desuperheater. It maybe located either in the steam drum or in the water drum. All the steam generated in a single-furnace boiler is led through the superheater. However, since some auxiliary machinery is not designed for superheated steam, the steam must be cooled down. This is done with a desuperheater. The desuperheater gets steam from the superheater outlet, as shown in Figure 9. The desuperheater is submerged in water either in the steam drum or in the water drum. As the steam passes through the desuperheater, it is cooled for use in the auxiliary steam systems.

FIGURE 7 DIAGRAM OF A SUPERHEATER

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FIGURE 8 VERTICAL SUPERHEATER

FIGURE 9 RELATIVE POSITION OF DESUPERHEATER TUBES

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It is important that all internal fittings are properly installed and in good working condition. If excessive moisture is carried over into the superheater, serious damage will result in the superheater tubes, piping, and turbines. The economizer (Figure 10) is an arrangement of tubes installed in the uptake space from the furnace. The economizer tubes have metal projections from the outer tube surfaces. These projections are called by various names, including FINS, STUDS, RINGS, or GILL RINGS: They are made of aluminum, steel, or other metals, in a variety of shapes. These projections serve to extend the heat transfer surface of the tubes on which they are installed. Before entering the steam drum, all feedwater flows through the economizer tubes. The economizer tubes are heated by the rising gases of combustion. The feedwater is warmed or preheated by the combustion gases that would otherwise be wasted as they pass up the stack. In Figure 8 & 9 you can see that the economizer is positioned on top of the boiler. There it acts as a preheater.

FIGURE 10 SIDE VIEW OF AN ECONOMIZER FURNACE - The furnace, or firebox, is the large, room-like space where air and fuel are mixed for the combustion (fire) that heats the water in the drums, tubes, and headers.

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The furnace is more or less a rectangular steel casing that is lined on the floor and walls with refractory (heat-resisting) material. Refractory materials used in boilers include firebrick, insulating brick, insulating block, and air-setting mortar. Figure 11 shows a refractory-lined furnace.

FIGURE 11 REFRACTORY-LINED FURNACE The refractory lining protects the furnace steel casing and prevents the loss of heat from the furnace. The lining also retains heat for a relatively long time and helps to maintain the high furnace temperatures that are needed for complete fuel combustion. Combustion Air - a forced draft blower forces air into the furnace. The forced draft blower is a large volume fan that can be powered by an electric motor or a steam turbine. The forced draft blower blows air into the outer casing of the boiler (Figure 12). The air then travels between the inner casing and outer casing to the boiler front where it is forced into the furnace through the air registers. The air registers are part of the fuel-oil burner assembly that consists of four main parts: air doors, a diffuser, airfoils, and the atomizer assembly. Figure 13 shows a side view of a fuel-oil burner assembly.

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FIGURE 12 COMBUSTION AIR AND GAS FLOW AIR REGISTERS - The air entering the furnace through the air registers mixes with a fine fueloil spray through the atomizer. Figure 13 shows the arrangement of an air register in a fuel oil burner assembly. The air doors are used to open or close the register, as necessary. They are usually kept either fully opened or fully closed. When the air doors are open, air rushes in and is given a whirling motion by the diffuser plate. The diffuser plate causes the air to mix evenly with the atomized oil in such a way that the flame will not blow away from the atomizer (atomizers are discussed in the next paragraph). The airfoils guide the major quantity of air so it mixes with the larger particles of fuel oil spray beyond the diffuser. ATOMIZERS - Atomizers (devices for producing a fine spray) break up the fuel oil into very fine particles. In the following paragraphs we will briefly discuss the three types of atomizers. These three types are the return-flow atomizer, the steam-assist atomizer, and the vented-plunger atomizer. Return-Flow Atomizer- The return-flow atomizer provides a constant supply of fuel-oil pressure. Any fuel oil not needed to meet steam demand is returned to the fuel-oil service tank. The return control valve installed in the piping between the boiler front and the service tank

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accomplishes this. As the return control valve is closed, more fuel oil is forced through the sprayer plate into the furnace. The return-flow atomizer is shown in Figure 14.

FIGURE 13 FUEL OIL BURNER ASSEMBLY

FIGURE 14 RETURN FLOW ATOMIZER

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Steam-Assist Atomizer - The steam-assist atomizer employs 150 psi of steam mixed with the fuel oil to help atomize the fuel oil. The two most common steam-assist atomizers in use by the Navy are the TODD LVS (Figure 15) and the Y-Jet (Figure 16). All steam-assist atomizers must have low-pressure air hookup for use as a substitute when suitable auxiliary steam is not available.

FIGURE 15 TODD LVS ATOMIZER

FIGURE 16 Y-JET STEAM ATOMIZER Vented-Plunger Atomizer - The vented-plunger atomizer shown in Figure 17 is unique in that it is the only atomizer in use in the Navy that has moving parts. The fuel oil flows down the atomizer barrel and around the atomizer cartridge. The pressure in the barrel forces the fuel oil into the cartridge through the holes drilled in the cartridge. As the fuel is forced into the cartridge, it begins to spin. This motion forces the fuel out through the orifice in a fine mist. Increasing fuel-oil pressure in the atomizer barrel and cartridge will cause the piston to overcome the spring pressure. The piston is then forced back, uncovering more holes and allowing fuel to be atomized and forced into the furnace. As pressure decreases, the opposite occurs. The spring tension recalls the piston, covering the holes and allowing less fuel oil to be atomized.

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FIGURE 17 VENTED PLUNGER ATOMIZER Fire - In most boilers, a torch is used to light fires. However, some boilers may have electric igniters. We will describe the more common method lighting fires with a torch. Boiler light off is always a two-person operation. One person is needed to handle the torch, the air register, and the furnace, and the other to open the fuel-oil root valve. If fires do not light in 2 or 3 seconds, you must secure the fuel oil and investigate the reason for the failure to light. The boiler furnace must be inspected and repurged before the next attempt to light. The basic light-off procedure involves the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ensure that all fuel oil manifold and atomizer/safety shut-off valves are shut. Insert a clean atomizer with a lighting-off sprayer plate into the No. 1 burner. Adjust the combustion air and fuel oil pressures for lighting the fires. Ignite the lighting-off torch. Insert the lighted torch into the lighting-off port and close the port cover; visually check to ensure that the torch remains lighted. However, you should never insert a torch into a furnace until you are sure that no fuel is on the furnace deck and that the boiler has been purged of all combustible gases. 6. Open the No. 1 burner fuel-oil atomizer/ safety shut-off valve(s). 7. Open the No. 1 burner fuel-oil supply manifold valve one-half turn. 8. Observe the furnace through the No. 1 burner observation port to ensure that the ignition is successful. 9. Adjust the flame with the burner air register handle. 10. Open the No. 1 burner fuel-oil supply manifold to the fully open position. 11. Withdraw and extinguish the torch. For specific lighting-off instructions, always refer to your ship's Operating Manual, The following are a few simple suggestions to make your job easier and safer:

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Do not operate any valves or start equipment until you have permission from the Engineering Officer of the Watch, and always refer to the Operating Manual. Always clean up any spills or debris. Report to your supervisor any condition that you think may be abnormal. Do not be afraid to ask questions!

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BASIC STEAM CYCLE BASIC STEAM CYCLE


To understand steam generation, you must know what happens to the steam after it leaves the boiler. A good way to learn the steam plant on your ship is to trace the path of steam and water throughout its entire cycle of operation. In each cycle, the water and the steam flow through the entire system without ever being exposed to the atmosphere. The four areas of operation in a main steam system are generation, expansion, condensation, and feed. After studying this chapter, you will have the knowledge and ability to describe the main steam cycle and the functions of the auxiliary steam systems. MAIN STEAM SYSTEM - The movement of a ship through the water is the result of a number of energy transformations. Although these transformations were mentioned in the last chapter, we will now discuss these transformations as they occur. Figure 18 shows the four major areas of operation in the basic steam cycle and the ma or energy transformations that take place. These areas are A-generation, B-expansion, C-condensation, and D-feed. GENERATION-The first energy transformation occurs in the boiler furnace when fuel oil burns. The process of combustion transforms the chemical energy stored in the fuel oil, transformed into thermal energy. Thermal energy flows from the burning fuel to the water and generates steam. The thermal energy is now stored as internal energy in steam, as we can tell from the increased pressure and temperature of the steam. EXPANSION-When steam enters the turbines and expands, the thermal energy of the steam converts to mechanical energy, which turns the shaft and drives the ship. For the remainder of the cycle, energy is returned to the water (CONDENSATION and FEED) and back to the boiler where it is again heated and changed into steam. The energy used for this purpose is the thermal energy of the auxiliary steam. The following paragraphs will explain the four major areas of operation in the basic steam cycle shown in Figure 18. GENERATION - When a liquid boils, it generates a vapor. Some or all of the liquid changes its physical state from liquid to gas (or vapor). As long as the vapor is in contact with the liquid from which it is being generated, it remains at the same temperature as the boiling liquid. In this condition, the liquid and its vapors are in equilibrium contact with each other. Area A of Figure 1 shows the GENERATION area of the basic steam cycle. The temperature at which a boiling liquid and its vapors may exist in equilibrium contact depends on the pressure under which the process takes place. As the pressure increases, the boiling temperature increases. As the pressure decreases, the boiling temperature decreases. Determining the boiling point depends on the pressure.

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When a liquid is boiling and generating vapor, the liquid is a SATURATED LIQUID and the vapor is a SATURATED VAPOR. The temperature at which a liquid boils under a given pressure is the SATURATION TEMPERATURE, and the corresponding pressure is the SATURATION PRESSURE. Each pressure has a corresponding saturation temperature, and each temperature has a corresponding saturation pressure. A few saturation pressures and temperatures for water are as follows: Pounds Per Square Inch Absolute (psia) 11 14.7 110 340 630 1200 2000 3000 3206.2 Degrees Fahrenheit (F) 198 212 335 429 567 596 636 695 705.40

We know that atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psia at sea level and lesser at higher altitudes. Boiling water on top of a mountain takes a lot longer than at sea level. Why is this? As noted before, temperature and pressure are indications of internal energy. Since we cannot raise the temperature of boiling water above the saturation temperature for that pressure, the internal energy available for boiling water is less at higher altitudes than at sea level. By the same lines of reasoning, you should be able to figure out why water boils faster in a pressure cooker than in an open kettle. A peculiar thing happens to water and steam at an absolute pressure of 3206.2 psia and the corresponding saturation temperature at 705.40F. At this point, the CRITICAL POINT, the vapor and liquid are indistinguishable. No change of state occurs when pressure increases above this point or when heat is added. At the critical point, we no longer refer to water or steam. At this point we cannot tell the water or, steam apart. Instead, we call the substance a fluid or a working substance. Boilers designed to operate at pressures and temperatures above the critical point are SUPERCRITICAL boilers. Supercritical boilers are not used, at present, in propulsion plants of ships; however, some boilers of this type are used in stationary steam power plants. If we generate steam by boiling water in an open pan at atmospheric pressure, the water and steam that is in immediate contact with the water will remain at 212F until all the water evaporates. If we fit an absolutely tight cover to the pan so no steam can escape while we continue to add heat, both the pressure and temperature inside the vessel will rise. The steam and water will both increase in temperature and pressure, and each fluid will be at the same temperature and pressure as the other. In operation, a boiler is neither an open vessel nor a closed vessel. It is a vessel designed with restricted openings allowing steam to escape at a uniform rate while feedwater is brought in at a uniform rate. Steam generation takes place in the boiler at constant pressure and constant
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temperature. Fluctuations in constant pressure and constant temperature are caused by changes in steam demands. We cannot raise the temperature of the steam in the steam drum above the temperature of the water from which it is being generated until the steam is removed from contact with the water inside the steam drum and then heated. Steam that has been heated above its saturation temperature at a given pressure is SUPERHEATED STEAM. The vessel in which the saturated steam is superheated is a SUPERHEATER. The amount by which the temperature of superheated steam exceeds the temperature of saturated steam at the same pressure is the DEGREE OF SUPERHEAT. For example, if saturated steam at 620 psia with a corresponding saturation temperature of 490F is superheated to 790F, the degree of superheat is 300F (790 - 490 = 300). Most propulsion boilers have superheaters. The primary advantage is that superheating steam provides a greater temperature differential between the boiler and the condenser. This allows more heat to be converted to work at the turbines. Another advantage is that superheated steam is dry and therefore causes relatively little corrosion or erosion of machinery and piping. Also, superheated steam does not conduct or lose heat as rapidly as saturated steam. The increased efficiency, which results from the use of superheated steam, reduces the fuel oil required to generate each pound of steam. It also reduces the space and weight requirements for the boilers. Most auxiliary machinery operates on saturated steam. Reciprocating machinery, in particular, requires saturated steam to lubricate internal moving parts of the steam end. Boilers, therefore, produce both saturated steam and superheated steam. EXPANSION - The EXPANSION area of the main steam system is that part of the basic steam cycle in which steam from the boilers to the main turbines is expanded. This removes the heat energy stored in the steam and transforms that energy into mechanical energy of rotation. The main turbines usually have a high-pressure (HP) turbine and a low-pressure (LP) turbine. The steam flows into the HP turbine and on into the LP turbine. Area B of Figure 18 shows the expansion area of the main steam system. This portion of the main steam system contains HP and LP turbines. CONDENSATION - Each ship must produce enough feedwater for the boilers and still maintain an efficient engineering plant. Therefore, feedwater is used over and over again. As the steam leaves or exhausts from the LP turbine, it enters the CONDENSATE system. The condensate system is that part of the steam cycle in which the steam is condensed back to water. Then it flows from the main condenser toward the boilers while it is being prepared for use as feedwater. The components of the condensate system are:

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(1) (2) (3) (4)

The main condenser, The main condensate pump, The main air ejector condenser, and The top half of the deaerating feed tank (DFT).

These components are shown in area C of Figure 18. The main condenser receives steam from the LP turbine. It condenses the steam into water. We will explain this process later. The main condensate pump takes suction from the main condenser hot well. It delivers the condensate into the condensate piping system and through the main air ejector condenser. As its name implies, the air ejector removes air and non-condensable gases from the main condenser that leak or are discharged into it during normal operation. The condensate is used as a cooling medium for condensing the steam in the inter- and aftercondensers of the main air ejector.

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FIGURE 18 BASIC STEAM CYCLE

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FEED - The DFT (DC Heater) (Figure 19) is the dividing line between condensate and feedwater. The condensate enters the DFT through the spray nozzles and turns into feedwater in the reservoir section of the DFT. The DFT has three basic functions: To remove dissolved oxygen and non-condensable gases from the condensate To preheat the water To act as a reservoir to store feedwater to take care of fluctuations in feedwater demand or condensate supply

FIGURE 19 DEAERATING FEED TANK The condensate enters the DFT through the condensate inlet. There it is sprayed into the dome of the tank by nozzles. It is discharged in a fine spray throughout the steam-filled top. The fine spray and heating of the condensate releases trapped air and oxygen. The gas-free condensate falls to the bottom of the tank through the water collecting cones, while the air and oxygen are exhausted from the tank vent.

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The collected condensate in the storage section of the DFT is now called feedwater and becomes a source of supply for the main feed booster pump. The main feed booster pump takes suction from the DFT and maintains a constant discharge pressure to the main feed pump. The main feed pump receives the water and discharges it into the main feed piping system. Area D of Figure 18 shows the path of the water from the DFT to the economizer. The discharge pressure of the main feed pump is maintained at 100 to 150 psig above boiler operating pressure on 600-psi plants. On 1200-psi plants, it is maintained at 200 to 300 psig above boiler operating pressure. The discharge pressure is maintained throughout the main feed piping system. However, the quantity of water discharged to the economizer is controlled by a feed stop and check valve or automatic feedwater regulator valve. The economizer is positioned on the boiler to perform one basic function. It acts as a preheater. The gases of combustion flow around the economizer tubes and metal projections that extend from the outer tube surfaces. The tubes and projections absorb some of the heat of combustion and heat the water that is flowing through the economizer tubes. As a result, the water is about 100F hotter as it flows out of the economizer to the boiler. LOW-PRESSURE FEEDWATER HEATERS - The classification (i.e., low pressure or high pressure) of feedwater heaters depends upon their location relative to the boiler feedwater pump; low-pressure heaters are located on the suction side of the main feed pump, whereas highpressure heaters are located on the discharge side. Feedwater heating is accomplished in a number of steps or stages, and the heaters are usually referred to as the first stage, second stage, third stage, fourth stage, etc. Multiple stages of feed heating are essential to the efficiency of a steam turbine power plant. The plant heat balance establishes the number of heating stages, feed flow through each heater, bleed points, auxiliary exhaust pressures, and the temperature of the feedwater entering each heater. Since the heat transfer coefficient of condensing steam is independent of velocity, and feed pressures are usually quite high, the feed is generally in the tubes with the steam in the shell. For a given steam pressure, the heat transfer is dependent upon the feed velocity through the tubes. Velocities of 6 to 7 fps result in a reasonable pressure drop and satisfactory heat transfer conditions. Heater shells should be baffled to avoid dead spaces, and drain cooling section should hold close baffle-to-shroud tolerances so as to avoid excessive bypassing of heat transfer surface, which would result in adequate drain cooling. Both the shell sides and watersides should be selfventing. The design pressure controls the construction details of feedwater heaters. Those heaters with design pressures up to 100 psig are considered low-pressure heaters. It is common practice to combine several low-pressure heaters into one shell to save space, cost of equipment, piping, and installation costs. Figure 19A depicts a typical combined low-pressure feed heater/drain cooler/gland-exhaust condenser. Similar heaters combining two stages of heating with the drain cooler are sometimes used. The combined heater is normally furnished as a package with the gland-exhaust fan and drain regulator mounted on the unit.

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Due to the temperature difference between sections of combined heat exchangers, the outlet ends of the tubes are usually secured in the tubesheet by means of alternate rings of metallic and fiber packing and are, therefore, free to expand independently.

FIGURE 19A- TYPICAL COMBINED LOW-PRESSURE FEED HEATER/DRAIN COOLER/GLAND EXHAUST CONDENSER DIRECT CONTACT DEAERATING FEEDWATER HEATERS - Since marine propulsion boilers are operated at high temperatures and pressures, there is a hazard of corrosive attack due to the presence of dissolved oxygen or carbon dioxide in the feedwater. it is virtually impossible to prevent the entry of air into the feed system, particularly during plant start-up; therefore, it is necessary to provide deaerating equipment for the removal of air and corrosive gases from the boiler feedwater. Although deaeration can be largely accomplished in the condenser, condenser deaeration is not sufficient during plant start-up; and without further deaeration, there would be no provision for the removal of air introduced later in the system, particularly at the condensate pump. Flash deaeration, whereby saturated water at 10 to 15 psig is introduced into a surge tank at atmospheric pressure, is simple and economical. However, the resulting flashing of steam will not ensure the low dissolved oxygen content (i.e., 0.005 cc per liter) required of the feedwater

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unless sufficient agitation is positively provided. There is also a loss of steam through flash deaeration. For example, a deaerator operating at 15 psig flashing down to atmospheric pressure loses about 4% as flashed steam. The flashed steam should not be condensed and returned to the feed cycle since it will normally have re-entrained a portion of the undesirable dissolved gases. Therefore, standard marine deaerators are more sophisticated in design than those of the flash type. The practical considerations involved in the removal of sprayed dissolved oxygen from boiler feedwater may be briefly summarized as: 1. Heating the water to the boiling temperature for the pressure under which the process is conducted (saturation conditions). From the chemical relationship termed Henrys Law, it is known that when a partial pressure of a liquid is equal to the total pressure above the liquid (boiling conditions), the solubility of any gases in the liquid is zero, 2. Providing a design that ensures thorough agitation and scrubbing of the feedwater by the steam. Complete agitation of the feedwater and contact with the scrubbing steam ensures that equilibrium will be reached and that the zero potential solubility condition (Henrys Law) will be attained. 3. Continuously venting from the system a mixture of gases and steam. Through the use of adequate venting, the partial pressure of the noncondensable gases in the system will be kept low and the saturation boiling point of the liquid will be maintained. The heater immediately preceding the suction side of the boiler feed pump is usually the direct contact oOr deaerating feed heater (generally known as a DFT for deaerating feed tank). A typical direct-contact feed heater is illustrated in Figure 19B. Condensate and makeup are sprayed into the steam-filled primary heating and deaeration chamber through a series of spray nozzles and a vent-condensing spray nozzle. The spray nozzles provide an even distribution of water over the entire heating area. The steam flow, which is essentially countercurrent, to the water flow, heats the water close to the saturation temperature such that the solubility of the gases is zero, and approximately 95% of the oxygen content is thereby released. Water and condensate collect in the conical water collector and flow to the atomizing valve, where high-velocity steam strikes the mixture, atomizes it into a fine mist, and raises the temperature the last few degrees to its saturation point. The mixture strikes a deflecting baffle, which separates the water and steam. The hot gas-free water drops to the storage compartment

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FIGURE 19B - DIRECT-CONTACT FEED HEATER The complete atomization and heating of the feedwater by the steam jet ensures that the dissolved gases will be released. After the atomization process, the steam and released gases flow through the primary heating/deaerating chamber where a large portion of the steam is condensed as it heats the incoming water. A small portion of the steam and all of the gases pass through the integral vent condenser, which condenses the majority of the remaining steam. The small amount of steam vapor that is mixed with the released gases is then discharged to the atmosphere or to the gland leak-off condenser. The deaerator conditions feedwater such that its dissolved oxygen content is less than 0.005 cc per liter. In addition, it substantially reduces the carbon dioxide content of the feedwater.

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Since the feedwater is at saturation temperature and above atmospheric pressure, the arrangement of the deaerator is of great importance as there is a strong possibility of the feedwater flashing into steam at the pump suction. There are two means of ensuring an adequate suction head at the main feed pump. One is to position the deaerator high in the machinery space, so that the static head developed is adequate for pump suction; an alternative is to provide a booster pump between the deaerator and feed pump, which will maintain an adequate suction head on the feed pump. Damage control considerations dictate that the booster pump arrangement be used in naval ships. The booster pump must be designed to handle condensate at saturation temperature, and it is important that the booster pump suction line be short, with little or no turns, and adequately vented so that pump cavitation and suction line flashing will not occur. The alternative of locating the deaerator high in the machinery space is the preferred arrangement with merchant ships, as damage control is not a design criterion and a pump is eliminated. The proper performance of a deaerator requires correct sizing of components and control of the rate of flow to the storage tank portion of the deaerator. The first major consideration is the boiler steam output. This determines the size of the deaerator and affects the storage tank, the makeup valve, the transfer pump, and the number of water spray nozzles in the unit. The other major factor is the temperature of the water delivered to the spray nozzle; this temperature determines the size of the steam regulating valve, which admits stem to the deaerator. This valve is sized as closely as possible to furnish the quantity of steam required to maintain the deaerator at the operating temperatures, plus about 10% additional capacity of steam over that required to heat the inlet water at the design conditions as a safety margin to handle surges of incoming feedwater. However, since the steam capacity is considerably affected by the pipe size of the regulator and the incoming steam pressure, it is difficult to provide a valve that exactly matches the desired capacity. Proper deaeration requires that the temperature of the incoming water be raised to the saturation point; therefore, the volume of the inlet water must be controlled in relation to its temperature to stay within the heating capacity of the steam supplied by the steamregulating valve. An excessive flow of cool water will, of course, quickly condense the steam in the deaerator, making it difficult to maintain the desired pressure. This emphasizes the necessity to provide an adequate safety margin in sizing the steam-regulating valve so that its capacity and response rate are capable of handling surges of cool water. The storage tank is usually designed to retain about five minutes of feedwater flow. If high-pressure (high-temperature) returns are available, they may be returned directly to the deaerator storage tank. Here they will flash and provide a certain amount of steam for preheating the water introduced into the deaerator. If these returns exceed 25 to 30% of the total capacity of the deaerator, however, more steam will be available than is needed; and some other means must be employed to use the returns. Deaerating feed heaters are normally equipped with two spring-loaded relief valves: one to prevent a high temperature from accidentally building up within the tank; and the second, known as a vacuum breaker, to prevent a high vacuum from developing in the tank by allowing atmospheric air to enter the tank in the event that the pressure in the tank drops below a prescribed value.

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The shell and majority of the internals are normally of welded-steel construction; however, the steam baffles, spray nozzles, atomizing valve, and vent condenser are generally manufactured from nonferrous alloys or stainless steel. AUXILIARY STEAM SYSTEM - Auxiliary steam systems supply steam at the pressures and temperatures required cooperate many systems and machinery, both inside and outside engineering spaces. As discussed previously, auxiliary steam is often called saturated steam or desuperheated steam. Many steam systems and machinery receive their steam supply from auxiliary steam systems on most steam-driven ships. Some typical examples are constant and intermittent service steam systems; steam smothering systems, ships' whistles, air ejectors, forced draft blowers, and a wide variety of pumps. Some newer ships use main steam instead of auxiliary steam for the forced draft blowers and for some pumps. Aboard some ships, turbine gland sealing systems receive their steam supply from an auxiliary steam system. Other ships may receive their supply from the auxiliary exhaust system. Gland sealing steam is supplied to the shaft glands of propulsion and generator turbines to seal the shaft glands against leakage. This leakage includes air leaking into the turbine casings and steam leaking out of the turbine casings. More use of electrically driven (rather than turbine-driven) auxiliaries has simplified auxiliary steam systems on newer ships. SUMMARY - You have learned about the main steam system, the auxiliary steam system, and the use of steam after it leaves the boiler. Remember, steam and feedwater are recycled over and over again to provide heat and power to operate machinery. It is important that you understand the terminology associated with steam and feedwater systems. You will use these terms in your day-to-day routine aboard ship. Some of the subjects will be discussed in greater detail later. All of these areas are important in their own right. As you learn this information, you will become a more proficient and reliable technician.

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STEAM TURBINES STEAM TURBINES


We discussed the basic steam cycle and various types of boilers. At this point, we will bring together all you have learned by discussing the components inside the turbine casing. In the following paragraphs we will discuss turbine theory, types and classifications of turbines, and turbine construction. Upon completion of this chapter you will understand how stored energy (heat) in steam is transformed to mechanical energy (work). TURBINE THEORY - The first documented use of steam power is credited to a Greek mathematician, Hero of Alexandria, almost 2000 years ago. Hero built the first steam-powered engine. His turbine design was the forerunner of the jet engine and demonstrated that steam power could be used to operate other machinery. Hero's turbine (aeolipile) (Figure 20) consists of a hollow sphere and four canted nozzles. The sphere rotates freely on two feed tubes that carry steam from the boiler. Steam generated in the boiler passes through the feed tubes, into the sphere, and out through the nozzles. As the steam leaves the nozzles, the sphere rotates rapidly.

FIGURE 20 HEROS TURBINE (AEOLIPILE)

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Down through the ages, the application of the turbine principle has been used in many different types of machines. The water wheel that was used to operate the flourmills in colonial times and the common windmill used to pump water are examples of the turbine principle. In these examples, the power comes from the effect of the wind or a stream of water acting on a set of blades. In a steam turbine, steam serves the same purpose as the wind or the flowing water. Two methods are used in turbine design and construction to get the desired results from a turbine. These are the impulse principle and the reaction principle. Both methods convert the thermal energy stored in the steam into useful work, but they differ somewhat in the way they do it. In the following paragraphs we will discuss the two basic turbine principles, the impulse and reaction. IMPULSE PRINCIPLE - The impulse turbine (Figure 21) consists basically of a rotor mounted on a shaft that is free to rotate in a set of bearings. The outer rim of the rotor carries a set of curved blades, and the whole assembly is enclosed in an airtight case. Nozzles direct steam against the blades and turn the rotor. The energy to rotate an impulse turbine is derived from the kinetic energy of the steam flowing through the nozzles. The term impulse means that the force that turns the turbine comes from the impact of the steam on the blades. The toy pinwheel (Figure 22) can be used to study some of the basic principles of turbines. When you blow on the rim of the wheel, it spins rapidly. The harder you blow, the faster it turns. The steam turbine operates on the same principle, except it uses the kinetic energy from the steam as it leaves a steam nozzle rather than air.

FIGURE 21 IMPULSE TURBINE

FIGURE 22 SIMPLE IMPULSE TURBINE PRINCIPLE

Steam nozzles (hereafter referred to as nozzles or stationary blades) are located at the turbine inlet. As the steam passes through a nozzle, potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. This steam is directed toward the turbine blades and turns the rotor. The velocity of the steam is

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reduced in passing over the blades. Some of its kinetic energy has been transferred to the blades to turn the rotor. Impulse turbines may be used to drive forced draft blowers, pumps, and main propulsion turbines. Figure 21 shows an impulse turbine as steam passes through the nozzles. REACTION PRINCIPLE - The ancient turbine built by Hero operated on the reaction principle. Hero's turbine was invented long before Newton's time, but it was a working model of Newton's third law of motion, which states: "For every action there must bean equal and opposite reaction." If you set an electric fan on a roller skate, the roller skate will take off across the room (Figure 23). The fan pushes the air forward and sets up a breeze (velocity). The air is also pushing backward on the fan with an equal force, but in an opposite direction.

FIGURE 23 DEMONSTRATION OF THE VELOCITY OF THE REACTION PRINCIPLE If you try to push a car, you will push back with your feet as hard as you would push forward with your hands. Try it sometime when you are standing on an icy road. You will not be able to move the car unless you can dig in with your feet to exert the backward force. With some thought on your part, you could come up with examples to prove to yourself that Newton's third law of motion holds true under all circumstances. The reaction turbine uses the reaction of a steam jet to drive the rotor. You learned that an impulse turbine increases the velocity of steam and transforms that potential energy under pressure into kinetic energy in a steam jet through nozzles. A forward force is applied to the steam to increase its velocity as it passes through the nozzle. From Newton's third law of motion, you see that the steam jet exerts a force on the nozzle and an equal reactive force on the turbine blades in the opposite direction. THIS IS THE FORCE THAT DRIVES THE TURBINE. In the reaction turbine, stationary blades attached to the turbine-casing act as nozzles and direct the steam to the moving blades. The moving blades mounted on the rotor act as nozzles. Most reaction turbines have several alternating rows of stationary and moving nozzle blades.
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You can use a balloon to demonstrate the kickback or reaction force generated by the nozzle blades (Figure 24). Blow up the balloon and release it. The air will rush out through the opening and the balloon will shoot off in the opposite direction.

FIGURE 24 DEMONSTRATION OF THE KICKBACK OF THE REACTION PRINCIPLE When the balloon is filled with air, you have potential energy stored in the increased air pressure inside. When you let the air escape, it passes through the small opening. This represents a transformation from potential energy to kinetic energy. The force applied to the air to speed up the balloon is acted upon by a reaction in the opposite direction. This reactive force propels the balloon for-ward through the air. You may think that the force that makes the balloon move forward comes from the jet of air blowing against the air in the room, not so. It is the reaction of the force of the air as it passes through the opening that causes the balloon to move forward. The reaction turbine has all the advantages of the impulse-type turbine, plus a slower operating speed and greater efficiency. The alternating rows of fixed and moving blades transfers the heat energy of the steam to kinetic energy, then to mechanical energy. We have discussed the simple impulse and reaction turbines. Practical applications require various power outputs. Turbines are constructed with one or more simple turbines made as one. This is done in much the same way that the varying cylinder size of a car engine varies power. Figures 25 and 26 show typical turbines.

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FIGURE 25 IMPULSE MAIN PROPULSION TURBINE

FIGURE 26 TURBINE ASSEMBLY IN A MACHINE SHOP

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In the impulse turbine, the steam expands through the stationary nozzles only and so loses pressure but gains velocity. In moving blades, the steam loses velocity but the pressure remains constant. Actually, an impulse turbine utilizes both the impulse of the steam jet and to a lesser extent, the reaction force which results from the fact that the curving blades cause the steam to change it direction. In the reaction turbine, the steam enters through a row of fixed blades which expand and direct the flow of steam to the moving blades. As you can see in the figure below, the fixed blades and the moving blades are very similar in shape. Steam expansion takes place in both set of blades. A reaction turbine is moved by (1) the reactive force produced on the moving blades when the steam increases in velocity, and (2) the reactive force produced on the moving blades when the steam changes direction. However, some of the motion of the rotor is actually caused by the impact of the steam on the blades; and, to a certain extent, therefore, the reaction turbine operates on the impulse principle as well as on the reaction principle.

Basic Differences Between Impulse And Reaction Turbines Now compare the basic differences between impulse and reaction turbine blading. No matter what the number of fixed and moving blade rows in an impulse turbine, the pressure remains the same throughout the blading. However, the steam pressure decreases in each nozzle In the reaction turbine, the steam pressure decreases in every row of fixed and moving blades. There are no nozzles in the reaction turbine; the fixed blades serve the same purpose as the nozzles of an impulse turbine. TURBINE CLASSIFICATION - So far we have classified turbines into two general groups: IMPULSE TURBINES and REACTION TURBINES, depending on the method used to cause the steam to do useful work. Turbines may be further classified according to the following: Type and arrangement of staging

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Direction of steam flow Repetition of steam flow Division of steam flow

A turbine may also be classified by whether it is a condensing unit (exhaust to a condenser at a pressure below atmospheric pressure) or a non-condensing unit (exhausts to another system such as the auxiliary exhaust steam system at a pressure above atmospheric pressure). CONSTRUCTION OF TURBINES - Other than the operating and controlling equipment, similarity exists in both the impulse and reaction turbines. These include foundations, casings, nozzles, rotors, bearings, and shaft glands. Foundations - Turbine foundations are built up from a structural foundation in the hull to provide a rigid supporting base. All turbines are subjected to varying degrees of temperature from that existing during a secured condition to that existing during full-power operation. Therefore, means are provided to allow for expansion and contraction. At the forward end of the turbine, there are various ways to give freedom of movement. Elongated boltholes or grooved sliding seats are used so that the forward end of the turbine can move fore and aft as either expansion or contraction takes place. The forward end of the turbine may also be mounted with a flexible I-beam that will flex either fore or aft. Casings - The materials used to construct turbines will vary somewhat depending on the steam and power conditions for which the turbine is designed. Turbine casings are made of cast carbon steel for non-superheated steam applications. Superheated applications use casings made of carbon molybdenum steel. For turbine casings used on submarines, a percentage of chrome stainless steel is used, which is more resistant to steam erosion than carbon steel. Each casing has a steam chest to receive the incoming high-pressure steam. This steam chest delivers the steam to the first set of nozzles or blades. Nozzles - The primary function of the nozzles is to convert the thermal energy of steam into kinetic energy. The secondary function of the nozzles is to direct the steam against the blades. Rotors - Rotors (forged wheels and shaft) are manufactured from steel alloys. The primary purpose of a turbine rotor is to carry the moving blades that convert the steam's kinetic energy to rotating mechanical energy. Bearings - The rotor of every turbine must be positioned radially and axially by bearings. Radial bearings carry and support the weight of the rotor and maintain the correct radial clearance between the rotor and casing. Axial (thrust) bearings limit the fore-and-aft travel of the rotor. Thrust bearings take care of any axial thrust, which may develop on a turbine rotor and hold the turbine rotor within definite axial positions.

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All main turbines and most auxiliary units have a bearing at each end of the rotor. Bearings are generally classified as sliding surface (sleeve and thrust) or as rolling contact (antifriction ball or roller bearings). Figure 27 shows a typical sliding surface bearing.

FIGURE 27 TYPICAL SLIDING SURFACE BEARING Shaft Packing Glands - Shaft packing glands prevent the leaking of steam out of or air into the turbine casing where the turbine rotor shaft extends through the turbine casing. Labyrinth and carbon rings are two types of packing. They are used either separately or in combination. Labyrinth packing (Figure 28) consists of rows of metallic strips or fins. The strips fasten to the gland liner so there is a small space between the strips and the shaft. As the steam from the turbine casing leaks through the small space between the packing strips and the shaft, steam pressure gradually reduces.

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FIGURE 28 - LABYRINTH PACKING GLAND Carbon packing rings (Figure 29) restrict the passage of steam along the shaft in much the same manner as labyrinth packing strips. Carbon packing rings mount around the shaft and are held in place by springs. Three or four carbon rings are usually used in each gland. Each ring fits into a separate compartment of the gland housing and consists of two, three, or four segments that are buttjointed to each other. A garter spring is used to hold these segments together. The use of keepers (lugs or stop pins) prevents the rotation of the carbon rings when the shaft rotates. The outer carbon ring compartment connects to a drain line.

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FIGURE 29 CARBON PACKING GLAND

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AIR EJECTORS AIR EJECTORS


A certain amount of air and other non-condensable vapor unavoidably enters the condenser with the steam to be condensed. Since the condenser operates at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, this air is also at a pressure below atmospheric and in order to remove it, some apparatus must be furnished that will compress this air to slightly above atmospheric pressure. Two methods have been used for compressing this air: 1. By use of the Air Pump 2. By use of the Air Ejector The steam air jet ejector, because of its small space, weight and economy of its installation, operation and maintenance, has practically displaced the reciprocating air pump on both turbine and reciprocating engine ships. The amount of air being handled by any given condenser and air removal equipment can be readily determined, but the amount to be removed from a prospective condenser is quite problematical. Table 1 gives estimated air leakage with respect to condensing capacity of modern condensers. These are design features, and allow ample margin to care for unexpected conditions. The usual leakage in a well maintained condensing system should be less than these amounts. If more leakage is present, the system should be carefully checked for tightness. TABLE 1 ESTIMATED AIR LEAKAGE FOR MODERN CONDENSERS
Maximum Pounds Of Steam Condensed Per Hour 5,000 or less 5,001 10,000 10,001 15,000 15,001 20,000 20,001 25,000 25,001 30,000 30,001 35,000 35,001 40,000 40,001 45,000 45,001 50,000 50,001 75,000 75,001 100,000 100,001 150,000 150,001 250,000 250,001 350,000 350,001 450,000 450,001 600,000 600,001 and up C.F.M. 70F Free Dry Air Leakage Surface Condensers Surface Condensers Serving Turbines Serving Engines 2.20 4.40 2.50 5.00 2.65 5.30 2.80 5.60 3.00 6.00 3.20 6.40 3.35 6.70 3.50 7.00 3.65 7.30 3.80 7.60 4.50 9.00 5.00 10.00 6.50 13.00 8.50 17.00 10.00 20.00 11.50 23.00 13.50 27.00 16.00 32.00

AIR EJECTORS An ejector consists essentially of a steam nozzle discharging a high-velocity jet of steam (approximately 3500 sq. ft. per sec.) across a suction chamber and through a venturishaped compression tube. The air gases to be evacuated enter the ejector suction, are entrained by the jet of steam, and discharged through the throat, where the velocity or kinetic energy is

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converted into pressure, thereby compressing the mixture to a lower vacuum, i.e. a higher absolute pressure. Figure 30a indicates the principle of operation of the steam jet ejector. For successful operation, the ratio between discharge pressure and suction pressure, or the compression ratio, as it is usually called, apparently should not be more than 8 to 1. The lowest pressure that can be maintained with a ratio of 8 to 1 is:

P = 30 8 = 3.75 Hg. Abs. or 26.25 Hg. Vacuum


If a lower absolute pressure than 3.75 Hg. is desired, then it must be obtained in two stages of compression if the compression if the compression ratio is not to exceed 8 to 1 Ejector Condensers Both the single and multi-stage ejectors may be designed to operate either non-condensing or condensing. If a condenser is placed between the two stages of an ejector it is called an intercondenser (interstage condenser or intercooler); and when the second stage delivers into a condenser, this condenser is called the aftercondenser. Since the air ejector operates continuously and the loss of fresh water would be considerable, practically all marine ejectors are of the condensing type. The intercondenser on a two-stage unit has a greater advantage than merely saving the fresh water, since it also serves to condense the steam used in the first-stage jet and thus reduce the amount of vapor to be handled by the second stage jet. This in turn reduces the steam consumption of the second-stage jet. The condensed steam from the first stage of a two-stage ejector fitted with an intercondenser, in which the discharge pressure is considerably below atmospheric, is usually drained back to the main condenser, this being normally the only vessel with a lower pressure. To prevent the return of air to the main condenser through this drainpipe, a water-sealed loop having an effective height of 8 or more is installed in the drain line (see Figure 38). Water, which is condensed in the aftercondenser of either a single- or two-stage ejector, is drained to the fresh-water drain collecting system. The air that remains in the aftercondenser following the condensation of the vapor is by this time compressed to atmospheric pressure and is released to the atmosphere through a vent. Ejector Types Any single- or multi-stage ejector may be arranged with one or more elements operating in parallel if standby capacity is desired, or if necessary to meet varying operating conditions. Ejectors are normally built in the various types and arrangements shown in Figure 31. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Single-stage ejector, non-condensing (Figure 30A) Two-stage non-condensing ejector (Figure 30B) Twin-element, single-stage ejector with surface aftercondenser (Figure 31) Two-stage ejector with surface inter- & aftercondensers (Figure 32 and 34) Twin-element, two-stage ejector with surface inter- & aftercondensers (Figure 33 and 36)

The most common arrangement used in marine installations in the twin-element, two-stage ejector mounted on a combined inter and after surface-type condenser, as shown in Figure 33.

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Figure 37 is a photograph of such a unit. This type of unit gives a complete two-stage ejector as a standby and if installed with interstage gate valves as shown in Figure 34, different combinations of first- and second-stage jets may be used to meet varying operating conditions.

FIGURE 30 A) SECTIONAL VIEW OF TYPICAL SINGLE-STAGE STEAM JET EJECTOR B) TWO-STAGE, NON-CONDENSING EJECTOR 9. Suction body 10. Diffuser 11. Steam Nozzle 12. Steam Nozzle Washer 13. Steam Chamber 14. Steam Strainer 15. Steam Chamber Nut 16. Steam Chamber Nut Washer

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FIGURE 31 TWIN-ELEMENT, SINGLE-STAGE EJECTOR WITH SURFACE TYPE AFTERCONDENSER. EACH ELEMENT OF A TWIN-ELEMENT EJECTOR IS COMPLETE IN ITSELF AND MAY BE OPERATED ALONE OR IN PARALLEL WITH OTHERS

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FIGURE 32 TWO-STAGE, SINGLE-ELEMENT EJECTOR WITH COMBINED SURFACE INTER-AND AFTERCONDENSERS (See Parts List For Figure 33)

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CONDENSING WATER The condensing water used in the inter- and aftercondensers may be from any available water supply, but is usually condensate from the condenser hotwell and then used as feedwater, since in this way the heat in the steam supplied to the air ejector is almost all recovered. Some ships, however use salt-water cooling in the air ejector condensers. There are also a few installations that have a combination of fresh and saltwater cooling. Extreme care must be taken with these units to avoid contaminating the feedwater. When the condensate is used as cooling water, the supply is usually inadequate when running at reduced power, and a recirculating connection must be provided. For example, in a two-stage ejector designed to maintain 28 Hg. vacuum, the first stage might operate at about 6.7 Hg. abs. pressure (23.3 Hg. vacuum). The temperature corresponding to this pressure is 144.5F. This temperature is for the condensation of air-free steam. The discharge from the first-stage ejector, however, will contain a large amount of air, which will tend to lower the condensing temperature. The actual condensing temperature of this steam-air mixture will be about 140F. Consequently, the temperature of the cooling water leaving the intercondenser must be less than this. At full-power operation, the amount of condensate flowing will be sufficient to condense all of the steam used in this stage, with a temperature rise on the condensate of probably 3 of 4F. However, as the load in the turbine is increased, the total amount of condensate decreases almost proportionately, whereas the steam used by the air ejector remains practically constant. Consequently, since the same amount of heat must be removed and the total amount of cooling water is less, the temperature rise of the cooling water must be greater. At some reduced power, then, the outlet temperature of the cooling water will be higher than 140F, and the intercondenser will then fail to condense the steam from the first-stage jet. The second-stage jet will be unable to handle the increased load, and the ejector will completely lose suction. To prevent this condition from occurring, a recirculating line is fitted so that the condensate used in the ejector can be returned to the condenser and recirculated through the ejector condensate a rate sufficient to keep the temperature rise within reasonable limits. In most modern installations this recirculation is automatic, and is governed by a thermostatic valve. When the discharge water reaches a predetermined temperature (usually 110F for 28 Hg. vacuum), the valve opens and permits the condensate to return to the hotwell and be recirculated through the ejector condensers. The thermostat is usually placed at the condensate discharge from the intercondenser, since this is the critical point in the system. The valve itself may be placed at any convenient point in the feed system, such as the feed tank of deaerating heater (Figure 38). OPERATION OF STEAM-JET AIR EJECTORS A. Single-stage ejectors (with or without aftercondenser) Starting-up Procedure: 1. Open discharge valve (or valves*) 2. If any aftercondenser is provided, next turn on water supply valve 3. Open steam valve (or valves*) admitting steam from a supply line at the proper pressure 4. Open air suction valve (or valves*) *This applies to multiple element type of ejectors

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QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

As soon as the full steam pressure is supplied in the steam chamber the ejector will start operating. The vacuum will be gradually increased as the air is removed from the system, and after a short interval of time the normal operating vacuum will be obtained. Shutting-down Procedure: 1. Close suction valve (or valves*) 2. Close steam valve (or valves*) 3. Close water supply valve 4. Close discharge valve (or valves*)

FIGURE 34 TWO-STAGE EJECTOR WITH SURFACE INTER- AND AFTERCONDENSERS. X INDICATES THE OUTLET FOR THE CONDENSATE FROM THE INTERCONDENSER TO MAIN CONDENSER

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QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Steam chest (1st stage) Pipe plug Nozzle Nozzle gasket Nozzle ring Nozzle gasket

7. Mixing chamber 8. Diffuser 9. Steam chest (2nd stage) 10. Pipe plug 11. Nozzle 12. Nozzle gasket

13. Nozzle ring 14. Nozzle gasket 15. Mixing chamber 16. Diffuser

FIGURE 35 AIR EJECTORS WITH INTERCOOLER B. Two stage ejectors (single element) Starting-up Procedure: 1. Open air exhaust valve at discharge of secondary element or aftercondenser 2. Open air suction valve at suction of primary element 3. Open valve in intercondenser drain loop 4. Open drain valve in aftercondenser drain line (if the intercondenser and the aftercondenser are of the surface type. 5. Start water circulating through the inter- and aftercoolers 6. See that both steam valves are closed 7. Open main steam supply valve, admitting steam at the proper pressure from steam lines

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STEAM SYSTEMS

8. Open steam valve to secondary element As soon as the full steam pressure is supplied to the steam nozzles, the ejector will start operating. An interval of time should then be allowed to build up the vacuum to approximately 16 20. Then the primary element should be put in service as follows: 9. Open the valve to the primary element. After another short interval of time, the normal operating vacuum will be obtained. The procedure just outlined is for starting up ejectors on a complete system bringing up the vacuum from atmospheric pressure. If a system should be provided with two steam-jet air ejectors, and it is desired to put a second ejector into service while the other ejector is in operation, all operations except Nos. 2 and 3 should be performed in their regular order. After full vacuum is established at the suction of the primary element on the ejector that is to be placed in service, then operations Nos. 3 and 2 should be carried out in this order.

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QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

FIGURE 36 TWIN-ELEMENT, TWO-STAGE EJECTOR WITH SEPARATE SURFACE INTERCONDENSERS AND AFTERCONDENSERS

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QMED
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Intercondenser shell Secondary steam strainers Aftercondenser shell Secondary steam chamber nuts Intercondenser water boxes Secondary steam chambers Aftercondenser water boxes Secondary diffusers Waterbox covers 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Intercondenser baffles . Gate valves Aftercondenser baffles Secondary suction bodies Elbows Primary nozzles Steam valves Primary steam strainers Pipe fittings 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

STEAM SYSTEMS
Primary steam chamber nuts Steam piping Primary steam chambers Tubes Primary diffusers Tube plates Primary suction bodies Safety valves 27. Secondary nozzles

Shutting-down Procedure 1. Close primary air suction valve 2. Close steam valve to primary 3. Close steam valve to secondary 4. Close main steam supply valve 5. Close condensing-water supply valve to inter- and aftercondenser C. Two-stage ejectors (twin elements with isolating valves) Starting-up Procedure 1. Open valve in air discharge line from aftercondenser 2. Open secondary element discharge vlaves. 3. Open secondary element suction valves 4. Open primary element discharge valves 5. Open primary element suction valves 6. Open valve in intercondenser drain loop line 7. Open valve in aftercondenser drain line 8. Start circulation of water through surface type inter- and aftercondenser 9. See that the steam valves to all elements are tightly closed. 10. Open the main steam supply valve, admitting steam at the proper pressure to the ejector 11. Open steam valves to secondary elements. As soon as the full steam pressure is supplied in the steam chambers, the pump will start functioning. An interval of time should be allowed to build up vacuum to approximately 16" or 20". Then the primary elements should be put into service as follows: 12. Open the steam valves to the primary elements. After another interval of time the normal operating vacuum will be obtained It is customary to use all sets of elements for establishing full vacuum on the system in the shortest period of time. If the air leakage to the system is at a minimum then the desired vacuum can be maintained by operating with only one set of elements (one primary and one secondary). Where an ejector is equipped with raw-water auxiliary cooling section, the water valve should be opened when ejector is started up. The same instruction applies to recirculation valve if the condenser is equipped for recirculation of condensate. Unless the steam load is very light, the raw water or recirculation valve can be closed after full vacuum is reached. "Shutting -down" procedure: 1. Close the suction valve of element to be shut down. 2. Close steam valve to same element.

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STEAM SYSTEMS

3.

Close the discharge valve of that element.

When shutting down one set of elements only, it is recommended that the primary element be shut off first and then the corresponding secondary element. In order to maintain the normal vacuum, it is necessary to have one primary and one secondary element in service together. It is not possible to obtain high vacuum with two secondaries only, without any primaries, or with two primaries alone, and no secondaries. If it is desired to put any additional elements into service, the shutting down procedure outlined above should be reversed.

FIGURE 37 TYPICAL TWO-STAGE, TWIN-ELEMENT STEAM JET EJECTOR FOR MARINE SERVICE To shut down a complete ejector: 1. Close primary suction valves 2. Shut off main steam supply 3. Shut off water supply to inter- and aftercondenser. Faulty operation - There are 6 possible causes of faulty operation of an air ejector, as follows: 1. Insufficient cooling water 2. Steam nozzles plugged with scale

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QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

3. 4. 5. 6.

Water flooding intercondenser due to faulty drainage Low steam pressure High back pressure at discharge of ejector Losses of water seal in intercondenser drain loop.

It will be necessary to check for any one or a combination of these conditions if trouble should be experienced. 1. An insufficient supply of cooling water can be determined by observing the temperatures of the water entering and leaving the air ejector. If the temperature rise in the ejector is not excessive, the cooling-water supply is adequate, and the trouble is elsewhere. 2. A scale deposit may form in the throats of the steam nozzles, due to chemicals used in the treatment of the boiler feedwater. When this occurs, it should be removed with drills of the same diameter as those with which the nozzles were originally drilled. 3. Flooding of the intercondenser with water can usually be ascertained by feeling the temperature of the intercondenser shell. 4. Low steam pressure may be due to clogging of the steam strainers or orifice plates with pipe scale or sediment, improper operation of the regulating valve, or low boiler pressure. 5. High backpressure at the discharge of the ejector sometimes occurs where the pump discharges into a common exhaust system with other equipment this happens, it will be necessary to provide an independent discharge from the ejector to atmosphere. 6. Loss of the water seal in the drain loop takes place occasionally in installations where the vacuum in the system is subject to sudden fluctuations. A gage glass is recommended on the intercondenser drain loop, to show whether the loop is properly scaled when the pump is in normal service. This gage glass should be as near the bottom of the drain loop as possible. If the water visible anywhere in the glass, the loop is properly scaled. However, if no water is visible, or if it surges violently, the indications are that the drain loop has become unsealed. When this happens, some of the air, which has been removed from the main condenser by the primary element, is recirculated, and flows back through the drain loop to the main condenser, thereby reducing the vacuum. To re-establish the seal in the drain loop, it is necessary only to close the valve provided for this purpose in the drain loop line usually located near the condenser. This valve must be closed for the short period of time required to form sufficient condensate to fill the loop. After the water again shows at the top of the gage glass, the valve should be opened very gradually. If the valve is opened too quickly, the difference in pressure will cause surging of the water and again unseal the loop. In certain cases, some drain loops have a tendency to be unstable, due to fluctuations in condenser vacuum. In such instances, it is customary to operate with the valve in the drain loop line partly throttled, opening it just enough to pass the condensate at all times.

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STEAM SYSTEMS

FIGURE 38 - ARRANGEMENT OF TWIN-ELEMENT, TWO-STAGE EJECTOR IN TYPICAL MARINE INSTALLATION, WHERE CONDENSATE IS RECIRCULATED FROM FEED TANK

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QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

MAINTENANCE NOTES 1. The designed steam conditions must be adhered to exactly for satisfactory operation. Maintain dry steam and correct pressure at the ejectors at all time. If necessary to allow for unavoidable fluctuations in pressure, bear in mind that 10 or 15 lb. excess pressure is not particularly serious; but if the pressure drops below the design value, performance is bound to be unstable. 2. Keep ejector bodies and nozzles clean. Blow down steam line and strainer whenever starting up. Periodically check the size of the nozzle with a twist drill of correct diameter, as stamped on the nozzle. (Most manufacturers supply a reamer of the correct size with each ejector.) If the orifice becomes scaled up, worn oversize, or worn out of round, it will seriously impair performance. 3. See that steam and vapor valves in standby ejectors are closed tight 4. If ejectors are of the type shown in Figure 34. be extremely careful in reassembling ejectors that the gaskets are replaced with ones of like thickness. Except in special cases the steam chest gaskets are 1/32 thick. Likewise, it is essential that the nozzle rings (Pc. Nos. 5 & 13 in Figure 34) be of the proper thickness, and a 1/32 second-stage nozzle rings are not interchangeable. In cases where no ring is used, a single copper gasket 1/32 thick should be used. Too much stress cannot be laid on the importance of having proper distance between the nozzle outlet and the inlet to the diffuser. The dimension is extremely vital to the operation of the air ejector

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STEAM SYSTEMS

FIREROOM OPERATIONS FIREROOM OPERATIONS


To operate boilers, you need to know all the mechanical details of the boilers and the associated auxiliaries. However, knowing the mechanical details is not enough, you must develop a keen eye for trouble, a finely tuned ear, and an overall sense of what is happening everywhere in the fireroom at all times. You may be touching one thing, looking at another and hearing something else. Somehow you must learn to put all your impressions together to acquire a total awareness of how the plant is operating. You will have to learn to tell the difference between normal and abnormal operating conditions. There are a number of sounds and vibrations that are normal in a properly operating plant; after you are accustomed to a normally operating plant, you should be able to tell when things are not quite right. A gage glass that is just beginning to leak may make a peculiar whistling sound; the noise may be very faint but it is an indication of trouble brewing. There is not much chance of overlooking a vibrating boiler, but smaller vibrations can also be a sign that a casualty is about to occur. For example, suppose you feel a vibration in the floorplates slight, but different from the normal vibration. Is low lube oil pressure to a forced draft blower causing high temperatures at the bearings and thus making the units vibrate? Is the fuel oil service pump racing and vibrating because it is losing suction? When you first feel any new kind of vibration, you should recognize immediately that somewhere there is something wrong. Train yourself to notice and analyze strange noises, unusual vibrations, abnormal temperatures and pressures, and other signs that trouble may be developing LIGHTING OFF BOILERS Lighting-off instructions for each boiler are specified by the engineer officer, and the manufacturer of the equipment. The following basic instructions are generally applicable to most modern ships boilers. Special procedures required for lighting off some types of boiler are given after the general instructions. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR LIGHTING OFF - A lighting-off sheet must be out for each boiler as it is being lighted off. The sheet indicates the step-by-step procedures required. The general procedures for lighting off a boiler are: 1. Remove the smoke pipe cover. 2. Inspect the bilges to be sure they are free of oil. If necessary, wash and pump the bilges. 3. Inspect the bottoms and inner fronts of air casings to be sure they are free of oil accumulations. Be sure that the register drip holes are not plugged. 4. Be sure that the torch pot is adequately secured to a structural part of the floorplates. Also, be sure that it is not so full of oil that the oil will spill when the lighting off torch is dipped into it. 5. Check the fuel oil strainers to be sure they are clean and in good condition. 6. Inspect all atomizer assemblies. Be sure that they are the correct size and that they are clean and properly made up. If the burner has been disassembled for cleaning or repair, check the setting of the distance piece to be sure that the face of the atomizer tip nut is the correct distance from the diffuser plate. This setting of the distance piece varies for

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QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

different types of burners; consult the manufacturer's technical manual for the correct setting 7. Move all air register doors to be sure that they operate freely 8. Check individual atomizer valves and manifold valves. They should be CLOSED. 9. Wipe up all oil from the floor plates 10. With the air register doors open, run a forces draft blower to ventilate the furnace and clear it of accumulated gases. 11. Examine all casing doors to be sure that they are closed and that they are airtight. 12. Open the steam drum aircock and the superheater vents. 13. Check to see that the water gage cutout valves are open and that the drain valves are closed. 14. If the boiler has been laid up dry: a. Close the manhole and handhole plate b. Close the drain cocks; c. Check the surface blow valve, the bottom blow valves, and all valves in the boiler blow piping to be sure they are CLOSED; d. Open the feed stop and check valves, start the emergency feed pump, and bring the water level to about 1 inch above the bottom of the glass in the lowest water gage; this procedure fills the economizer with water, tests for possible obstructions in the feed lines and water gages, and tests the operation of the emergency feed pump. 15. If the boiler has been laid up full of water a. Run down or pump down the water in the boiler until it is just out of sight in the lowest water gage glass. To do this, it will be necessary to open the bottom blow valve on the water drum, the drain valves on the water headers, and the drain valves on the superheater. Then the water can either be run to the bilges or pumped directly overboard through the hose connection provided in the line to the bilges. b. Close the bottom blow valve and the drain valves to the bilges. c. Examine the surface blow piping and all valves in the boiler blow piping to be sure they are CLOSED. d. Using the emergency feed pump, bring the water level to about 1 inch above the bottom of the glass in the lowest water gage. 16. Using the main feed pump, raise the water level in the boiler about . This test the main feed pump and the feed lines. 17. Examine the hand gear for lifting safety valves, and operate this gear as far as can be done WITHOUT lifting safety valves 18. Ease up on the main steam stops, the auxiliary steam stops, and the turbo-generator steam stops, WITHOUT lifting the valve disks off the seats. This procedure will keep the valves from sticking when they are heated. 19. Open the valves between the steam drum and the superheater inlet (if fitted). 20. Open the superheater gravity (open funnel) drains. 21. Check to be sure that all cocks and valves in the line to the steam drum pressure gage are open.

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STEAM SYSTEMS

22. Line up the fuel oil system. Open all necessary valves from the service tank to the service pump. Bypass the meter, and open all valves between the service pump and the burner manifold. Open the recirculating valves and start the service pump. 23. If the oil is very cold and viscous, so that the service pump has difficulty in taking suction,, use the tank heating coils to warm the oil. 24. Cut in steam to the fuel oil heater. 25. Run a forces draft blower SLOWLY until the first burner is lighted. 26. Open superheater vents and drains. 27. Bring the water in the boiler up to the lighting off level. 28. When the oil has reached atomizing temperature, partly close the recirculating valves to allow the fuel oil pressure to build up to at least 200 psi. 29. Light off the burner designated as the lighting off burner. Use a small size sprayer plate. Use a hand torch (Figure 39) for lighting off. Use diesel oil for lighting off. NEVER use gasoline, kerosene, naphtha, or any oil with a low flash point. When lighting off, stand clear to avoid injury from a flareback. 30. As soon as the first burner has been lighted, close the fuel oil recirculating valves and regulate the oil pressure with the control valve. 31. Open the fuel oil meter inlet and outlet valves and close the meter bypass valve. 32. Check the level in the water gages as the boiler begins to heat up, and check it frequently after steam has begun to form. 33. Close the steam drum aircock and the superheater vents, after steam has formed and has blown sufficiently to exclude all air from the boiler. 34. Check the steam drum pressure gage to see if it registers pressure, after the aircocks and vents have been closed. 35. As the boiler heats up, check all fittings and connections, which may begin to leak as they heat up and expand. Some of the things to check for leakage are packing glands on boiler valves; water gages and remote water level indicators; gage lines; and all accessible manhole and handhole plates. Take whatever action is required to correct any leakage that you find. 36. Check the functioning of the water gage glasses by opening the drains and blowing through the gages. 37. See that the water in the boiler is kept at steaming level. 38. Before cutting the boiler in on the line, use the bypass valves or crack the boiler stop valves slightly to warm up the lines slowly and to allow gradual equalization of pressures between the boiler and the line. Be sure that the lines are properly drained during this warming-up period. 39. Cut in the boiler when the proper pressure has been reached. CAUTION: The boiler must first be cut in on the auxiliary steam line BEFORE being cut in on the main steam line. 40. Light off additional burners as required. When burners are lettered or numbered, they should always be lighted off in the indicated sequence. A HAND TORCH MUST BE USED TO LIGHT THE FIRST BURNER AND TO LIGHT ALL ADDITIONAL BURNERS UNTIL THE FURNACE BECOMES INTENSELY HOT.

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QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

FIGURE 39 LIGHTING-OFF TORCH LIGHTING OFF SINGLE-FURNACE BOILERS - The following additional instructions for lighting off boilers must be followed in order to protect the superheater while steam is being raised in the boiler: 1. On or before lighting the first burner, establish a positive flow of steam through the superheater. The steam flow must be established by opening the superheater drains to the bilges and opening the superheater vent to the atmospheric escape pipe. 2. The superheater must be THOROUGHLY DRAINED at all times. Even on boilers that have superheater protective steam, the superheater gravity (open-funnel) drains must be opened when the boiler is being lighted off. The gravity drains should remain open until the boiler has built up enough pressure. 3. While steam is being raised, the allowable rate of combustion must not be exceeded. The superheater vent system is not designed to protect the superheater at high rates of combustion. LIGHTING OFF WITH AUTOMATIC COMBUSTION CONTROLS - A boiler, which is equipped with automatic combustion controls can usually be lighted off either with or without using the automatic control system. When compressed air is not available, the boiler must of course be lighted off on local manual control and operated on local manual until compressed air is available. When compressed air is available, the boiler may be lighted off either on local manual or on remote manual. It is normally transferred to automatic when operating steam pressure has been reached. The following general rules for transferring from one method to another apply to most automatic combustion control systems now in use: 1. Transferring from local manual to remote manual may be done at any time when compressed air is available for the controls. 2. Transferring from remote manual to automatic may be done at any time after operating steam pressure has been reached and a sufficient steam flow has been established to permit continuous firing. 3. Transferring from local manual to automatic should be done by first transferring to remote manual and then from remote manual to automatic. 4. Transferring from automatic to remote manual may be done at any time. 5. Transferring from remote manual to local manual may be done at any time. 6. Transferring from automatic to local manual should be done by first transferring to remote manual and then transferring from remote manual to local manual.

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60

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

UNDERWAY OPERATIONS - After boilers have been lighted off, the men on watch in the fireroom must pay constant attention to all details of boiler operation. In order to meet steam demands, the men on watch must keep close control over boiler water level, fuel oil pressures and temperatures, combustion air flow, and the operation of all auxiliary machinery serving the boilers. Most of the information given here on underway operations deals with manual, rather than automatic, operation of boilers. Most ships boilers are at present equipped with automatic control systems; and on ships, which do have automatic controls; the engineer must still be completely familiar with all manual-operating procedures. When an automatic control system is operating correctly under steady steaming conditions, the fireman watertender might almost seem to be unnecessary because the automatic controls take care of feed water, fuel oil, and combustion air demands. Automatic boiler controls installed in most ships operate with a high degree of accuracy and reliability; but they are designed to AID operating personnel, not to replace them. Trained personnel must always be available to check on the operation of the automatic controls, to deal with large changes in steam demand, and to operate the boilers manually in the event of casualty to the automatic controls. The following discussion of underway operations is divided into several sections: fireroom watches, control of boiler water level, control of fuel oil, control of combustion air, operation of fireroom auxiliaries, use of soot blowers, and use of blowdown. In studying this information, don't overlook the fact that a great many operations must be carried out at the same time. While you are studying about the control of fuel oil, for example, remember that the control of fuel oil is closely related to the control of combustion air; that both are closely related to the control of feed water; and that the flow of feed water, fuel oil, and combustion air depends upon the operation of the feed pumps, the fuel oil pumps, the forced draft blowers, and other auxiliary machinery. CONTROL OF WATER LEVEL - The control of boiler water level is of vital importance in boiler operation. Operating personnel must be constantly alert for any indication of malfunctioning in the feed water systems, the water gage glasses, and the valves or controls by which feed water is admitted to the boiler. Some important factors relating to the control of water level are discussed here. Water Gages and Indicators - Water gages and remote water level indicators are your source of information on the location of the water level in the boiler. On most boilers, the normal water level shows at the midpoint of the water gages or, in the case of staggered gages, at the midpoint between the bottom of the lower gage and the top of the higher gage. If the designed normal water level for a boiler is NOT shown at the midpoint of the gages, the location of the normal water level should be clearly marked on the gages. The water level should always be maintained as close as possible to the designed normal level. If the water level is higher or lower than normal BUT IF IT IS STILL VISIBLE IN ONE GAGE GLASS you can bring the water level back to normal by increasing or decreasing the amount of water fed to the boiler. If the water level cannot be seen at all, you have an emergency situation, which requires the IMMEDIATE securing of the boiler.

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STEAM SYSTEMS

If water gages and indicators are not functioning, you have no way of knowing where the water level is. Gage connections are easily clogged with dirt, scale, or other solid matter. Therefore the water gages must be blown through at frequent intervals in order to prevent false indications of water level. Water gages on most boilers must be blown down under the following conditions: 1. Before the boiler is connected to the steam line, the water gages must be blown down 2. At the end of each watch, the gages must be blown down 3. Water gages must be blown down whenever there is any reason at all to suspect that the gages are not registering the actual water level. If the water in the gages does not fluctuate with the roll and pitch of the ship, for example, you should suspect that the gages are not showing the true water level. NOTE: Water gage glasses used on some 600-psi boilers should not be blown down as often as the gages on older boilers. Follow any special instructions concerning the frequency of blowing down water gage glasses on 600-psi boilers.) The procedure for blowing down a water gage glass of the type used on most boilers is as follows: 1. Unhook the chains that connect the top and bottom valve handles. 2. Close the top cutout valve and open the drain at the bottom of the assembly. This allows water to flow through the bottom connection and clear away any obstructing material such as dirt or scale. 3. Open the top cutout valve and close the bottom cutout valve. This allows steam to flow through the top connection and clear it of any obstructing material. 4. Close the drain valve. 5. Open the bottom cutout valve. This allows water to enter the gage. Check the water level against the level shown on the other gage or on the remote water level indicator. 6. Hook the chains that connect the top and bottom valve handles. NOTE: The procedure for blowing down water gage glasses on some 600-psi boilers is somewhat different. After blowing down a water gage, be sure that both the valves are wide open and that the gage is indicating the correct water level. If there is any delay or sluggishness in the return of the water level to the gage, find out the cause of the trouble and correct it immediately. When checking the water level in a gage glass, be sure that the water level you see is actually the true water level. Sometimes a fine crack in the glass or a thin line of dirt can look almost exactly like the line of a water level. The slightest sign of oil in a water gage glass should be checked IMMEDIATELY. Even a small amount of oil in the boiler water is a serious casualty requiring immediate attention. Several types of remote water level indicators are now used aboard 'ship. Since procedures for putting the indicators into service and for blowing them down are not the same for all types, the

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STEAM SYSTEMS

manufacturer's technical manual should be consulted for this information. One precaution that applies to most remote water level indicators should be noted: Do NOT allow boiler water to reach the indicating part of the unit when you are blowing down a remote water level indicator. When two independent remote water level indicators and one water gage are installed on a boiler, the two remote indicators should be used as the controlling indicators of water level. Use the water gage glass as a check gage while the boiler is being lighted off. After the ship is under way, secure the gage glass provided, of course, that the two remote water level indicators show the same reading. Low Pressure Feed Alarms - Automatic low pressure feed alarms are installed on most ships to indicate low discharge pressure of the feed pump. The low pressure feed pump alarm should be checked frequently to see that it is energized. During the lighting off period, the alarm should be tested by the following procedure: 1. Start the feed PUMP and bring the discharge pressure up to normal. 2. Energize the low pressure feed alarm. 3. Reduce the feed pump discharge pressure to the pressure at which the alarm functions, so that you can tell whether or not the alarm is working. Manual Control of Water Level - When a boiler is being operated manually, the Fireman/Watertender controls the water level in the boiler by operation of the feed stop and check valves. The feed stop valve is kept wide open whenever the boiler is steaming, and the check valve is used to regulate the amount of feed water admitted to the boiler. If the water level goes down, the watertender opens the check valve a little wider. If the water level rises, the checkman closes down a little on the check valve. Adjustments of the water level should be made gradually, and only as necessary. Sudden fluctuations in the rate of feeding are not good for the boiler, not good for the feed pumps, and not good for boiler efficiency. During lighting off, securing, and maneuvering, the water level will of course fluctuate to some extent. But at all other times the water level should be kept at or very near the designed water level. As long as a boiler is furnishing steam, the feed supply must never be shut off entirely, even for a short time. The reason for this is that water must be kept flowing through the economizer at all times in order to prevent over-heating and possible casualties. One of the hardest parts of the watertenders job is learning to regulate the flow of feed water to meet changing steam demands. One reason why this is hard to learn is that boiler water swells and shrinks as the firing rate is changed. As the firing rate is increased, there is an increase in the volume of the boiler water. This increase, which is known as SWELL, occurs because there is an increase in the number and size of the steam bubbles in the water. As the firing rate is decreased, there is a decrease in the volume of the water. This decrease, which is known as SHRINK, occurs because there are fewer steam bubbles in the water and they are of smaller size. Thus, for a fixed WEIGHT of boiler water, the VOLUME varies with the rate of combustion.

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QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

So far, swell and shrink are easy enough to understand. But things get a little more complicated when you remember that the evaporation rate also increases as the firing rate increases, when the firing rate is increased, therefore, the watertender must remember to feed MORE water to the boiler, even though the water level has already risen momentarily because of swell. On the other hand, the watertender must remember to feed LESS water to the boiler when the firing rate is decreased, even though the water level has already dropped. The problems of priming, foaming, and carryover are closely related to the control of boiler water level. PRIMING is then usually used to describe the carryover of large gulps or slugs of water. Priming may occur as the result of a momentary high water level, which submerges the steam separators, or it may occur as the result of foaming of the boiler water. FOAMING occurs when the boiler water contains too much dissolved or suspended solid matter. When a considerable amount of foam piles upon the surface of the boiler water, some foam is likely to be carried over. Any type of carryover, whether large slugs of water or smaller amounts of foam and moisture, can cause extensive damage to superheaters, steam lines, turbines, and valves. Priming is particularly dangerous because large slugs of water can hit the turbine blades with such force that thrust bearings, blades, and shrouding will be wiped out. The proper control of boiler water level and the proper control of boiler water quality should almost completely eliminate priming, foaming, and carryover in modern boilers. While the boiler is operating, the surface blow line should be used as often as necessary to remove scum and foam from the surface of the water. An excessive amount of condensate running down from the top connection of the water gage glass may indicate that foaming and priming are occurring. This is particularly true if the excessive condensate is noted at the same time as rapid, momentary high water levels, which have no other apparent cause. Even the slightest indication of priming, foaming, or carryover should be immediately corrected. Automatic Control of Water Level - Boiler water level may be controlled automatically by multi-element feed water regulators or by single-element feedwater regulators Multi-element regulators are usually used in automatic feed water and combustion control systems. Single-element regulators are installed on many boilers, which are not equipped with complete automatic control systems. The problems of swell and shrink that give the watertender some trouble are also problems for automatic feed water regulators. Single element regulators are controlled only by the existing water level in the steam drum; therefore, they cannot compensate for swell and shrink as well as the watertender can. Multi element regulators, on the other hand, are controlled by the existing water level in the drum PLUS other factors such as feed water flow and steam flow or fuel oil flow. Multi-element regulators can therefore provide better control of water level than is possible with manual operation of the feed check valve.

USMMA GMATS

64

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

As a rule, automatic feed water regulators vary the supply of feed water by actuating a feed regulating valve in the main feed line between the feed stop and check valves and the economizer. When the automatic feed water regulator is in use, the feed stop and check valves must be fully open. When the automatic feed water regulator is not in use, the feed regulating valve must be fully open so that it cannot interfere with manual feeding of the boiler. SINGLE ELEMENT REGULATORS - Single element feed water regulators are installed primarily for the purpose of regulating boiler water level. The general arrangement of a single-element feed water regulator of a type commonly used on ships is shown in Figure 40. The instructions given here apply to this particular type of singleelement regulator. For information on other types of single-element regulators, consult the appropriate manufacturers' technical manuals. The single-element regulator should be blown down about once every 24 hours and, in addition, whenever the regulator is placed in service. To blow down the regulator, open the top and bottom shut-off valves (labeled E and F in Figure 40) and open the blowdown valve (P). The outer tube of the generator, the copper tube that connects the outer generator tube to the bellows, and the bellows are normally kept full of water. This water forms a closed system in the regulator, separate from the water and steam admitted by valves E and F. When this closed system is filled with water, cutting in the regulator is a simple process: 1. Blow down the regulator, as described before. 2. Close the blowdown valve (P) but leave valves E and F open. 3. Allow time for the generator to cool off. 4. When the generator has cooled off, release the handjack (K) so that the valve spring will be free to close the feed-regulating valve. As you release the handjack, the regulator will begin to take over and control the opening and closing of the feed-regulating valve. 5. Open the feed check valve FULLY so that the check valve will not interfere with the flow of feed water to the boiler. The procedure for putting the single-element regulator into service is more complicated if for any reason the closed system in the regulator is NOT full of water. In this case, the procedure is: 1. Release the handjack (K). 2. Disconnect the end of the tubing (R) from the metal bellows (D). 3. Remove the guard (H) from the bellows. 4. Place the bellows in a container filled with water. 5. With the open end of the bellows upward compress the bellows a number of times until all the air is removed and the bellows is completely filled with water. 6. Insert the end of the tubing marked R in the container of water, with the bellows. 7. Remove the generator plug (G) and siphon water from the container through the generator. Allow the water to run until all air has been carried out; then put the generator plug back in. 8. With the bellows under water, place the guard (H) over the bellows and connect the end of the tubing (R) to the bellows. Make sure that the bellows and the end of the tubing are completely submerged during this operation so that air cannot get into the system.

USMMA GMATS

65

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

9. Replace the guard and the bellows on the valve. 10. Release the handjack (K) so that the valve spring is free to close the feed regulating valve. 11. Remove the generator plug (G) and allow excess water to run out. 12. Replace the generator plug. Make sure that the plug and the connections at each end of the copper tubing are made up tight. 13. Blow down the generator (open valves E and F and the blowdown valve, P). 14. Allow the generator to cool off. 15. Release the handjack (K) so that the valve spring will be free to close the feed-regulating valve. 16. Open the feed check valve fully.

FIGURE 40 SINGLE-ELEMENT FEED WATER REGULATOR

USMMA GMATS

66

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

The single-element regulator is now in service, controlling the flow of feed water to the boiler. To cut out the single-element regulator, take the following action: 1. Close down on the feed check valve. Do NOT close the check valve completely; leave it open enough to permit feeding of the boiler under the existing steaming conditions. 2. As the feed check valve is being partially closed, use the handjack (K) to lock the feedregulating valve in the wide-open position. 3. Close the valves that connect the regulator to the steam and water spaces of the drum (valves E and F in Figure 41). The regulator is now out of service, and the water level must be controlled manually by operation of the feed check valve. MULTI-ELEMENT REGULATORS - When multi-element feed water regulators are installed, their use is required at all times. Primary, reliance for the control of water level must be placed in the multi-element regulators, NOT in manual operation of the feed check valve. When a multi-element regulator is in use, the man in charge of the watch must keep a close watch on the water level in the boiler. All boilers equipped with multi-element feed water regulators are also equipped with remote water level indicators, which may be read from the lower level of the fireroom. It is important to remember that the term "multi-element feed water regulator" actually refers to a feed water flow SYSTEM rather than to any one object or piece of equipment. A feed water flow control system includes a great many units that are installed in various locations around the boiler. The units in the system include devices for measuring the variables (steam flow, feed water flow, water level, etc.); devices for developing, combining, altering, and transmitting pneumatic signals; a feed water flow control valve and a control drive for positioning the valve; and an emergency device for controlling the feed water flow if the pneumatic system fails. All of these units together make up the feed water flow control system, which is usually referred to as a multi-element Some parts of a multi-element feed water regulator are shown in Figure 41. The feed water flow control valve consists of the valve itself and the diaphragm operator. The diaphragm operator receives air pressure above and below the diaphragm from the valve positioner. The amount of pressure from the valve positioner depends upon the pneumatic signals received by the positioner; thus the entire system acts to control the amount that the flow control valve is opened or closed. The emergency device is also shown in Figure 41. As may be seen, this device is very similar to a single-element feed water regulator. Under normal operating conditions, the pneumatic control system overpowers the emergency device so that the emergency device has no effect on the position of the feed water flow control valve. If the pneumatic system fails, however, the emergency device takes over and positions the flow control valve in accordance with the water level in the steam drum. Since the emergency device is controlled ONLY by the existing water level in the steam drum, it cannot control the water level as accurately as the multi-element regulator. It is therefore important to restore the multi-element regulator to service as soon as possible.

USMMA GMATS

67

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

Multi-element regulators are normally operated with the system set on automatic. However, they may be operated on remote manual by manipulating the feed water selector valves at the control consoles. If a multi-element regulator cannot maintain the correct water level in the boiler, switch from automatic to remote manual. If the water level cannot be, maintained by operation on remote manual, cut out the multi-element regulator, station a man at the feed check valve, and control the water level manually.

FIGURE 41 - MULTI-ELEMENT FEED WATER REGULATOR CONTROL OF FUEL OIL - The control of combustion involves heating the oil to atomizing temperature, forcing the oil into the furnace under pressure, supplying the proper amount of air for combustion, and supplying heat so that the oil will ignite and burn. Thus the control of fuel oil and the control of combustion air are the two basic requirements for efficient combustion in the boiler. Factors relating more or less directly to the control of fuel oil are discussed, here; the control of combustion air is discussed later in this chapter.

USMMA GMATS

68

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

Burner Sequence - The specified numerical or alphabetical sequence should be followed in lighting off and securing numbered or lettered burners and in changing, the number of burners in use. If burners are neither numbered nor lettered, a low burner in the middle of the firing front should be lighted off first. As additional burners are lighted off, they should be symmetrical about the first one. Changing the Firing Rate - The amount of steam that can be supplied by a boiler ranges from the amount obtainable with one burner fitted with the smallest size sprayer plate to the amount obtainable when all burners are in use and all are fitted with sprayer plates of the largest size allowed for that particular boiler. The two main ways of making large changes in firing rate are (1) by increasing or decreasing the number of burners in use, and (2) by changing the size of the sprayer plates in use. Smaller changes in firing rate may be taken care of by increasing or decreasing the fuel oil pressure. Size of Sprayer Plates - The capacity of a sprayer plate depends upon its size the larger the sprayer plate, the greater its capacity. In addition, sprayer plate capacity is affected by the oil pressure. Increasing the fuel oil pressure increases the capacity of a sprayer plate of any given size. The sprayer plates used in a boiler should normally all be of the same size. Using mixed sizes of sprayer plates in the same boiler results in an incorrect relationship between the combustion air pressure and some of the sprayer plates. If the air pressure is correct for some of the plates, it is bound to be wrong for others. Under some circumstance for example, when the ship is maneuvering at low firing rates it may be necessary to keep a smaller sprayer plate in one burner temporarily in order to prevent loss of fires. Under some other circumstances, it might be necessary to use one larger sprayer plate for a short time. In all cases, however, sprayer plates of uniform size should be used as soon as possible. Oversize sprayer plates-that is, plates larger than the largest size allowed for the ship-must NEVER be used. Fuel Oil Pressure - On most ships, a fuel oil pressure of 200 to 300 psi gives the best atomization of the fuel oil. Somewhat lower pressures may be used when the smaller sizes of sprayer plates are in use; however, the lower pressures are usually used only to take care of temporary maneuvering conditions. On ships having return-flow burners, the fuel oil supply pressure and the fuel oil return pressure are specified in the manufacturer's technical manual for the boilers. Fuel oil pressures used for return-flow burners are much higher than those used for burners that are designed for the straight through flow type of atomizer. Fuel Oil Temperature - Before fuel oil is burned in the boiler furnace, it must be heated to the temperature required for best atomization. The best atomization occurs when the oil is heated to a temperature that gives the oil a viscosity of 135 Seconds Saybolt Universal or 17.2 Seconds Saybolt Furol.

USMMA GMATS

69

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

USMMA GMATS

70

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

Since fuel oils differ in viscosity, the temperature required, to provide the prescribed viscosity also differs for the various fuel oils. After the best atomizing temperature has been determined for any particular shipment of fuel oil, the fuel oil heaters are used to maintain the oil at this temperature. During underway operations, you will need to keep a close check on the fuel oil temperature. Large changes in firing rate require changes in the amount of steam going to the fuel oil heaters. Operation of Fuel Oil Burners - Under normal steaming conditions, atomizer assemblies are kept in place, ready to be cut in when needed. Standby atomizer assemblies are usually made up ahead of time, with different sizes of sprayer plates, and are stowed in racks near the burner front. When steam demands change, the spare atomizer assemblies are ready to be inserted as necessary to meet the changing conditions. Suppose, for example, that the ship is steaming rapidly and steadily and that large size sprayer plates are in use in all burners. Suddenly a stop signal is given. The large size sprayer plates were just right for rapid steaming, but they have too great a capacity for the situation that now exists. In order to prevent a build up of pressure that would cause the safety valves to lift, the fireman must quickly remove the atomizer assemblies that are fitted with large size sprayer plates and replace them with atomizer assemblies fitted with smaller size sprayer plates. Before cutting in a burner, always check to be sure that an atomizer assembly has been inserted into the burner. If an atomizer assembly has not been inserted when you open the burner root valve, hot oil under pressure will spray out into the fire room. If the hot oil strikes you, it may cause serious burns. If it strikes a hot surface such as a pipe, it may flash into flame and cause a serious fire in the fireroom. After the atomizer assembly has been inserted into the burner head and locked in place, push the burner assembly into the furnace until the distance piece indicates that the burner is in the proper position. The distance piece must be pushed in far enough to keep the oil from hitting the brickwork, but not so far that it will allow air to enter the furnace without mixing with the oil. The correct position of the distance piece depends upon the number of burners in use and on the size of the sprayer plates in use. Slight adjustments in the position of the burner assembly may be made later, after the burner has been lighted off. After positioning the burner assembly, open the burner root valve, which permits fuel oil to flow from the burner manifold to the burner. Before opening this valve, be sure that the fuel oil pressure at the manifold is at least 250 psi (or, for return-flow burners, the pressure specified by the manufacturer). At lower fuel oil pressures, other burners already lighted-off may be extinguished as oil suddenly spurts from the manifold to the burner lighting off. This sets up the perfect situation for a very dangerous flareback. Oil continues to spray out from the extinguished burners; when this oil hits the hot brickwork in the furnace, a flareback is likely to result.

USMMA GMATS

71

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

After opening the burner root valve, open the air register to the correct position. Then crack open the atomizer valve that is located in the burner head. This atomizer valve allows fuel oil to flow through the burner head, through the atomizer valve, you may have to flip the air register shut for a moment to allow the flame from other burners to reach the burner you are cutting in. After you have cut in a burner, look through the peepholes at the boiler front and check the functioning of the boiler. Check for correct atomization of the oil. Be sure the flame is near the diffuser. Be sure the cone of atomized oil is as near the burner opening as it can be without actually hitting the refractories. As you operate the burners, watch the steam pressure gage and make whatever adjustments or changes are required to keep the steam pressure constant. Small changes in steam demand can be met by adjusting the micrometer valve on the burner manifold and thus controlling the oil pressure to the burners. To meet larger changes in steam demand you will have to cut in or secure burners or change the size of the sprayer plates. To cut out a burner, close the atomizer valve, close the air register, and retract the distance piece. NOTE: On some boilers, a very slight cracking of the air register is permitted when a burner is cut out. Follow the instructions given in the manufacturers technical manual for the boiler. When a burner has been cut out, close the burner root valve on the manifold and withdraw the atomizer assembly. If the burner is going to be used again almost immediately as, for example, when the ship is maneuvering and there are rapid changes in steam demand the burner root valve may be left open and the atomizer assembly may be left in place. But the normal procedure is to close the root valve and withdraw the atomizer. Atomizers should be changed at least once each watch, and more often if they appear to be dirty or clogged. As soon as you remove an atomizer assembly, drain all the oil out of it and then blow through it with steam. Most firerooms have steam brackets or steam lines rigged for this purpose. Before blowing through the atomizer, remove the tip, the sprayer plate, and the nozzle. Put these parts to soak in a pan of kerosene or diesel oil. After the carbon has softened up, clean and polish the tip, the sprayer plate, and the nozzle. At least once each watch, pole through the burner drain holes with a metal rod to make sure they are free of oil, carbon, and other material.

USMMA GMATS

72

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

USMMA GMATS

73

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

USMMA GMATS

74

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

USMMA GMATS

75

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

CONDENSER

USMMA GMATS

76

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

AIR EJECTOR

USMMA GMATS

77

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

AIR EJECTOR SYSTEM

USMMA GMATS

78

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

TWO STAGE AIR EJECTOR FLOW DIAGRAM SHOWING INTER & AFTER CONDENSERS AND GLAND EXHAUST CONDENSER

USMMA GMATS

79

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

DEAERATOR (D.C.) FEEDWATER HEATER

USMMA GMATS

80

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

DRUM INTERNALS CYCLONE SEPARATORS


USMMA GMATS 81 11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

SOOTBLOWERS Devices used to clean the fireside of the heat transfer surface. Can be fixed in place or retractable. Use steam or air as blowing medium

STANDARD GOOSNECK SOOTBLOWER HEAD

USMMA GMATS

82

11/3/2006

QMED

STEAM SYSTEMS

SOOTBLOWERS

USMMA GMATS

83

11/3/2006

QMED

FUELS SYSTEMS

FUEL MAKE-UP FUEL MAKE-UP


CRUDE OIL OR CRUDE - Naturally occurring material found in the ground from the surface to more than 4 miles down. Discovered all over the world It is formed by the decomposition of marine animal and vegetable organic matter involving bacterial, heat, pressure and time. It is found between bedrock and caprock. No two crude oils are alike. There is a wide range of colors, smells and viscosities. There are three main groups Paraffins (also known as alkenes) both straight and branched chains Napthenes (also known as cycloparaffins) Aromatics/asphaltenes Arabian Light and North Sea Crude Contain a high proportion of low molecular weight hydrocarbons give high yields of petroleum gases, gasoline, kerosene, and JP and diesel fuel Libyan Crude High yields of middle distillates and, as it is highly paraffiinic, a high yield of paraffin wax. Venezuelan Crude Highly aromatic/asphaltene has very high residue and bitumen yield

USMMA-GMATS

11/3/2006

QMED

FUELS SYSTEMS

During the various stages and issues of drafts of the proposed British Standard Specification for marine fuels, finally issued at the end of 1982, ISO and CIMAC were kept fully informed of the progress before the final draft was agreed. It became apparent that the CIMAC Fuel Working Group, mainly representing diesel engine manufacturers worldwide, could not fully accept the draft BS Specification. Their views on this project were made known to the technical press in April 1982. The Group Chairman contended that the CIMAC minimum requirements for diesel engine fuels were not included in the draft British Standard. The minimum requirement was to ensure that when fuel quality deteriorated to the extent of causing engine operational difficulties there was at least one intermediate fuel suitable for older type engines (also presumably suitable for fuel-critical, medium and high-speed, trunk-piston engines). It was also stated that the Working Group. would incorporate CIMACs minimum requirements. These modified requirements would, in due course, form the basis of the projected International Standard. Engine builders continue to their own recommendations for residual fuels for the various engines; they design and build, as they consider that this is in the ship owners best interest. It is contended by CIMAC that the engine builders internal fuel specifications represent the legal basis for trouble-free engine operation and that in the near future these builders specifications would be based on the CIMAC recommendations (after April, 1982). In view of all of the variable factors involved it would seem to this writer to be virtually impossible for an engine builder, even with wide experience of burning various grades of residual fuel, under all operating conditions, to draft a meaningful specification for residual fuels which could be burned to satisfactorily in his engines, of various types, ages and mechanical conditions, while at the same time insuring that such fuels could be available worldwide. Whether all CIMAC requirements will be incorporated into the ISO Specifications, when finalized remains to be seen, as even the final draft standard has not yet been officially released. In the meantime the current CIMAC requirements or specification for the intermediate Fuel Oils dated January 1982 are reproduced in Table 1 for guidance. Similarly, draft ISO Standard grades are included, with the corresponding CIMAC and BS Grades where applicable. This appears to be somewhat premature, as no official information on ISO Standard Grades, even in draft form, has been published to date. Consequently, the author feels unable to comment upon draft ISO Grades as outlined. However, the CIMAC Specification confirms that in both CIMAC and ISO Specifications the kinematic viscosity will be determined at 100C, instead of 80as in BS-MA100. This will add to the confusion on fuel viscosities and supports the view that it would be helpful to determine the viscosity at two different temperatures. CIMAC lists the twelve Intermediate grades for use in diesel engines, but only three grades, CIMAC-3, CIMAC-6 and CIMAC-10, are considered to be sufficient for most circumstances and these should be given preference and used exclusively if possible. For ready reference, these three grades are printed in bold type in Table 1

USMMA-GMATS

11/3/2006

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FUELS SYSTEMS

CIMAC-3 is identical to BS Grade M4 except that the Conradson carbon residue to 10% in place of 14% and the maximum vanadium content at 150PPM (mg/kg) in place of 300. CIMAC-6 is identical to BS Grade M6, except that the CCR is limited to 15% max in place of 20%, the ash content 0.10% against 0.15% and the vanadium content 200ppm instead of 500ppm. These are significant reductions and the two CIMAC Grades represent higher-quality fuels. CIMAC-10 is, however, identical to BS Grade M8. It is considered to be important that, when available, the engine builders fuel specification limits should not be exceeded. It would seem to be advisable for a shipowner to ensure that the engine builders fuel requirements are met when ordering bunkers by stipulating acceptable limits to the various properties of a fuel, in line with the builders limits. If the fuel supplier accepts these limits as a condition of purchase, then it becomes a legally binding contract. This could, of course, raise problems of availability in some areas. It might also increase the price of fuel locally of it has to be blended specially to meet a shipowners requirements. CIMAC advise that, until the ISO Specification is issued, most engine builders have agreed to publish their own company specifications based upon the CIMAC recommendations, but with slight alterations and additions to suit their engine designs. The individual company fuel specifications are said to represent the basis for trouble-free engine operations. This appears to put a lot of responsibility on the shoulders of the engine builders. Although specialists in their own field, they cannot be expected to be specialists in fuel technology. Only time and operating experience, particularly with poor-quality fuels, will prove whether this is the correct approach. With all the variables involved, it is virtually impossible to draw up a fuel specification covering all residual fuels, refined by various methods from the many different types of crude available, together with all the types of engine design, mechanical condition, efficiency of fuel heating and treatment under various operating conditions, while still ensuring a trouble-free operation at an acceptable price and equally important, availability of a fuel worldwide. It is apparent that drawing up a meaningful fuel specification is most difficult and that the best possible compromise should be reached

USMMA-GMATS

11/3/2006

QMED

FUEL OIL SYSTEMS

TABLE 1 - INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON COMBUSTION ENGINES (CIMAC) REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFICATIONS OF INTERMEDIATE FUELS, APRIL 1982 - (GRADES IN BOLD TYPE ARE RECOMMENDED BY CIMAC)
CIMAC classification ISO Draft Standard* Class BS-MA100 Old viscosity designation Density at 15C (g/ml) (max.) Kinematic Viscosity At 40 C (cSt) (max.) Kinematic Viscosity At 100 C (cSt) (max.) Kinematic Viscosity At 50 C(Approx.) (cSt) (max.) Redwood 1 Viscosity 100FApprox (s) (max) PM closed flash point (min.) Pour Point (upper) (C) 1 December 31 March (max) 1 April 30 November (max) Ramsbottom carbon residue (%mass)(max.) Conradson Carbon residue (%mass)(max.) Ash Content (%mass)(max.) Water Content (%mass)(max.) Sulfur Content (%mass)(max.) Vanadium Content (ppm (mg/kg)) (max.) Aluminum Content ppm (mg/kg)) (max.) 1 DM10C M3 0.920 14.0 2 RM10C M4 IF40 0.991 10 40 80 60 0 6 2.5 0.05 0.30 2.0 100 30 300 60 24 24 14 0.10 0.50 3.5 300 30 3 RM10B IF40 0.991 10 40 300 60 24 24 10 0.10 0.50 3.5 150 30 4 RM10A IF40 0.970 10 40 300 60 0 6 10 0.10 0.50 3.5 150 30 5 RM15D M5 IF80 0.991 15 80 600 60 30 30 14 0.10 0.80 4.0 350 30 6 RM25E IF180 0.991 25 180 1500 60 30 30 15 0.10 1.0 5.0 200 30 7 RM-25F M6 IF180 0.991 25 180 1500 60 30 30 20 0.15 1.0 5.0 500 30 8 RM35H M7 IF380 0.991 9 RM35K M10 IF380 10 RM45M M8 IF500 0.991 45 500 5000 60 30 30 22 0.20 1.0 5.0 600 30 11 RM45K M11 IF500 12 RM55H M9 0.991 45 700 5000 60 30 30 22 0.20 1.0 5.0 600 30 45 700 7000 60 30 30 22 0.20 1.0 5.0 600 30

35 300 3000 60 30 30 22 0.20 1.0 5.0 600 30

* ISO Specification in draft stage only. Figures may be altered when Specification finalized. Kinematic viscosity as 50C not included in CIMAC Specification but included for convenience. Suitable test for determining aluminum content us under preparation. (1) Total Existing sediment considered: suitable ISO test method is being developed. (2) Ignition quality considered important, but no suitable test method currently available.

USMMA-GMATS

11/3/2006

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FUEL OIL SYSTEMS

TABLE 2 - PROPERTIES OF TYPICAL STRAIGHT-RUN, ALL-DISTILLATE MARINE DIESEL FUELS Property Middle East Venezuela North America SG (relative density) at 15C 0.850 0.862 0.860 Redwood 1 viscosity at 100 F (38C) (s) 38 46 44.5 Kinematic Viscosity at 40C (cSt) 4.72 7.3 6.82 PM closed flash point (F,C) 210/98.9 180/82.2 1180/82.2 Pour point (F, C) 15/-9.4 6/-15 46/7.8 Cloud point (F, C) 50/10 Cetane Number 54 38 43 Diesel Index 56 43 Conradson carbon residue (% mass) NEG. NIL 0.09 Distillation: initial boiling point (C) 228 201 240 50% recovered at (C) 300 314 290 final boiling point (C) 355 above 380 390 Ash content (% mass) neg. nil. 0.05 Sediment content neg nil. neg. Sulfur content (%mass) 1.3 0.92 0.20 Asphaltene content (%mass) nil nil nil Vanadium content (ppm) nil nil 2 Sodium content (ppm) nil nil 1 Gross calorific value (Btu/lb,MJ,kg) 19 380/45.6 19 380/45.1 19 500/45.3

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11/3/2006

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FUELS SYSTEMS

Fuels Specification of marine fuels


Warning The handling and used of fuels as specified in this International Standard may be hazardous, if suitable precautions are not observed. This International Standard dies not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1. Scope This International Standard specifies the requirements for petroleum fuels for use in marine equipment designers and for suppliers and purchase of marine fuels. Notes 1. For the purpose of this International Standard, the term petroleum is used to include oil form tar sands and from shale. 2. Requirements for gas turbine fuels used in marine applications are given in ISO 4261. This International Standard set out the required properties of the fuels at the time and place of custody transfer. This International Standard describes four categories of distillate fuel, one of which is for diesel engines for emergency purpose. It also describes fifteen categories of fuel containing residual components, two of which are specified without a density limit. This International Standard takes into account the international requirements for flash point as given by the International Maritime Organization (see reference 1 in Annex F). Information on limitations of flash point, when applied to residual fuel oil grades as specified in table 2, is given in Annex E. The categories of fuel have been classified in this International Standard in accordance with ISO 8216-1. This International Standard does not imply the availability of all the categories of fuel at all ports. 2. Normative References The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this International Standard. At the time of publication the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most editions of the standards indicated below. Members of IEC and ISO maintain registers of current valid International Standard. ISO 91-1:1992, Petroleum measurement tables Part 1: Tables based on reference temperatures of 15C of 60F. ISO 2719:1988, Petroleum products and lubricants Determination of flash point Pensky-Martens closed cup method.

USMMA-GMATS

11/3/2006

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FUELS SYSTEMS

ISO 3015:1992, Petroleum products Determination of cloud point ISO 3016:1994, Petroleum products Determination of pour point ISO 3104:1994, Petroleum products Transparent and opaque liquids Determination of kinematic viscosity and calculations of dynamic viscosity ISO 3170:1988, Petroleum liquids Manual sampling ISO 3171:1988, Petroleum liquids Automatic pipeline sampling ISO 3675:1993, Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products Laboratory determination of density or relative density Hydrometer method ISO 3733:1), Petroleum products and bituminous materials - Determination of water Distillation method ISO 3735:1975, Crude petroleum and fuel oils - Determination of sediment Extraction method ISO 4259:1992, Petroleum products Determination and application of precision data in relation to methods of test ISO 4261:1993, Petroleum products Fuels (class F) Specification of gas turbine fuels for industrial and marine applications ISO 4264:1995, Petroleum products Calculation of cetane index of middle-distillate fuels by the four variable equation ISO 5165:1992, Diesel fuels - Determination of ignition quality Cetane method ISO 6245:1993, Petroleum products Determination of ash ISO 8216-1:1996, Petroleum products Fuels (class F) Classification Part 1: Categories of marine fuels. ISO 8754:1992, Petroleum products Determination of sulfur content Energydispersive X-ray fluorescence method ISO 10307-1:1993, Petroleum products Total sediment in residual fuel oils Part 1: Determination by hot filtration ISO 10307-2:1993, Petroleum products Total sediment in residual fuel oils Part 2: Determination using standard procedures for ageing ISO 10370:1993, Petroleum products Determination of carbon residue Micro method ISO 10478:1994, Petroleum products Determination of aluminum and silicon in fuel oils Inductively coupled plasma emission and atomic absorption spectroscopy methods. ISO 12182 2), Crude petroleum and petroleum products Determination of denity Oscillating U-tube method ISO 14597 - 2), Petroleum products Determination of vanadium and nickel in liquid fuels Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence method.

1) To be published. (Revision of ISO 3733:1976) 2) To be published

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3. Sampling The sampling of petroleum fuels for analysis, for the purposes of this International Standard, shall be carried out in accordance with the procedures given in ISO 3170, ISO 3171 or an equivalent national standard 4. General requirements 4.1. The fuels shall be blends of hydrocarbons derived from petroleum refining. This shall not preclude the incorporation of small amounts of additives intended to improve some aspects of performance. The fuels shall be free from inorganic acid. Note 3 The fuel should not include and added substance or chemical waste which - Jeopardizes the safety of ships or adversely affects the performance of the machinery or - Is harmful to personnel; or - Contributes overall to additional air pollution. 4.2. The properties of the fuels shall not exceed the maximum values nor be less than the minimum values specified in Tables 1 and 2, when tested by the methods referred therein. 4.3. The presence of abrasive catalyst fines is controlled by measurement of content of aluminum plus silicon; further information on catalyst fines is given in Annex D. 5. Determination of other properties 5.1. Equations for calculating the gross and net specific energies of fuels are given in Appendix A, if required 5.2. It has not been possible to reach agreement on a direct method of handling ignition quality in a way that would enable this parameter to be included in the mandatory part of this International Standard. It is nevertheless recognized that a measure of ignition quality control already exists via density and viscosity within the mandatory standard. For engines and/or applications where ignition quality is known to be particularly critical, Annex B provides a basis for suppliers and purchasers of marine bunker fuels to agree on acceptable ignition quality characteristics. 5.3. Approximate conversions of viscosity measurements to temperatures different to 100C are
given in Annex C.

6. Test methods 6.1. General - The requirements in tables 1 and 2 shall be determined by use of the latest edition of the test methods cited therein. 6.2. Appearance - Visually inspect the sample in good light, free from glare and shadow, at a temperature between 10C and 25C. It shall appear clear and bright. 6.3. Density - When density is determined in accordance with ISO 3675, The hydrometer readings obtained at ambient temperature on distillate fuels, and at elevated temperatures of between 50C and 60C on fuels containing residual components, shall be converted to results at 15C using table 53B of ISO 91-1, When density is determined in accordance with ISO 12185, an appropriate correction for glass expansion coefficient shall be applied to readings obtained by digital density analyzer at any temperature other than 15C, before conversion and application of table 538 of ISO91-1. 6.4. Flash point - The flash point for all categories is determined in accordance with ISO 2719.
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NOTE 4 - For category DMX, alternative closed-cup methods may be agreed between supplier and user. 6.5. Cloud point - The cloud point is applicable only to category DMX and shall be determined in accordance with ISO 3015. 6.6. Sulfur content - The reference test for compliance with this International Standard is given in ISO 8754. In some geographical areas, other methods may be specified by national authorities for environmental control, NOTE 5 - In the event of a dispute between supplier and receiver concerning sulfur content, both parties should agree, prior to testing, upon a common sulfur calibration standard, certified by a responsible standards organization, 6.7. Cetane number - The cetane numbers of categories DMX, DMA, and DMB shall be determined in accordance with IS05165. NOTE 6 - If an engine is not available to carry out this determination, ISO 4264 may be used for determination by calculation, with the same limiting values. 6.8. Aluminum and silicon - These elements shall be determined in accordance with ISO 10478, using either atomic absorption spectroscopy or inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. The sum of the two elements shall be reported. 6.9. Total sediment potential - The method given in ISO 10307-2 for determination of potential sediment (Procedure A) shall be the reference method. NOTE 7 - The method for- determination of accelerated sediment (Procedure B) in the same International Standard may be used for quality control purposes. 7. Precision and interpretation of test results 7.1 General - The test methods specified in clause 6 all contain a statement of precision (repeatability and reproducibility). Attention is drawn to ISO 4259:1992, clauses 9 and 10, which cover the use of precision data in the interpretation of test results, and this method shall be used in cases of dispute. 7.2 Cloud point results - For cloud point, the testing margin described in ISO 4259:1992, 8.2 shall not apply. If a single test result is above -16C, the procedure specified in ISO 4259, 1992, clause 9 shall apply.

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Table 1 - REQUIREMENTS FOR MARINE DISTILLATE FUELS


Characteristic Appearance Density at 15C, kg/M3 Viscosity at 40 OC, mm2/s 2) Limit Category ISO-FDMX DMA DMB DMC Visual max. 1) 890,0 900,0 920,0 1,40 5.50 43 1,50 6,00 60 11,0 60 14,0 60 Test method reference See 6.2 ISO 3675 or ISO 12185 (see also 6.3) IS03104 IS03104 ISO 2719 (see also 6.4)

Flash point, C Pour point (upper), C 3) - winter quality max. -6 0 0 IS03016 - summer quality max. 0 6 6 IS03016 4) Cloud point, C max. -16 ISO 3015 (see also 6.5) Sulfur, % (m/m) max. 1'0 1.5 2,0 2,0 ISO 8754 (see also 6.6) Cetane number min. 45 40 35 ISO 5165 (see also 6.7) 0,30 max. 0,30 Carbon residue [micro method, IS010370 10 % (V/V) distillation bottoms], % (m/m) IS010370 2,50 0,30 Carbon residue (micro method),, max. % (m/m) Ash, % (m/m) max. 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,05 IS06245 Sediment. % (m/m) max, 0,07 ISO3735 Total existent sediment, % (m/m) max. 0,10 IS010307-1 Water, % (V/V) max. 0,3 0,3 IS03733 Vanadium, mg/kq max. 10 IS014597 Aluminum plus silicon, mg/kg max. 25 ISO 10478 (see also 6.8) 1) In some geographical areas there may be a maximum limit. 2) 1 mm2/s = 1 cSt 3) Purchasers should ensure that this pour point is suitable for the equipment on board, especially if the vessel operates in both the northern and southern hemispheres. 4) This fuel is suitable for use without heating at ambient temperatures down to -15C.

min. max. min.

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Table 2 - REQUIREMENTS FOR MARINE RESIDUAL FUELS


Characteristic
Density at 15C, kg/m3 Kinematic viscosity 100C mm2/s1 Flash point C Pour point (upper), C2) - winter quality - surnmer quality Carbon residue, % (m/m) Ash, % (m/m) Water. % (V/V) Sulfur, % (m/m Vanadium, mg/kg Aluminum plus silicon, mg/kg Total sediment, potential, % (m/m) at

Category ISO-FTest method Limit RMA RMB RMC RMD RME RMF RMG RMH RMK RMH RMK RML RMH RMK RML reference
10 10 10 15 25 25 35 35 35 46 45 45 55 59 55 max max min. max max max max. max. max max. rnax. max. 150 80 0,10 10 0,10 0,5 3,5 300 975,0 981,0 10,0 60 0 6 14 985,0 15,0 60 24 24 14 0,10 0,8 4,0 350 80 0,10 200 80 0,10 991,0 25,0 60 30 30 15 20 0,10 0,15 1,0 5,0 500 300 80 0,10 18 0,15 991,0 35,0 60 30 30 22 0,20 1,0 5,0 600 22 0,20 1,0 5,0 600 08 0,10 1010,0 991,0 1010,0 45,0 60 30 30 22 0,20 1,0 5,0 600 80 0,10 991,0 1010,0 55,0 60 30 30 ISO 3675 or ISO 12185 (see also 6.3) ISO 3104 ISO 2719 (see also 6-4) ISO 3016 ISO 3016 ISO 10370 ISO 6245 ISO 3733 ISO 8754 (see also (5,6) ISO 14597 ISO 10478 (see also 6.8) ISO10307-2 (see also 6.9)

1) Annex C gives a brief viscosity/temperature table, for information purposes only. 1mm2/s = 1 cSt. 2) Purchasers should ensure that this pour point is suitable for the equipment on board especially if the vessel operates in both the northern and southern hemispheres.

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ANNEX A (informative) Specific energy where A.1 Specific energy is not controlled in the manufacture of fuel except in a secondary manner by the specification of other properties. Specific energy, in megajoules per kilogram, can be calculated with a degree of accuracy acceptable for normal purposes from the equations given below. Specific energy (gross), QG = (52,190 - 8,802P2104) x x [1 - 0,01 (x +y + s)] + 9,420 (0,01s) Specific energy (net), QG = (46,704 - 8,802p210-6 + 3,167pl 0-3) x x [1 - 0,01 (x +y + s)] + 0,01 (9,420s - 2,449x) p x y s is the density at 15C. in kilograms per cubic meter; is the water content, expressed as a percentage by mass; is the ash content, expressed as a percentage by mass; is the sulfur content, expressed as a percentage by mass.

A.2 Alternatively, for the purposes of rapid estimation, the gross and net specific energies may be conveniently read off from figures A. 1 and A.2, which have been derived from the equations given in clause A. 1. However, the values obtained may be only approximate.

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FIGURE A.1 GROSS SPECIFIC ENERGY, IN MEGAJOULES PER KILOGRAM OF MARINE FUELS NOTES 1. To correct fir ash and water, subtract 0,01QG (% ash + %water) from gross specific energy (QG) read from this graph. 2. Values read from this figure may no agree exactly with the calculated values (see clause A.2) and should be considered as approximate

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FIGURE A.2 NET SPECIFIC ENERGY, IN MEGAJOULES PER KILOGRAM OF MARINE FUELS NOTES 1. To correct for ash and water, subtract 0,01QN (% ash + %water) from net specific energy (QN) read from this graph. 2. Values read from this figure may no agree exactly with the calculated values (see clause A.2) and should be considered as approximate

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ANNEX B (informative) Ignition quality B.1 Application - Ignition performance requirements of residual fuels in marine diesel engines are primarily determined by engine type and, more significantly, by engine operating conditions. Fuel factors influence ignition characteristics to a much lesser extent. For this reason no where general limits for ignition quality can be applied, since a value which may be problematical to one engine under adverse conditions may perform quite satisfactorily in many other instances. If required, further guidance on acceptable ignition quality values should be obtained from the engine manufacturer. B.2 Use of the nomogram - The extension of a straight line connecting the viscosity and the density of a fuel oil can be used to give either its calculated ignition index (CII, see reference [3] in annex F) or calculated carbon aromaticity index (CCAI, see reference [4] in annex F) value, which allow ranking of its ignition performance. These values can also be calculated using the following equations. CII = (270,795 + 0,103 8T) - 0,254 565p + + 23,708 lg [lg (v + 0,7) and CCAI = p 81 141 lg [lg (v + 0, 85)]-

T + 273 - 483 lg 323 T is the temperature, in degrees Celsius, at which the kinematic viscosity is determined; is the kinematic viscosity, in square millimeters per second; is the densfty at 15 "C, in kilograms per cubic meter.

v p

NOTES 8) In this International Standard, marine distillate categories DMX, DMA and DMB (see table 1) have a minimum specified cotene number (see ISO 5165). It an estimation of the actual ignition quality of distillate fuels specified in table 1 is required. it is suggested that ISO 4264 may provide a better approximation of ignition quality Than the CCA1 or C11 parameters, which were primarily developed to be used for residual fuels of the type specified in table 2. 9) Work is continuing in a number of countries to identify alternative techniques for determining the overall combustion behavior of residual fuels. 10) lg is the logarithm to base 10.

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FIGURE B.1 NOMOGRAM FOR DERIVING CCAI AND CII

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ANNEX - C (informative) Viscosity conversions

This international Standard specifies limiting values of kinematic viscosity at 100C for the fuel categories contained in table 2. In some cases kinematic viscosity may be measured or quoted at other temperatures, and table C. I below gives approximate relationships.

The data should be used with caution, firstly since the precision of measurements at temperatures other than 100 OC may differ, and secondly because the variability of composition of residual fuels may cause variations in viscosity temperature relationships.

Table C.1 VISCOSITY ESTIMATED FROM THOSE MEASURE AT 100C Kinematic viscosity, mm2/s 1) Measured at 100C Approximate estimation at 40C 50C 80C 130C 10.0 80 50 17 5.5 15.0 170 100 28 7.5 25.0 425 225 50 11.0 35.0 780 390 75 14.5 45.0 1240 585 105 17.5 55.0 1790 810 130 20.5 2 1) 1 mm /s = 1 cSt.

ANNEX - D (imformaive) Catalyst fines

The main source of potentially abrasive particulates in bunker fuels is catalyst fines. The selected control parameter, aluminum plus silicon, with limit values for all fuels in table 2 and category DMC in table 1, is intended to limit catalyst fines contamination to a level that will ensure minimum risk or abrasive wear, given that adequate fuel pretreatment is carried out. These are significant variations from refinery to refinery in the proportions of the aluminum and the silicon compounds that comprise catalyst fines. The combined aluminum and silicon limit value of 80 mg/kg is intended, therefore, to ensure that

catalyst contamination would be no higher on average than would have been implied by the limit of 30 mg/kg, previously proposed for aluminum only, thus reflecting such variations. The aluminum plus silicon requirement of 80 mg/kg maximum is therefore to be used in place of, not in combination with, a 30 mg/kg aluminum only limit. The lower limit for aluminum plus silicon applied to category DMC (25 mg/kg) is based in the proportion of residual fuel that may be expected to be part of this product

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ANNEX E (informative) Flash point - Residual fuel oils

Whilst flash point is a valid indicator of the fire hazard posed by residual fuel oil, information is available which shows that it is not a reliable indicator of the flammability conditions that can exist within the headspaces of tanks containing such fuel oils. This means that residual fuel oil can have the potential to produce a flammable atmosphere in the tank headspace, even when stored at a temperature below the measured flash point.

Consequently residual fuel oils should be considered to be potentially hazardous and" capable of producing light hydrocarbons which could result in tank headspace atmospheres being near to, or within, the flammable range. Appropriate precautions are necessary therefore to ensure the safety of people and property. Further information and advice on precautionary measures are given in references [5] and [6] in annex F.

ANNEX F (informative) Bibliography (1) International Maritime Organization (IMO), Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) 1974, Amendment 1, Chapter II-2, Regulation 15. (2) ISO 8216-0:1986, Petroleum products Fuels 151 (class F) - Classification Part 0: General. (3) BARNES G.K, Liddy J.P. and MARSHALL E.G., The Ignition Quality of Residual Fuels, CIMAC paper 25, Warsaw, June 1987. (4) NEWBERY P.J., DAVIES T.A.C. and CHOMSE K.M. Heavier Residual Fuels

for Marine Diesel Engines, 6th International Motorship Conference, London, March 1984. (5) The Flammability Hazards associated with the Handling, Storage and Carriage of Residual Fuel Oil. Published by the Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF), December 1989. (6) International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT), Published by the International Chamber of Shipping.

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Lower Heating value, (LHV) = 18500 BTU per Pound Bunker C Fuel Oil Characteristics Chemical Composition (Percent by Weight)

Higher Heating value, (HHV) = 19300 BTU per Pound Bunker C Fuel Oil Characteristics Chemical Composition (Percent by Weight)

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AMOUNT BY WEIGHT AND VOLUME OF AIR REQUIRED AND FLUE GAS PRODUCED WHEN 1LB OF FUEL IS BURNED.

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Heavy Fuel Oil


GUIDING FUEL OIL SPECIFICATIONS (MAXIMUM VALUES)

Density at 15 C

kg/m3 cSt cSt

991* 55 700

Kinematic viscosity
At 100 C At 50 C

Flash Point Pour Point Carbon residue Ash Total sediment after ageing Water Sulfur Vanadium Aluminum + Silicon
Equal to ISO 8217/CIMAC H55

C C %(m/m) %(m/m) %(m/m) %(v/v) %(m/m) mg/kg mg/kg

>60 30 22 0.15 0.10 1.0 5.0 600 80

1010 provided automatic modern clarifiers are installed

MAN B&W

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DIESEL ENGINE RESIDUAL FUEL OIL AND DIESEL OIL SERVICE SYSTEM

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FUEL TREATMENT AND SERVICE SYSTEM

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ELECTRO-MOTIVE DIVISION, G-M, UNIT INJECTOR DIESEL SHIP

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FUEL SYSTEM FOR SULZER RND.M ENGINES (SULZER DRAWING) DIESEL ENGINE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. MAIN ENGINE FUEL INJECTION PUMP ON MAIN ENGINE FUEL OIL BOOSTER PUMP STEAM FUEL END-HEATER SUCTION FILTER, HEATABLE DUPLEX FILTER, HEATABLE MIXING TANK, HEATABLE AND INSULTAED HEAVY OIL SETTLING TANK, HEATABLE 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. HEAVY OIL DAILY TANKS, HEAT ABLE DIESEL OIL DAY TANK CONDENSATION WATER TRAP FUEL OIL FLOW METER THREE-WAY VALVE PNEUMATIC OR ELECTRIC OPERATED SPRING-LOADED ADJUSTABLE RELIEF VALVE ON MAIN ENGINE PRESSURE GAUGE

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STRAIGHT MECHANICAL FUEL OIL SYSTEM- STEAM SHIP

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STRAIGHT MECHANICAL ATOMIZER

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MECHANICAL ATOMIZER (BABCOCK & WILCOX) STEAM

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STEAM ATOMIZER

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STEAM ATOMIZED FUEL OIL SYSTEM

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RETURN FLOW FUEL OIL SYSTEM

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RETURN FLOW ATOMIZER STEAM

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AIR REGISTER (TODD)

AIR REGISTER, FURNACE VIEW (TODD)

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BURNER ASSEMBLY

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STEAM SPRAYER PLATE BABCOCK & WILCOX - RACER

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MECHANICAL SPRAYER PLATE

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STEAM ATOMIZER (COHEN)

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ATOMIZER TIP PROJECTION, BABCOCK & WILCOX BURNER

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CUTAWAY VIEW OF A DISK-TYPE FUEL OIL METER

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FUEL OIL VENT ASSEMBLY

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TANK VENT OUTLET

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FUEL OIL MANIFOLD VALVE MANIFOLD SHOWING CUTAWAY VIEW OF THE VALVES AND TYPICAL COMBINATION OF SUCTION DISCHARGE VALVES

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FUEL OIL HEATER

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FUEL OIL TRANSFER MANIFOLD

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DIESEL FUEL-OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


A. CENTRIFUGES - There is often confusion between the maximum throughput or rated capacity of a centrifuge and the recommended service capacity. The rated capacity gives the maximum volume of fuel that can be passed through the machine. This is usually based on the treatment of light distillate fuel at ambient temperature. The recommended service capacity is the amount that can be passed through the machine at maximum separating efficiency. This is based essentially upon the dynamic viscosity of the fuel at the separation temperature. The maximum separation temperature, irrespective of viscosity, has an upper limit of 98C. Above this temperature there is a risk of the water seal being lost due to the formation of steam bubbles.

Based upon centrifuge tests with fuels varying viscosity from marine diesel oil (taken as 85 sec Redwood 1 at 100F or 14 cS at 40C) to the most viscous fuel likely to be sold for marine bunkers, namely, 6000 sec Redwood 1 at 100F or approximately 600 cS at 50C, the maximum throughput capacities for the different viscosities are recommended by the various purifier manufacturers. For Bunker C fuels and those more viscous, a maximum separation temperature of 98C is recommended. To select a centrifuge that will provide maximum separating efficiency, the rated capacity of the centrifuge must be divided by a factor that is a function of the fuel viscosity. For fuel viscosities of 180, 380, and 600 cSt, the rated centrifuge capacity is divided by 3.3, 4.0, and 6.7, respectively, to determine the recommended service capacity for maximum separating efficiency. That is, the more viscous the fuel, the lower the recommended throughput rate and the larger the centrifuge required. The difference in specific gravity between the fuel being processed and water, either fresh or salt, also influences the separation efficiency. Straight-run residual fuels seldom have a specific gravity that exceeds about 0.96, whereas the specific gravity of cracked residual fuels can exceed unity. The specific gravity of most fuels is inversely proportional to the temperature; however, the specific gravity of water does not have a straight-line relationship with temperature. The maximum difference between the specific gravities of oil and water occurs at about 85C, and is slightly less at 98C. From a specific gravity point of view, there is no advantage in heating the fuel above about 85C. However, by increasing the temperature to 98C, there is a marked reduction in the viscosity of the fuel, which permits a more effective separation of sludge and solids. Centrifuge manufacturers' generally agree that to effectively separate water and solids from high specific gravity, high viscosity residual fuels, the throughput must be substantially less than that appropriate for less-dense, less-viscous fuels. For engines that are intended to be operated on residual fuel, it is recommended that the centrifuge capacity be designed to treat fuels characterized as 600 cSt viscosity at 50C with a maximum specific gravity of 0.991 and up to 5% water and possibly 2% sludge. A centrifuge having this capacity should be able to treat the poorest fuels likely to be offered as diesel engine fuels.

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Two properly sized, correctly operated, self-cleaning centrifuges are considered necessary to provide a reliable fuel-treatment system. Most engine warranties become invalid if centrifuges are not used. To establish and maintain effective separator procedures, several fundamental principles should be noted: The centrifuge is the first major stage of fuel treatment. To treat contaminated fuel oils, supplementary systems, in addition to the centrifuges, are required. These supplementary systems can consist of fine filtration, demulsifier chemicals, and homogenizer emulsifiers. Each centrifuge should be supplied with all parts necessary to operate as a purifier and as a clarifier as well as complete spares and a complete set of tools. The single centrifuge flow rate (for series operation) or the combined centrifuge flow rate (for parallel operation) must not exceed the engine demand by more than 10%. All residual fuel oil centrifuges should be on-line and operated continuously. This increases the effective fuel treatment time and further reduces contaminants. To properly adjust and operate a centrifuge, the following residual fuel oil properties must be known: - viscosity, - specific gravity (or density), - compatibility of fuel oil, - water content, - mash content (bottom sediment content is an alternative), and - catalyst fines content (aluminum content is an alternative). This information can be used to make decisions on fuel treatment options. When fuel is transferred to a settling tank from a different source, a specific gravity check of the settling tank should be made and the centrifuge gravity disk should be checked to ensure that it is correct. The centrifuge is the foundation of the total shipboard fuel treatment system. Its efficient operation is critical to the safety and reliability of the engines. Its operation must be thoroughly understood so that the shipboard engineers can immediately troubleshoot fuel-oil problems when they occur. Some conditions that can cause centrifuge mal-operation include the following: Incorrect fuel handling before the separator, such as: improper barge blending, incompatible fuels, and emulsified fuels. Improper flow, such as: varying flow rates, excessive flow rate, or flow with varying densities. Improper temperature, such as: varying temperatures or too low a temperature. Incorrect positioning of the water/oil interface, thereby inhibiting a uniform flow of oil through all disks; this is usually caused by using an improper gravity disk. A gravity disk establishes the separation zone between the clean fuel and the water according to fuel temperature and density. As fuel characteristics change, the gravity disk must be changed to control the water-fuel separation zone for maximum efficiency.

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Overloading the centrifuge with an accumulation of sludge which is usually caused by extended de-sludging intervals, or incompatible residual fuel oils.

The centrifuge valving is very important for proper start-up, to prevent contamination and for effective operation. Immediately before the centrifuges, valving should be provided that permits re-circulation back to the settling tanks to provide settling tank mixture for heating in the event that the heating coils in the settling tank are inoperative. Downstream of the centrifuges, the valving should permit re-circulation back to the settling tanks so that the fuel centrifuged can be returned to the settling tanks. This is desirable because a considerable period of time is required for the flow rate and temperature to become uniform and for equipment adjustments to be made (gravity disks, back-pressure settings, etc.) commensurate with .the stabilized conditions. A minimum of two centrifuges that are properly sized, arranged, and operated is required. Each centrifuge should be capable of purifying the total fuel requirements of the engine plus a 10% margin or surplus when operating at the recommended service capacity required for maximum separating efficiency. The series method of centrifuge operation is the preferred fuel flow arrangement. The first centrifuge is configured as a purifier to remove sediment, sludge, and water. The second centrifuge is configured as a clarifier to remove any remaining sediment and solids from the fuel oil. The second centrifuge, operating as a clarifier, provides a backup to the purifier in the event that the purifier malfunctions. If there is a high water content in the fuel oil, centrifuge operation in parallel is recommended. By configuring both of the centrifuges as purifiers in parallel and by reducing the flow rates by 50%, the fuel has twice the residence time in the purifier to remove water. When properly set up and carefully operated, parallel operation can produce the highest cleaning effectiveness and, thereby, the cleanest fuel oil to the engine. However, if one of the purifiers should malfunction, there would be no provisions to prevent the contaminated oil from going directly to the engine. The series and parallel modes of centrifuge operation entail both advantages and disadvantages; therefore, to determine the most appropriate operational mode, the fuel flow, viscosity, density, water content, sediment and ash content, contamination, and compatibility must be assessed. When the fuel oil has a high water or sediment content, a parallel purifier/purifier alignment would be preferred. But if the fuel contains impurities that can be severely damaging, the risk of a purifier malfunction would suggest a series purifier/clarifier mode of operation. Three centrifuges are commonly installed aboard ship. The third machine is nominally a spare, but it can be used to provide a parallel purifier-purifier alignment followed by a clarifier for cleaning highly contaminated fuel.

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WESTFALIA INTERMITTENT SELF-CLEANING CENTRIFUGE - OIL PURIFICATION SHOWN AT LEFT, SLUDGE REMOVAL AT RIGH

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COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS


AIR COMPRESSORS - The compressor is the heart of any compressed air system. It takes in atmospheric air, compresses it to the pressure desired, and moves it into supply lines or into storage tanks for later use. Air compressors come in different designs and configurations and have different methods of compression. Before we describe the various types of air compressors, lets talk about the composition of air and some of the things air may contain. This discussion should help you to understand why air compressors have special features that prevent water, dirt, and oil vapor from getting into compressed air piping systems. Air is mostly composed of nitrogen and oxygen. At atmospheric pressure (within the range of temperatures for the earths atmosphere), air is in a gaseous form. The earths atmosphere, of course, also contains varying amounts of water. Depending upon weather conditions, water will appear in a variety of forms, such as rain (liquid water), snow crystals, ice (solid water), and vapor. Vapor is composed of tiny drops of water that are light enough to stay airborne. Clouds are an example of the existence of water vapor. Since air is a gas, it will expand when it is heated. Consequently, the heating of air will cause a given amount of air to expand, take up more space (volume), and hold more water vapor. When a given amount of air at a given temperature and pressure is no longer able to soak up water vapor, the air is saturated, and the humidity is 100 percent. When air cools its density increases; however, its volume and ability to hold water decrease. When temperature and pressure conditions cause air to cool and to reach the dew point, any water vapor in the air will condense into a liquid state (water). In other words, one method of drying air out is to cool it until it reaches the dew point. In addition to nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor, air contains particles of dust and dirt that are so tiny and lightweight that they remain suspended in the air. You may wonder how the composition of air directly affects the work of an air compressor. Although one cubic foot of air will not hold a tremendous amount of water or dirt, you should realize that air compressors could have capacities that are rated in hundreds of standard cubic feet per minute (scfm). This is a very high rate of flow. When a high flow rate of dirty, moisture-laden air is allowed to enter and pass through an air compressor, the result is rapid wear of the seals and load-bearing parts, internal corrosion (rust), and early failure of the unit. The reliability and useful life of any air compressor is extended by the installation of filters. Filters will remove most of the dirt and dust from the air before it enters the equipment. On the other hand, most of the water vapor in the air at the intake will pass directly through the filter material and will be compressed with the air. When air is compressed, it becomes very hot. As we mentioned earlier, hot air is capable of holding great amounts of water. The water is removed as the compressed air is routed through coolers. The coolers remove the heat from the air stream and cause some of the water vapor to condense into liquid (condensate). The condensate must be periodically drained from the compressor.

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Although the coolers will remove some of the water from the air, simple cooling between the stages of compression (inter-cooling) and cooling of the air stream after it leaves the compressor (after-cooling) will not make the air dry. When there is a requirement to provide clean dry-air that is suitable for pneumatic control and other shipboard systems, air from the compressor is routed through air-drying units. Many air-drying units are capable of removing enough water vapor from the air stream to cause the dew point to be as low as 60F. Several of the more common devices used to remove water and oil vapor from the air stream will be explained later in this chapter. CLASSIFICATION AND DESIGN - An air compressor may be classified according to pressure (high, medium, or low), type of compressing element, and whether the discharged air is oil free. Because of an increasing need for oil-free air in industry, the oil-free air compressor is gradually replacing most of the standard low pressure and high-pressure air compressors. For this reason, we will focus most of our discussion on the features of oil-free air compressors. Compressors are classified as low, medium, of high pressure. Low-pressure compressors have a discharge pressure of 150 psi or less. Medium-pressure compressors have a discharge pressure of 151 psi to 1,000 psi. Compressors that have a discharge pressure above 1,000 psi are classified as high-pressure compressors. SOURCES OF POWER - Compressors may be driven by electric motors, steam turbines, or gas turbines. For marine use most air compressors that supply service air are driven by electric motors. The driving unit may be coupled to the compressor by one of several methods. When the compressor and the driving unit are mounted on the same shaft, they are close-coupled. This method is usually restricted to small capacity air compressors driven by electric motors. When the speed of the compressor and the speed of the driving unit are the same, flexible couplings are used to mount the driving unit to the compressor. This is called a direct-coupled drive. V-belt drives are commonly used with small, low-pressure, motor-driven compressors and with some medium pressure and high pressure compressors. In a few installations, a rigid coupling is used between the compressor and the electric motor of a motor-driven compressor. In a steam turbine drive, the compressors are usually (but not always) driven though reduction gears. Centrifugal high-speed compressors are usually driven through speed increasing gears. COMPRESSING ELEMENTS - Air compressors may be centrifugal, rotary, axial flow screw, or reciprocating. The more common reciprocating type of air compressor is generally selected for capacities from 100 to 800 scfm with outlet pressure ratings of 125, 600, and 3,000 psi, up to 5,000 psi. The rotary lobe type of air compressor is selected for capacities up to 8,800 scfm and for pressures of no more than 20 psi. The centrifugal type of air compressor is selected for capacities of 800 scfm or greater (up to 2, 100 scfm in a single unit) and for pressures up to 125 psi. The axial flow screw type of air compressor is selected for capacities up to 100 scfm and for pressure of no more than 125 psi.

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Most general-service air compressors are the reciprocating type. In the reciprocating air compressor, the air pressure is increased by the use of one or more cylinders. This is very much like the compression that takes place in an internal-combustion engine. RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSORS - All reciprocating air compressors are similar in design and operation. The following discussion describes the basic components and principles of operation of low, medium, and high-pressure reciprocating air compressors. CYLINDER ARRANGEMENT - Most low-pressure reciprocating air compressors are of the two-stage type. They have a vertical V (Figure 1), a vertical W (Figure 2), or a vertical in line arrangement of cylinders. The V-type and in-line compressors have one cylinder for the first (lower pressure) stage of compression and one cylinder for the second (higher pressure) stage of compression. The W-type compressor has two cylinders for the first stage of compression and one cylinder for the second stage. The vertical W cylinder arrangement is shown in view A of Figure 1. Notice that the pistons in the lower-pressure stage (1) have larger diameters than the pistons in the higher-pressure stage (2).

FIGURE 1 A SIMPLE TWO-STAGE RECIPROCATING LOW-PRESSURE AIR COMPRESSOR (VERTICAL V CONFIGURATION)

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FIGURE 2 LOW-PRESSURE RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR (VERTICAL W CONFIGURATION) Medium pressure air compressors are generally the two-stage, vertical, duplex, single-acting type. Many medium pressure compressors have differential pistons. This type of piston is used in machines designed for more than one stage of compression during each stroke of the piston. (See view A of Figure 3.) Most high-pressure compressors are motor driven, liquid-cooled, four-stage, single-acting units with vertical cylinders. View B of Figure 3 shows the cylinder arrangements for the highpressure air compressors installed in Navy ships. Small-capacity, high-pressure air systems may have three-stage compressors. Large-capacity, high-pressure air systems may be equipped with four, five, or six-stage compressors.

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OPERATING CYCLE - As our example of the operating cycle, we will describe one stage of compression in a single-stage, single-acting compressor. The cycle of operation, or compression cycle, within an air compressor cylinder includes two strokes of the piston: an intake stroke and a compression stroke. (Refer to Figure 4) The intake stroke (view A) begins when the piston moves away from top dead center (TDC). The air remaining in the clearance space above the piston expands rapidly (view B) until the pressure in the cylinder falls below the pressure on the opposite side of the inlet valve, which is at atmospheric pressure. At this point (view C, difference in pressure causes the inlet valve to open, and air is admitted to the cylinder. Air continues to flow into the cylinder until the piston reaches bottom dead center (BDC).

FIGURE 3 AIR COMPRESSOR CYLINDER ARRANGEMENTS The compression stroke (view D) starts are the piston moves away from BDC and continues until the piston reaches TDC again. When the pressure in the cylinder equals the pressure on the opposite side of the air inlet valve, the inlet valve closes. The air trapped in the cylinder continues to be compressed as the piston moves toward TDC. When the pressure in the cylinder (view E) becomes great enough, it will force the discharge valve to open against the discharge line pressure and the force of the valve springs. (The discharge valve opens shortly before the piston reaches TDC). During the remainder of the compression stroke, the air that has been compressed in the cylinder is discharged at almost constant pressure through the open discharge valve.

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The basic operating cycle just described is completed twice for each revolution of the crankshaft in double-acting compressors, once on the down stroke and once on the up stroke. COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS - Reciprocating air compressors consist of a system of connecting rods, a crankshaft, and a flywheel. These parts transmit power developed by the driving unit to the pistons as well as the lubrication systems, cooling systems, control systems, and unloading systems. COMPRESSING ELEMENT - The compressing element of a reciprocating air compressor consists of the cylinders, pistons, and air valves. CYLINDERS - The design of the cylinders depends mostly upon the number of stages of compression required to produce the maximum discharge pressure. Several common cylinder arrangements for low and medium pressure air compressors are shown in view A of Figure 1. Several arrangements for the cylinders and pistons of high-pressure air compressors are shown in view B of Figure 1. The stages are numbered 1 through 4.

FIGURE 4 THE COMPRESSION CYCLE PISTONS - The pistons may be either of two types: trunk or differential (See Figure 5). TRUNK PISTONS are driven directly by the connecting rods (view A). The upper end of a connecting rod is fitted directly to the piston by a wrist pin. This design produces a tendency for the piston to develop a side pressure against the cylinder walls. For the side pressure to be

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distributed over a wide area of the cylinder walls or liners, pistons with long skirts are used. The design of the trunk piston helps minimize cylinder wall wear. DIFFERENTIAL PISTONS, shown in view B of Figure 5, are modified trunk pistons with two or more different diameters. These pistons are fitted into special cylinders, arranged so that more than one stage of compression is achieved by a single upward stroke of the piston. The compression for one stage takes place over the piston crown; compression for the other stage(s) takes place in the annular space between the large and small diameters of the piston. VALVES - The valves are made of special steel and come in a number of different types. The opening and closing of the valves is caused by the difference between (1) the pressure of the air in the cylinder and (2) the pressure of the external air on the intake valve or the pressure of the discharged air on the discharge valve. Two types of valves commonly used in high-pressure air compressors are shown in Figure 6. The strip or feather, type valve is shown in view A. It is used for the suction and discharge valves of the lower-pressure stage (1 and 2). The valve shown in view A is a suction valve; the discharge valve assembly (not shown) is identical except that the positions of the valve seat and the guard are reversed. At rest, the thin strips lie flat against the seat. They cover the slots and form a seal when pressure is applied to the guard side of the valve. The following action works in either a suction or a discharge operation (depending on the valve service). As soon as pressure on the seat side of the valve exceeds the pressure on the guard side, the strips flex against the contoured recesses in the guard. As soon as the pressure equalizes or reverses, the strips flex against the contoured recesses in the guard. As soon as the pressure equalizes or reverses, the strips unflex and return to their original position, flat against the seat. The disk type valve in view B of Figure 6 is used for the suction and discharge valves of the higher-pressure stages (3 and 4). The fourth stage assembly is shown in view B. The valves shown are the spring-loaded, dished-disk type. At rest, the disk is held against the seat by the spring. It forms a seal when pressure is applied to the keeper side of the valve. The following action works in either a suction or a discharge operation (depending on the valve service). When the pressure on the seat side of the valve exceeds the pressure on the keeper side, the disk lifts against the stop in the keeper. This action compresses the spring and permits air to pass through the seat, around the disk, and through the openings in the sides of the keeper. As soon as the pressure equalizes or reverses, the spring forces the disk back onto the seat.

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FIGURE 5 AIR COMPRESSOR PISTONS

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FIGURE 6 HIGH-PRESSURE AIR COMPRESSOR VALVES

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FIGURE 7 HIGH-PRESSURE AIR COMPRESSOR SHOWING THE LUBRICAITON SYSTEM LUBRICATION SYSTEMS - There are generally three types of lubrication systems in reciprocating compressors. They are for high-pressure, low-pressure, and oil-free air compressors. High-pressure air compressor cylinders (except for non-lubricated compressors) are generally lubricated by an adjustable mechanical force-feed lubricator. This unit is driven from a reciprocating or rotary part of the compressor. Oil is fed from the cylinder lubricator by separate lines to each cylinder. A check valve at the end of each feed line keeps the compressed air from forcing the oil back into the lubricator. Each feed-line has a sight-glass oil flow indicator. Lubrication begins automatically as the compressor starts up. Figure 7 shows the lubrication

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connections for the cylinders. The type and grade of oil used in compressors is specified in the applicable technical manual. The correct type is vital to the operation and reliability of the compressor. The running gear is lubricated by an oil pump that is attached to the compressor and driven from the compressor shaft. This pump is usually a gear type. It moves oil from the reservoir (oil sump) in the compressor base and delivers it through a filter to an oil cooler (if installed). From the cooler, the oil is distributed to the top of each main bearing, to the spray nozzles for the reduction gears, and to the outboard bearings. The crankshaft is drilled so that oil fed to the main bearings is picked up at the main bearing journals and carried to the crank journals. The connecting rods contain passages that conduct lubricating oil from the crank bearings up to the piston pin bushings. As oil is force out from the various bearings, it drips back into the oil sump (in the base of the compressor) and is recirculated. Oil from the outboard bearings is carried back to the sump by drain lines. A low-pressure air compressor lubrication system is shown in Figure 8. This system is similar to that of the running gear lubrication system for the high-pressure air compressor. Non-lubricated reciprocating compressors have lubricated running gear (shaft and bearings) but no lubrication for the pistons and valves. This design produces oil-free air. COOLING SYSTEMS - The power input to the compressor is converted to heat in the compression process. This heat is removed by a cooling system for two primary reasons: (1) to prevent the compressed air and various compressor parts from reaching excessively high temperatures, and (2) to improve the efficiency of multistage compressors by increasing the density of air between stages of compressions. In reciprocating compressors, the compression cylinders are cooled by fresh water or seawater, which is circulated through cooling water passages in the cylinder block. When removable cylinder liners or cylinder sleeves are used, the cylinder block may incorporate wells or bores for the liners so that the cooling water does not come into direct contact with the cylinder liners (dry liners). In another design, the liner may be held in shoulders with O-ring seals within the cylinder block so that the cylinder liners are wetted by the cooling water (wet liners). Cylinder jackets are fitted with hand holes and covers so that the water spaces may be inspected and cleaned. On many compressors, water passes directly through the joint between the cylinder and the head. On such designs, extreme care must be taken so that the joint is properly gasketed to prevent leakage. If allowed to continue, water leakage would cause corrosion problems or more severe damage. In additional to cylinder cooling, each stage of a reciprocating compressor may have an air cooler in which the discharge air is cooled before it enters the next stage. The coolers are usually of the shell and tube design. Compressed air is directed through the tubes of the cooler, with the cooling water flowing through the shell and over the tubes. On some compressors, this design may be reversed on the low-pressure stages (first and second) so that the cooling water flows through the tubes and the air though the shell. The coolers between stages are called

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INTERCOOLERS. The last cooler is the AFTERCOOLER. (Intercoolers and aftercoolers will be discussed in greater detail later in this chapter.)

FIGURE 8 LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM OF A LOW-PRESSURE AIR COMPRESSOR You may encounter several different types of cooling systems. On older air compressors, cooling is provided by a seawater system that serves the compression cylinders as well as the intercoolers and aftercooler. (See Figure 9). In these systems, the seawater flows essentially in a series arrangement first through the intercoolers and aftercooler, and then through the compression cylinders. This process ensures that the air entering the cylinders is always cooler than the valve chambers and cylinders. Therefore, moisture from condensation is minimized. However, with seawater temperature substantially lower than 80F, condensation may occur within the cylinders and discharge valve chambers (or cylinder heads) on the compression stroke. Also, because of the compact design of some air compressors, low seawater temperatures can cause the compressor frame and oil sump to reach temperatures that are sufficiently low to cause condensation within the oil sump. This condition can cause rapid water buildup and subsequent bearing failure. For protection against the overcooling of compressors that are cooled entirely by seawater, it is recommended that cooling water be throttled. This action will reduce the cooling effect in the compression cylinders. However, excessive reduction in cooling water flow can result in hot spots in the cylinder areas where flow under normal conditions becomes marginal.

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In this regard, you must follow the recommendations in the technical manual for any specific compressor.

FIGURE 9 SEAWATER COOLING (OPEN) SYSTEM OF A MULTISTAGE AIR COMPRESSOR Some compressors employ seawater cooling systems for the intercoolers and aftercoolers and a secondary freshwater system for cylinder cooling. (See Figure 10). The closed freshwater cooling system consists of a pump, a surge tank, a thermostatic valve, and a heat exchanger. The pressurized coolant is moved from the surge tank by the water pump and is directed to each cylinder assembly. A high-water-temperature shutdown switch downstream from the cylinder assemblies monitors the coolant temperature. Coolant at the thermostatic valve flows either directly to the cylinders or through the heat exchanger if the cylinder water requires cooling. The design provides a constant rate of flow and thermostatic temperature control in the cylinder cooling system. This type of control ensures uniform operating conditions for the compression stages and helps the system avoid the harmful excessive cooling of cylinders. As we mentioned earlier, excessive cooling causes condensation on cylinder walls a condition that results in early catastrophic seal failure. The intercoolers and aftercoolers act to remove heat that is generated whenever air is compressed. They also cause any water vapor that may be present in the air stream to condense into a liquid. Figure 11 is a diagram of a basic cooler and separator unit. Intercooler and aftercooler are normally fitted with moisture separators. Moisture separators, which come in a variety of design, serve to remove the condensed moisture and oil vapor from the air stream. The liquid is removed by centrifugal force, impact, or sudden changes in velocity of the air

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stream. Notice that the condensate collects in the lower section of the outlet header. Drains on each separator serve to remove the water and oil. The condensate must be drained at regular intervals to prevent carryover into the next stage of compression. When the condensate accumulates at low points, it may cause water hammer or freezing and bursting of pipes in exposed locations. It may also cause faulty operation of pneumatic tools and diesel engine air start system, and possible damage to electrical apparatus when air is used for cleaning. The removal of heat is also necessary for efficient compression. During compression, the temperature of the air increases. As we explained earlier, heated air expands to a larger volume. The larger volume of air requires a corresponding increase of work to compress it. Multistaging, therefore, with interstage cooling of the air, reduces the power requirement for a given capacity.

FIGURE 10 COOLING WATER FLOW DIAGRAM SHOWING SEAWATER AND FRESHWATER SYSTEMS Interstage cooling reduces the maximum temperature in each cylinder. This temperature reduction, of course, reduces the amount of heat that must be removed by the amount of heat that must be removed by the water jacket at the cylinder. Figure 12 illustrates the pressures and temperatures through a four-stage compressor. The intercoolers and the aftercooler (on the output of the final stage) are of the same general construction. The exception is that the aftercooler is designed to withstand a higher working pressure than that of the intercoolers. Both intercoolers and aftercoolers are generally fitted with relief valves on both the air and the watersides. The relief valves must be set according to written instructions.

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In all compressors fitted with thermostatically controlled freshwater cooling systems, such as the one shown in Figure 10, the possibility of overcooling the cylinders occurs only when the thermostat is malfunctioning. The air cannot be cooled too much in the intercoolers and after coolers. There are no detrimental effects for low air discharge temperature from the coolers. The more the air is cooled in the intercoolers, the lower the brake horsepower will be. When more water is condensed within the cooler, fewer chances exist for the water to condense during the subsequent compression stroke. Oil coolers may be of the coil type, shell and tube type, or a variety of commercial designs. Although external oil coolers are generally used, some compressors are fitted with base-type oil coolers. In this design, cooling water circulates through a coil placed in the oil sump. On most compressors, the circulating water system is arranged so that the amount of cooling water passing through the oil cooler can be regulated without disturbing the quantity of water passing through the cylinder jackets, intercoolers, or after coolers. Thermometers are fitted to the circulating water inlet and outlet connections, the intake and discharge of each stage of compression, the final air discharge, and the oil sump.

FIGURE 11 - BASIC COOLER AND SEPARATOR CONTROL SYSTEMS - The control system of a reciprocating air compressor may include one or more control devices. These control mechanisms may include start stop control, constantspeed control, cooling water failure switches, and automatic high temperature shutdown devices. Control or regulating systems for air compressors are largely of the start/stop type. In the start/stop design, the compressor starts and stops automatically as the receiver pressure falls or rises within predetermined set points. On electrically driven compressors, the system is very simple. As air pressure in the receiver increases, it actuates a pressure switch that opens the

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electrical control circuit when the pressure acting upon the switch reaches a given value, commonly called a SET POINT. The switch closes the control circuit when the pressure drops a predetermined amount. Because of their high horsepower rating, centrifugal compressors do not have automatic start-stop controls. Instead, an automatic load and unload control system is used. Some electrically driven units, such as the medium-pressure system, are required to start at either of two pressures. In these units, there are two pressure switches. One of these switches has a tree-way valve that admits pressure from the air accumulator to the selected pressure switch. In other electrically driven units, the air is directed from the receiver through a three-way valve to either of two control valves adjusted fro the required range of pressure settings. A line connects each control valve to a single pressure switch. This switch may be set to any convenient pressure. The setting of the control valve selected will determine the operation of the switch. The CONSTANT-SPEED CONTROL regulates the pressure in the air receiver be controlling the output of the compressor. This control works without stopping or changing the speed of the unit. The constant-speed control prevents frequent starting and stopping of compressors when there is a fairly constant but low demand for air. Control is provided when air is directed to unloading devices through a control valve that is set to operate at a predetermined pressure. AUTOMATIC HIGH-TEMPERATURE SHUTDOWN DEVICES are fitted on almost all highpressure air compressors. If the cooling water temperature rises above a safe limit, the device that will shut down the compressor if the temperature of the air leaving any stage exceeds a present value.

FIGURE 12 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE RESULTING FROM MULTISTAGING AND INTERSTAGE COOLING

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UNLOADING SYSTEMS - Most of the compressors used on board ship use electric motors as prime movers. You need to understand that, at the instant of starting, an electric motor demands maximum power from the electrical distribution system. Therefore, when any motor is to be started, it is necessary to have the motor unloaded as much as possible. Any attempt to start any motor-driven pump, such as an air compressor, when it is loaded will cause the circuit breaker on the power distribution panel (and even the main breaker on a switchboard) to trip the unit off the line. Upon starting, the drive motor for a reciprocating air compressor is lightly loaded (only due to friction in bearings and piston rings against the cylinder walls) because of the unloader system of the air compressor. The unloader may use a combination of pneumatic, electropneumatic (solenoid), or hydraulic-actuated valves to control the unloading function. The unloader for an air compressor has the following two primary functions: 1. When the unit stops, the unloader releases any air trapped in the cylinders. (You should hear the unit go Psssshhhhh when it shuts down) 2. When the drive motor starts, the unloader prevents air from being compressed in any stage until the motor has reached operating speed. Units with start-stop control devices will have an unloading system that is separate from the control system. Compressors with constant speed control devices will have the unloading and control systems as integral parts of each other. We cannot give you a detailed explanation for every type of unloading device that unloads the cylinders of an air compressor. Still, you should know something about the common methods used to unload an air compressor. These methods include closing or throttling the compressor intake, forcing intake valves off their seats, relieving intercoolers to the atmosphere, relieving the final discharge to the atmosphere (or opening a bypass from the discharge to the intake), or opening cylinder clearance pockets. We will discuss one example of a typical compressor-unloading device the MAGNETIC-TYPE UNLOADER. Refer to Figure 13 and study the unloader valve arrangement. The magnetic unloader consists of a solenoid-operated valve actuated by the controller for the motor. When the compressor is at rest, the solenoid valve is de-energized, and the two ball valves are in the position shown. Air pressure is routed from the receiver to the unloading mechanism. When the compressor drive motor reaches operating speed, the solenoid valve is energized. The two ball valves will be forced downward. The upper ball will block the inlet from the receiver and the lower ball will block the exhaust port, which allows the compressor to load and build up air pressure. For details about the unloading devices used with the compressors aboard your ship, you should consult the specific technical manual for each unit. OIL-FREE, LOW-PRESSURE AIR COMPRESSORS - The most common method of providing oil-free air is to use low or high-pressure reciprocating oil-free air compressors. For the purpose of our discussion of the oil-free design, we will use the reciprocating low-pressure, oil-free air compressor as our example.

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FIGURE 13 MAGNETIC TYPE UNLOADER RECIPROCATING OIL-FREE LOW-PRESSURE AIR COMPRESSORS - For many years, the reciprocating types of air compressors had to use lubricating oil to reduce the friction and wear of piston rings sliding on the walls of the cylinders. Some of the oil, in the form of vapor, would be picked up by the air stream and carried to the outlet of the compressor. Like water vapor, oil vapor tends to collect in low places. When oil vapor mixes with water vapor, the resulting emulsion may deposit itself on machined surfaces, which generally become collecting points for dirt and particles of rust. This sludge formation can foul pneumatic valves, which must have very close clearances and operating tolerances. However, fouling of machine parts is minor compared to the potentially hazardous condition that results when oil vapor is entrained in the air stream of a high-pressure air compressor. From our earlier discussion, you should remember that air is mostly nitrogen (about 78 percent) and oxygen (about 21 percent). Nitrogen is an inert gas. When mixed with oil vapor, nitrogen is not hazardous. On the other hand, when oil vapor is mixed with oxygen in the air, two of the three elements needed for an explosion or fire have been combined. All that is needed to trigger this combination is heat; where could the heat possibly come from? Think about it. When air is compressed, a lot of heat is produced. Now, lets consider what could happen when a careless

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operator quickly opens a valve in a high-pressure air system. The air and oil vapor mixture will flow rapidly into the next part of the system until it reaches the next obstruction, which will cause the air to be compressed. At this point, all three elements needed for an explosion are present-oxygen, fuel, and heat. The danger associated with the use of lubricated air compressors has caused some installations to replace low-pressure and high-pressure reciprocating air compressors with the oil-free type. Oilfree air compressors are designed to prevent any oil vapor from getting into the air stream from the compressor. The design of oil-free air compressors was made possible by the development of new materials for piston rings. These materials do not require lubrication, only cooling by water. The design of the oil-free air compressor makes it possible for the compression stages to be separated from the running gear, which still uses oil for lubrication. COMPONENTS - Oil-free reciprocating air compressors use a crosshead arrangement consisting of a guide piston and cylinder and guide piston seal assembly. The design separates the compressor section from the running gear section and still transfers mechanical power from the lubricated crankshaft to the piston and connecting rod assemblies of the non-lubricated compressor stages. Refer to figures 14 and 15 as we continue. The compression piston is hollow and is connected to the guide piston by the guide piston seal assembly. (Refer to Figure 14). The piston rings are made from a Teflon-bronze material that will become damaged upon contact with lube oil.

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FIGURE 14 CUTAWAY VIEW OF AN OIL-FREE, LOW-PRESSURE AIR COMPRESSOR The guide piston seal assembly contains oil control rings and seal rings, retainer rings, a cup, and a cover. (See Figure 15). The seal assembly prevents oil from entering the compression chamber by scraping the oil from the piston connecting rod as it moves up and down in the seal assembly. The running gear chamber consists of a system of connecting rods, a crankshaft, and a flywheel. (NOTE: The connecting rods are connected to the guide piston in the oil-free air compressor).

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The valve assemblies are of the strip/feather type previously discussed in this chapter.

FIGURE 15 GUIDE PISTON SEAL ASSEMBLY

FIGURE 16 SUCTION UNLOADER AND VALVE ASSEMBLY

UNLOADER SYSTEM - The Worthington oil-free, low-pressure air compressor unloader system consists of three suction valve unloaders, one for each cylinder, connected to each suction valve assembly. (See Figure 16 and 17.) The major components of the unloader assembly are the piston, springs, and plunger. (See Figure 16). The unloader assemblies are actuated by a single solenoid-operated valve that routes the air from the receiver to the top of the piston in the piston in the suction unloader assembly. Air pressure forces the piston down, thereby forcing the finger down against the strip valves and unseating the suction valves. This action causes the air compressor to be in an unloaded condition when the drive motor starts. The compressor becomes loaded when the solenoid operated valve bleeds the air off the top of the piston in the piston in the unloader assemblies through the flow control valve. The pistons and fingers are forced upward by the piston return spring, causing the suction valves to seat. The flow control valve prevents instant full loading of the compressor by controlling the amount of airflow from the unloader assemblies through the solenoid-operated valve.

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FIGURE 17 UNLOADER SYSTEM OF AN OIL-FREE, LOW-PRESSURE AIR COMPRESSOR The oil-free air compressor has a moisture separator that receives air from an air cooler. (See Figure 18). The separator drains the collected moisture into a drain holding bottle where the moisture is then removed by either the automatic drain system or the manual drain valves. The separator has a level probe that shuts off the air compressor in the event that the drains are backed up because of a malfunction of the automatic drain system.

FIGURE 18 MOISTURE SEPARATOR The automatic drain system uses a solenoid operated valve and a three-way air-operated valve. (See Figure 19). The solenoid-operated valve is energized by a time relay device in the motor controller. The solenoid-operated valve admits air to the three-way air-operated valve, which allows for drainage of the moisture separator and the holding bottle.

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FIGURE 19 CONDENSATE DRAIN SYSTEM HELICAL SCREW COMPRESSOR - This low-pressure air compressor is a single-stage, positive-displacement, axial-flow, and helical-screw type of compressor. It is often referred to as a screw-type compressor. (Refer to Figures 20 and 21). Compression is caused by the meshing of two helical rotors (male and female) located casing. Air inlet and outlet ports are located on opposite sides of the casing. Atmospheric air is drawn into the compressor through the filtersilencer. The air passes through the air cylinder-operated unloader (butterfly) valve and into the inlet part of the compressor when the valve is in the open (load) position. Fresh water is injected into the air stream as it passes through the inlet port of the compressor casing. The injected fresh water serves two purposes: (1) it reduces the air discharge temperature caused by compression, and (2) it seals the running clearances to minimize air leakage. Most of the injected water is entrained into the air stream as it moves through the compressor. The compression cycle starts as the rotors un-mesh at the inlet port. As rotation continues, air is drawn into the cavity between the male rotor lobes and into the grooves of the female rotor. The air is trapped in these grooves, or pockets, and follows the rotative direction of each rotor. As soon as the inlet port is closed, the compression cycle begins as the air is directed to the opposite (discharge) end of the compressor. The rotors mesh, and the normal free volume are reduced. The reduction in volume (compression) continues with a resulting increase in pressure, until the closing pocket reaches the discharge port.

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FIGURE 20 LOW-PRESSURE, OIL-FREE ROTARY HELICAL SCREW COMPRESSOR

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FIGURE 21 HELICAL SCREW COMPRESSOR The entrained water is removed from the discharged air by a combined separator and water holding tank. The water in the tank passes through a seawater-cooled heat exchanger. The cooled water then recirculates to the compressor for reinjection. During rotation and throughout the meshing cycle, the timing gears maintain the correct clearances between the rotors. Since there is no contact between the rotor lobes and grooves, between the rotor lobes and casing, or between the rotor faces and end walls, no internal oil lubrication is required. This design allows the compressor to discharge oil-free air.

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For gear and bearing lubrication, lubricating oil from a force-feed system is supplied to each end of the compressor. Mechanical seals serve to keep the oil isolated from the compression chamber. COMPRESSED AIR RECEIVERS - An air receiver is installed in each space that houses air compressors (except centrifugal and rotary lobe types of air compressors). A compressed air receiver is an air storage tank. If demand is greater than the compressor capacity, the excess is stored in the receiver or accumulator until the pressure is raised to its maximum setting. At that time, the compressor unloads or stops. Thus, in a compressed air system, the receiver minimizes pressure variations in the system and supplies air during peak demand. This capability serves to minimize the start-stop cycling of air compressors. Air receivers may be mounted horizontally or vertically. Vertically mounted receivers have convex bottoms that permit proper draining of accumulated moisture, oil, and foreign matter. All receivers have fittings, such as inlet and outlet connections and drain connections and valves. They have connections for an operating line to compressor regulators, pressure gauges, and relief valves (set at 10 percent above the normal working pressure of the receiver). They also have manhole plates (depending on the size of the receiver). * All receivers must have a gauge, a drain and a relief valve. The discharge line between the compressor and the receiver is as short and straight as possible. This design eliminates vibrations caused by pulsations of air and reduces pressure losses caused by friction. In high-pressure air systems, air receivers are called air flasks. Air flasks are usually cylindrical in shape, with belled ends and female-threaded necks. One or more air flasks connected together constitute an air bank. COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY SYSTEMS - The remainder of the compressed air system is the piping and valves that distribute the compressed air to the points of use. MOISTURE REMOVAL -The removal of moisture from compressed air is an important feature of compressed air systems. Some moisture is removed by the intercoolers and aftercoolers, as explained earlier. Air flasks and receivers are provided with low point drains so that any collected moisture may drain periodically. However, many uses for compressed air require air with even smaller moisture content than is obtained through these methods. Water vapor in airlines can create other problems that are potentially hazardous, such as the freezing of valves and controls. These conditions can occur when air at very high pressure is throttled to a low-pressure area at a high flow rate. The venturi effect of the throttled air produces very low temperatures, which will cause any moisture in the air to freeze into ice. Under these conditions, a valve (especially an automatic valve) may become very difficult or impossible to operate. Also, liquid water in any air system can cause serious water hammer within the system. For these reasons, air dryers or dehydrators are used to remove most of the water vapor from compressed air. The following are two basic types of air dryers and a combination of the two. These air dryers are classified as follows:

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Type I-Refrigeration Type II-Heater, self-activating desiccant Type III-Refrigeration, self-reactivating desiccant Each of these types is designed to meet the requirements specified for the quality of the compressed air to be used in pneumatic control systems. Specific requirements usually involve operating pressure, flow rate, dew point, and purity (percentage of aerosols and size of particles). We will briefly discuss each of the types of air dryers (dehydrators). REFRIGERATION TYPE OF AIR DEHYDRATOR (TYPE 1) - Refrigeration is one method or removing moisture from compressed air. The dehydrator in Figure 22 is a Refrigerated Air Dryer or Refrigeration Dehydrator. This unit removes water vapor entrained in the stream of compressed air by causing the water to condense into a liquid that is heavier than air. Air flowing from the separator/holding tank first passes through the air-to-air heat exchanger, where some of the heat of compression is removed from the air stream. The air then moves through the evaporator section of the dehydrator, where the air is chilled by circulating refrigerant. In this unit, the air stream is cooled to a temperature that is below the de3w point. This will cause the water vapor in the air to condense so it can be removed by the condensate drain system. After leaving the evaporator section, the dehydrated air moves upward through the cold airside of the air to-air heat exchanger. In the air-to-air heat exchanger, the dehydrated air is raised in temperature by the warm air entering the dehydrator. The heating of the air serves to reduce thermal shock as the air enters the system. The exiting dry air flows into the receiver for availability to the ships air system.

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FIGURE 22 REFRIGERATION DEHYDRATOR DESICCANT TYPE OF AIR DEHYDRATOR (TYPE II) A desiccant is a drying agent. More practically, a desiccant is a substance with a high capacity to remove (adsorb) water or moisture. It also has a high capacity to give off that moisture so that the desiccant can be reused. Desiccant-Type Dehydrators are basically composed of cylindrical flasks filled with desiccant. Compressed air system dehydrators use a pair of desiccant towers. One tower is in service dehydrating the compressed air while the other is being reactivated. A desiccant tower is normally reactivated when dry, heated air is routed through the tower in the direction opposite to
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that of the normal dehydration airflow. The hot air evaporates the collected moisture and carries it out of the tower to the atmosphere. The air for the purge cycle is heated by electrical heaters. When the tower that is reactivating has completed the reactivation cycle, it is placed in service to dehydrate air, and the other tower is reactivated. Another type of desiccant dehydrator in use is the Heat-Less dryer. These units require no electrical heater or external sources of purge air. Figure 23 shows the compressed air entering at the bottom of the left tower (View A). The compressed air then passes upward through the desiccant, where it is dried to very low moisture content. The dry air passes through the check valve to the dry air outlet. Simultaneously, a small percentage of the dry air passes through the orifice between the towers and flows down through the right tower. This dry air reactivates the desiccant and passes out through the purge exhaust. At the end of the cycle, the towers are automatically reversed, as shown in View B.

FIGURE 23 HEAT-LESS DESICCANT DEHYDRATOR REFRIGERATION AND DESICCANT TYPE OF AIR DEHYDRATOR (TYPE III) You may come across installations that use a combination of refrigeration and absorption for moisture removal. Hot wet air from the compressor first enters a refrigeration-type dehydrator where low-temperature refrigerant removes heat from the air stream and condenses water vapor from the air. The cold, partially dried air then flows into a desiccant-type dehydrator, where the desiccant absorbs additional moisture from the air. COMPRESSED AIR PLANT OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE - You must be thoroughly aware of the operational and safety procedures you must use when you are operating

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or maintaining a compressed air system. You must operate any air compressor or air system in strict compliance with approved operating procedures. Compressed air is potentially very dangerous. Keep in mind that cleanliness is of greatest importance in all maintenance that requires the opening of compressed air systems. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS - There are many hazards associated with pressurized air, particularly air under high pressure. Dangerous explosions have occurred in high-pressure air systems because of diesel effect. If a portion of an un-pressurized system or component is suddenly and rapidly pressurized with high-pressure air, a large amount of heat is produced. If the heat is excessive, the air may reach the ignition temperature of the impurities present in the air and piping (oil, dust, and so forth). When the ignition temperature is reached, a violent explosion will occur as these impurities ignite. Ignition temperatures may also result from other causes. Some are rapid pressurization of a low-pressure dead end portion of the piping system, malfunctioning of compressor aftercoolers, and leaky or dirty valves. Use every precaution to have only clean, dry air at the compressor inlet. Air compressor accidents have also been caused by improper maintenance procedures. These accidents can happen when you disconnect parts under pressure, replace parts with units designed for lower pressures, and install stop valves or check valves in improper locations. Improper operating procedures have resulted in air compressor accidents with serious injury to personnel and damage to equipment. You must take every possible step to minimize the hazards inherent in the process of compression and in the use of compressed air. Strictly follow all safety precautions outlined in the technical manuals. Some of these hazards and precautions are as follows: 1. Explosions can be caused by dust-laden air or by oil vapor in the compressor or receiver. These explosions are triggered by abnormally high temperatures, which may be caused by leaky or dirty valves, excessive pressurization rates, and faulty cooling systems. 2. NEVER use distillate fuel or gasoline as a degreaser to clean compressor intake filters, cylinders, or air passages. These oils vaporize easily and will form a highly explosive mixture with the air under compression. 3. Secure a compressor immediately if you observe that the temperature of the air being discharged from any stage exceeds the maximum temperature specified. 4. NEVER leave the compressor station after starting the compressor unless you are sure that the control; unloading, and governing devices are operating properly. 5. If the compressor is to remain idle for any length of time or is in an exposed position in freezing weather, thoroughly drain the compressor circulating water system. 6. Before working on a compressor, be sure the compressor is secured and cannot start automatically or accidentally: completely blow down the compressor, and then secure all valves (including the control or unloading valves) between the compressor and the receiver. Follow the appropriate lock out/tag-out procedure for the compressor control valves and the isolation valves. When the gauges are in place, leave the pressure gauge cutout valves open at all times.

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7. When cutting air into a piece of machinery, be sure the supply line to the equipment has been properly drained of moisture. When securing the supply of air to the affected equipment, be sure all drains are left open. 8. Before disconnecting any part of an air system, be sure the part is not under pressure. Always leave the pressure gauge cutout valves open to the sections to which they are attached. 9. Avoid rapid operation of manual valves. The heat of compression caused by a sudden flow of high pressure into an empty line or vessel can cause an explosion if oil or other impurities are present. Slowly crack open the valves until flow is noted, and keep the valves in this position until pressure on both sides has equalized. 10. If compressor is water cooled be sure solenoid values to allow cooling, are working properly.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ABLE OF ONTENTS


1. Introduction 2. Types of Heat Exchangers 3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Heat Exchangers 4. Proper Operation of Heat Exchangers 5. Design Parameters 6. Maintenance and Operation

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INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION
Heat Exchangers - As an engineer, you will be required to test, maintain, and repair a number of heat exchangers. These may include main and auxiliary condensers, fuel oil heaters, lube oil coolers, and a number of miscellaneous heat exchangers used for various purposes aboard ship. A heat exchanger is usually classified as any device or apparatus designed to allow the transfer of heat from one fluid (liquid or gas) to another fluid. Items such as boilers, distilling plants, and deaerating feed tank are, of course, primary examples of heat exchangers; in common usage, however, these large and relatively complex pieces of equipment are seldom referred to as heat exchangers. This course deals with the simpler kinds of heat exchangers-condensers, heaters, and coolers. Heat Transfer - In order for heat to be transferred from one substance to another, a temperature difference is required. Heat flow or heat transfer can occur only from a substance that is at a higher temperature to a substance that is at a lower temperature. When two objects at different temperatures are placed in contact with each other, or near to each other, heat will flow from the warmer object to the cooler one until both objects are at the same temperature. Heat transfer occurs at a faster rate when there is a large temperature difference than when there is only a slight temperature difference. As the temperature difference approaches zero, the rate of heat flow also approaches zero. Modes Of Heat Transfer - Conduction, radiation, and convection are usually considered to be the three methods by which heat transfer can occur. As we will see, conduction and radiation are the two basic modes of heat transfer, while convection is a process involving the movement of a mass of fluid from one place to another. Conduction - Conduction is the method by which heat flows from a hotter to a colder substance when there is physical contact between the two substances. For example, consider a metal bar that is held so that on end of it is in a fire. In a very short time the end of the bar, which is not in the fire, will have become too hot to hold. We say that heat has been conducted from molecule to molecule, throughout the entire bar. The process of conduction will continue as long as there is a temperature difference between the two ends of the bar-that is, as long as one end is in the fire and the other end is in a cooler place. Radiation - Radiation is a mode of heat transfer that does not require any physical contact between the warmer substance and the cooler substance. For example, a person sitting near a hot stove is warmed by radiant heat even though the air between the person and the stove may remain cold. Convection - At the molecular or submolecular level, heat transfer takes place through the processes of conduction and radiation. If we use the term heat transfer in a somewhat different sense, we may also include convection as a mode of heat transfer; but it is important to understand the basic difference between convection and the true (molecular) heat transfer processes.

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If we put a hot brick into a wheelbarrow and wheel it across the street, we have in a sense transferred heat. However, any heat transfer that takes place between the brick and its surroundings while we are moving it across the street will be by conduction or by radiation. Consequently, it would really be more accurate to say that we have transported the brick and its contained heat energy. Convection is the mechanical transportation of a mass of fluid from one place to another, accompanied by a mixing of the various parts of the fluid. As the fluid mixes, heat transfer takes place from one part of the fluid to another and between the fluid and its surroundings. However, this heat transfer takes place by conduction and by radiation. Convection serves the purpose of bringing the different parts of the fluid into close contact so that heat transfer by conduction and radiation can occur. Without convection, there would be relatively little heat transfer from or within a fluid, since most fluids are poor conductors when they are not in motion. What causes this mechanical transportation of a mass of fluid? In the case of natural convection, the movement is caused by differences in the density of different parts of the fluid. The differences in density are usually caused by unequal temperatures within the fluid. For example, as the air over a hot radiator becomes heated it becomes less dense and therefore begins to rise. Cooler, heavier air is drawn in to replace the heated air, and convection currents are thus set up. In the case of forced convection, some mechanical device such as a fan or a pump produces the movement of the fluid. The circulation of water in a natural circulation boiler is a case of natural convection. The flow of combustion gases through a boiler is partly by natural convection and partly by forced convection. When the main feed pump moves a stream of feed water from the deaerating tank to the boiler, the water is transported by forced convection. When the main feed pump moves a stream of feed water from the deaerating tank to the boiler, the water is transported by forced convection. In summary, then, we use the term convection to describe the transportation-or, loosely, the heat transfer of a mass of fluid and its contained heat; but the processes by which any substance gains or loses heat are best described in terms of conduction and radiation. It should be noted that convection is an extremely important process, and one that is involved in most heat transfer problems. TYPES OF HEAT EXHCHANGERS CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS - Heat exchangers may be classified according to (1) their basic function with respect to temperature changes or changes of state in one or both fluids; (2) the path of heat flow; (3) the relative direction of the flow of the fluids; (4) the number of times that either fluid passes the other fluid; and (5) general construction features such as the type of surface and the arrangement of component parts. The types of heat exchangers in common use on most ships are described in the following sections in terms of these basic methods of classification.

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FUNCTIONS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS - The primary purpose of any heat exchanger is, of course, the transfer of heat from one substance to another. However, there are several different reasons why it is necessary or desirable to transfer heat. In some heat exchangers we want to raise the temperature of one fluid. Fuel oil heaters, combustion air preheaters, lube oil heaters, and many other heat exchangers used on board ship serve this function. In some heat exchangers we want to lower the temperature of one fluid. Lube oil coolers, boiler water sample coolers, and desuperheaters are examples of this type of heat exchanger. In condensers, we want to remove latent heat from a fluid in order to make it change from a gas to a liquid. Very often, we want to remove the latent heat without removing any sensible heatthat is, we want to change the state of the fluid but do not want to lower its temperature. For example, the purpose of the main condenser is to remove the latent heat from the turbine exhaust steam so that the steam will condense. In this process, however, we do not want to lower the temperature of the condensate. Since any heat removed from the condensate must be replaced in the deaerating feed tank or in the boiler, lowering the temperature of the condensate is wasteful of heat and therefore wasteful of fuel. In some heat exchangers, we want to add latent heat to a fluid in order to make it change from a liquid to a gas. The generating part of a boiler is a good example of this type of heat exchanger. Since it is impossible to raise the temperature of the steam as long as it is in contact with the water from which it is being generated, the steam does not increase in temperature until it has been drawn off into another heat exchanger (the superheater). Path Of Heat Flow - When classified according to the path of heat flow, heat exchangers are of two basic types. In the indirect or surface type of heat exchanger, the heat flows from one fluid to the other through some kind of tube, plate, or other surface that separates the two fluids; consequently, there is no mixing of the fluids. In the direct-contact type of heat exchanger, the heat is transferred directly from one fluid to another as the two fluids mix. The deaerating feed tank is a direct-contact heat exchanger; practically all other heat exchangers used on board ship are of the indirect or surface type. Direction Of Fluid Flow - In surface heat exchangers, the fluids may flow parallel to each other, counter to each other, or at right angles to each other (cross flow). In parallel flow, shown in figure 1, both fluids flow in the same direction. If a parallel-flow heat exchanger has a long enough heat-transfer surface, the temperatures of the two fluids will be just about equal as the fluids leave the heat exchanger. In counter flow, shown in figure 2, the two fluids flow in opposite directions. Counter-flow heat exchangers are used in many applications where it is necessary to obtain a large temperature change in the cooled or heated fluid.

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In cross flow, shown in figure 3, one fluid flows at right angles to the other. Cross flow is particularly useful for removing latent heat and thus condensing a vapor to a liquid.

FIGURE 1 - PARALLEL FLOW IN HEAT EXCHANGER

FIGURE 2 - COUNTER FLOW IN HEAT EXCHANGER

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FIGURE 3 - CROSS FLOW IN HEAT EXCHANGER Counter-flow and cross-flow heat exchangers are more commonly used than the parallel-flow type on board ship. Fuel oil heaters, lube oil coolers, and many internal combustion engine coolers are examples of the counter-flow type. Cross flow is used for most condensers, including the main and auxiliary condensers. In many heat exchangers, the types of flow are combined in various ways so that it is not always easy to determine whether the flow is basically parallel, counter, or cross. Number Of Passes - Surface heat exchangers may be classified as single-pass units, if each fluid passes the other only once, or as multipass units, if one fluid passes the other more than once. Multipass flow may be obtained by the arrangement of the tubes and of the fluid inlets and outlets, or it may be obtained by using baffles to guide a fluid so that it passes the other fluid more than once before it leaves the heat exchanger. Type Of Surface - Surface heat exchangers are known as plain-surface units, if the surface is relatively smooth, or as extended-surface units, if the surface is fitted with rings, fins, studs, or some other kind of extension. The main advantage of the extended surface lies in the fact that the extensions increase the heat-transfer area without requiring any substantial increase in the over-all size and weight of the unit. You will find many examples of plain-surface heat exchangers aboard ship-condensers, lube oil coolers, and some fuel oil heaters, to name but a few. The G-fin type of fuel oil heater is an example of an extended-surface heat exchanger, as is the economizer of a boiler.

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TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchangers - Surface heat exchangers are often called by names that indicate general features of design and construction. Basically, most of surface heat exchangers are of shell-and-tube construction. However, the shell-and-tube arrangement is modified in various ways and in some cases it is not easy to recognize the basic design. Shell-and-tube arrangement is modified in various ways and in some cases it is not easy to recognize the basic design. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers include such types as (1) straight-tube, (2) U-tube, (3) helical- or spiral-tube, (4) double-tube, (5) strut-tube, and (6) plate-tube heat exchangers. In straight-tube heat exchangers, the tubes are usually arranged in a bundle and enclosed in a cylindrical shell. The ends of the tubes may be expanded into a tube sheet at each end of the bundle or they may be expanded into one tube sheet and packed and feruled into the other. The use of ferrules allows the tube to expand and contract slightly with temperature changes. A distributing chamber or header (often called the water box) at each end of the cylindrical shell provides a place for the distribution and the collection of the fluid that flows through the tubes. Because the tubes, shell, and other parts of a heat exchanger heat and cool at different rates, some provision must be made for expansion and contraction. When the use of packing does not provide an adequate allowance for expansion and contraction, a bellows-type or a ring-type expansion joint may be used in the cylindrical shell. Other methods of providing for expansion and contraction include the use of slightly curved tubes and the use of a floating head construction. One type of floating head is illustrated in figure 4.

FIGURE 4 - FLOATING HEAT CONSTRUCTION OF HEAT EXCHANGER Many straight-tube heat exchangers have baffles and tube support plates that serve to direct the flow of the fluid outside the tubes. These baffles and support plates cause some turbulence, and thereby improve heat transfer by disturbing the fluid film. Strips of metal twisted into a spiral shape may be fitted on the inside of the tubes to cause turbulence.

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U-bend heat exchangers, sometimes called return-bend heat exchangers, consist of a bundle of u-shaped; there is only one tube sheet. The shape of the tubes provides a sufficient allowance for expansion and contraction. Helical-tube or spiral-tube heat exchangers have one or more coils of tubing installed inside a shell. The tubes may communicate with headers at each end of the shell; or, in the case of relatively simple units such as boiler water sample coolers, the ends of the tubing may pass through the shell and serve as the inlet and the outlet for the fluid that flows through the coil of tubing. Doubled-tube heat exchangers have one tube inside another. One fluid flows through the inner tube and the other flows between the outer and the inner tube. The outer tube may thus be regarded as the shell for each inner tube. The shells or outer tubes are usually arranged in banks and are connected at one end by a common tube sheet and a partitioned cover that serves to direct the flow. Many double-tube heat exchangers are of u-bend construction to allow for expansion and contraction. The sectional g-fin fuel oil heater commonly used in the ships is an example of a double-tube heat exchanger. Strut-tube and plate-tube heat exchangers are noticeably different in design from the other shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The tubes in both strut-tube and plate-tube heat exchangers consist of pairs of flat, oblong strips, one fluid flows inside the tubes and the other-flows around the outside. Strut-tube and plate-tube heat exchangers are used primarily as water coolers and lubricating oil coolers in internal combustion engines; they are also used as lube oil coolers for some small auxiliary turbines. The most critical joint in the heat exchanger, and the one most likely to leak, is called the tubeto-tubesheet joint. This joint is made by expanding the tube into serrations or grooves that are located in the tubesheet, by welding the tube to the face of the tubesheet, or by a combination of both. When the tube is expanded into a tubesheet with serrations, the number of serrations can vary from one to as many as three, depending on the service required. The tubes may be expanded into the tubesheet by means of mechanical rollers, hydraulic expansion, or detonation. Though, regardless of the method used, the objective is to create a joint that has a strength greater than the tube and is leak-tight. Factors that affect the quality of the tube-to-tubesheet joint are: Tube hole finish Tube wall thickness reduction Length of expanded joint Tubesheet ligament width (i.e. minimum distance between holes) Relative yield strength between the tube and the tubesheet. Tube wall thickness

Mechanical roller expansion is the most commonly used method of creating a bond between the tube and the tube sheet. A typical expanded tube is illustrated in figure 5 below:

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FIGURE 5 - EXPANDED TUBE-TO-TUBESHEET JOINT WITH FLARED INLET The simplest tube expander is an assembly of three major parts: the mandrel, the cage and the rollers (Figure 6). The maximum roller length is approximately 2 inches, therefore longer joints are rolled in steps. Because of friction between the rollers and tube, and between the rollers and roller cage, the roller surfaces are lubricated.

FIGURE 6 - MECHANICAL TUBE EXPANDER

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Roller expanding extrudes the tube material in the axial direction. Care must be exercised in rolling to avoid inducing undesired stresses in the tubes. When rolling tubes manually, the mandrel is turned by a socket wrench or pneumatic driver. Care must also be taken to follow the manufacturers instructions concerning limits of tube wall thickness reduction. Although the normal practice is to expand the tube into the tubesheet by rolling, there are factors, such as pressure, temperature, fatigue, and corrosion, which, when combined with leakage, dictate that the joint be welded. Tube Arrangement Details - In shell and tube heat exchangers, baffles are generally used to guide flow and increase the velocity of the fluid on the shell side of the heat exchanger. The most commonly used baffles are shown below.

FIGURE 7 - FLOW BAFFLES

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Another consideration is selecting tube arrangement. The four most common tube patterns, as viewed from the tube sheet end, are shown below. The most compact forms are the triangular pitch and the rotated-triangular pitch, and the triangular pattern is most commonly used in marine service heat exchangers.

FIGURE 8 - TUBE PITCH PATTERNS Plate Type Heat Exchangers - The shell-and-tube heat exchanger is the most widely used type for marine applications; however, plate and compact heat exchangers offer alternatives for certain applications. Plate heat exchangers are most commonly used as lube oil coolers and engine jacket water coolers. As shown is figure 9 below, the heat exchanger consists of five

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basic elements: the cover, the carrier rail, the heat transfer plates, the support column, and the tie bolts.

FIGURE 9 - PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER The inlet and outlet for both fluids are usually located in the same cover. The two fluids are separated by the heat transfer plates. Each plate contains a gasket that fits into grooves pressed in the plate and in the nozzle ports. The gasket prevents the two fluids from mixing. The gasket is vented to the atmosphere, which permits a leak to be readily detected. The plates are sandwiched between a fixed cover and a movable cover by the tie bolts. The top and the bottom carrier rails align the plates to each other. The heart of the heat exchanger is the plate. Understanding the design of this plate is vital when specifying the type of heat exchanger. The plate is a sheet of metal approximately .024 inch thick and precision pressed into corrugated patterns, or chevrons. The corrugated pattern, depth, shape, and angle are the manufacturers proprietary information. Since the industry does not have a standard for heat transfer plates, the plates are unique to each manufacturer. To ensure uniform velocity through the plate, the inlet and outlet region of each plate has flow distribution grooves pressed into the plates. Figure 10 shows the design of a typical plate with a gasket.

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FIGURE 10 - PLATE WITH GASKET The heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop can be varied from plate to plate by changing the plate pattern, depth, shape and angle. When designing a plate heat exchanger to transfer a given amount of heat, the number of plates can be increased to establish the required area for a specified chevron angle. Or, the designer may change the angle within the plate pack therefore decreasing the angle needed for heat transfer. Figure 11 shows the typical flow patterns in plate heat exchangers. For different combinations of flow and pressure drop requirements, plate heat exchanger design flexibility is achieved by changing plate size, chevron angle, the flow of some plates to cocurrent flow, or the location of the outlet in the movable cover. Maintenance if the heat exchanger is relatively easy because there is access to both surfaces of the heat transfer plate. Because of its compactness, the inspection and maintenance of this unit does not require additional space.

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FIGURE 11 - TYPICAL FLOW PATTERNS Compact Heat Exchangers - Compact heat exchangers of plate-fin and tube-fin types, tube bundles with small diameters, and regenerative type are used generally for applications where gas flows. The heat transfer surface area is increased by fins to increase the surface area per unit

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volume and there are many variations. Compact heat exchangers are widely used in industry especially as gas-to-gas or liquid-to-gas heat exchangers; some examples are vehicular heat exchangers, condensers and evaporators. There are two types of compact heat exchangers: plate-fin and tube-fin. Plate-fin heat exchangers have each channel defined by two parallel plates separated by fins or spacers. Fins or spacers are sandwiched between parallel plates or formed tubes. Examples of compact plate-fin heat exchangers are shown below in figure 12. Fins are attached to the plates by brazing, soldering, adhesive bonding, welding, mechanical fit, or extrusion. Alternate fluid passages are connected in parallel by end heads to form two sides of a heat exchanger. Fins are employed on both sides in gas-to-gas heat exchangers.

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FIGURE 12 - PLATE-FIN HEAT EXCHANGERS In gas-to-liquid heat exchanger applications, fins are usually employed only on the gas side where the heat transfer coefficient is lower; if fins are employed on the liquid side, they provide a structural strength. The fins used in a plate-fin heat exchanger may be plain and straight fins; plain but wavy fins; or interrupted fins. In a tube-fin heat exchanger, round, rectangular and elliptical tubes are used and fins are employed either on the outside or on the inside, or on both sides depending on the application. In a gas-to-liquid heat exchanger, the gas side heat transfer coefficient is low compared to that of the liquid side. Therefore, no fins are needed on the liquid side. In some application, fins are also used inside the tubes. The liquids flow inside the tube, which can accommodate high pressures. Tube-fin heat exchangers are less compact than plate-fin heat exchangers. Examples are shown below: Fins on the outside tubes may be categorized as: 1. Flat or continuous external fins on an array of tubes 2. Normal fins on individual tubes 3. Longitudinal fins on individual tubes

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FIGURE 13 - TUBE FIN HEAT EXCHANGERS

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS Shell-and-Tube Advantages and Disadvantages - Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are the most versatile and type of heat exchangers. They provide relatively large ratios of heat transfer area to volume and weight. They can also be cleaned very easily. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers offer great flexibility to meet almost any service requirement. The reliable design methods and shop facilities are available for their successful design and construction. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers can be used for high pressures relative to the environment and high-pressure difference between the fluid streams. Most shell-and-tube heat exchangers are able to withstand high temperature and high pressure for long periods of time, thus requiring little down-time. In addition, shell-and-tube exchangers can be used for almost all applications including gas-toliquid and gas-to-gas operations. One of the most common applications for the shell-and-tube type heat exchanger is as the main condenser in steam plants. The major disadvantage to using shell-and-tube heat exchangers is the difficulty in finding leaks. Any leaks may go undetected since the unit is fully enclosed. This will result in unexpected heat losses. . The large surface area, which is another disadvantage, can cause heat loss due to the unit being exposed to the atmosphere. Plate Type Advantages and Disadvantages - The main advantage for using a plate type heat exchanger is the design minimizes the risk of internal leak. Any failure in the gasket results in leakage to the atmosphere that is easily detectable on the exterior of the plate. The additional advantages offered by the plate type heat exchanger are: 1. Flexibility of design is through variety of plate size and pass arrangements. 2. The heat transfer area is easily accessible, which permits changes in configuration to suit any changes in process requirements. 3. Heat transfer is efficient. 4. They are very compact and have a low weight. 5. Only the plate edges are exposed to the atmosphere, therefore leaving heat loss at a minimum. 6. Plate units exhibit low-fouling characteristics due to high turbulence and low residence time. 7. More than two fluids may be processed in a single unit. The major disadvantage of plate type heat exchangers is the gasket imposes restrictions on operation temperatures, pressures, and on the nature of the fluid being handled. Complex channel geometries result in the plate heat exchanges having high-shear characteristics. Operating temperatures are also limited by the availability of its suitable gasket material. Plate type heat exchangers are also not suitable as air coolers, and fluids with high viscosity present some problems due to flow distribution effects, particularly when cooling is taking place. As such, velocities lower than ohm/s are not used in plate heat exchangers.

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PROPER OPERATION OF MAIN CONDENSERS - The versatility of heat exchangers allows them to operate in conditions where they add or remove heat. The following set of operating procedures is based on the condensing aspect of a steam cycle. The heating of media using a heat exchanger is very similar and less complex, so if we can understand the more difficult heat exchanger use, then all other applications should seem easy to us. Under conditions of warming up, standing by, cooling down, and securing, the condenser vacuum should be regulated in accordance with information given in the manufactures technical manual. Two basic rules that apply to the operation of single-pass main condensers should be kept in mind. The first is that the overboard temperature should be about 10 higher than the injection temperature. The second rule is that the condensate discharge temperature should be within a few degrees of the temperature corresponding to the vacuum in the condenser. The accompanying chart lists vacuums (based on a 30,00-inch barometer) and corresponding temperatures.
INCHES OF MERCURY 29.6 29.4 29.2 29.0 28.8 28.6 28.4 28.2 28.0 27.8 27.6 CORRESPONDING TEMPERATURE (F) 53 64 72 79 85 90 94 98 101 104 107

In shipboard applications, scoop injections systems are designed to provide a sufficient amount of cooling water at speeds of 5 knots and above, with the injection and overboard valves wide open. Ordinarily it is not necessary to control the circulating water flow by throttling the valves. If throttling becomes necessary because the ship is in cold waters or because of other unusual operating conditions, the proper valve to use is the overboard valve; the valve should never be more than three-fourths closed. Using the inlet valve to throttle the flow of circulating water would cause turbulence and consequent erosion of the tubes. In the same sense, pumps can be used to recreate the scoop injection system where movement does not exist. If the condenser vacuum is not as high as it should be in relation to the condenser load and the cooling water overboard temperature, some part of the condensing system is not functioning properly. You may find, for example, that the air ejectors are not properly removing air from the condenser, that the condensate pump is not keeping the right condensate level, or that there is an air leak in the condenser or in some other part of the system under vacuum. The condensate level should be kept as low as possible. It should not rise into the condenser shell. Allowing the level to rise slightly higher than the top of the hot well causes the condensate
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temperature to be lower than normal because the path for the flow of reheating steam is partially blocked by the condensate. (Reheating steam is the steam that enters the hot well by way of the central steam lane. The central steam lane extends completely through the tube bundle and provides for longitudinal distribution of steam from the exhaust inlet directly to the condenser hot well). If the condensate level is allowed to rise to the bottom row of tubes, the flow of reheating steam is further restricted, causing an even greater drop in condensate temperature. At this point, also, the high condensate level begins interfering with the flow of air toward the air removal areas, thus causing a gradual loss of vacuum. A rapid loss of vacuum, accompanied by a rapid increase in condenser shell temperature and exhaust trunk temperature, results if the condensate rises to the lower end of the air baffles. This results not only because air removal ceases but also because a large part of the tube bundle is submerged and not available for cooling and condensing the incoming steam. If the condensate level rises and cannot be brought down to normal immediately by speeding up the condensate pump or by cutting in an additional pump, the speed of the main engine must be reduced to avoid serious damage to the engine and condenser. An adequate flow of circulating water must be provided continuously to an operating condenser. This circulating water cools the steam and causes it to condense. Failure of the circulating water supply causes overheating of the condenser and loss of vacuum. Unless the situation is corrected immediately, steam pressure will build up to the point where it might cause the condenser shell to rupture. Causes of insufficient circulating water are: 1. Condenser tubes clogged with foreign matter such as fish, seaweed, or mud. 2. Obstruction of injection or discharge sea chests, strainers, piping, or valves. 3. Injection or overboard valves not properly adjusted. 4. Inefficient or inoperative circulating pump. 5. Obstructed air vents (condenser vapor bound). 6. Faulty non-return valves in scoop injection lines or in main circulating pump discharge lines. Steam or air connections are provided to clear foreign matter from sea chests. Sometimes, however, thick accumulations of marine growth on or around sea valve openings cannot be blown clear. When maximum pressure fails to clear a strainer, a diver must remove the obstruction. Air vents must be kept open under all operating conditions where air is vented overboard through the hull or where the inlet water chest is vented to the discharge water chest or piping, to minimize air erosion of the tubes and to avoid air-binding. Vents that are piped to the bilges should be kept slightly open at all times when the condenser is in use. As long as a trickle of water escapes, the unit will not become air bound and the circulating water flow will not be obstructed. Main condenser circulating pumps are provided with bilge suction connections. These condenser-circulating pumps generally constitute the largest potential capacity available for pumping engine room bilges; it is important that you know how to make necessary connections

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to these suctions in an emergency. It is usually necessary only to turn the bilge suction line stop or stop-check valve one-fourth to one-third open, to obtain maximum bilge suction capacity. MAIN CONDENSERS - The general arrangement of main condensers is shown schematically in figure 14. As may be seen, there are two separate circuits in this heat exchanger. In the vapor-condensate circuit, the steam exhausted from the low-pressure turbine enters at the top of the condenser as condensate. The other circuit is the seawater circuit, which provides a medium for the removal of latent heat from the steam.

FIGURE 14 - ARRANGEMENT OF MAIN CONDENSER During normal ahead operation, seawater flow through the condenser tubes is provided automatically by means of the injector scoop. The scoop, which is open to the sea, directs the water into the inlet water chest; from there it flows once through the tubes, into the discharge water chest, and then overboard through the main overboard sea chest. A main circulating pump provides positive circulating of seawater through the condenser at times when the scoop injection

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system is not sufficient-as, for example, when the ship is stopped, backing down, or moving ahead at very slow speeds. Construction Of Main Condenser - All main condensers that have scoop injection are of the straight-tube, single-pass type, of the general construction shown in figure 15. A main condenser may contain from 2000 to 10,000 copper-nickel alloy tubes, usually of 5/8inch diameter. The length of the tubes and the number of tubes depends upon the size of the condenser; and this, in turn, depends upon the capacity requirements. The tube ends are usually expanded into the tube sheet at the inlet end and are flared after expansion. The outlet tube ends are expanded or else packed or ferruled into the tube sheet. Condensers having tubes ferruled into each tube sheet are found in a few older ships. The tube sheets serve as partitions between the salt-water circuit and the vapor-condensate circuit. Access to the tube sheets is by way of manholes in each water chest. Zinc plates are attached to each manhole cover.

FIGURE 15 - CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE MAIN CONDENSER Various methods of construction are used to provide for relative expansion and contraction of the shell and tubes in main condensers. Packing the tubes at the outlet end is sometimes sufficient. Where the tubes are expanded into each tube sheet, the shell may have an expansion joint. In some condensers the tubes are arranged to bow upward about half an inch at the middle; this provides for expansion and contraction and also makes it easier to drain the condenser.

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Expansion joints are also provided in the scoop injection line and in the overboard discharge line as shown in figure 14. In recent installations, additional means such as a flexible support foot or lubricated sliding feet are provided to compensate for expansion and contraction differentials between the shell and the tubes. Strainer bars are installed in the sea chest or injection pipe area to strain out seaweed, fish, and other material that could clog the piping or the condenser tubes. (Before you laugh at the idea of fish in the condenser, consider the plight of one poor fish that entered a two-pass auxiliary condenser and managed to stay in the return-end water chest until it had grown too large to get out through the return tubes). As the steam is condensed on the tubes, the condensate drips down and collects on a heating tray. Because of the arrangements made for steam flow in a main condenser, some steam flows under the tube bundle and thereby reheats the condensate. From the heating tray, the condensate drains to the hot well, where the condensate pump takes suction. Main condensers have various internal baffle arrangements for the purpose of separating air and steam so that the air ejectors will not be overloaded by having to pump large quantities of steam with the air. One arrangement that provides separate air-cooling sections is shown in figure 15. The supporting flanges shown in figure 15 rest on foundation structure built into the ship. The air baffles are extended up the side of the condenser shell. In some installations the condenser is hung from the low-pressure turbine so that the turbine supports the condenser. This arrangement differs from that shown in figure 15, where the steam lane is centrally located. Where the condenser is hung from the turbine, sway braces are used to connect the lower part of the condenser shell with the ships structure. Spring supports are sometimes used to support part of the weight of the condenser so that the turbine will not support the entire weight. AUXILIARY CONDENSERS - Condensers into which turbo generators exhaust are generally referred to as auxiliary condensers. They operate on the same principle as main condensers. In an auxiliary condenser, however, the cooling water is pumped through the condenser at all times instead of being scoop injected. Also, most auxiliary condensers are of two-pass rather than single-pass construction. Figure 16 shows a two-pass auxiliary condenser; the seawater chest is divided into an inlet chamber and a discharge chamber. In other construction feature, including the metals used, auxiliary condensers are similar to main condensers. Auxiliary exhaust steam, beyond that required for units such as the deaerating feed tank and the distilling plants, may be directed either to the auxiliary condenser. When getting under way, the exhaust goes to the auxiliary condenser until vacuum in the main condenser is sufficiently high.

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FIGURE 16 - AUXILIARY CONDENSER MAINTENANCE OF STEAM CONDENSERS -Heat exchangers and associated equipment should be periodically inspected to ensure that they are operating efficiently. Preventive maintenance is much more economical than corrective maintenance. Air Leaks - The desired condenser vacuum cannot be maintained if the condenser leaks. Leaks at flanged joints and through porous castings can usually be stopped temporarily with application of shellac when the condenser is under vacuum. Leaks around valve stems can sometimes be eliminated by tightening the packing. Small leaks around porous castings, flange nuts, valve stems, etc., can sometimes (but not always) be located by the candle test. Hold a lighted candle

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close to areas where leaks are suspected and see if the flame flickers. A more reliable means of locating condenser air leaks is by use of soapsuds while the steam side of the condenser is under pressure. Remove one of the thermometer wells and install a pressure gage and line. Now subject the steam side of the condenser to a pressure of 5 psi. Apply soapsuds to the units and areas where a leak is suspected and watch for the formation of bubbles. All places where it is possible for an air leak to exist should be investigated. Some of the places to look for possible leaks include the following: 1. Makeup feed line. 2. All gage lines. 3. Drain collecting system drain line. 4. Air ejector inter-condenser drain line. 5. Condensate pump suction line, vent line, and gland sealing system. 6. Condensate and vent lines under vacuum. 7. Air-removal suction line. 8. Thermometer connections. 9. Main exhaust flange and turbine exhaust trunk manholes. 10. Fittings with porous casting. 11. Shell relief valve. 12. Evaporator drain line. 13. Boiling-out connection at bottom of shell. 14. Drain connections or plates at bottom of hot well. 15. Hot well gage glass and fittings. 16. Auxiliary exhaust dumping line. 17. Turbine drain lines. 18. Condensate recirculating line. MAIN CONDENSER TUBE WORK Testing Condensers For Leakage - Several methods are commonly used to test condensers for leakage. In all cases, of course, the turbine and the condenser must be secured and the salt-water side of the condenser must be drained. The preferred method of testing for leaks is to place the steam side under an air pressure of about 5 psig and to slowly fill the salt-water side with salt water. Leaky tubes are indicated by air bubbles coming out of the ends of the tubes. The procedure for making this test is as follows: 1. Close the main injection and overboard valves, and secure them against accidental opening. Drain the seawater side of the condenser. 2. Remove the inspection plates (manhole plates) from the water chests. 3. Secure the condensate pump suction, vent, and recirculating line. 4. Secure all turbine drains to the condenser. 5. Secure the low-pressure drain connection to the condenser. 6. Blank off all steam-side relief valve connections, whether on the turbine casing or on the condenser shell. 7. Close the auxiliary exhaust valve to the condenser. 8. Close the air ejector condenser drains.

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9. Close or blank off the makeup feed valve and the excess feed valve. 10. Secure the recirculating line from the deaerating feed tank to the condenser. 11. Put the steam side of the condenser under an air pressure of about 5 psig. This may be done by admitting air through the exhaust pressure gage fitting on the exhaust trunk from the low-pressure turbine, or through some other convenient connection. The largest fitting that is consistent with the size of the available air hose should be used, since a considerable volume of air is required to pressurize the steam side of the condenser. Let the air pressure build up slowly, to avoid overloading the air compressor and to avoid building up more than 5 psig in the condenser. 12. Line up and cut in the turbine gland sealing steam, if this is necessary in order to achieve a pressure of 5 psig in the condenser. 13. Slowly fill the salt-water side with seawater. Observe the tube ends carefully as the water rises and covers them. Air bubbles coming from the tube needs indicate a leaky tube. 14. Mark all leaky tubes immediately. It is possible to mark them with a grease pencil. However, a better way to mark a defective tube is by putting a wooden plug in each end. This system of marking has the advantage of stopping the bubbling of air, so that you will not be misled as to the condition of the tubes directly above. 15. As the water level approaches the openings, replace the inspection plates. In most condensers there are a number of tubes that are above the lower edge of the inspection openings; these tubes must be tested with soapsuds or with a candle flame, as their ends cannot be covered with water for inspection. The candle test may be used to find large leaks such as might be caused by a split tube. There are two ways of making the candle by a split tube: FIRST METHOD: - Operate the air ejectors, and provide for circulation of condensate through the air ejector condenser by using the condensate pump and a recirculation line. Pass a lighted candle along the rows of the tube ends. The candle flame will be drawn into the ends of the tubes in which there are large leaks. Mark the defective tubes immediately with chalk or a grease pencil. SECOND METHOD: - Put the steam side of the condenser under an air pressure of about 5 psig, by the method previously described. Pass a lighted candle along the rows of tube ends. The candle flame will be deflected away from the ends of the tubes in which there are large leaks. Mark the defective tubes as soon as you find them. The soapsuds test can be used to locate both small and large leaks. The procedure for making this test is: 1. Drain the salt-water side of the condenser. 2. Remove the inspection plates from the water chests. 3. Fill the steam side of the condenser with FRESH water to as high a level as possible. 4. Cover all tube ends with a heavy coating of soapsuds. 5. By the method previously described, apply an air pressure of about 5 psig on top of the water. (Dont forget to use the gland sealing steam to prevent the escape of air from the turbine glands.)

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6. Inspect for leaks. Leaky tubes will be indicated either by water trickling from the tube or by bubbling of the soapsuds. Occasionally, none of the methods described above are adequate for detecting condenser leaks. In such cases, test for leaks by filling the steam side of the condenser with fresh water to which has been added a small amount of Marker Dye. This dye is readily detectable on the tube sheet as it issues from a tube leak, when used in the proper concentrations. If a portable battery-operated ultraviolet lamp is available for use in inspecting the tube sheets, use only 1.5 ounces of the dye per 1000 gallons of fresh water. When used in either of these concentrations, the dye is not poisonous and will not do any harm to the feed system or to the boiler. PRECAUTIONS to be observed when testing condensers for leakage are: 1. Before opening the salt-water side of a condenser, close and secure all sea connections, including the main injection, the circulating pump suction, and the main overboard stop valves. 2. Before removing a manhole or handhole plate, drain the salt-water side by using the drain valve in the inlet water chest. Draining the salt-water side in this manner provides a check on the tightness of closure of all sea connections. 3. Never subject a condenser shell to test pressures in excess of 15 psig. 4. Never use an open flame or any sparking object in a newly opened condenser until the condenser has been thoroughly blown out with steam or air, and it has been definitely established that there is no explosive hazard from hydrogen gas or any other gas. Condenser explosions have occurred as the result of failure to observe this precaution. 5. Always drain the salt-water side before flooding the steam side, and keep the salt-water side free of water until after the steam side has been emptied. Plugging Condenser Tubes - Main condenser tubes that fail in service should be plugged at each end with the type of tube plugs originally furnished by the manufacturer of the condenser. The manufacturers instructions should be followed in plugging condenser tubes. Plugs should be driven firmly into the tube ends by light hammer blows. If a metal plug is used to plug tube sheet holes after a tube has been removed, a short section of tube should be installed at each end and expanded into the tube sheet to protect the tube sheet holes from damage. Tubes that leak at the tube joints but that are otherwise in good condition should NOT be plugged. Such tubes should be rerolled or repacked rather than plugged. When several tube leaks occur close together and in such a location that steam-side erosion may be suspected as the cause of trouble, steel rods should be inserted into the damaged tubes before the ends are plugged. These rods will serve as a sort of baffle or shield to protect adjacent tubes from similar damage from erosion. The steel rods should be slightly smaller in diameter than the tubes. In order to minimize lengthwise working of the rods that would tend to loosen the plugs, rods should be installed in the following way:

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1. Cut each rod so that it is as long as it can be without interfering with the tube plugs. 2. Cut two or three grooves in each end of the rod. The grooves should start about 2 inches from the end, and should be spaced about 1 inch apart. They should be deep enough and wide enough to take a standard condenser tube fiber-packing ring. 3. Cut a segment from one fiber-packing ring for each groove in the rod. Cut the packing ring in such a way that when the ends are brought together the resulting ring will fill a groove in the steel rod and make a snug fit in the tube. 4. Insert the rods, together with the packing rings, in the tubes that are to be plugged. Center the rods properly; spray the packing with fresh water so that it will swell; and then plug the tube ends. Main condenser tubes that have been plugged should be renewed at the first shipyard availability if the water chests are to be removed for other work. Tubes that have had steel rods inserted to protect other tubes against erosion should NOT be replaced unless the cause of the erosion has been found and corrected. Repairing Condenser Tube Sheets - Although leakage through main condenser tube sheets is extremely uncommon, it has been known to occur as the result of the tube sheets becoming porous or cracked. On newer ships, the metals used for main condenser tube sheets are highly resistant to porosity and cracking; and even on older installations there is very little history of main condenser tube sheet failures. The chances are, therefore, that you will never be called upon to repair main condenser tube sheets. However, there are two procedures that you should know about that might be used in an emergency to control leakage through the tube sheet. These procedures are temporary in nature. Porosity can be stopped temporarily be tinning or by peening. As a rule, tube sheets should not be painted with boiled linseed oil or other coatings. A tube sheet crack may be temporarily stitched by the following procedure: 1. Drill holes at each end of the crack (if the crack does not terminate in tube sheet holes) and at close intervals all along the crack. Do NOT drill any hole deeper than one-half the thickness of the tube sheet. 2. Insert threaded brass or copper plugs into the drilled holes. When fully screwed in, the plug should have at least five threads engaged and should project about inch. 3. If the crack terminates in tube sheet holes, as it most likely will, remove the tubes from these holes and close the holes with threaded metal plugs. 4. After all plugs have been screwed into position, lightly but thoroughly rivet down the projecting ends of the plugs to form a complete layer of metal over the crack. Renewing Condenser Tubes - Since you have probably had more experience in boiler tube work than in condenser tube work, you should note the differences between the two kinds of work. In some ways, condenser tube work is easier than boiler tube work because the materials used are so much softer. However, the very fact that they are softer means that they are also much more easily damaged. If you go at a condenser re-tubing job as though you were working on a boiler, you may end up with damaged tubes and completely ruined tube sheet holes.

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Some repair activities have special equipment for the rapid removal of old condenser tubes. If such equipment is not available, the old tubes maybe cut to short lengths inside the shell and a drift may be used to drive the tube ends out of the tube sheet. Figure 17 shows a drift that is suitable for use on condenser tubes of 5/8-inch outside diameter and 0.049-inch wall thickness.

FIGURE 17 - DRIFT FOR DRIVING TUBE ENDS FROM TUBE SHEETS (DIMENSION ARE FOR TUBES OF 5/8-INCH OD AND 0.049-INCH WALL THICKNESS If serious difficulty is encountered in removing expanded tubes, it may be necessary to ream the expanded ends until only a thin and easily removable shell of tube remains in the tube hole. A reamer of the type shown below in figure 18 may be used for this purpose.

FIGURE 18 - REAMER FOR REMOVING EXPANDED TUBE ENDS It should be fitted with a pilot that closely fits the inside bore of the tube. The reamer should only be used by skilled personnel who can use it without allowing it to touch the surfaces of the tube holes in the tubesheets. Before replacement tubes are installed, all interior parts of the condenser must be thoroughly inspected. If there is any doubt as to the condition of the joints between the tube and the condenser shell, the tube sheets should be removed, the flanges trued, and the joints re-gasketed. Joints should be remade and the glands should be repacked.

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Replacement tubes must be made of the material specified by the manufacturers. Replacement tubes are generally furbished in stock lengths and must be cut to size before installation. It is good practice to cut the tubes about 1/8 inch longer than the distance between the outside of the tubesheets and then finish to the exact length by using an air-driven end mill or surface grinder after the tubes are installed. After complete removal of the old tubes, insertion of the new tubes is most easily accomplished by having men inside the condenser to guide the tubes through the proper holes. If working space is limited, it may be wise to remove the tube sheet at the end and replace it after the tubes have been inserted. Cleaning Condensers - Foreign matter lodged on the steam side of the condenser tubes interferes with and reduces the rate of the flow of heat from the condensing steam to the circulating water. This, in turn, reduces the maximum vacuum obtainable and lowers the efficiency of the condenser. The lodgment of foreign matter on the seawater side of the tubes is detrimental to the tubes themselves in addition to slowing down the transfer of heat. Frequent visual inspections provide the only safe means of knowing the conditions of condenser fouling. Grease and dirt on the steam side of a condenser may be boiled out with a strong solution of boiler compound. Normally, though, this boiling-out process should not be necessary more than once every 2 or 3 years. The sea water side of the tubes should be cleaned as often as necessary; the intervals depending upon the rate at which slime, marine growth, scale, mud, oil, grease, etc., are deposited on the tube walls. The amount of such deposits depends upon existing conditions. Operation in shallow water, for example, may cause this fouling of the tubes. For ordinary cleaning, the tubes can be scrubbed out with a rotating bristle brush, or an air lance may be pushed through them. Another method is to shoot soft rubber plugs (Figure 19) through the tubes by means of compressed air or water under pressure.

FIGURE 19 - TYPES OR RUBBER PLUGS USED FOR CLEANING CONDENSER TUBES.

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Care Of Idle Condensers - The salt-water side of the idle condenser should be kept dry. If the condenser is to be put into active use again in a few days, it may be kept filled and the water should be circulated daily. One exception should be noted: when the ship is anchored in highly polluted waters, the sea water side should be drained and thoroughly washed out whenever the condenser is secured. The steam side of the condenser should always be dry when the condenser is secured. Condenser Safety Precautions - The following safety precautions should be observed in relation to all steam condensers in the engineering plant: 1. Make every effort to eliminate air leaks through all parts of the system that operate under vacuum. 2. Do not subject seawater chests to pressures in excess of 15 psi. 3. Lift by hand and examine water chest relief valves whenever condensers are secured. 4. To detect salt-water leaks, constantly check the salinity indicator. 5. Keep baffle plates in place under steam inlets to condensers, and keep them in good condition. 6. Keep the required number of zincs in place, and ensure that they always have good metallic contact. 7. Slow down or stop the engine if a loss of vacuum is accompanied by a hot or flooded condenser 8. Do not allow water to accumulate in the condenser and overflow into the turbine. 9. Keep condensers clean and tight. 10. Before the salt-water side of a condenser is opened, close all sea connections tightly and secure them against accidental opening. 11. Bring no open flame (or anything which will cause a spark) close to a newly opened condenser, until after the condenser has been thoroughly blown out with steam or air. Hydrogen or sewer gas may be present. 12. Renew deteriorated tube packing before it reaches such a condition that removal is difficult. 13. When setting-up on ferrule-type tube packing, do not exert so much pressure that the tube end is necked or crimped; however, screw down the ferrules enough to keep them from backing out. 14. Be careful not to damage tube sheets when repairing tube ends or renewing tubes. 15. Keep condenser tubes clear of foreign matter. 16. Keep salt-water sides of idle condenser dry, especially when the ship is in polluted waters. 17. Keep the steam side of secured condensers drained. 18. Keep the salt-water sides of condensers in use free from air. 19. When boiling out and draining condensers, see that necessary safeguards are provided to protect yourself and others against being scalded. 20. Keep salinity indicator systems in constant operation.

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MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION USE OF ZINCS - Most heat exchangers that utilize salt water as a cooling medium have zincs installed on the salt-water side to protect the metal of the unit against electrolytic (galvanic) corrosion. When dissimilar metals are immersed in an electrolyte such as seawater, a small electric cell is set up. Current flows from one metal to the other through the electrolyte. The metal from which the current is flowing suffers rapid corrosion; the metal toward which the current is flowing is protected from corrosion. Some metals react very rapidly to galvanic action, while other metals do not. Lead, copper, tin, and brass are least affected by electrolysis. The ferrous metals are affected in varying degrees. Zinc is extremely susceptible to galvanic action, and is therefore used for replaceable electrodes in seawater circuits. When clean zinc is installed in the seawater side of a heat exchanger, the current developed by the combination of seawater and the dissimilar metals flows from the zinc to the adjacent metal of the unit. Thus the metal of the heat exchanger is protected from electrolytic corrosion, while the zinc is eaten away. In other words, zincs do not prevent electrolysis but, instead, provide a replaceable surface for the corrosion. The stray currents generated by electrolysis must be grounded. This is generally accomplished by establishing a good metallic contact between the zinc and the housing of the heat exchanger. Zincs are always installed at the salt-water inlet to a heat exchanger and in many cases are also installed at the salt-water outlet. The shape of the zinc protectors depends upon the design of the heat exchanger. Zinc protectors in common use include rectangular plates, circular plates, and rods or pencils. The zincs formerly used in the ships lost their effectiveness if the corroded metal was not removed from the surface. In recent years, a new type of special high-grade zinc has come into common use. Zinc protectors made of this material have the ability to slough off corrosion products as rapidly as they are formed. This characteristic allows the zinc to give continuous protection against electrolytic corrosion, until the zinc is considerably deteriorated, since there is no crust of corrosion products to interfere with the galvanic action. Zinc protectors made of this material do not require monthly scaling; they should, however, be inspected from time to time and wiped free of loose debris if necessary. Care of Zinc Plates - Zinc protectors lose their full effectiveness if the decomposed metal is not removed from their surfaces or if they are deteriorated to the extent that there is an appreciable reduction in exposed surface area. In order to provide maximum protection against damage to condensers through electrolysis, protective zincs must be inspected and thoroughly scaled at intervals not exceeding 1 month. Zincs that are found to be more than one-half deteriorated must be replaced. Figure 20 shows how a badly scaled zinc plate appears before and after the scaling or cleaning process.

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FIGURE 20 - BADLY SCALED ZINC PLATE. A. BEFORE BEING CLEANED. B. AFTER BEING CLEANED. It is absolutely essential that good contact be made between the zincs and the metal of the condenser in order to protect the condenser from galvanic corrosion. Zincs are generally mounted on studs which are welded to manhole plates or water chests. Copper-nickel washers are mounted between the zincs to ensure metallic contact. Split pins are used to prevent the nut from coming loose and damaging the water chest or tubes. PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER MAINTENANCE - The following is the procedure for opening the heat exchanger: Allow unit to cool. Release all pressure from inside of exchanger. If fitted, remove the pipe work connected to mobile/follower frame plate, & the intermediate frame/divider plates. Lightly oil tie bolt threads. Undo the clamping bolts uniformly keep the frame plates as parallel as possible during this operation. Push/ pull back the mobile frame plate away from plates pack & secure if necessary. Separate heat transfer plates carefully, avoiding damage to gaskets. Use gloves to handle the plates the edges can be sharp. Cleaning Of The Plates - Always wear gloves & eye goggles when using cleaning detergents. Use nylon or other types of soft scrubbing brushes with detergent. NEVER use a metal brush, steel wool, or sand/glass paper. Use Acetone, or other types of solvent which do not contain chlorine, to remove old gasket glue. Alternatively, use an LP gas flame, heating the reverse side

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of the plate. Do not use any other type of gas which may produce a harder flame. Boiling water can be used with some success. Detergents - Consult a cleaning specialist for a suitable choice of detergent. Ensure that all detergents used are compatible with the plate and gasket material before use. OXIDE OR CHALK deposits use 2 to 5 % nitric acid solution. ORGANIC, PROTEIN CONTAINING deposits use 2% solution of sodium hydroxide at temperature of 50 deg. C. GREASE deposits use neat kerosene, or an emulsifying agent (Jizer or Gunk). LIME deposits 10% nitric acid soak at room temperature for 10 minutes, followed by a caustic soda wash. MILK deposit circulate 1.5% nitric acid at 65 deg. C. ORGANIC OR GREASE deposits circulate 1.5% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 85 deg. C. After using any type of cleaning agent, always rinse thoroughly with fresh water. If cleaning in place, then circulate fresh water for at least 10 mins. Where O-rings are fitted, the flat side of the gasket is fitted into the circular gasket groove. If the O-ring is not flat on one side, then the thinnest part/side of the ring should be located into the gasket groove. It may be necessary to apply a small amount of gasket glue, or Locktite to hold the O-ring in place whilst the plate is being assembled. If the gaskets are to be replaced, ensure that the same plate portholes remain open as with the old gasket. If a number of gaskets are to be replaced, and the plates have been cleaned so the outline of the old gasket has been removed, then before attaching the gaskets, stack the plates with all of the pressure/herringbone patterns facing the same direction and the plates are surrounded by the gasket O-rings. Some gaskets will require glue. If no instructions are provided by the adhesive manufacturer, then we suggest that a thin layer of glue is spread into the plate gasket groove, using either a narrow paintbrush or a syringe. Contact adhesives (such as Pliobond 25 or 30) also require a thin layer of adhesive to be applied to the flat-faced side of the gasket. Check that, once stuck, the gasket will be correctly positioned, then fix the gasket to the plates, ensuring that all parts are seated into the gasket grooves, with no parts of the gasket stretched or bunched. Stack the plates, and leave to set. Warm oven curing accelerates the drying process. Snap-in type gaskets require no adhesive they are located by pushing the gasket fully down into the gasket groove. The gaskets are held into place by the interference fit narrowed portions of the gasket groove are pressed to ensure a secure fit. On some model types, the rubber frame plate nozzle liners have an O-ring molded into the liner itself. This molded O-ring fits into the gasket groove in the first plate. Therefore, if new gaskets have been fitted, the O-ring portion of the gasket around the nozzle hole will have to be cut off prior to assembly back into the frame.

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Plate Pack Assembly - The plates must be clean, dry, and free from oil or grease. If there are any oil deposits on the gaskets, or on the gasket seating area, then there is a strong likelihood that the plates shall slip out of place when the unit is being tightened. If the gaskets are contaminated with dirt, or grit, then these could cause leakage. Assembly: Fit O-ring first (if applicable). Refer to the Plate Sequence Sheet to determine the order of the plates, & the type required. Fit the start plate, ensuring the plate pattern is pointing in the correct direction. Fit plates according to the Plate Sequence Sheet. Ensure all gaskets face towards the fixed/head frame plate. Alternate between left & right handed plates if the plate edges form a regular honeycomb pattern, then the left/right hand sequence is correct. Tightening Of The Plate Pack Procedure: Lightly oil tie bolt threads. Do not allow oil or grease onto the gaskets or the gasket faces on the back of the plates. Wet or oil contaminated plates can become misaligned during tightening. In the event, dismantle, clean, and dry all areas in contact with the gaskets. Evenly tighten all bolts. We recommend the use of ratchet spanners. Ensure clamping is as uniform as possible, thus keeping the frames plates parallel throughout the operation. Avoid skewing the frame plates by more than 10 mm. Tightening is complete when the distance between the inside faces of the two frame plates equals the A dimension as shown on the contract drawing. Finally check that all bolts are in tension, and clean any spilt oil off the frame plates. On completion, the unit can be pressure tested (Test pressure is stated on the name plate). WARNING: Do not tighten the plate pack less than the minimum tightening dimension as given on the contract drawing. Over compression will damage both plates & gaskets. Always check that the number of plates actually fitted is correct. Gasket failures are generally a result of: 1. Old age. 2. Excessive exposure to ozone 3. High operating temperature above the temp. limit of the material. 4. Exposure to pressure surges. 5. Chemical attack. 6. Physical damage resulting from poor assembly practice, or damage resulting from a misaligned plate (check the hanging system at the top of the plate for distortion) Decrease in the performance: 1. Plate surfaces require cleaning or de-scaling. 2. Pumps or associated controls have failed. 3. Plate channels blocked. 4. Liquid flows not as per the design specification. 5. Associated chiller/cooling tower/ boiler under sized.

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6. Cooling water flow temperature to the exchanger is higher than design. 7. Heating media temperature lower than design figures. 8. Steam flow not sufficient control valve malfunction. 9. Steam trap broken or jammed this can cause the unit to become filled with condensate. 10. Plate pack has been assembly incorrectly. 11. Unit running in co-current flow, instead of counter current check with contract drawing and alter pipe work if necessary, and check direction of pump flows. 12. Air lock has developed in the plate pack. DESIGN PARAMETERS - Marine heat exchangers are designed in accordance with the standards of the American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyds Register of Shipping and the US Coast Guard. Many additional requirements have been incorporated in specifications for marine heat exchangers due to stringent space limitations and reliability requirements. The following points are emphasized in their design: Heads are designed so that it will not be necessary to disassemble piping to gain access to the inside of the heads and tubes. The tube bundle is usually of the removable type for easy cleaning and maintenance. In the design of cooling-water spaces and connections, smooth flow path must be provided to minimize erosion-corrosion attack. Sharp corners and projecting edges are avoided. Internal fittings are arranged to result in a minimum of interference with the water flow and a minimum of turbulence. Cooling water velocities at the design point must not exceed those specified or recommended by the material supplier. Heat exchangers having tubes with a length exceeding 4ft are designed so that the ordering length of tubes will be in multiples of 6in. The ordering length of tubes is determined by adding 1/8 in. to the face-to-face distance between the outside of the tubesheets. The minimum tubesheet thickness is usually specified to be no less than in. When external fins are applied to the tubes, one end of the tube is usually enlarged to the outside diameter of the fins to enable the removal and insertion of individual tubes. Holes in the tubesheet at the inlet end of the tubes are flared to allow for belling the ends of the tubes. Holes in the tubesheets are provided with at least one groove. The edges of the holes are rounded, usually on a 1/16 in. radius, on the inner face of each tubesheet and on the outer faces of the tubesheets at the discharge ends of the tubes. The inlet ends of the tubes are expanded and belled, and the ends are finished flush with the face of the tubesheet. In no case should the ends of the tubes be inside the face of the tubesheets. Discharge ends of tubes protrude up to 1/16in beyond the face of the tubesheet. A number of baffles are increased in thickness (usually in) to act as support plates and are located so that the maximum tube length between support plates, or between a tubesheet and support plate, does not exceed 36in. In order to diffuse the entering stream and reduce erosion of the tube ends, for single pass coolers the waterbox depth measured normal to the tubesheet should not be less

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than one half the diameter of the tubesheet area exposed to the tubes. For cylindrical pass coolers, the depth should not be less than 35%. All heat exchangers are required to have adequate support. When required by the conditions of service, provision is made in the design of the supports to provide for expansion or contraction of the shell. Heat exchanger supports are usually independent of any attached piping. Supports must be given special consideration when design naval combatants for high-impact shock conditions. In the design of marine heat exchangers, consideration must be given to the varying degrees of inclination encountered in service. In naval practice, heaters and coolers are designed to perform satisfactorily under conditions of 5-deg trim, 10-deg pitch, 15-deg list, and 45-deg roll. Adequate air vents must be provided on heat exchanger waterboxes to avoid the collection of air in the upper region of the waterbox, as air pockets can resist the tubeside flow and render a portion of the heat transfer surface ineffective. Such air pockets can also result in overheating and expansion of the dry tubes and cause failures at the tube joints. In feedwater heaters and condensers, wet steam at high velocity must not be permitted to impinge on the tubes, otherwise the surface of the tubes will be rapidly eroded. Baffles or distribution pipes must be incorporated as necessary to prevent the direct impingement of wet steam on tubes. Impingement protection from entering shell-side fluids is often advisable. This may include adding an impingement baffle or impingement rods opposite the shell inlet nozzle.

In order to specifically direct attention to the items that govern the thermal and mechanical design of a heat exchanger the following should be included in the specifications: 1. Substances to be heated or cooled 2. Quantity of substance to be heated or cooled within a specific period of time 3. Initial and final temperatures desired 4. When heating or cooling media are other than water: Viscosity Specific Gravity Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity 5. Working pressures 6. Allowable pressure drop through the shell and tube sides of the heat exchanger 7. Desired construction materials 8. Design temperatures and pressures 9. Fouling factor or service margin 10. Weight limitations 11. Specific geometric arrangement and type of piping interface connections 12. Test conditions

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
OIL WATER SEPARATORS 1. Background 2. Principle of operation 3. Effects of heat and time 4. Operation-process flow 5. Trouble shooting 6. Testing Oil Content Monitors 7. Laws concerning discharge of waste and fines

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INTRODUCTION - In recent years the oil pollution of the seas has probably been discussed more often and at greater length than almost any other maritime topic. In addition to the many attempts over the years to analyze the sources of this pollution, there have been an equal number of efforts made to tighten up regulations controlling the discharge of oil-contaminated wastes. Table 1 gives the reader an indication of the varying quantities of oil that are being deposited in the world's oceans, and although the actual total figure may be subject to some disagreement among authorities, very few will question the validity of the relative percentages. TABLE 1 Sources of Oil Input to the Oceans Source Annual Input, 1973 Marine transportation (million tons) L.O.T. tankers 0.31 Non-L.O.T. tankers 0.77 Dry docking 0.25 Terminal operations 0.003 Bilges bunkering 0.50 Tanker accidents 0.2 Non-Tanker accidents 0.1 Subtotal (2.133) Offshore oil production 0.08 Coastal oil refineries 0.2 Industrial waste 0.3 Municipal waste 0.3 Urban runoff 0.3 River runoff (including input from recreational boating) 1.6 Natural seeps 0.6 Atmospheric 0.6 TOTAL 6.133 There has been a gradual strengthening of regulations controlling the discharge of oil-polluted water. An IMO convention sets out the "requirements for the control of pollution." The convention covered not only the problem of tanker discharges, but also discharges from general cargo vessels. To achieve the quality of overboard discharge required by the regulations, it has now become essential to install an efficient oily water separator as a standard part of ship's equipment. In the past the regulations only required the maintenance of a logbook detailing the position of the vessel when discharges took place. The new requirements calling for the oily water separator are in addition to the inclusion of a monitoring system to upgrade the quality of overboard discharge.

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PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION - In order to meet these new requirements, most oily water separators consist of three stages. The first, a gravimetric stage, involves a simple chamber where the velocity of the mixture is reduced to permit large oil globules to rise to the surface and heavier debris to settle.

FIGURE 1 - TYPICAL OILY WATER SEPARATOR/COALESCERS The second stage is usually an inclined plate coalescer in which a series of plates, either corrugated or flat, are set at an angle of approximately 40/50 slope in the oily water stream. The plates can be either in line with the flow or across the flow and collect the small oil droplets on the underside of one plate, allowing the droplets to coalesce with the larger globules and then escape at the top of the plate pack, while the solid debris particles fall and collect on the upper surface of the lower plates, gradually sliding to the bottom of the separator. Dependent upon

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flow rate, pump type, etc.; the plate type separator can produce very good effluents, certainly below 100 ppm. However, very few are capable of performing to the 15 ppm standard and to meet this higher quality an additional polisher coalescer is fitted. Figure 1 shows a typical separator/coalescer. The third stage of an oily water separator consists of a polisher coalescer usually made of a fibrous or knitted material. This material, formed in blocks, cartridges, or socks, has the properties to attract oil (oleophilic) or to attract water (hydrophilic). In the oleophilic coalescer the minute particles of oil remaining after the plate separator stage collect on the fibers of the coalescer material where they form larger droplets that rise relatively easily to the surface of the water and are removed. Unfortunately, the very nature of the material of the polisher coalescer makes it an extremely good filter for any other debris, which may come through a plate separator, and will in time cause the final coalescer to block, necessitating replacement of the coalescing material. In this respect the essential requirements of a streamlined flow with settling velocities in excess of the hydraulic velocity will be seen to have a tremendous influence on the life of the final coalescer. Coupled with the improved design of the separator, there has been a greater realization of the effect that the pump supplying the separator has on the performance of the separator. For instance, a centrifugal pump is a very good mixer, and to use a unit of this type with an oily water separator is unwise. Similarly, a reciprocating pump with plate- type valves produces a very homogeneous mixture, which is difficult to separate. Ideally, a diaphragm pump is the most suitable for use with an oily water separator. However, such a pump is not particularly suited to shipboard application and as a reasonably good alternative a screw pump can be used. Figure 2 shows curves depicting the effect of pump type on oil droplet size.

FIGURE 2 OILY WATER SEPARATOR PUMP DROPLET SIZE. It is also important that the separator's proportions be such that the settling velocity of both oil droplets and/or debris particles is not exceeded by the hydraulic velocities in critical areas of the
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separator. Stokes law is applicable in this instance as it applies at low Reynolds numbers. To ensure that streamline flow is achieved, a Reynolds number of 2,000 should not be exceeded. The combined effect of a poorly selected feed pump and excessive velocity will create small particles with low separating velocities that are therefore able to escape overboard. Figure 3 shows how the particle size influences the performance of a separator.

FIGURE 3 PARTICLE SIZE IN OILY WATER MIXTURE AND INFLUENCE ON PARTICLE CAPTURE GENERAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION - The SAREX 1-GPM Oil-Water Separators are twostage gravity-coalescer type devices designed to separate and remove non-soluble oil, solids, and entrained air from oily water. The system, which can process oily water at a rate of one (1) gallon per minute, or two (2) gallons per minute, is designed for continuous and intermittent operation without the need for chemical or other additives. After the systems have been started, they are capable of automatic operation. The system design incorporates the dual features of gravity and filter/coalescer separation to provide the most efficient and effective means for separating oil from water and for reducing the maintenance frequency of filter element replacement. The first stage vessel, which functions as the Gravity Separator, is where the primary separation of oil from water occurs. Separation of most of the oil component from the oily water mixture and removal of sludge and solids in the first stage extends the life of the coalescer element contained in the second stage vessel. The first stage which operates under vacuum is equipped with a series of inclined adsorption plates which act as collection surfaces for separated oil droplets.

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The second stage is a coalescer stage which contain the replaceable filter element for removing any oil residue remaining after processing through the First Stage Gravity Separator. The filter provides a surface upon which very small droplets of non-soluble oil dispersed in the water attach and combine (coalesce) with other oil droplets. When the oil droplets grow to sufficient size, they are forced off the exterior surface of the filter by fluid flow and are separated from the water. The difference in specific gravity between water and oil permits gravitational separation of the oil from the water. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION - The major components of the SAREX 1-GPM and 2GPM Oil-Water Separators are: (1) Two vertically mounted pressure vessels. (2) A water pump/motor assembly. (3) An oil pump/motor assembly. (4) Appropriate displays and controls. The two separate pressure vessels, or stages, are vertically mounted and arranged in series for processing the fluid flow. The operational configuration of the system is such that the First Stage Gravity Separator operates under a vacuum and the Second Stage Coalescer is maintained under pressure. The electric motor-driven Water Pump takes suction from near the bottom of the First Stage Gravity Separator and discharges into the Second Stage vessel. This arrangement, coupled with the size of the inlet line, minimizes emulsification of the oily water influent as it is drawn through the first stage. The Oil Pump only functions to remove accumulated oil from the top of the Gravity Separator. The Oil Pump suction is connected to the oil discharge tank. The first stage is designed to significantly reduce the fluid velocity of the incoming oily water mixture. The resulting decrease in velocity permits oil/water separation to occur naturally from the effect of gravity. Oil droplets in the influent, separated from the water due to the reduction in fluid velocity that occurs as the influent exits the inlet line and enters the vessel interior, rise and accumulate at the top of the vessel. Oil droplets which do not rise to the top of the vessel are removed through coalescence by the inclined adsorption plates in the lower part of the vessel. The plates separated will collect (coalesce) and separate from the flow. Holes punched in the plates permit the oil droplets to rise to the top of the vessel. Solid are also removed from the influent in this stage. Oil is automatically discharged from the first stage when the Oil-Level Float Switch, mounted in the first stage, senses the oil and electronically signals the activation of the Oil Pump and the deactivation of the Water Pump. When sufficient oil has been discharged to cover the float switch with water, the system is returned to its previous condition. The processed water effluent from the first stage enters the suction port of the Water Pump and is discharged into the second stage. The second stage, which contains a filter element, performs the dual function of removing particulate matter and oil that were not separated in the first stage. The replaceable filter element is designed for inside-to-outside fluid flow. As fluid flows from the inside to the outside of the filter element, oil droplets form on the surface of the elements. As the oil droplets grow to sufficient size, they are forced off the surface by fluid flow. This attachdetach process works solely through fluid flow and requires no moving parts. The detached oil

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droplets rise and accumulate at the top of the vessel. If an element becomes clogged, or its surface chemically contaminated, it is easily replaced. Oil is continuously discharge from the second stage through a recirculation line located at the top of the vessel. This oil is returned to the system inlet where it rises to the top of the first stage vessel and is removed from the system upon activation of the Oil Pump. The pressure vessels are constructed of carbon steel. Each vessel is equipped with a Sight Glass through which to view water clarity and oil level and a combination water Sample/Drain Valve to either sample or drain water from each vessel. The elbows into which each of the Sight glasses are fitted are self-sealing to prevent leakage in the event a Sight Glass breaks. A manually operated vent valve is mounted on the cover of the stages to discharge air displaced by the influent. Oil flow from the second stage recirculation line to the system inlet is regulated by a manually operated metering valve. The Control Module panel contains a Auto Control Switch, which places the pump circuit in a manual circuit in a manual or automatic mode of the operation and also energizes the pump circuit relay, and a Supply Pump Switch, which provides an override capability for operating either the water or oil pump. An automatic motor stop and start option is also incorporated in the Control Module. High and low level fluid sensors, if installed in an oily water holding tank at the option of the user and connected to the Control Module, will provide an automatic start and stop capability for the pump motor circuit. The high-level provides the capability for automatic shutdown. Mounted on the control box is a vacuum gauge, which indicates the vacuum inside the First Stage Separator, and a pressure gauge on the inlet to the Second Stage Separator to indicate vessel backpressure. Should there be a loss of suction or the fluid level in the First Stage becomes too low, the internal Shut-Down Float Switch located in the First Stage will automatically shutdown the oil and water pumps. The system is equipped with a remotely mounted Bilge Alarm (BA-1A), which continually monitors the contamination level of non-soluble oil in the effluent flow from the Second Stage Vessel, and controls the operation of the water discharge valve and the recirculation valve. If the oil contamination in the effluent rises above the set limits of the Bilge Alarm, discharge overboard is prohibited and the effluent is diverted back to the bilge or holding tank for reprocessing. A visual indicator is automatically activated when the system enters the recirculation mode. A separate enclosure is mounted at the rear of the unit and houses a customer specified time relay device. This relay provides contacts, which can be set to close after a predetermined period of time. The relay can be adjusted to close at any time between 4 minutes and 25 minutes after the separator unit has been started.

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The equipments performance is contingent upon and consistent with the recommendations stated in the IMCO Recommendations for Performance and Test Specifications for Oil Content Meters: Detergents should not be used in the bilges for cleaning purposes, as the emulsifying effects of such compounds seriously affect the operation of the equipment. Particulate matter can also have a detrimental effect on equipment performance when subjected to a vibration environment, which does not exceed the levels specified by the IMCO test requirements.

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FIGURE 3
COMPONENT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION NUMBER System Inlet Cover Retainer Clamp First Stage Separator Cover First Stage Separator Pulling Elbow Float Switch Bleed Valve First Stage Separator Pulling Elbow Float Switch Pump Selector Switch Vacuum Gauge First Stage Separator Control Module - Separator Pressure Gauge Second Stage Separator Inlet System Selector Switch Bleed Valve Second Stage Separator Cover Second Stage Separator Cover Retainer Clamp Second Stage Separator Sight Glass Second Stage Separator COMPONENT 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION NUMBER Sight Glass Shutoff Valve Second Stage Separator Second Stage Separator Sample/Drain Valve Second Stage Separator Water Pump Motor Water Pump First Stage Separator Sample/Drain Valve First Stage Separator Sight Glass Shutoff Valve First Stage Separator Sight Glass First Stage Separator Control Module Bilge Alarm Power Switch Bilge Alarm Recirculate Light Water Discharge Light Digital Display Bilge Alarm

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FIGURE 4
COMPONENT
1 17 21 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 65

COMPONENT DESCRIPTION NUMBER


System Inlet Second Stage Separator First Stage Separator Bilge Alarm Sensing Module Solenoid Valve Solenoid Operated Recirculating Valve Sensing Module Cleanout Plug Oil Return Line Solenoid Valve Solenoid Operated Water Discharge Valve Metering Valve Oil Pump Motor Oil Pump Oil Discharge Line Skid Time Delay Relay Enclosure

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FIGURE 5
COMPONENT 25 29 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION NUMBER Bilge Alarm Control Module Digital Display Alarm Set Switch Calibration Check Switch Zero Set Point Adjustment Knob Alarm Set Point Adjustment Screw Digital Volt Meter Adjustment Screw (DVM) Recorder Adjustment Screw (REC) Amplifier Printed Circuit Board Power Supply Board Fuses Transformer COMPONENT 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION NUMBER Alarm Relay Harness Sockets Terminal Block TB3 Terminal Block TB2 Terminal Block TB1 Chassis Terminal Strip Cover Digital Display Circuit Board Mother Board Recorder & DVM Adjustment Guard Test Points Calibration Check No. 115/220 VAC Switch

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82

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE - The procedures listed in the following index are described in the referenced paragraphs and should be performed at the intervals shown. Except for performing a periodic calibration check of the Bilge Alarm, and cleaning the Bilge Alarm Sensor Windows, the procedures listed below are corrective maintenance and therefore performed on an as required basis. TABLE 2 - SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE INDEX
FREQUENCY When filter element becomes clogged with particles and the differential pressure reaches 25 psi. Periodically, once every hour As required As required As required. When sight glasses become dirty Periodically no stipulated frequency. Also, after replacement of bilge alarm components. As required Periodically. Depending on type of fluids processed PROCEDURE Replacement of Filter Differential Pressure Calculation Cleaning the First Stage Separator Supply Pump Disassembly and Reassembly Cleaning the Sight Glasses Bilge Alarm Calibration Check Adjustment of Alarm Set Point Cleaning the Bilge Alarm Sensor Windows

TESTING OIL CONTENT MONITORS - There are several ways to test an oil water separator. The most common way is to use a photocell and basically look through the solution. If there is a small amount of oil still present then the solution will not pass the light in the same way that it would if the oil was not present. For test purposes there is a small piece of glass that, on first look, looks clear. There is only a very slight tint. When this glass is inserted it sets of the alarm. The separators are set for 15 ppm (parts per million). This test glass is normally kept with the spare parts. It has its own off-yellow paper container. It is not a replacement glass!

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83

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

LAWS CONCERNING DISCHARGE OF WASTE AND FINES MARINE SAFETY MANUAL Control of Discharge of Oil from Cargo Tank Areas of Oil Tankers
Sea Areas Within a SPECIAL AREA Within 50 nautical miles from land Discharge Criteria NO DISCHARGE except clean* or segregated ballast NO DISCHARGE except clean or segregated ballast NO DISCHARGE except either: (a) clean or segregated ballast; (b) or when: (1) the tanker is enroute; and (2) the instantaneous rate of discharge of oil does not exceed 60 litres per nautical mile; and [Changed to 30 litres per nm] (3) the total quantity of oil discharged does not exceed 1/15,000 (for existing tankers) [ 1/30,000 for new tankers] of the total quantity of cargo which was carried on the previous voyage; and (4) the tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control system and slop tank arrangements as required by Regulation 15 of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78

Outside a SPECIAL AREA

More than 50 nm from land

* Clean ballast is the ballast in a tank which has been so cleaned that the effluent there from does not create a visible sheen or the oil content exceed 15 PPM

Note: Items in brackets [ ] are not in the current MSM but show changes due to current regulation changes

USMMA GMATS

84

11/3/2006

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

MARINE SAFETY MANUAL Control of Discharge of Oil and Oily Waste from all Ships Within a Special Area (Machinery Space / Fuel Oil Tank Ballast Water)
Ship Type & Size Location Within Special Area Discharge Criteria NO DISCHARGE except when: (1) the ship is proceeding enroute; and (2) the oil content of effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 PPM; and (3) the ship has in operation oil filtering equipment with automatic 15 PPM stopping device; and (4) for oil tankers the bilge water does not originate from cargo pump room bilges or is not mixed with oil cargo residue NO DISCHARGE except when the oil content of effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 PPM NO DISCHARGE except when either: (a) the oil content of effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 PPM; or (b) (1) the ship is proceeding enroute; and (2) the oil content of the effluent is less than 100 PPM

Oil tankers of all sizes and other ships 400 grt

ANYWHERE

Ships <400 grt other than oil tankers

Within 12 nm from land Beyond 12 nm from land

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85

11/3/2006

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

MARINE SAFETY MANUAL Control of Discharge of Oil and Oily Waste from all Ships Outside a Special Area (Machinery Space / Fuel Oil Tank Ballast Water)
Outside Special Areas Within 12* nm from land Ship Type & Size Oil tankers of all sizes and other ships 400 grt Other ships < 400 grt Discharge Criteria NO DISCHARGE except when the oil content of effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 PPM The conditions for ships 400 grt apply as far as practicable and reasonable NO DISCHARGE except when either: (a) the oil content of effluent does not exceed 15 PPM; or [for existing ships] (1) the ship is proceeding en route; and (2) the oil content of the effluent is less than 100 PPM; and (3) the ship has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control system, oily-water separating or filtering equipment or other installation required by Regulation 16 of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78; and (4) for oil tankers the bilge water does not originate from cargo pump room bliges or is not mixed with oil cargo residue The conditions for ships 400 grt apply as far as practicable and reasonable

More than 12 nm from land

Oil tankers of all sizes other ships 400 grt

Other ships < 400 grt

* Discharges of a quantity of oil that may be harmful are prohibited within the territorial

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86

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

Table of Contents
SANITARY SYSTEMS 1. PIPING DESCRIPTION 2. DESCRIPTION OF STANDARD TOILETS, LOW FLOW TOILETS AND VACUUM TOILETS-HOW THEY WORK 3. SEWAGE TREATMENT SYSTEMS HOW THEY WORK- PROCESS FLOW 4. TROUBLE SHOOTING SEWAGE TREATMENT SYSTEMS AND VACUUM TOILETS 5. HYDRO-PNEUMATIC TANKS 6. KEEP WARM PUMPS 7. RULES FOR POTABLE WATER

USMMA GMATS

87

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

USMMA GMATS

88

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

PIPING DESCRIPTION - The plumbing drain system collects waste liquids from plumbing fixtures, interior and weather deck drains, and air-conditioning cooling coils. Plumbing vents connect plumbing drain piping to the weather to remove odors and prevent the buildup of positive or negative internal pressure. There are two independent plumbing drain systems. Soil drain piping collects sewage, also called black water from toilets and urinals. Waste drain piping collects liquids from sinks, lavatories, showers, laundries, galleys and similar sources; such wastes are commonly called gray water. Separate soil and waste drain systems are necessary to protect human health and because regulations for restricting pollution are different for each type of waste. The required capacity of a black water holding tank is determined by the number of people on board, the per capita waste generation rate and the holding time required. The holding tank should be provided with an aeration system, a vent to the weather, a floatless level indicator, and connections for internal flushing with seawater or fresh water. Two pumps should be provided and arranged fro discharging tank c0ntents overboard or to hose connections on the weather deck. The pumps must be of a type designed for operation with sewage to prevent clogging with solids. Piping for gravity drain plumbing systems should be installed with a minimum continuous downward pitch of 1/8 to per foot of horizontal distance. The required pipe size decreases with increasing pitch. A pitch of per foot is preferred, particularly for fore and aft pipe runs. Valves in gravity drain plumbing systems should be of a non-clog design such as ball, plug, or gate valves. Each plumbing fixture and deck drain should have a trap installed. Branches should be connected to mains using Y-fittings instead of right angle tees. A cleanout should be installed at each change in direction greater than 45o in horizontal runs at intervals no greater than 50 and at the base of each vertical pipe run. Plumbing system trap seals should be protected from siphonage or backpressure by vents connected to the drain piping. Vents should be sized to allow sufficient airflow so that under normal use the seal of any fixture trap is not subjected to a pressure differential of more than 1 of water. A vent should be installed as a continuation of each vertical drain header, with individual fixture drain vents connected to it. The open end of the vent pipe should not be below the level of the highest trap weir. All vent piping should be sloped to drain back to the soil or waste pipe. Vacuum collection is an alternative to gravity drainage for black water or gray water. Vacuum collection systems employ special plumbing fixture, a vacuum source, and a tank. Vacuum piping links the fixture to the tank. Two basic types of vacuum collection systems are used. One makes use of a collection tank that is under vacuum. The other applies a vacuum source to the collection piping near the tank inlet, and discharges the collected waste into a tank that is at atmospheric pressure. Vacuum collection is preferred for some applications since the piping is much smaller than gravity-drain piping. The piping does not have to be installed with slope, and vents are not

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89

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

required. In addition, vacuum water closets and urinals require only about 10% of th freshwater usage of standard units. DESCRIPTION OF STANDARD TOILETS, LOW FLOW TOILETS AND VACUUM TOILETS-HOW THEY WORK PARTS OF A TOILET - There are several interrelated components that make a toilet do what it does, as shown here: If you take off the tank cover and peer inside, you will see all of these parts. They might look slightly different in your particular toilet, but they are all there in one form or another. The three main systems that work together are: The bowl siphon The flush mechanism The refill mechanism Let's look at each of these parts separately until the secrets of the toilet are revealed. THE BOWL SIPHON - Let's say that you somehow disconnected the tank, and all you had in your bathroom was the bowl. You would still have a toilet. Even though it has no moving parts, the bowl solves all of the problems a toilet needs to solve. The crucial mechanism that is molded into the bowl is called the bowl siphon, shown here:

You can understand how the siphon works by trying two experiments with your toilet. First, take a cup of water and pour it into the bowl. You will find that approximately nothing happens. What's even more interesting is that you can pour 25 cups of water into a toilet, one at a time, and still, nothing will happen. That is, no matter how many cups of water you pour in, the level of the water in the bowl never rises! You can see in the figure why this is the case. When you pour the cup of water in, the water level in the bowl rises but the extra water immediately spills over the edge of the siphon tube and drains away.

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90

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

Now, take a bucket of water, approximately 2 gallons, and pour it into the bowl. You will find that pouring in this amount of water causes the bowl to flush. That is, almost all of the water is sucked out of the bowl, and the bowl makes the recognizable "flush" sound and all of the water goes down the pipe. What's happened is this: You've poured enough water into the bowl fast enough to fill the siphon tube. And once the tube was filled, the rest was automatic. The siphon sucked the water out of the bowl and down the sewer pipe. As soon as the bowl emptied, air entered the siphon tube, producing that distinctive gurgling sound and stopping the siphoning process. You can see that, even if someone were to cut off the water to your bathroom, you could still flush the toilet. All you need is a bucket containing a couple of gallons of water. THE FLUSH MECHANISM - The purpose of the tank is to act like the bucket of water described in the previous section. You have to get enough water into the bowl fast enough to activate the siphon. If you tried to do that using a normal house water pipe, water would not come in fast enough -- the siphon would never start. So the tank acts as a capacitor. It holds several gallons of water, which it takes perhaps 30 to 60 seconds to accumulate. When you flush, all of the water in the tank is dumped into the bowl in about three seconds -- the equivalent of pouring in a bucket of water. There is a chain attached to the handle on the side of the tank. When you push on the handle, it pulls the chain, which is connected to the flush valve. The chain lifts the flush valve, which then floats out of the way, revealing a 2- to 3-inch (5.08- to 7.62-cm) diameter drain hole. Uncovering this hole allows the water to enter the bowl. In most toilets, the bowl has been molded so that the water enters the rim, and some of it drains out through holes in the rim. A good portion of the water flows down to a larger hole at the bottom of the bowl. This hole is known as the siphon jet. It releases most of the water directly into the siphon tube. Because all of the water in the bowl enters the tank in about three seconds, it is enough to fill and activate the siphon effect, and all of the water and waste in the bowl is sucked out. THE REFILL MECHANISM - So the bowl will flush as long as we dump enough water into it to activate the siphon. And the purpose of the tank and the flush valve is to hold and then dump about 2 gallons of water very quickly into the bowl. Once the tank has emptied, the flush valve resituates itself in the bottom of the tank, covering the drain hole so the tank can be refilled. It is the job of the refill mechanism to fill the tank back up with enough water to start the whole process again. The refill mechanism has a valve that turns the water on and off. The valve turns the water on when the filler float (or ball float) falls. The float falls when the water level in the tank drops. Some of the water goes down the refill tube and starts refilling the tank. The rest goes through the bowl refill tube, and down the overflow tube into the bowl. This refills the bowl slowly. As the water level in the tank rises, so does the float. Eventually the float rises far enough to turn the valve off. What would happen if the float were to become detached, or the filler valve were to jam so that it never cut off? Theoretically, the tank would overflow and flood the bathroom. But the overflow tube is there to prevent that from happening, directing the extra water into the bowl instead of onto the floor.

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91

11/3/2006

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER - Now that you have seen all the parts, you can understand the complete mechanism: Pushing on the handle pulls the chain, which releases the flush valve. About 2 gallons of water rush from the tank into the bowl in about three seconds. The flush valve then reseats. This rush of water activates the siphon in the bowl. The siphon sucks everything in the bowl down the drain. Meanwhile, when the level of the water in the tank falls, so does the float. The falling float turns on the refill valve. Water flowing through the refill valve refills the tank as well as the bowl. As the tank refills, the float rises, and when it reaches a certain level the refill valve shuts off. Should something go wrong and cause the refill valve to keep running, the overflow tube prevents a flood. WHY DO WE NEED A SEWER SYSTEM? - Each time you flush the toilet or you wash something down the sink's drain, you create sewage (also known in polite society as wastewater). One question that is important to ask is, "why not simply dump this wastewater onto the ground outside the house, or into a nearby stream?" There are three things about wastewater that make it something you don't want to release into the environment: 1. It stinks. If you release wastewater directly into the environment things get very smelly very fast. 2. It contains harmful bacteria. Human waste naturally contains coliform bacteria (for example, e. coli) and other bacteria that can cause disease. Once water becomes infected with these bacteria it becomes a health hazard. 3. It contains suspended solids and chemicals that affect the environment. For example: o Wastewater contains nitrogen and phosphates that, being fertilizers, encourage the growth of algae. Excessive algae growth can block sunlight and foul the water.

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

Wastewater also contains organic material that bacteria in the environment will start decomposing, and when they do these bacteria consume oxygen in the water. The lack of oxygen kills fish. o In addition, the suspended solids in wastewater make the water look murky and can affect the ability of many fish to breath and see.

The increased algae, reduced oxygen and murkiness destroy the ability of a stream or lake to support wildlife, and all of the fish, frogs, and other life forms quickly die. No one wants to live in a place that stinks, is full of deadly bacteria and cannot support aquatic life. That's why communities MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A TREATMENT PLANT - The effectiveness of waste water treatment plants is measured on several different scales. Here are some of the most common: pH - the measure of the water's acidity once it leaves the plant. Ideally the water's pH will match the pH of the river or lake that receives the plant's output. BOD - Biological Oxygen Demand. BOD is a measure of how much oxygen in the water will be required to finish digesting the organic material left in the effluent. Ideally the BOD would be zero. Dissolved Oxygen - the amount of oxygen in the water as it leaves the plant. If the water contains no oxygen, it would kill any aquatic life that comes into contact with it. Dissolved oxygen should be as high as possible and needs to cover the BOD. Suspended solids - the measure of the solids remaining in the water after treatment. Ideally suspended solids would be zero. Total phosporous and nitrogen - measures of the nutrients remaining in the water. Chlorine - The chlorine used to kill harmful bacteria needs to be removed so it does not kill beneficial bacteria in the environment. Ideally, chlorine should not be detectable. Coliform bacteria count - the measure of fecal bacteria remaining in the water. Ideally this number would be zero. Note that water in the environment is not totally free of fecal bacteria - birds and other wildlife do introduce some. Airplane toilets use an active vacuum instead of a passive siphon, and they are therefore called vacuum toilets. When you flush, it opens a valve in the sewer line and the vacuum in the line sucks the contents out of the bowl and into a tank. Because the vacuum does all the work, it takes very little water (or the blue sanitizing liquid used in airplanes) to clean the bowl for the next person. Most vacuum systems flush with just half a gallon (2 liters) of fluid or less, compared to 1.6 gallons for a water saving toilet and up to 5 gallons for an older toilet. It turns out that vacuum toilets have lots of advantages even for normal installations: They use very little water They can use much smaller diameter sewer pipes They can flush in any direction, including up. Since a vacuum system does not use gravity to move the water, there is nothing to stop the sewer pipe from going straight up.

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93

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

The fact that the pipe does not have to go down also means you can avoid cutting into the floor to put in new toilets. They can be put anywhere in the building.

SEWAGE TREATMENT SYSTEMS HOW THEY WORK- PROCESS FLOW SEWAGE TREATMENT - The methods now in use on ships for the treatment of sewage include the following: collection and retention; maceration and chlorination; physical separation; physical/chemical treatment; and biological treatment. COLLECTION AND RETENTION - Collection and retention systems involve, as the name implies, no more than simple holding tanks. These tanks must be capable of retaining the collected waste until it can be discharged ashore, or in unrestricted waters that are acceptable. Where there is no shore receiving facilities, it may be necessary to retain the waste for a considerable period. Under such circumstances measures must be taken to prevent septic conditions occurring which generate toxic, corrosive, and inflammable gases. MACERATION AND CHLORINATION - Macerator/chlorinators are simple and relatively inexpensive systems. They include a macerator which discharges the sewage into a small holding tank in which the waste is treated with a metered dose of disinfectant (usually a sodium hypochlorite) and held for approximately 30 minutes before it is discharged overboard. However, this type of unit is not usually capable of discharging an effluent product acceptable to the legislating authorities. PHYSICAL SEPARATION - A number of systems utilize physical separation of sewage. This generally involves the use of some form of filter, and in some instances includes a settling tank. The separated liquid effluent is disinfected before being discharged overboard. Sludge accumulated by filtration and settling must be stored or incinerated. If stored, measures have to be taken to prevent the onset of septic conditions. PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL TREATMENT - Physical/chemical treatment systems use flocculating agents to aid the physical separation and precipitation of solids. These systems may be started in a very short period of time and can discharge good effluents almost immediately. Like physical separation units they produce sludge that must be continuously removed and eliminated. BIOLOGICAL METHOD - There are a number of different processes in the biological treatment of sewage universally used for the management of municipal wastes. Several of these processes have been applied to the treatment onboard ships, and have become, for the most part, the preferred systems. The basis of all these treatment variations is nature's own purification process in which microorganisms use the waste as food material. Two variations of the biological method found in modern marine sewage treatment units are extended aeration and the trickling filter.

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94

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

In the extended aeration process the sewage is held in an aeration tank for approximately 24 hours, and air is continuously bubbled through the liquid (mixed liquor, as it is called). Mixed liquor is then displaced by incoming sewage into a settling tank where the biological floe is formed and allowed to settle under quiescent conditions. The settled material (activated sludge) is continuously withdrawn from the bottom of the settling chamber and recycled to mix with the waste material entering the aeration tank. Clear effluent from the top of the settling tank is discharged after disinfection. The trickling filter process utilizes the ability of certain aggregate materials to hold large communities of microorganisms, allowing the waste to trickle over the material and the organisms to remove the substrate. The effluent draining from the bottom of the filter then settles and any entrained floe is removed before it is disinfected and discharged overboard. Variations of this process utilize submerged filters with air bubbling through the material to provide the oxygen required by the microorganisms. Assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of these processes must include such factors as ease of maintenance, degree of supervision required, running costs, capital costs, and, where installation in existing vessels is being considered, the cost of installation. The designer of shipboard equipment must take into consideration all of the advantages and disadvantages of these processes. In addition, he must examine his design with respect to manufacturing techniques, because the manufacturing of the unit has a significant bearing on its final cost. Finally, the equipment must, of course, comply with the requirements established by the legislating authorities and must be approved by the relevant local authority. DESIGN OF SEWAGE TREATMENT SYSTEMS - Almost all of the early sewage treatment plant designs were of the biological type, and many of these used the anaerobic process similar to septic tanks found ashore. Although they required the absolute minimum of supervision and had only one moving component, a discharge pump, these anaerobic plants were not capable of producing effluents of the quality proposed by IMO and other legislating bodies. Consequently, anaerobic plants were superseded by equipment using other biological processes that were capable of meeting the proposed standards for discharges. Aerobic biological plants, which superseded the earlier anaerobic units, are based on the extended aeration process of waste treatment. As may be expected the designers of early units drew on experience gained from the operation of industrial equipment, and while the process remained the same as in the earlier anaerobic plants, the practical problems associated with shipboard use were not insignificant. The evolution of the present day unit the extended aeration method has been along a path of trial and error where the need to make it as simple as possible has been a prime objective. Since the plants had to be small, compact, and suitable for installation in the limited spaces available onboard ship, the biological oxygen demand per volume of aeration space (BOD/vol.) imposed on them was considerably higher than those accepted ashore and in some cases was more than double. This deviation from land practice means that there is a need for fairly frequent, periodic desludging. For example, a shipboard unit needs to be desludged at intervals of 2 to 3 months, whereas an industrial unit for an equivalent population on shore would be

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

expected to operate for 10 to 12 months without desludging. Sludge built up in an extended aeration unit consists of biological solids together with any non-degradable material that may be present in the waste. The non-degradable material increases the solid content of the liquid in the aeration chamber until a point is reached where settling in the final sedimentation chamber is impaired, and a reduction in the solids level becomes necessary. The reduction in the solids content of the mixed liquor is achieved by desludging, an operation consisting of pumping out 90 percent of the contents of the aeration tank and refilling with clear water. Although the sludge, 99 percent water and handled entirely by the discharge pump, may not be dumped into waters covered by regulations, it may be discharged at sea well clear of the protected areas. If the vessel is in port when desludging becomes necessary, the sludge will have to be retained on board or discharged to a shore receiving facility. Where ships are fitted with incinerators, small quantities of sludge may be incinerated daily with other wastes having higher caloric value. The size of a waste treatment plant is determined by the biological load, or material to be digested per unit time, and the hydraulic load, or liquids to be physically separated per unit time. While it is possible to increase biological load, the limitation is established by the hydraulic load on the final settling chamber where the minimum retention time of fluids is 4 to 5 hours to achieve the effluent condition required. The size of the extended aeration sewage treatment unit for a given population equivalent will depend on a number of parameters. For example, the separation of black and gray wastes in the shipboard systems is of prime importance because if both wastes were introduced into the sewage treatment plant, the size of the plant would be unacceptably large. Units using flocculating agents to aid settling can usually accept higher hydraulic loads or be reduced in size. The sludge storage or disposal unit is independent of the sewage unit and therefore is sized for the material it must handle for the assumed time period. Aeration of the mixed liquor is a fundamental requirement of aerobic treatment systems. The air supplied is necessary as a source for the oxygen required by the bacteria for metabolism. It also provides the means of creating the turbulence needed to promote mixing of the bacterial population with the waste material and to prevent settling in the aeration tank. A number of different aerating methods have been used on marine installations, including: (a) Coarse bubble; (b) Venturi tube; and (c) Fine bubble aeration system. Each of these methods has unique advantages and disadvantages. COARSE BUBBLE SYSTEM - The coarse bubble system has a simple perforated tube with relatively large holes, not easily blocked, and not requiring particularly clean air. Since the oxygen transfer efficiency is not high because of large bubble size, air requirement is greater than in other methods. However, the large bubble size creates good mixing. VENTURI INJECTION SYSTEM - The venturi injection system has high oxygen transfer. No air compressor is necessary because the power source for the injector can be a simple centrifugal pump used to pump the re-circulated, activated sludge. The venturi nozzle is prone to blockage, and the minute air bubbles coming out of solution in the aeration tank adhere to sludge floc, causing the sludge floc to have a tendency to rise.

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96

11/3/2006

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

FINE BUBBLE AERATION SYSTEM - The fine bubble aeration system, provided by aerator diffusers, has relatively high oxygen transfer efficiency, and consequently the quantity of air required for bacterial metabolism is low (the quantity of air approximates 100 in 3 /kg of BOD). The aerator diffusers are invariably of a porous material and relatively clean air is necessary to prevent diffuser blockages. This system, in most common use at the present time, requires additional air to be supplied to power airlifts for recycling sludge and for skimming settling tanks. The air is supplied in most instances by small compressors of either the rotary vane or lobe type. Since the air quantity is not large, the pressure necessary is that which is needed to overcome the depth of submersion of the aerator diffuser.

FIGURE 1 EARLY MODEL OF AN EXTENDED AERATION SEWAGE SYSTEM. Figures 1 through 3 show the stages of development of the marine extended aeration sewage treatment unit depicts an early design utilizing an aeration system of the coarse bubble type. Figure 2 shows a similar tank design with an aeration system of the venturi type. The unit illustrated in Figure 3 is of a design in which the arrangement of process compartments provides more compact configuration and permits the discharge, pump to be built onto the unit, and is a good example of the fine bubble aeration type. Design for the settling tank of the fine bubble aeration system has required more effort than any other section of any treatment plant. This is because the floc formed in the biological plants is much lighter than that formed in physical/chemical plants where the flocculating agents are added. For this reason, the settling time is longer with the tank requirement being proportionately larger. The retention time desirable in the settling tank of a biological unit is on the order of 4 to 5 hours with, ideally, a mean upward velocity of the effluent of approximately 1 meter per hour (3.28 ft./hr.). Unfortunately, the restrictions imposed by the need to build marine units as compact as possible have made this objective difficult to achieve. As a result the final design has invariably been a compromise. To reduce the effect of ship motion on the settling process, the position of the settling tank has been changed from time to time and later designs have incorporated the tank in

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97

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

the center of the complete plant with the aeration tank wrapped around it in a U form. Several designs have used settling tanks which are slightly pressurized and which have no free surface. Disinfection of the final effluent before discharge overboard is necessary to reduce coliform to a level acceptable to legislating authorities. In most cases the reduction is brought about by treating the effluent with sodium or calcium hypochlorite. The Saint Lawrence Seaway and Great Lakes authorities impose severe limitations on the quantities of residual disinfectants that may be discharged in an effluent. These limitations have Stimulated interest in disinfection by means of ultraviolet light. This method is now being widely used and disinfection is achieved by passing the clean effluent through tubes fitted with ultraviolet lamps. The effect of the ultraviolet radiation at a wavelength of 254 n.m. is that it breaks down the outer membrane of the microorganism and destroys the nucleus. Ultraviolet disinfection had no residual effect and is therefore suitable for treating effluents being discharged into confined receiving waters. A typical ultraviolet module is shown on Figure 4.

FIGURE 2 IMPROVED MODEL OF AN EXTENDED AERATION SEWAGE SYSTEM Most manufacturers use steel tanks in their sewage treatment plants and these must be suitable protected from the corrosive effects of their contents, although it should be noted that where aerobic conditions prevail, these effects are likely to be no worse than those encountered in seawater ballast tanks. Where holding tanks are in use and anaerobic conditions can occur, it is then probable that the space above the liquid level would be subjected to considerable corrosive conditions created by the conversion of hydrogen sulfide to sulfuric acid. Therefore, it is essential that care be taken to ensure that adequate plate protection is provided. From experience

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98

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

with sewage plants already in service and from tests carried out on development units, it has been found that the coal tar epoxy compounds provide one of the most effective coatings available, and in terms of cost about the most economical. Some manufacturers use fiberglass for tank materials, but it seems that cost and legislation will limit further use of this material.

FIGURE 3A ADVANCED MODEL OF AN EXTENDED AERATION SEWAGE SYSTEM OPERATION OF A SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT - Figure 3(b) is a cutaway view of a typical modern sewage treatment plant for shipboard use. This type of unit is manufactured in sizes for daily sewage flow range of 250 to 3,830 gallons suitable to support 9 to 127 persons per day at the anticipated rate of 30 gallons per day per person. The unit is divided into 3 compartments: the aeration section (11); settling chamber (12); and the chlorine contact tank adjustment to the pumps and compressors. Sewage enters the aeration compartment (11), via the soil inlet (1), and is retained for approximately 24 hours. During this period it is mixed and aerated by the compressed air delivered to the bottom of the chamber by the aerator (10). The aerobic bacteria and microorganisms break down the organic waste material into carbon dioxide, water, and inert organic material. The mixture passes through a coarse screen into the settling compartment (12).

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99

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

FIGURE 3B CUTAWAY OF AN ADVANCED EXTENDED AERATION SEWAGE SYSTEM. 1 Raw sewage inlets 9 Emergency overflow 2 Visual indication pipe for activated 10 Air diffuser assemblies sludge return 3 Screen 11 Aeration tank 4 Vent 12 Settling tank 5 Skimmer to remove floating debris 13 Discharge pump (2 pumps fitted as standard to units ST15 ST 30) 6 Control panel 14 Filling connection 7 Chlorinator for continuous chlorination 15 Aeration compressors of effluent 8 Wastewater inlet 16 Float switches The settling compartment is designed to precipitate all solid material to the bottom of the hopper as sludge. The sludge is returned by pneumatic lift (2) to the aeration compartment, where it mixes with the incoming raw sewage. The clear liquid in the settling compartment is displaced into the chlorination compartment via a flow-through type chlorinator. A combined surface skimmer and outlet weir (5), located in the center of the settling compartment surface, removes any floating debris and controls the flow of clear liquid into the chlorinator. The chlorinator compartment provides residence time for the chlorine to kill any remaining bacteria. A float-switch operated pump controls the discharge of the chlorinated effluent.

USMMA GMATS

100

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

FIGURE 4 ARRANGEMENT OF ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION UNIT TROUBLE SHOOTING SEWAGE TREATMENT SYSTEMS AND VACUUM TOILETS FIX A RUNNING TOILET / UNDERSTAND TOILETS - The only tricky thing about toilets are all the different names for the parts. There aren't many parts, and the function of each part is easy to see and understand, but they're named differently depending on who's talking. This section will stick with one set of names, but will also include the others for reference. Here's how it works: There are three basic parts to toilet function: filling, stopping, and flushing. You need these three functions working together in order for the toilet to work properly. Anytime you have a problem with toilet running, take off the lid of the tank, flush the toilet, and watch the filling, stopping, and emptying cycle a few times. This will help you identify the source of the problem.

USMMA GMATS

101

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

Filling:

The tank is the large, oblong ceramic container that's located behind the toilet bowl and at waistto-chest level of the person sitting on it. The tank is important for two reasons: one, it contains the water that flushes waste down the pipes, and two, it contains all the hardware necessary for filling, stopping, and emptying. The overflow pipe (a.k.a., the ball cock) is a long, hollow tube, fastened to the bottom of the tank. A narrow pipe usually snakes up the side of the overflow pipe and fills the tank. Flushing - When the tank is full and you push down the handle on the outside of the tank, the lift arm, which connects to the handle on the inside of the tank, pulls up either a chain or a thin, rigid, metal rod called a lift wire. The lift wire/chain piece pulls up a rubbery black plug that's called one of many names: the stopper, flapper, disk, seal, or tank-ball. As the stopper is lifted, the water in the tank rushes out the drain at the bottom of the tank, into the toilet bowl, and continues down to pipes to a sewer. Stopping - The process of stopping is when problems can happen. Stopping happens at the flush valve, which consists of the stopper and a flush valve seat (a brass or plastic seal which surrounds the drain). When the tank is empty, the stopper is lowered onto the flush valve seat (that's where the stopper "sits") and closes the drain, preventing any passage of water. A good seal at the connection between the stopper and the flush valve seat allows the tank to be filled up. FIX A RUNNING TOILET - This step freely uses all the terms of toilet technology described in Step 1. If there's something you don't understand, go back to Step 1.

USMMA GMATS

102

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

So there you are, staring at the toilet you've just flushed. You watch the water flush out the bowl, and now the toilet is refilling the tank, and now...it won't stop refilling. The toilet is running, it's wasting water--what to do? Don't panic. Take off the lid of the tank and see what's happening. Chances are, the stopper isn't sitting squarely on the flush valve seat--the chain is probably caught under the side of the stopper. You can fix the situation by pulling the chain out from the stopper; if you've ever been told to "jiggle the handle" of a running toilet, this is exactly what you're doing. A more permanent solution is to shorten the length of the chain so that there isn't excessive slack to interfere with the action of the stopper. Loosen: Use a pair of small pair of pliers to loosen the link of top of the stopper that attaches the stopper to the chain. Pull and link: Then place the stopper squarely on the valve seat, and pull the chain taut to the stopper. Choose a link that will keep the chain fairly taut (leave a little slack, though), and attach the chain to the link on the stopper. Make sure the handle (on the outside) is up and the lift arm is down; this will put them in the correct position to pull up the chain and stopper. No chain in your toilet? Then your toilet uses a lift wire. Check the wire: Look down the length of the lift wire--if it's bent, it may be throwing the stopper off center. Remove it and try it push the bend out of it. If that's too hard or it's bent past the point of repair, you can purchase a new one at hardware store for a few dollars.

Still running? - Like the rest of us, stoppers get old and run-down and don't work as well.

USMMA GMATS

103

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

Retired stoppers: If the toilet doesn't respond to the measures above, the stopper may need to be replaced. A stopper that's soft or distorted, or has pockmarks or small splits near the edge, is ripe for retirement. Replacement time: Remove the old stopper from the chain or lift wire and bring it down to the local hardware store. (Some brands of toilets won't accept the one-size-fits-all type of stopper, so be sure to bring the old stopper with you.) It won't cost you more than a few dollars and five minutes of work.

Alignment - As you re-attach the chain to the link on the stopper, make sure the handle (on the outside) is up and the lift arm is down. This will put them in the correct position to pull up the chain and stopper. Fix a slow leak - If your toilet doesn't run continuously, yet you can hear it refill every 15 minutes or more, the problem may be with the flush valve seat. If you want to be sure, add several drops of dark-colored food dye to the tank. If there's a leak in the valve seat, the dyed water will seep through the seal and into the toilet bowl, right in front of your suspecting eyes! Aha! An old valve seat won't form a good seal with the stopper or the base of the tank, and will leak water until the entire tank is empty. Fortunately it's easy to buy a replacement which can be cemented directly on top of the old one. Most hardware stores will have a valve seat replacement kit which will fit most models of valve seats. It won't fit all of them, though, and the kit's packaging will often depict what types of valve seats aren't compatible. To avoid a mistaken purchase, take a careful look at the valve seat, noting the size and any distinguishing marks, before leaving for the hardware store. And if nothing else, note what the valve seat is made of: brass or plastic, usually.

USMMA GMATS

104

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

First, you need to clear out the tank. Turn off the water at the main water valve (located on the wall near the floor), flush the toilet to empty the tank, and remove the stopper, chain, and lift arm, and anything else that might be in the way. Take a clean rag and mop up any puddles of water on the tank floor. Clear and clean: The crucial step with valve seat replacement is thorough preparation of the old seat. If it's brass, scrub it with steel wool or wet/dry sandpaper. If it's plastic, use a non-abrasive nylon ball or sponge. After you've cleaned wipe down the seat again, making sure to remove any grit or moisture that remains. Study and stick: Most seat replacements have a self-adhesive, with a layer of paper backing that's peeled off. Before you peel off the backing, study the illustrations for that particular model of seat replacement, and practice aligning it over the old seat.

USMMA GMATS

105

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

You're ready to attach the new seat. Remove half of the paper backing (only half!) and, having lined the new seat carefully, press it gently on the old seat. Repeat with the other side: remove the paper and press gently. Once the new seat is on and aligned correctly, press down firmly and evenly for at least a minute. Place, pull, and position: Then place the stopper squarely on the valve seat, and pull the chain taut to the stopper. Choose a link that will keep the chain fairly taut (leave a little slack, though), and attach the chain to the link on the stopper. Make sure the handle (on the outside) is up and the lift arm is down; this will put them in the correct position to pull up the chain and stopper.

All flushed - Turn the main water valve back on, and you're ready to flush. Preventative Maintenance for Your Toilets - According to a survey on the life expectancy of materials done by the National Association of Home Builders, a toilet can last 50 years. That is of course, that it is given reasonable care, and you don't get tired of the avocado green that was so popular when you selected the bathroom fixtures in the first place. This statistic should give anyone shopping for new bathroom fixtures cause to pause before they select the latest fad in colored fixtures. My guess is that few avocado green toilets will die a natural death. Most will be replaced long before their 50th anniversary for purely cosmetic reasons. That said, let's look at what we can do to make our fixtures last 50 years. Treat your toilet tanks and bowls like the "china bowls" that they are; they can and will crack if abused. BE CAREFUL with tools around a toilet, don't compound the problem when making a repair. You can't fix a cracked toilet bowl or tank. Never hit a toilet tank or bowl connection with a hammer to break a fitting...use a penetrating lubricant. Never use a toilet for a ladder. Don't stand or sit on a toilet tank lid. And don't put a lot of pressure against a tank by leaning back. Throw the toilet bowl cleaning brush away as soon as the bristles wear down and metal is showing. Once the bowl is scratched, it's impossible keep clean, and you won't be able to repair the scratches. A plastic brush is less likely to scratch the china. Don't treat your toilets as a universal garbage disposal. Just because a product is called disposable doesn't mean it should be flushed down the toilet. Keep a waste paper basket in the bathroom for such things as facial tissues, gum, all sanitary products, bandages and paper towels. Disposable diapers don't belong in a toilet unless you first remove the plastic liner and tear the paper diaper into smaller pieces. Flushing a facial tissue down a toilet is unlikely to cause a problem, but it helps to develop a bad habit that creates the impression that a toilet can digest everything. Plus, flushing a toilet to dispose of a facial tissue is a real waste of water. Also remember that hazardous chemicals may not harm your toilets, but they shouldn't be flushed away either. Don't store small items or heavy items on the lid of the toilet tank to minimize the risk of a something falling in, such as toys, brushes, combs, etc. A toothbrush that gets stuck in the

USMMA GMATS

106

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

interior passageway of a toilet bowl that can't be dislodged means replacing the toilet. A very heavy item that hits the china bowl could also chip or crack the bowl. Never pour hot water into a toilet bowl or tank, the bowl or tank may crack, and never mix toilet cleaning products. HYDRO-PNEUMATIC TANKS -- Water is basically a non-compressible fluid. When the pressure is built up by the potable water pump it will only take someone to open any faucet for just a moment to drop the pressure down. The potable water pumps are generally located in the lower spaces on either a rig or on a ship. This creates a problem If we did not buffer the system the pump would be starting and stopping constantly. This would result in overheating of the motor and a very shortened life for that motor. The cure for the problem is to install a hydro-pneumatic tank. As the name implies this tank is water and air in the same tank. The tank is cylindrical in shape for strength. The tank sits on the discharge side of the potable pumps. The potable water pump raises the pressure n the tank. The lower part of the tank is filled with water. The upper part of the tank is filled with air. The air is compressed when the pump is operating. When a faucet is opened, or a toilet flushed, the air expands and the pressure drops slowly. When the low pressure point is reached the water pump starts again. Even after the faucet is shut-off the pump will continue to run to build up the pressure in the tank. By law the air cannot be hard-piped to the hydro-pneumatic tank. There has to be separation between the air system and the water system. Normally, the fitting is a Schroeder fitting, also known as a bicycle fitting. This line has to be held in place while the air is added to the tank. Newer hydro-pneumatic tanks are coated when new and require very little maintenance. If the is a lot of use the air will, over time, escape from the tank. Air will have to added to make up for this. KEEP WARM PUMPS - It is a small centrifugal pump. Less than 1 horsepower. Because of the size of a system on a ship it is necessary to have a keep warm pump. The heater is down in the engineroom. You put on the shower and you live, let's say, on the bridge deck. The water coming out of your shower would be cold until the water from the heater got up to the shower head. You would not be in the shower at this time so the water is lost ( there is no value to that water even though it cost a lot to make). Now with a small "keep warm" pump a small amount of water is always looping around in the system. It takes suction from the various hot water headers on the ship and returns to the hot water tank. Now when you turn on the shower hot water comes out immediately. Now there is no waste of the water. Hotels, motels, function centers, convention center, etc. all use the keep warm pumps. The heater is only used to heat the water. The hot water is pushed by the pressure from the cold water system.

USMMA GMATS

107

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

RULES FOR POTABLE WATER - Black water may generally be discharged at sea beyond a minimum distance from land, but while near land, in port, and in some restricted waters, regulations usually prohibit black water discharges. Therefore provisions for the onboard retention or treatment of black water are commonly provided. The required capacity of a black water holding tank is determined by the number of people on boad, the per-capita waste generation rate and the holding time required. The direct overboard discharge of gray water is also restricted in some waters.

USMMA GMATS

108

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

PURFIERS
MECHANICAL FUNCTION BOWL - The bowl body 10 and bowl hood 5 are held together by the large lock ring 21. Housed in the bowl are the distributor 8 and the disc set 7 through which the dirty oil flows and where the separation takes place. Uppermost in the disc set is the top disc 6. The top disc neck and the level ring form a paring chamber where the paring disc 3 pumps the clean oil from the bowl. The separated water flows to the upper paring chamber of the bowl through the gravity disc 2, which is clamped to the bowl hood 5 by the small lock ring 22 that also forms the top part of the upper paring chamber. The parts, by which sludge and/or water ejection is effected are marked by an asterisk (*) in the list below, and their functions are described on page 8.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9* 10 11*

Paring disc, water Gravity disc Paring disc, oil Level ring Bowl hood Top disc Disc set Distributor Sliding bowl bottom Bowl body Operating slide

BOWL PARTS 12* Spring 13* Control paring disc 14* Closing and make-up water inlet 15* Opening water inlet 16* Dosing ring 17* Dosing chamber 18* Drain valve 19* Sludge port Liquid seal and displacement 20 water inlet 21 Large lock ring 22 Small lock ring

USMMA GMATS

109

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE - In all Centrifugal separators the bowl is running at a very high speed, normally between 4000 and 9000 rpm. Great forces are at work, subjecting the machine to heavy stress. It is essential to follow exactly the directions given in the instruction book concerning assembly of bowl, operation, and overhaul, and the safety precautions as well. Remember particularly that the bowl is a balanced unit, which will get out of balance when incorrectly assembled or insufficiently cleaned.

Checking Thread Condition - The threads of the large bowl lock ring and bowl body should be checked for wear at least once a year. If the mark on the lock ring goes past the stationary mark by more than 25, consult an ALFA-LAVAL representative immediately, as this indicates an excessive thread wear.

Disc Pressure 1. Bowl hood 2. Large lock ring 3. Top disc 4. Bowl disc set 5. Bowl body

USMMA GMATS

110

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

If the lock ring can be screwed down without resistance until tight contact between bowl hood and bowl body is obtained, increase the pressure by adding the spare bowl disc to the top of the bowl disc set (beneath top disc). Guide Means - When assembling, make certain that the bowl parts are in the proper position. Take care not to damage the guides when assembling.

Height Adjustment Of Paring Discs - The Maintenance and Repair Manual (MR) contains information on height adjustment measures as well as checking and adjusting procedure. It is essential that the paring discs should be correctly positioned relative to the rotary parts of the bowl.

Purification - The flow chart shows a separator A arranged for purification - liquid/liquid/solids separation.

The dirty oil (1) is pumped by the feed pump (61) through a heater B to the separator, by means of the valve (V1) the liquid can be brought to re-circulate through the heater until it has obtained the correct separating temperature. The clean oil leaves the separator through the outlet (4), the water through outlet (5), and the sludge through outlet (6).

USMMA GMATS

111

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

1 4 5 6 10

Dirty oil inlet Clean oil outlet Water outlet Sludge outlet Sealing liquid inlet

61 V1 V5 A B X

Feed pump Three-way valve Ball valve in water outlet Separator Heater Re-circulation

Clarification - The flow chart shows a separator A arranged for clarification - liquid/solids separation.

The dirty oil (1) is pumped by the feed pump (61) through a heater B to the separator, by means of the valve (V1) the liquid can be brought to re-circulate through the heater until it has obtained

USMMA GMATS

112

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

the correct separating temperature. The clarified oil leaves the separator through the outlet (4) and the sludge through outlet (6).

1 4 6 61

Dirty oil inlet Clean oil outlet Sludge outlet Feed pump

V1 A B X

Three-way valve Separator Heater Re-circulation

Liquid Flow In Bowl - From the inlet (1) the dirty oil flows through the distributor C into the spaces between the bowl discs D where separation takes place. Water and solids (or sludge alone, respectively) will move towards the bowl periphery. In purification the water leaves the bowl by the outlet (5) through the gravity disc M and the paring disc (N). The clean oil is moved towards the bowl center and proceeds to the outlet (4) through the level ring (1) and the paring disc (K). Liquid Seal - In Purification - To prevent the oil from passing the outer edge F of the top disc and escaping the outer way with the water by 5, a liquid seal (G) must be provided in the bowl. To this end the bowl must be filled with water through 10 before the contaminated oil is supplied. The latter will then force the water towards the bowl periphery. An interface (H) will form between the water and the oil. Its position can be adjusted by altering the diameter of the water outlet (5), i.e. by exchanging the gravity disc (M).

USMMA GMATS

113

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

1 4 5 10 C D E

Dirty oil inlet Clean oil outlet Water outlet Liquid seal inlet Distributor Bowl discs Bowl Wall

F G H I K M N

Top disc Liquid seal Interface Level ring Paring disc, oil Gravity disc Paring disc, water

Displacement Of Oil In Purification - To prevent ejection of oil through the bowl sludge ports together with sludge (and water), so-called displacement water is fed to the sludge space of the bowl. Prior to sludge ejection the valve M) in the water outlet is closed arid water added by the inlet 0 0) through valve (V10). This water will force the oil-water interface (H) towards the bowl center, so that sludge arid water alone are ejected

USMMA GMATS

114

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

Gravity Disc And Level Ring - The gravity disc (M) determines the free water level ( DM) 10 in the bowl arid the position (H) of the interface. The level ring (1) determines the free oil level ( DI) in the bowl. Purification: Use the level ring (1) with the smaller hole pitch diameter (DI), and a gravity disc M according to nomogram. Clarification: Use the level ring (1) with the larger hole pitch diameter (DI), and the gravity disc M with the smallest hole diameter (DM).

USMMA GMATS

115

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

EJECTION CYCLE

Before Ejection Valve V16 open. Compartment under sliding bowl bottom (a) filled Sliding bowl bottom (a) is pressed against seal ring (b), as force F2 is greater than F1 Operating slide (c) keeps drain valves (d) closed by means of the force F produced by coil springs (f). Valve V15 is closed. Separation is going on and solids are moving towards the bowl wall.

USMMA GMATS

116

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

Initiation of ejection Valve V 16 open Valve V5 is closed. Valve V10 is opened for displacement 10of oil-water interface H1 towards bowl center position H2. Valve V1 5 is opened. Chamber at dosing ring (e) above operating slide (c) is filled. Liquid force F3 exceeds spring force F. Operating slide (c) moves downwards, thereby uncovering drain valves (d). Compartment below sliding bowl bottom (a) is drained and force F2 decreases. Low-rate outflow through nozzle gl. Overflow begins to the chamber at dosing ring (e) below operating slide (c).

USMMA GMATS

117

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

Ejection Compartment below sliding bowl bottom (a) is drained and force F2 becomes smaller than F1 Sliding bowl bottom (a) moves downwards and ejection of sludge and water takes place through ports (h) in the wall. The interface (H2) moves towards the bowl wall to position (1-13). Valve V1 5 is closed. The chamber in dosing ring (e) below operating slide (c) has become filled and force F4 together with spring force F4 is greater than F3 The operating slide is moved upwards and closes drain valves (d). The chambers in dosing ring (e) are drained through nozzles g1, and g2. The compartment below the sliding bowl bottom (a) is filled from operating water tank (76). Force F2 increases. The separating space above the sliding bowl bottom (a) is filled. Force F1 increases. Liquid seal is supplied through valve V10

USMMA GMATS

118

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

After ejection Force F2 now exceeds F1. Sliding bowl bottom (a) is forced into closing position. The compartment below and the separating space above the sliding bowl bottom are full. Valve V10 is closed. Valve V5 is opened. Any excess water leaves the bowl by outlet 5. The interface moves back from position (H3) to (Hi). Ejection has been completed.

USMMA GMATS

119

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

FACTORS INFLUENCING SEPARATION

1. Viscosity - Low viscosity facilitates separation. Viscosity can be reduced by heating.

2. Density Difference (Specific Gravity Ratio) - The greater the density difference between the phases of the process liquid, the easier will be the separation. The difference can be increased by raising the separating temperature.

USMMA GMATS

120

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

3. Separating Temperature - A high separating temperature is normally favorable in mineral oil separation. The temperature should be uniform throughout separation. 4. Rate Of Throughput - see recommendations on 5. Optimum Utilization Of Machine - see trimming instructions on page 2 6. Position Of Interface - The interface between the liquid seat (water) and the oil should be positioned as close as possible to the bowl periphery. However, the interface must not be located so far from the bowl center that the oil will pass the outer edge of the top disc, breaking the liquid seal and discharging with the water.

Factors influencing the interface position are: a. Oil viscosity and density - A high oil density will position the interface closer to the bowl periphery than will a low density.

USMMA GMATS

121

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

b. Throughput and backpressure - As a rule, the interface will be located closer to the bowl periphery at a high throughput than at a low one. The same effect is produced by a high backpressure, and a low one respectively, in the clean oil outlet.

c. Gravity disc - The location of the interface is adjusted by altering the outlet for the water, i.e. exchanging the gravity disc. Changing to a gravity disc with larger hole diameter will move the interface towards the bowl periphery, whereas a disc with smaller hole diameter will position the interface closer to the bowl center.

USMMA GMATS

122

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

OPERATING LIQUID Pure soft water can be used as operating liquid. Hard water involves the risk of lime deposits, which may cause obstruction of the narrow channels in the operating liquid system and thus interruption of the service. The demands on the softness of the water increase with higher temperature, since lime precipitation is more liable to occur at higher temperature s. Addition of a dehardening agent of provision of a dehardening filter in the operating liquid line will prevent lime precipitation. OPERATING LIQUID TANK The operating liquid tank, which should be made of copper or stainless steel and hold 50 100 lit. (11 22 Im. Gal.), must be placed so that the liquid level will be lying within the height measurement limits stated in figure xx. In case the head room is too small, the tank may be replaced by a reducing valve or the like. This may, however, be less reliable than the tank. Besides, the tank system saves liquid during operation, since the back pressure of the control paring disc is balanced in an open system. SLUDGE BLOCKAGE If the nature of the sludge is such that it forms deposits in the upper frame or the sludge discharge bend, flushing should be provided to avoid sludge blockage. The flushing liquid should preferably be at the same temperatures as the process liquid and is supplied through connections provided for the purpose. If the sludge may not be diluted with any other liquid than the process liquid or if it is such a nature that it forms deposits in the bowl, then interval between discharges should be reduced. Flushing of the sludge cover in the frame should begin immediately before and continue throughout the discharge cycle. With timer-controlled machines, the flushing operation is generally included in the program. PARING DISC The paring disc has for its object to discharge the liquid under pressure. The liquid rotates, driven by the rotating paring chamber, in the form of a ring around the stationary paring disc. This dips radially, to a greater or smaller depth, into the rotating liquid ring, which exerts a pressure rising rapidly with increasing diameter. The pressure produced by the paring disc is composed partly of the centrifugal pressure prevailing at the periphery, partly of the kinetic energy of the rotating liquid ring, which is converted more or less completely into pressure energy. When the throughput is small and there is no back pressure in the discharge line, the inner diameter of the liquid ring will practically equal the outer diameter of the paring disc. If the liquid must overcome a back pressure, such as a high delivery head or pressureabsorbing apparatuses, the diameter of the liquid ring in the paring chamber will diminish until the back pressure is neutralized. Thus the paring disc will pump out all liquid fed to the paring chamber (not withstanding the back pressure) up to the highest pressure the paring disc can produce at this liquid quantity.

USMMA GMATS

123

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

PARING DISC

USMMA GMATS

124

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

WESTFALIA BOWL CROSS-SECTION

USMMA GMATS

125

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

TYPICAL WESTFALIA PURIFIER

USMMA GMATS

126

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

USMMA GMATS

127

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

USMMA GMATS

128

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

WESTFALIA INTERMITTENT SELF-CLEANING CENTRIFUGE. OIL PURIFICATION SHOWN AT LEFT, SLUDGE REMOVAL AT RIGHT

USMMA GMATS

129

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

SHARPLES TUBULAR TYPE CENTRIFUGAL PURIFIER

USMMA GMATS

130

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

ALPHA LAVAL PURIFIER

USMMA GMATS

131

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

WESTFALIA PURIFIER COMPONENTS OF THE BOWL IN THE ORDER OF ASSEMBLY

USMMA GMATS

132

11/3/2006

QMED

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

FUEL/LUBE OIL PURIFICAITON


CENTRIFUGES There is often confusion between the maximum throughput or rated capacity of a centrifuge and the recommended service capacity. The rated capacity gives the maximum volume of fuel that can be passed through the machine. This is usually based on the treatment of light distillate fuel at ambient temperature. The recommended service capacity is the amount that can be passed through the machine at maximum separating efficiency. This is based essentially upon the dynamic viscosity of the fuel at the separation temperature. The maximum separation tempEratuRe, irrespective of viscosity, has an upper limit of 98C Above this temperature there is a risk of the water seal being lost due to the formation of steam bubbles. Based upon centrifuge tests with fuels varying viscosity from marine diesel oil (taken as 85 sec Redwood 1 at100F or 14 cSt at 40C) to the most viscous fuel likely to be sold for marine bunkers, namely, 6000 sec Redwood 1 at 100F or approximately 600 cS at 50C, the maximum throughput capacities for the different viscosities are recommended by the various purifier manufacturers. For Bunker C fuels and those more viscous, a maximum separation temperature of 98 C is recommended. To select a centrifuge that will provide maximum separating efficiency, the rated capacity of the centrifuge must be divided by a factor that is a function of the fuel viscosity. For fuel viscosities of 180, 380, and 600 cSt, the rated centrifuge capacity is divided by 3.3, 4.0, and 6.7, respectively, to determine the recommended service capacity for maximum separating efficiency. That is, the more viscous the fuel, the lower the recommended throughput rate and the larger the centrifuge required. The difference in specific gravity between the fuel being processed and water, either fresh or salt, also influences the separation efficiency. Straight-run residual fuels seldom have a specific gravity that exceeds about 0.96, whereas the specific gravity of cracked residual fuels can exceed unity. The specific gravity of most fuels is inversely proportional to the temperature; however, the specific gravity of water does not have a straight-line relationship with temperature. The maximum difference between the specific gravities of oil and water occurs at about 85 C, and is slightly less at 98 C. From a specific gravity point of view, there is no advantage in heating the fuel above about 85 C. However, by increasing the temperature to 98 C, there is a marked reduction in the viscosity of the fuel, which permits a more effective separation of sludge and solids. Centrifuge manufacturers' generally agree that to effectively separate water and solids from high-specific-gravity, high-viscosity residual fuels, the throughput must be substantially less than that appropriate for less-dense, less-viscous fuels. For engines that are intended to be operated on residual fuel, it is recommended that the centrifuge capacity be designed to treat fuels characterized as 600 cSt viscosity at 50 C with a maximum specific gravity of 0.991 and up to 5% water and possibly 2% sludge. A centrifuge having this capacity should be able to treat the poorest fuels likely to be offered as diesel engine fuels.

USMMA GMATS

133

11/3/2006

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

Two properly sized, correctly operated, self-cleaning centrifuges are considered necessary to provide a reliable fuel-treatment system. Most engine warranties become invalid if centrifuges are not used. To establish and maintain effective separator procedures, several fundamental principles should be noted: The centrifuge is the first major stage of fuel treatment. To treat contaminated fuel oils, supplementary systems, in addition to the centrifuges, are required. These supplementary systems can consist of fine filtration, deimulsifier chemicals, and homogenizer-emulsifiers. Each centrifuge should be supplied with all parts necessary to operate as a purifier and as a clarifier as well as complete spares and a complete set of tools. The single centrifuge flow rate (for series operation) or the combined centrifuge flow rate (for parallel operation) must not exceed the engine demand by more than 10%. All residual fuel oil centrifuges should be on-line and operated continuously. This increases the effective fuel treatment time and further reduces contaminants. To properly adjust and operate a centrifuge, the following residual fuel-oil properties must be known: - viscosity, - specific gravity (or density), - compatibility of fuel oil, - water content, - mash content (bottom sediment content is an alternative), and - catalyst fines content (aluminum content is an alternative). This information can be used to make decisions on fuel treatment options. When fuel is transferred to a settling tank from a different source, a specific gravity check of the settling tank should be made and the centrifuge gravity disk should be checked to ensure that it is correct. The centrifuge is the foundation of the total shipboard fuel treatment system. Its efficient operation is critical to the safety and reliability of the engines. Its operation must be thoroughly understood so that the shipboard engineers can immediately troubleshoot fuel-oil problems when they occur. Some conditions that can cause centrifuge mal-operation include the following: Incorrect fuel handling before the separator, such as: improper barge blending, incompatible fuels, and emulsified fuels. Improper flow, such as: varying flow rates, excessive flow rate, or flow with varying densities. Improper temperature, such as: varying temperatures or too low a temperature. Incorrect positioning of the water/oil interface, thereby inhibiting a uniform flow of oil through all disks; this is usually caused by using an improper gravity disk. A gravity disk establishes the separation zone between the clean fuel and the water according to fuel temperature and density. As fuel characteristics change, the gravity disk must be changed to control the water fuel separation zone for maximum efficiency.

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AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

Overloading the centrifuge with an accumulation of sludge, which is usually caused by extended desludging intervals, or incompatible residual fuel oils.

The centrifuge valving is very important for proper start-up, to prevent contamination and for effective operation. Immediately before the centrifuges, valving should be provided that permits re-circulation back to the settling tanks to provide settling tank mixture for heating in the event that the heating coils in the settling tank are inoperative. Downstream of the centrifuges, the valving should permit re-circulation back to the settling tanks so that the fuel centrifuged can be returned to the settling tanks. This is desirable because a considerable period of time is required for the flow rate and temperature to become uniform and for equipment adjustments to be made (gravity disks, back-pressure settings, etc.) commensurate with, the stabilized conditions. A minimum of two centrifuges that are properly sized, arranged, and operated is required. Each centrifuge should be capable of purifying the total fuel requirements of the engine plus a 10% margin or surplus when operating at the recommended service capacity required for maximum separating efficiency. If there is a high water content in the fuel oil, centrifuge operation in parallel is recommended. By configuring both of the centrifuges as purifiers in parallel and by reducing the flow rates by 50%, the fuel has twice the residence time in the purifier to remove water. When properly set up and carefully operated, parallel operation can produce the highest cleaning effectiveness and, thereby, the cleanest fuel oil to the engine. However, if one of the purifiers should malfunction, there would be no provisions to prevent the contaminated oil from going directly to the engine. Therefore the drain from the day (service) tank must be checked at least three times daily. The series and parallel modes of centrifuge operation entail both advantages and disadvantages; therefore, to determine the most appropriate operational mode, the fuel flow, viscosity, density, water content, sediment and ash content, contamination, and compatibility must be assessed. When the fuel oil has a high water or sediment content, a parallel purifier/purifier alignment would be preferred. But if the fuel contains impurities that can be severely damaging, the risk of a purifier malfunction would suggest a series purifier/clarifier mode of operation. Three centrifuges are commonly installed aboard ship. The third machine is nominally a spare, but it can be used to provide a parallel purifier, purifier alignment followed by a clarifier for cleaning highly contaminated fuel.

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LUBRICATION AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT

LUBRICATION AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT LUBRICATION AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT


Lubrication reduces friction between moving parts by substituting fluid friction for sliding or rolling friction. Without lubrication, you would have difficulty moving a 100-pound weight across a rough surface; however, with lubrication and properly designed bearing surfaces with a very small motor you could move a 1,000,000-pound load. By reducing friction, lubrication lowers the amount of energy required to perform mechanical actions and causes less heat to be produced. Lubrication is a matter of vital importance throughout the shipboard engineering plant. Moving surfaces must be steadily supplied with the proper kinds of lubricants. Lubricants must be maintained at specified standards of purity and at designed pressures and temperatures. Without proper lubrication, many units of shipboard machinery would grind to a screeching halt. The lubrication requirements of shipboard machinery are met in various ways, depending on the machinery. In this chapter we will discuss the basic theories of lubrication, the lubricants used aboard ship, and the lubrication systems installed for many shipboard units. Also we will discuss the devices used to maintain lubricating oils in the required condition of purity. At the end of this chapter, you will find information on the Lube Oil Management Program. THEORY OF LUBRICATION - Friction is the natural resistance to motion caused by surface contact, and the purpose of lubrication is to reduce this friction. The friction that exists between a body at rest and the surface upon which it rests is called STATIC friction. The friction that exists between moving bodies (or between one moving body and a stationary surface) is called KINETIC friction. Static friction is greater than kinetic friction. Static friction and inertia must be overcome to put a body in motion. To keep a body in motion, you must overcome kinetic friction. There are three types of kinetic friction: sliding friction, rolling friction, and fluid friction. Sliding friction occurs when one solid body slides across another solid body. Rolling friction occurs when a curved body, such as a cylinder or a sphere, rolls across a surface. Fluid friction is the resistance to motion exhibited by a fluid. Fluid friction occurs because of two properties of a lubricant: cohesion and adhesion. COHESION is the molecular attraction between particles which tends to hold a substance together. ADHESION is the molecular attraction between particles which tends to cause unlike surfaces to stick together. If a paddle is used to stir a fluid, for example, cohesion between particles of the fluid tends to hold the molecules together. This retards motion of the fluid. But adhesion of fluid particles causes the fluid to stick to the paddle. This further causes friction between the paddle and the fluid. In the theory of lubrication, cohesion and adhesion have a major role. Adhesion is the property of a lubricant which causes it to stick (or adhere) to the parts being lubricated; cohesion is the property which holds the lubricant together and enables it to resist breakdown under pressure. Later in this chapter, we will discuss other important properties of a lubricant.

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Different materials have varying degrees of cohesion and adhesion. In general. solid bodies are highly cohesive but only slightly adhesive. Most fluids are highly adhesive but only slightly cohesive. FLUID LUBRICATION - One of the qualities of a liquid is that it cannot be forced into a smaller space than it already occupies. A liquid is incompressible. This fact allows moving metal surfaces to be separated from each other. Because of this, liquid is used for most lubrication needs. As long as the lubricant film remains unbroken, fluid friction replaces sliding friction and rolling friction. In any process involving friction, some power is consumed and some heat is produced. Overcoming sliding friction consumes the greatest amount of power and produces the greatest amount of heat. Overcoming fluid friction consumes the least power and produces the least amount of heat. LANGMUIR THEORY - A presently accepted theory of lubrication is based on the Langmuir theory of the action of fluid films of oil between two surfaces, one or both of which are in motion. Theoretically, three or more layers or films of oil exist between two lubricated bearing surfaces. Two of the films are BOUNDARY films (indicated as I and V in Figure 1A), one of which clings to the surface of the rotating journal and one of which clings to the stationary lining of the bearing. Between these two boundary films are one or more FLUID films (indicated as II. III, and IV in Figure 1A). When the rotating journal is set in motion, a wedge of oil is formed (Figure 1B). Contact between the two metal surfaces is prevented when oil films II, III, and IV (Figure lA) slide between the two boundary films. The theory is again illustrated in Figure 1C. The position of the oil wedge, W, is shown with respect to the position of the journal as it starts and continues in motion. The views shown in Figure 1C represent a journal or shaft rotating in a solid bearing. The clearances are enlarged in the drawing to show the formation of the oil film. The shaded portion represents the clearance filled with oil. The stationary view shows the film in the process of being squeezed out while the journal is at rest. As the journal begins to turn and to increase speed, oil adhering to the surfaces of the journal is carried into the film. The film increases in thickness and tends to lift the journal, as shown in the starting view. As the speed increases, the .journal takes the position shown in the running view. Varying temperatures cause changes in oil viscosity. These changes modify the film thickness and position of the journal. Viscosity will be discussed later in this chapter. If conditions are correct, the two surfaces are properly separated. A momentary contact may occur at the time the motion is started.

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FIGURE 1 OIL FILM LUBRICATION FACTORS AFFECTING LUBRICATION - A number of factors determine the effectiveness of oil film lubrication. They include pressure, temperature, viscosity, speed, alignment, condition of the bearing surfaces, running clearances, and the purity of the lubricant. Many of these factors are interrelated and interdependent. For example, the viscosity of any given oil is affected by temperature, and the temperature is affected by running speed. Therefore, the viscosity is partially dependent on the running speed. A lubricant must stick to the bearing surfaces and support the load at operating speeds. More adhesiveness is required to make a lubricant adhere to bearing surfaces at high speeds than at low speeds. At low speeds, greater cohesiveness is required to keep the lubricant from being squeezed out from between the bearing surfaces.

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LUBRICATION AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT

Large clearances between bearing surfaces require high viscosity and cohesiveness in the lubricant to ensure maintenance of the lubricating oil film. The larger the clearance, the greater must be the lubricants resistance to being pounded out, with consequent destruction of the lubrication oil film. High unit load on a bearing requires high viscosity of the lubricant. A lubricant subjected to high loading must be sufficiently cohesive to hold together and maintain the oil film. LUBRICANTS - Although synthetic lubricants are used today, the Navy uses petroleum as their main source of oils and greases. By various refining processes, lubricating oils are extracted from crude, petroleum and blended into a number of products. Sometimes additives (chemical compounds) are included in the process. Lubricating oils have to meet a wide range of lubrication requirements.

CAUTION
All lubricants are hazardous materials. All lubricants, especially synthetics, are toxic and hazardous to health. You should avoid prolonged skin and eye contact. Remove lubricant-soaked clothing promptly and wash skin thoroughly with soap and water. The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each item includes precautions, disposal information, and hazards. If you need any MSDS, ask your supervisor. Lubricating Oils - Lubricating oils approved for shipboard use are limited to those grades and types that are necessary to provide proper lubrication under all anticipated operating conditions. Diesel engines use a detergent-dispersant type of additive oil to keep the engines clean. These lubrication oils must be fortified with oxidation and corrosion inhibitors. This allows long periods between oil changes and prevents corrosion of bearing materials. Steam turbines use an oil of high initial film strength. This oil is fortified with anti-foaming additives and additives that control oxidation and corrosion. Also, extreme pressure (EP) additives are used. These additives help the oil carry the very high loading found in the reduction gear. For general lubrication and in hydraulic systems using petroleum lubricants, the Navy must use certain oils. These special viscosity series of oils are strengthened with oxidation and corrosion inhibitors and antifoam additives. Deck machinery uses compounded oils, which are mineral oils with additives. Special lubricating oils are available for a wide variety of services. The Federal Supply catalog has a list of these oils, Among the most important specialty oils are those used for lubricating refrigerant compressors. These oils must have a very low pour point and must be maintained with a high degree of freedom from moisture. The main synthetic lubricants in naval use are (1) a phosphate-ester type of fire-resistant hydraulic fluid, used chiefly in the deck-edge elevators of carriers, and (2) a water-base glycol hydraulic fluid, used chiefly in the catapult retracting gears.

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LUBRICATION AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF LUBRICATING OILS -The Navy identifies lubricating oils by number symbols. Each identification symbol consists of four digits and, in some cases, appended letters. The first digit shows the class of oil according to type and use; the last three digits show the viscosity of the oil. The viscosity digits are actually the number of seconds required for 60 milliliters (mL) of the oil to flow through a standard orifice at a certain temperature. Symbol 3080, for example, shows that the oil is in the 3000 series. It also shows that a 60-mL sample flows through a standard orifice in 80 seconds when the oil is at a certain temperature (210F, in this instance). Another example is symbol 2135 TH. This symbol shows that the oil is in the 2000 series. It also shows that a 60-mL sample flows through a standard orifice in 135 seconds when the oil is at a certain temperature (130F, in this case). The letters H, T, TH, or TEII added to a basic number show that the oil contains additives for special purposes. PROPERTIES OF LUBRICATING OILS - Lubricating oils used by the Navy are tested for a number of properties. These include: 1. Viscosity 2. Pour point 3. Flashpoint 4. Fire point 5. Auto-ignition point 6. Demulsibility 7. Neutralization number 8. Precipitation number Standard test methods are used for making all tests. The properties of lube oil are briefly explained in the following paragraphs. 1. Viscosity - The viscosity of an oil is its tendency to resist flow or change of shape. A liquid of high viscosity flows very slowly. In variable climates, automobile owners, for example, change oils in accordance with prevailing seasons. Oil changes are necessary because heavy oil becomes too sluggish in cold weather, and light oil becomes too thin in hot weather. The higher the temperature of an oil, the lower its viscosity becomes; lowering the temperature increases the viscosity. The high viscosity or stiffness of the lube oil on a cold morning makes an automobile engine difficult to start. The viscosity must always be high enough to keep a good oil film between the moving parts. Otherwise friction will increase, resulting in power loss and rapid wear on the parts. Oils are graded by their viscosities at a certain temperature. Grading is set up by noting the number of seconds required for a given quantity (60 mL) of the oil at the given temperature to flow through a standard orifice. The right grade of oil, therefore, means oil of the proper viscosity. Every oil has a viscosity index based on the slope of the temperature-viscosity curve. The viscosity index depends on the rate of change in viscosity of a given oil with a change in temperature. A low index Figure means a steep slope of the curve, or a great variation of viscosity with a change in temperature; a high index Figure means a flatter slope, or lesser variation of viscosity with the same changes in temperatures. If you are using an oil with a high viscosity index, its viscosity or body will change less when the temperature of the

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2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

engine increases. Pour Point - The pour point of an oil is the lowest temperature at which the oil will barely flow from a container. At a temperature below the pour point, oil congeals or solidifies. Lube oils used in cold weather operations must have a low pour point. (NOTE: The pour point is closely related to the viscosity of the oil. In general, an oil of high viscosity will have a higher pour point than an oil of low viscosity.) Flashpoint - The flashpoint of an oil is the temperature at which enough vapor is given off to flash when a flame or spark is present. The minimum flashpoints allowed for Navy lube oils are all above 315 F. However, the temperatures of the oils are always far below that under normal operating conditions. Fire Point - The fire point of an oil is the temperature at which the oil will continue to burn when ignited. Auto-Ignition Point - The auto-ignition point of an oil is the temperature at which the flammable vapors given off from the oil will burn. This kind of burning will occur without the application of a spark or flame. For most lubricating oils, this temperature is in the range of 465 to 815F. Demulsibility - The demulsibility, or emulsion characteristic, of an oil is its ability to separate cleanly from any water present-an important factor in forced-feed systems. You should keep water (fresh or salt) out of oils. Neutralization Number - The neutralization number of an oil is the measure of the acid content. The number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide (KOH) required to neutralize 1 gram of the oil defines the neutralization number. All petroleum products oxidize in the presence of air and heat. The products of this oxidation include organic acids. High amounts of organic acids have harmful results on galvanized surfaces and on alloy bearings at high temperatures. The demulsibility of the oil with respect to fresh water and seawater also relies on the amount of organic acids. High organic acid levels may cause decreased demulsibility. The formation of sludge and emulsions too stable to be broken by available means may result. This last problem may occur in turbine installations. An increase in acidity is a sign that the lubricating oil is breaking down. Precipitation Number - The precipitation number of an oil is a measure of the amount of solids classified as asphalts or carbon residue contained in the oil. The number is reached by diluting a known amount of oil with naphtha and separating the precipitate by centrifugingthe volume of separated solids equals the precipitation number. The test helps you find out quickly the presence of foreign materials in used oils. An oil with a high precipitation number may cause trouble in an engine. It could leave deposits or plug up valves and pumps.

Lubricating Greases - Some lubricating greases are simple mixtures of soaps and lubricating oils. Others are more unusual, such as silicones and dibasic acids, which are exotic liquids. These may be thickened with metals or inert materials to provide enough lubrication. Requirements for oxidation inhibition, corrosion prevention, and extreme pressure performance are met by adding special substances (additives). Lubricating greases are supplied in three ,Trades: soft, medium, and hard. The soft greases are used for high speeds and low pressures; the medium greases are used for medium speeds and medium pressures; the hard greases are used for slow speeds and high pressures.

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LUBRICATION AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF LUBRICATING GREASES - Navy specifications have been drawn to cover the several grades of lubricating greases. The grades most common in engineroom use are ball and roller bearing grease and extreme pressure grease. 1. Ball And Roller Bearing Grease, Mil-G-24508 - Ball and roller bearing grease is for general use in equipment designated to operate at temperatures up to 300F. For temperature applications above 300F, high-temperature, electric-motor, ball and roller bearing grease (MILL-15719) must be used. 2. Extreme Pressure Grease, Mil-G-17740 - Extreme pressure grease has anti-rust properties and is suitable for lubrication of semi-enclosed gears, or any sliding or rolling metal surfaces where loads may be high and where the equipment may be exposed to salt spray or moisture. It is intended for use in a temperature range of 0 to 140F. GRAPHITE GREASE, VV-G-671 - Graphite grease may be applied with compression grease cups to bearings operating at temperatures not to exceed 150 F. The three grades of this grease are listed below: Grade 1 Soft For light pressures and high speeds Grade 2 Medium For medium pressures and medium speeds Grade 3 Medium Hard For high pressures and slow speeds LUBRICATING SYSTEMS - The following paragraphs contain information about different lubricating systems and their related equipment. We will discuss the important functions and use of each system and describe their operating procedures. MAIN LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEMS - Main lubricating oil systems in steam-driven ships provide lubrication for the turbine bearings and the reduction gears. In some ships, the main lube oil system also provides control oil for the main engine throttle control system and hydraulic gland seal regulators. The main lube oil system generally includes a filling and transfer system, a purifying system, and separate service systems for each propulsion plant. Most ships have three positive displacement pumps for main lobe oil service. One pump is an attached pump driven by either the propulsion shaft or the quill shaft of the reduction gear. This pump provides main lube oil service when the main engines are turning fast enough for the pump to supply the required pressure. The other two pumps may be both electric-motor driven or a combination of one turbine-driven and one electric-motor driven. These pumps are used when lighting off, securing, and at low speeds when the attached pump is not supplying enough pressure. Another use is as a standby pump when the attached pump has the load. Some ships have automatic features which provide for electric pumps to start and stop or shift speeds at various pressures and shaft rpm. This system automatically provides enough main lube oil pressure for all operating conditions. Some ships have only two electric-motor driven main lube oil pumps. One pump is supplied by ac electrical power and the other by dc electrical power. One pump is always in standby for the running pump and will automatically start if oil pressure drops below a certain value.

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LUBRICATION AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT

Lube oil pressures which provide control features for the main lube oil system (such as alarms, pump standby features, etc.) are monitored at or near the bearing farthest from the tube oil supply (main tube, oil pumps); this is known as the most remote bearing. In a typical main tube oil system (Figure 2), the pump takes suction from the main sump and discharges the tube oil into the duplex strainers (Figure 3). From the strainer, the tube oil goes to the oil cooler (discussed in chapter 6 of this manual). The oil is cooled to 120 to 130. This temperature is maintained by using the overboard valve to adjust the flow of seawater through the cooler. After leaving the cooler, the oil goes to the turbine and reduction gear bearings. In. the main lube oil service line between the cooler and the bearing supply lines, an unloading valve is installed to dump excess pressure back to the main sump. This valve is set to maintain designed operating pressure to the most remote bearing and is normally spring loaded or air pilot controlled. After leaving the bearings, the tube oil returns to the main sump by gravity flow. Also, relief valves are installed in each pump discharge line to protect the pump against excessive pressure. An orifice or a needle valve is installed in each bearing supply line to regulate the flow of oil to the individual bearing. Figure 4 shows a forced-feed lubricated bearing.

FIGURE 2 - TYPICAL LUBE OIL SYSTEM.

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FIGURE 3 - DUPLEX STRAINER. AUXILIARY MACHINERY LUBRICATION SYSTEMS - Lube oil systems for auxiliary machinery have the same components as the main tube oil system and serve the same purpose. However, the construction and size of the components are different. The tube oil pump is normally of the simple gear type and is driven by a pinion on the gear shaft. The tube oil filter is of the stacked disk type. You should keep this filter clean in accordance with PMS requirements. The cooler is a doublepass water-tube type. The water for this cooler is supplied by the auxiliary machinery cooling water system. The temperature of the tube oil leaving the cooler is controlled by regulating the cooling water flow with the inlet valve to the cooler. By using the inlet valve, you will not subject the tube oil cooler to the full pressure of the cooling water system. If you allow full pressure on the cooler, it could rupture. An orifice is installed in the cooling water line leaving the oil cooler. This orifice ensures that the cooler remains full so that no air pocket will form and reduce the performance of the cooler. A Tube oil relief valve is located in the upper transmission housing. This valve protects the system from excessive pressure and should be set to maintain designed bearing oil pressure. The ship service turbo-generator and the main feed pump may have a different system. Their systems may use a duplex tube oil strainer and may also have a hand or electric tube oil pump for startup and securing.

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LUBRICATION AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT

Duplex tube oil strainers are installed in the main tube oil system and in some auxiliary tube oil systems to trap foreign matter. The installation of strainers prevents damage to the gears, bearings, and journals. The strainers (Figure 3) are of the duplex basket type. They are designed so that one strainer can be opened for inspection and cleaning while the other is in service. Also by having two strainers, a standby strainer is available if a casualty occurs. Most of these strainers contain a removable magnetic element (not shown in the Figure) in each basket to remove ferrous (magnetic) particles from the oil. The strainers are usually shifted, inspected, and cleaned at the following intervals:

FIGURE 4 - ADJUSTABLE SPHERICAL-SEATED BEARING LUBRICATED BY FORCE FEED. 1. Once each watch for the first 24 hours underway 2. Once each watch for the first 48 hours underway if major work has been done on the tube oil system 3. Once each watch when operating at more than 85 percent of full power 4. Once every 24 hours after number I or 2 conditions have been satisfied 5. When the differential pressure (d/p) across the strainer in service raises more than 1 1/2 psi above normal (some strainers have valves which will automatically shift with an excessive d/p) 6. When required by casualty control procedures

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If your particular PMS does not give the same intervals for shifting, inspecting, and cleaning the strainers as stated above, then follow the intervals given in your PMS. Carefully follow the proper procedures when you are shifting the strainers. If you use improper procedures, you can cause a loss of tube oil pressure and/or a fire. The proper procedure for shifting is normally posted near the strainers. Routinely check your strainer cap gaskets and strainer shields to ensure they are in satisfactory condition. Also make sure the strainer in use is properly identified. GREASE LUBRICATION SYSTEMS - Grease lubrication is used in many locations where it is difficult to keep tube oil at the bearing surface. The grease is applied either through grease cups or through pressure fittings, such as the Zerk type. Grease Cup Lubrication - Dirt in lube oil will generally settle out, but dirt in grease remains mixed with the grease and becomes abrasive. For this reason, you should take particular care to prevent contamination, especially where grease cups are used. Before you open the container, carefully remove all dirt from the exterior. Do NOT allow any dirt to enter either the opening or the grease cups. You should often empty, clean, and refill the cups with fresh grease. Pressure Greasing - Pressure fittings form an easy means of lubricating numerous low-speed, lightly loaded, or widely separated bearings. They are not, however, good for use on electric generators and motors. Pressure fittings used on these units may force grease out of the bearing and onto windings. These fittings are similar to those on an automobile, where grease guns are used for lubrication. Before using the grease gun, clean the pressure fittings and gun tip. Apply pressure to the fitting until grease comes out around the edges of the bearing. In bearings fitted with felt or other seals, you must be careful to avoid breaking the seals by overpressure. Excessive pressure in the lubrication of needle-type roller bearings may unseat the needles. BALL AND ROLLER BEARING LUBRICATION - The oil or grease used to lubricate ball and roller bearings (roller contact bearings) serves many important functions. It provides a lubricating film among the halls, rollers, and retainers and between the ends of the rollers and the races. The oil or grease disperses heat caused by friction and prevents corrosion of the highly polished parts. It also helps keep dirt, water, and other foreign matter out of the parts. You should use the lubricant recommended for each machine, and you should avoid too much lubrication. LUBE OIL PURIFICATION - The forced-feed lubrication systems in modern naval ships rely on pure oil. Oil that stays pure can be used for a long time. LUBE OIL DOES NOT WEAR OUT it is merely robbed of its lubricating properties by foreign substances. Contaminants interfere with the ability of the oil to maintain a good lubricating film between metal surfaces. These contaminants must be removed or the oil will not meet lubrication requirements. Dirt, sludge, and other contaminants will act as abrasives to score and scratch the rubbing metal surfaces within engines, generators, pumps, and blowers. Water is the greatest

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source of contamination. Strainers, filters, settling tanks, and centrifugal purifiers are used in lubrication systems to keep the oil pure. Filters and strainers were discussed earlier in the chapter. This section will deal with settling tanks and centrifugal purifiers. Lubricating oil piping is generally arranged to permit two methods of purification: batch purification and continuous purification. The batch process uses settling tanks while the continuous process uses centrifugal purifiers. SETTLING TANKS - In the batch process, the lube oil is transferred from the sump to a settling tank by a purifier or transfer pump. Settling tanks permit oil to stand while water and other impurities settle out. Settling is caused by the force of gravity. A number of layers of contaminants may form in the bottom of the tank. The number of layers depends on the specific gravity of the various contaminating substances. For example, a layer of metal may form on the bottom, followed by a layer of sludge, a layer of water, and then the clean oil on top. Settling tanks are normally used when the ship is in port. After the oil is heated and allowed to settle for several hours, water and other impurities that have accumulated in the settling tanks are removed. The oil that is left in the tanks is then centrifuged and returned to the sump or storage tank. CENTRIFUGAL PURIFIERS - When a ship is at sea or when time does not permit batch purification in the settling tanks, the continuous purification process is .used. Centrifugal purifiers are used in this process. The purifier takes the oil from the sump in a continuous cycle. Before entering the purifier, the oil is heated to help remove the impurities. Detailed instructions on constructing, operating, and maintaining purifiers are furnished by manufacturers technical manuals, PMS, and the Engineering Operation Sequencing System (EOSS). Carefully follow these documents when you are operating or performing maintenance on purifiers. The following general information will help you understand the purification and the purposes and principles of purifier operation. A purifier may be used to remove water and/or sediment from oil. When water must be removed, the purifier is called a SEPARATOR. When the main source of contamination is sediment, the purifier is used as a CLARIFIER. When used to purify lubricating oil, a purifier may be used as either a separator or a clarifier. Aboard ship, a purifier is almost always operated as a separator. TYPES OF CENTRIFUGAL PURIFIERS AND THEIR OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS - Two types of purifiers are used in Navy installations. Both types operate on the same principle. The principal difference is in the design of the rotating units. In one type the rotating element is a bowl-like container which encases a stack of disks. This is the disk-type DeLaval purifier. In the other type, the rotating element is a hollow, tubular rotor and is the tubular-type Sharples purifier. Disk-Type Purifier - A sectional view of a disk-type centrifugal purifier is shown in Figure 5. The bowl is mounted on the upper end of the vertical bowl spindle, which is driven by means of a worm wheel and friction clutch assembly. A radial thrust bearing at the lower end of the bowl

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spindle carries the weight of the bowl spindle and absorbs any thrust created by the driving action. The parts of a disk-type bowl are shown in Figure 6. The flow of oil through the bowl and additional parts is shown in Figure 7. Contaminated oil enters the top of the revolving bowl through the regulating tube. The oil then passes down the inside of the tubular shaft and out at the bottom into the stack of disks. As the dirty oil flows up through the distribution holes in the disks, the high centrifugal force exerted by the revolving bowl causes the dirt, sludge, and water to move outward. The purified oil flows inward and upward, discharging from the neck of the top disk. The water forms a seal between the top disk and the bowl top. (The top disk is the dividing line between the water and the oil.) The disks divide the space within the bowl into many separate narrow passages or spaces. The liquid confined within each passage is restricted so that it can flow only along that passage. This arrangement minimizes agitation of the liquid as it passes through the bowl. It also makes shallow settling distances between the disks.

FIGURE 5 - DISK-TYPE CENTRIFUGAL PURIFIER.

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FIGURE 6 - PART OF A DISK-TYPE PURIFIER BOWL

FIGURE 7 - PATH OF OIL THROUGH DISK-TYPE PURIFIER. Most of the dirt and sludge remains in the bowl and collects in a more or less uniform layer on the inside vertical surface of the bowl shell. Any water, along with some dirt and sludge, separated from the oil, is discharged through the discharge ring at the top of the bowl.

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Tubular-Type Purifier - A cross section of a tubular-type centrifugal purifier is shown in Figure 8. This type of purifier consists essentially of a hollow rotor or bowl which rotates at high speeds. The rotor has an opening in the bottom to allow the dirty lube oil to enter. It also has two sets of openings at the top to allow the oil and water (separator) or the oil by itself (clarifier) to discharge (see insert, Figure 8). The bowl, or hollow rotor, of the purifier is connected by a coupling unit to a spindle. The spindle is suspended from a ball bearing assembly. The bowl is belt-driven by an electric motor mounted on the frame of the purifier. The lower end of the bowl extends into a flexibly mounted guide bushing. The assembly restrains movement of the bottom of the bowl, but is also allows the bowl enough movement to center itself during operation. Inside the bowl is a device consisting of three flat plates equally spaced radially. This device is commonly referred to as the three-wing device, or just the threewing. The three-wing rotates with the bowl and forces the liquid in the bowl to rotate at the same speed as the bowl. The liquid to be centrifuged is fed, under pressure, into the bottom of the bowl through the feed nozzle.

FIGURE 8.-TUBULAR-TYPE CENTRIFUGAL PURIFIER.

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When the purifier is used as a lube oil clarifier, the three-wing has a cone on the bottom. The feed jet strikes against this cone in order to bring the liquid smoothly up to bowl speed without making an emulsion. This type of three-wing device is shown in Figure 9.

FIGURE 9.-PRINCIPLES OF A CENTRIFUGAL PURIFIER. Separation is basically the same in the tubular-type purifier as in the disk-type purifier. In both types, the separated oil assumes the innermost position and the separated water moves outward. Both liquids are discharged separately from the bowls, and the solids separated from the liquid remain in the bowl (Figure 10).

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FIGURE 10.-PATH OF OIL THROUGH THE BOWL-TYPE PURIFIER. GENERAL NOTES ON PURIFIER OPERATIONS - You should get the specific details from the instructions provided for operating a given purifier. The information provided here is general, and you can apply it to both types of purifiers. For maximum efficiency, run purifiers at maximum designed speed and rated capacity. Since turbine oils are always contaminated with water from condensation, you should operate the purifier as a separator and not as a clarifier: However, do not run a purifier at designed rated capacity when a unit is used as a separator of 9000 series (compounded- or additive-type heavyduty lube oils) detergent oil. Some engine installations using oils of the 9000 series are exposed to large quantities of water. If the oil becomes contaminated with water, the oil has a tendency to emulsify. The tendency is greater when the oil is new. This condition decreases during the first 50 to 75 hours of engine operation. When an emulsion appears, you should lower the purifier to 80 percent of the rated capacity. You should continue this operation as long as a noticeable amount of free water discharges along with the emulsion.

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When a purifier is run as a separator, you should prime the bowl with fresh water before you open the suction valve. The water serves to seal the bowl and to make the liquid layers equal. If you do not prime the bowl, you will lose oil through the water discharge ports. Influencing Factors in Purifier Operation - The time required for purification and the output of a purifier depend on many factors. The viscosity of the oil and the pressure applied to the oil are such factors. Two other important factors are the size of the sediment particles and the difference in the specific gravity of the oil. The viscosity of the oil determines to a great extent the length of time required to purify lube oil. The more viscous the oil, the longer the time required to purify it to a given degree of purity. Decreasing the viscosity of the oil by heating will help purification. Even though certain oils may be properly purified at operating temperatures, you will get greater purification by heating the oil to a higher temperature. To do this, the oil is passed through a heater. The oil reaches the proper temperature in the heater before it enters the purifier bowl. Oils used in naval installations may be heated to specified temperatures without adverse effects. Prolonged heating at higher temperatures, however, is not recommended because of the tendency of such oils to oxidize. In general, oil should he heated enough to produce a viscosity of about 90 seconds, Saybolt Universal (90 SSU). Pressure should not be increased above normal in order to force a high viscosity oil through the purifier. Instead, viscosity should be decreased by heating the oil. The use of excess pressure to force oil through the purifier will result in poor purification. But if you reduce the pressure of the oil as it is forced into the purifier, you will improve purification. This happens because you have increased the length of time the oil is under the influence of centrifugal force. For clean oil to be discharged from a purifier and for the water discharged to be free of oil, you must use the proper size discharge ring (RING DAM). The size of the discharge ring depends on the specific gravity of the oil being purified. All discharge rings have the same outside diameter, but they have inside diameters of different sizes. Ring sizes are shown by even numbers: the smaller the number, the smaller the ring size. The size, in millimeters, of the inside diameter is stamped on each ring. Sizes vary by 2-mL steps. Charts provided in manufacturers technical manuals show the proper ring size to be used with an oil of a specific gravity. Generally, the ring size shown on a chart will produce good results. However, the recommended ring may not produce good purification. In that case, you must determine the correct size by trial and error. In general, purification is best when you use the ring of the largest possible size to prevent loss of oil. MAINTENANCE OF PURIFIERS - Proper care of an oil purifier requires that the bowl be cleaned often and that all sediment be carefully removed. How often you clean a purifier depends on the amount of foreign matter in the oil to be purified. If the amount of foreign matter in an oil is not known, you should shut down the machine and check it. The amount of sediment found in the bowl at this time will indicate how often you should clean the purifier. Thoroughly clean the bowl assembly each time lube oil is run through for batch purification from the settling tank.
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While the purifier is operating on a sump of an operating unit, you should make checks to ensure that the purifier has not lost its seal. A casualty caused by a loss of lube oil can occur fairly rapidly. This happens if all the tube oil from a sump is dumped to the bilge or drain tank by an improperly operating purifier. THE LUBE OIL MANAGEMENT PROGRAM - The Lube Oil Management Program was developed because of the importance of good quality lubricating oil. This program is in the form of an instruction. These instructions may vary somewhat in procedure, but their objectives are the same. Some of the major points covered by this instruction are listed below: 1. How often you should take oil samples 2. The type of equipment on which you should take oil samples 3. The required logs and records of lube oil 4. The type of testing you are required to do on oil samples 5. Your required action as a result of the tests If this program is properly maintained, you can reduce the down time of your machinery caused by oil related failures. You should become very familiar with the Lube Oil Management Program and carefully follow each step and detail listed.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ABLE OF ONTENTS


WATER MAKERS
1) TYPES a) SINGLE STAGE LOW PRESSURE b) TWO STAGE LOW PRESSURE c) REVERSE OSMOSIS 2) OPERATING PRINCIPLES 3) PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS PROPER OPERATING PARAMETERS 4) TROUBLESHOOTING

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1.. TYPES 1 TYPES


SINGLE STAGE LOW PRESSURE TWO STAGE LOW PRESSURE REVERSE OSMOSIS INTRODUCTION - Both personnel and equipment generate requirements for fresh water. Personnel need water for drinking, hygiene, laundry, cleaning, and other purposes, while equipment needs water for cooling (diesel engines, large compressors, etc.) and for boiler feed on ships equipped with either steam generators or boilers. Since the quantities of chemically and biologically pure water required by all but the smallest vessels make storage tanks impractical, distilling or purification plants must be used to ensure adequate supplies of fresh water for long periods of time. Plants for making fresh water from seawater are available in several different configurations based on different operating principles. Shipboard distilling systems are based either on successive stages of evaporation and condensation or on the principle of reverse osmosis (RO). This chapter will describe the basic principles and operating characteristics of flash type evaporators and reverse osmosis units. GENERAL - Three general types of distilling plants are installed in marine applications. These are the vapor compression, low-pressure steam (flash, submerged tube and basket), and heat recovery types. The major differences among the three types of plants are the form of energy used for operation and the pressure under which distillation takes place. Vapor-compression distillers use electrical energy for heaters and compressors, and boil the seawater feed near atmospheric pressure. Low-pressure steam units use steam from the auxiliary exhaust steam system or the auxiliary steam system as a heat source (they are usually only found on steam vessels); heat recovery units use diesel engine cooling jacket water for this purpose. Both these plants operate at a higher vacuum (and consequently lower temperature) than the vaporcompression type. LOW-PRESSURE STEAM - There are three types of low-pressure steam-distilling plants: submerged-tube, vertical-basket, and flash. The first two types are similar, differing only in the kind of heat transfer surface used to boil the seawater feed. In the flash-type plant, the seawater feed is not boiled but is flashed to vapor by a pressure drop. FLASH-TYPE DISTILLING UNITS - One of the major types of marine distilling plant is the flash type, shown in Figure 1. The flash type depends upon temperature and pressure differences between the stages (effects) to generate vapor from the seawater feed. Flash-type units consist of one or more stages, each stage having a flash chamber, a feed box, a vapor separator, and a distiller condenser. A two- or three-stage air ejector, a distillate cooler, and a vapor feed heater are also provided. Seawater (feed) pumped in from the sea passes through the tubes of the distillate cooler, the stage distiller condensers, and the air ejector condenser. In each of these heat exchangers, the feed picks up energy as heat. The final heating is done by auxiliary exhaust steam admitted to the shell of the feedwater heater. From this heater the feedwater enters the first-stage feed box and sprays out through orifices into the flash

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chamber. As the heated feedwater enters the chamber, a portion flashes or vaporizes, because the pressure in the chamber is maintained lower than the saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature of the hot feed. Vapor then condenses on the tubes of the first-stage distiller condenser. The feed that does not vaporize in the first chamber (brine) passes via a loop seal to the second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first stage. The process is repeated in each stage, and the brine remaining in the last stage is removed by the brine overboard pump. Vapor formed in each stage passes through a vapor separator and into the stage distiller condenser, where it is condensed into distillate. The distillate passes through a loop seal on its way to the distiller condenser of the next stage. The distillate pump removes the distillate from the last stage and discharges it through the distillate cooler to fresh-water storage tanks.

FIGURE 1 - SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE TYPICAL FLASH-TYPE DISTILLING UNIT REVERSE-OSMOSIS PLANTS - Reverse-osmosis plants have been developed to provide water of acceptable quality for ships requiring feedwater of less than 50-ppm purity. These single-pass units force seawater through membranes, reducing the average salt content of 25,00035,000 ppm levels to less than 50 ppm, which is acceptable for everything aboard ship except high pressure boiler feed water. Osmosis is a natural process in which a fluid migrates through a semi-permeable membrane, such as the wall of a biologic cell, into a fluid having a higher concentration of substances and thereby balances the levels of concentration on both sides of the cell wall. Reverse osmosis (RO)

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is the opposite, the fluid being driven against a membrane where the fluid is permitted to pass but the salts are retained. The membrane blocks the passage of the salts, which are concentrated and removed as brine. The pressure under which this process operates ranges from 74 psia for brackish water to 410 psia for seawater. The osmotic pressure for seawater increases about 0.01 psi for each milligram of salt per liter in the water. A typical reverse osmosis system flow path is shown in Figure 2. A suction pump sends seawater through pre-filters, where silt and suspended solids are removed. The filtered seawater is then pumped to the RO unit, which consists of a synthetic semi-permeable membrane. The salts are pumped back to the sea as brine. Purified water that is forced through the membrane is given a post-treatment with a sterilizer and a charcoal filter before being sent to the fresh-water storage tank.

FIGURE 2 - SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF REVERSE-OSMOSIS SYSTEM FLOW (Courtesy MECO Corp.) BRINE OVERBOARD - The RO unit used for marine installations is usually a spiral-wound type consisting of a polyamide or cellulose fiber. The plies of fibrous material are sandwiched into multiple layers and reinforced with a coarser mesh spaced around each layer. The complete assembly is wound around a permeable collection tube fitted within a fiberglass wrapper and encased in a fiberglass pressure case. Seawater is pumped to the intake at one end of the module and flows over the membrane surfaces, passing through the inner section and collecting in the inner tube. The concentrate (brine) leaves the unit at the opposite end from the purified water.

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In operation, seawater is forced against the membrane in the unit, where a stagnant layer helps to hold the salts behind as the water is forced through. Continuous removal of the brine helps to maintain equilibrium within the filter. As in the distilling types, almost all the biologic material is removed from the process as brine, but it is standard practice to chlorinate the product and pass it through a charcoal filter to assure the purity of the water. Multistage RO units are preferred for naval service. With a multistage unit, fresh water may continue to be produced even if one stage fails to operate correctly. Furthermore, in some operating conditions, RO units are more economical to operate than evaporation-type distilling units.

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2.. OPERATING PRINCIPLES FOR EACH TYPE 2 OPERATING PRINCIPLES FOR EACH TYPE
THE DISTILLATION PROCESS - Boiling seawater in a closed vessel at atmospheric pressure and leading the vapor through a heat exchanger until it condenses is a simple method of making fresh water from seawater. Either atmospheric air or seawater may be used as coolant for the condensing process, with seawater the better choice because of its greater capacity to absorb energy as heat (specific heat). The final products are brine, which is salt water with a greater concentration of salt than normal seawater, and distillate, the potable product of vapor condensation. Figure 3 represents a simple distillation process.

Figure 3 Basic Diagram Of The Distillation Process For clarity, terms used are defined as follows: Distillation - The process of boiling seawater and then cooling and condensing the resulting vapor to produce fresh water. Evaporation - The first step in the distillation process. It is the process of boiling seawater to separate it into fresh water vapor and brine. Brine - Water in which the concentration of salt is greater than that in normal seawater. Vapor - Water in the gaseous state. The terms vapor and fresh water vapor are used interchangeably. Condensation - The conversion of vapor into usable fresh water by cooling. Feed - Seawater used as the raw material for the distillation process.

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Distillate - The product of condensation of the fresh water vapor produced by the vaporization of seawater. Distillate also may be referred to as condensate, as fresh water, as fresh water condensate, and as seawater distillate. The term condensate should be avoided wherever there is any possibility of confusion between condensate from the distilling plant and condensate from condensation in a ship's main and auxiliary condensers. Confusion may be avoided by referring to the product of condensation in the distilling plant as distillate. Salinity This is the concentration of salt in water, normally given in parts per million (ppm). FACTORS AFFECTING OPERATION OF THE DISTILLING PLANT - The rate at which seawater is evaporated in a distilling plant depends on the rate at which heat is transferred to the seawater. The major influences on this transfer are the pressure at which the heat exchange takes place, the temperature difference between the fluids exchanging heat, the surface areas available for heat exchange between the two substances, and the coefficients of heat transfer of the substances and materials used in the various heat-exchange devices. Additional factors are fluid flow rates and cleanliness of heat-exchanger surfaces. Seawater, the raw material of the distilling plant, is an aqueous solution of various minerals and salts. It also contains suspended matter such as vegetable and animal growths and bacteria and other microorganisms. Under proper operating conditions, distilling plants are capable of producing fresh water that contains only minute traces of these chemical and biological contaminants. Distilling plants cannot remove volatile gases or liquids that have lower boiling points than water, nor can they kill all microorganisms. These points are of particular importance when a ship or rig is operating in contaminated or polluted waters. Several common problems can arise in the distillation of seawater. Some of the salts present in seawater are negatively soluble that is, they are less soluble in hot water than they are in cold water. A negatively soluble salt remains in solution at low temperatures, but precipitates out of solution at higher temperatures. Precipitation of various salts forms scale on the heat-transfer surfaces and thereby interferes with heat transfer. In marine distilling plants this problem is partially avoided by designing the plants to operate under vacuum or, in the case of one type of plant, at approximately atmospheric pressure. The use of low pressures, and therefore low boiling temperatures, has the additional advantage of greater thermal efficiency than can be achieved when higher pressures and temperatures are used. With low pressures and temperatures, less heat is required to make the seawater boil, and less heat is lost overboard through the circulating water that cools and condenses the vapor. Satisfactory operation of a distilling plant may require maintaining a specified vacuum. If a plant is operated at less than the designed vacuum, the temperature level rises throughout the unit, and there is an increased tendency toward scale formation. Scale formation is highly undesirable, since as noted above the scale interferes with the rate of heat transfer and the flow of water and thereby reduces the capacity of the unit. Excessive scale build-up also lowers the quality of the distillate.

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To reduce the rate of scale formation in distilling plants, chemical compounds are used for treatment of distiller feedwater. In addition, special techniques for cold shocking the tubes within the distiller help crack the scale formation from the tubes. (Cold shocking consists of passing cold water through the hot tubes to let thermal contraction of the tubes crack scale off the tube exterior- this is a procedure normally only used with high pressure evaporators.) None of these procedures completely eliminates bacteria or pollutants from the water. Distilling plants should never be operated in waters that might be seriously contaminated by oil and other chemicals. Almost all distilling plants are designed to operate at or below atmospheric pressure, and therefore at low temperatures. The distillate is not sterilized by the boiling process and may contain harmful organisms or other matter harmful to health and to the ship's freshwater systems. All waters in harbors, rivers, streams, inlets, bays, landlocked waters, and the sea within ten miles of the entrance to such waters must be considered contaminated unless a specific determination to the contrary is made. When you are operating in contaminated waters, the distillers, if used, must be operated in strict accordance with special procedures. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION - In flash-type plants seawater is heated in a series of heat exchangers and subsequently discharged into the first-stage flash chamber. Since the pressure in the first-stage flash chamber is lower than the saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature of the feed, a portion of the feed flashes or vaporizes as it passes through the firststage flash chamber. The vapor rises through a moisture separator or mesh-type demister and is condensed on the first-stage condenser tubes by the cooler seawater flowing through them. The condensed vapor (or distillate) then falls into the first-stage distillate trough. The remaining unflashed feed (brine) enters the second stage through restrictions in the bottom of the flash chamber. Since the brine is now at the saturation temperature of the first-stage vacuum and the second-stage flash chamber is at a lower pressure, a portion of the brine again flashes. Distillate is formed and collected in the second-stage distillate trough in the same manner as in the first stage. The distillate pump removes the distillate (formed in both stages) from the second-stage distillate trough. The remaining brine in the bottom of the second-stage flash chamber is pumped overboard. This subject is discussed more fully under the individual circulating system descriptions. A constant rate of distillate production will be maintained with a constant generating steam pressure above the orifice plate in the steam line to the feed-heater. Increasing or decreasing this pressure will increase or decrease the quantity of the feed pumped through the unit and the temperature of the feed to the first stage. A change in the pressure above the orifice will produce a corresponding change in distillate production. The flash-type distiller has no separate condenser cooling circuit. The feed is used as distillate cooler, stage condenser, and air ejector condenser coolant, picking up heat in the process. It is heated in the feedheater to its terminal temperature and then sequentially directed through all of the stages. All of the heat input to the seawater is sensible heat. The pressure that suppresses boiling is maintained until the feed is discharged into the first-stage flash device. The quantity of freshwater produced depends on the quantity of feed entering the first-stage flash chamber and the total reduction in feed temperature in the flashing process. The ratio of distillate produced to feed through a flash-type distilling plant is approximately 1 gallon of distillate per 10 to 20

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gallons of feed. This ratio is independent of the number of stages but varies directly with the seawater temperature. Using Steam as the energy medium: (Figure 4)

FIGURE 4 DIAGRAM OF A TWO-STAGE FLASH-TYPE DISTILLING PLANT 4 Flash-type distilling plants have the following advantages over boiling distillers: a. Low scaling and corrosion rates because no boiling occurs on heat transfer surfaces, and brine is concentrated to only 5 to 10 percent above normal seawater b. Operation can be at full capacity for long periods c. No brine level or density control required d. Easy to automate.

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Disadvantages of flash-type plants are: a. High gas release (carbon dioxide, etc.) in the first-stage requiring larger air ejectors b. High feed rates resulting in high chemical consumption. INTERNAL ARRANGEMENTS - The shell of a flash-type plant is constructed of welded copper nickel alloy (and is welded to a structural steel frame). It is divided into two compartments of equal size to form the two stages. The first and second-stage compartments are connected at the bottom by loop seals to provide feed flow from the first stage to the second stage, but prevent vapor from flowing between stages. These assist in maintaining stage differential pressure. These compartments are also connected at the top, normally through an orifice sized to provide proper venting of the first-stage compartment. This also aids in maintaining proper stage differential pressure. EXTERNAL ARRANGEMENTS - The air ejector, distillate cooler, and air ejector condenser/feedheater are normally mounted on the shell. These components are connected through piping arranged so that it will not interfere with stage access or block the view through the sight glasses. In some units a drain regulator is installed in the distillate line between the first and second stages in place of the loop seal and orifice arrangement. Feed, brine, distillate, and feedheater drain pumps are normally installed and arranged to take advantage of the limited space, minimize suction piping restrictions, and maintain the pump's required submergence head. Pressure, temperature, and salinity measuring devices are located as necessary to monitor the distilling plant's operation. CIRCULATING SYSTEMS - The circulating systems for flash-type distilling plants are as follows. a. Generating-steam circuit b. Vapor circuit. c. Distillate circuit d. Air removal circuit e. Seawater feed circuit f. Brine circuit. GENERATING STEAM CIRCUIT - The steam supply source for the seawater feedheater may be auxiliary exhaust, steam bled from the turbines, or live steam reduced from boiler pressure. Where exhaust steam is used, provide means for automatically augmenting the supply with live or bleed steam whenever the amount of auxiliary exhaust is insufficient to obtain the desired distilling plant capacity. Steam pressure to the seawater feedheater is controlled by a regulating valve (adjustable over the desired pressure range of a particular unit). An orifice plate is downstream of this valve to provide a constant flow of steam to the seawater feedheater shell at a pressure below atmospheric. As the steam enters the shell of the seawater feedheater, it condenses on the outside of the tubes and thereby transfers heat to the seawater in the tubes. The condensate is removed from the heater shell by a drain pump (by way of a drain regulator). When the supply steam pressure is reduced, as it passes through the regulating valve, superheating of the steam results. A high degree of superheat may lead to operating difficulties.

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A desuperheater is installed in the steam line, normally below the orifice, and condensate for desuperheating is supplied from the discharge of the seawater heater drain pump. The flow of steam through an orifice is constant for a given upstream pressure, provided the downstream pressure is not greater than approximately 58 percent of the upstream pressure. For higher downstream pressures the flow falls off very rapidly. For a clean heater, a shell vacuum of 14 to 16 inches of Hg is normal. As deposits accumulate on the tubes, the steam does not condense as rapidly for a given temperature difference (between steam and feed temperatures). Since it enters the shell at the same rate, however, it accumulates in the shell and decreases the vacuum. As the vacuum decreases the temperature difference increases, and the rate of condensation increases to equal the rate of the steam admission. When the shell vacuum has been reduced by this process to 0 or 1 inch Hg, the heater tube surface will require cleaning if rated output is to be maintained. Plant output is directly related to the amount of heat transfer that occurs in the feedheater. This heat transfer is controlled by regulating steam pressure before the orifice, by changing the amount of desuperheating flow, and (in some plants) by allowing steam to bypass the orifice. VAPOR CIRCUIT - In passing through the first-stage flash device the pressure of the feed is reduced to the pressure in the first-stage chamber, causing some of the feed to flash into vapor. The flashing process reduces the temperature of the feed since the latent heat of vaporization comes from the feed itself. The separator/demister removes any seawater particles from the vapor. After emerging from the separator (or demister), the vapor condenses on the tubes of the stage condenser, transferring heat to the seawater feed in the tubes. DISTILLATE CIRCUIT - The distillate formed on the outside of the first-stage condenser tubes drains to the distillate trough in the bottom of the condenser. From there it flows through a loop seal and orifice, or drain regulator, over a salinity cell to the second-stage condenser. The loop seal and orifice prevent blow-by of vapor from the first-stage condenser to the second-stage condenser. The distillate from the first stage flows into the bottom of the second-stage condenser where a small portion flashes because of the lower pressure of the second stage. The vapor flashed in the second-stage flash chamber rises and passes through a vapor separator, or mesh demister, into the second-stage condenser. There it condenses on the outside of the tubes and combines with the distillate from the first stage. The total distillate of both stages is drained from the second-stage distillate trough by the distillate pump. The discharge of this pump passes over a salinity cell and into a distillate cooler, where the incoming seawater feed cools it. (Some units have distillate cooler sections built into the second-stage heat exchanger, and some eliminate the distillate cooler completely.) After emerging from the distillate cooler, the distillate passes over a salinity cell that controls a solenoid operated trip valve. Depending on the purity of the distillate as it passes over this salinity cell, the trip valve will direct it overboard (usually by way of the bilge) or through the distillate watermeter to the ship's freshwater system or reserve feed system. AIR REMOVAL CIRCUIT - Normally, a two-stage air ejector is used to maintain the required vacuum in the second-stage distiller condenser. This unit removes the non-condensable vapors

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and air that enter the system in solution in the feed and by leakage at the vacuum joints. Steam for both ejectors is supplied from the auxiliary steam line. The first air ejector takes suction from the coolest portion of the second-stage distiller condenser. The second air ejector takes suction from the discharge of the first air ejector and discharges the gases and steam into the air ejector condenser, where the seawater feed absorbs the heat. The non-condensable vapors escape through the vent in the top of the condenser shell. The condensate is discharged over a salinity cell and, depending on its purity and the plant design, is routed to the steam drain collecting system, the feedheater drain pump, the condensate system, or the bilge. SEAWATER FEED CIRCUIT - The feed for the distilling plant is supplied from the sea by means of a suction sea chest. The water is picked up by the seawater feed pump and discharged through a suitable strainer to the tubes of the distillate cooler. The feed is preheated and passes through the distillate coolers, second-stage condenser, first-stage condenser, and air ejector condenser. The final heating takes place in the seawater feedheater, where low-pressure steam heats the feed to its required terminal temperature. The heated feed then passes through the feed regulating valve and into the first-stage flash chamber. BRINE CIRCUIT - Any seawater feed not vaporized in the first stage exits through an external loop seal into the second-stage flash chamber. Since the second stage is at a lower pressure (higher vacuum) than the first stage, an additional portion of the feed will vaporize in the secondstage flash chamber. Releasing the flashed vapor in the first and second stages increases the density of the feed, converting it into brine. The brine is pumped out of the last-stage shell and discharged overboard by the brine overboard pump. On some units the brine pump suction is protected with either an internal or an external screen. OPERATION IN CONTAMINATED WATER -When operating in contaminated or brackish freshwaters, the salinity-indicating system is of little value in protecting the purity of the distilled water. The low salt concentration in the feed means that high salinity would not necessarily occur when carryover, priming, or leakage takes place. Under these circumstances, use the distilling plant only when absolutely necessary. When operating in such waters, the feed terminal temperature shall be 165F or higher. This will sterilize the seawater feed and any carryover or priming will not create a bacteriological hazard. The possibility of contamination still exists, however, because of the possibility of a leaky tube or joint in any of the stage condensers or distillate cooler. SCALE FORMATION AND PREVENTION - During the evaporation process that produces distilled water from seawater, insoluble minerals are formed in the water. These minerals may deposit on the heating surfaces and form insulating scale. This is the greatest single obstacle to the continuous production of distilled water. Except under emergency conditions, do not force a plant beyond its rated capacity because higher pressures will be required and the resulting higher temperatures will cause more rapid scale formation. The rate of buildup and the composition of the deposits also depend on such factors as brine density, feed treatment, sea versus shore feed, and flow rates. Scale formation is indicated by consistently rising temperatures in the distilling plant stages and seawater feedheater shell (with a corresponding decrease in vacuum). An

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increase in the steam pressure required at the seawater feedheater to produce the specified feed terminal temperature also indicates scaling. Scaled heat exchanger tubes can be cleaned chemically by circulating a diluted acid solution through or on the tubes. Acid cleaning will cause a slight but acceptable loss of some metal and will have a slight effect on gasket materials. This low-level acid attack should not reduce distilling plant life significantly, provided that chemical cleaning is used only when necessary and in the recommended manner. Do not consider acid cleaning to be a cure-all for all distilling plant problems or a substitute for all other distilling plant maintenance. Do not neglect seawater feed treatment with the expectation that heavy scale can be removed by acid cleaning. CAUTION Concentrated scale preventive compound is strongly alkaline. Avoid contact of the liquid with skin or eyes. Wash hands thoroughly after using. In case of contact with eyes, flush with freshwater for at least 15 minutes. FEED TREATMENT - Scale preventive compound is another means of controlling scale formation. This material helps to retard scale formation and foaming in distilling plants, providing higher plant output and less downtime over extended periods. MIXING PROPORTIONS - Use 1 pint of scale preventive compound for each 4,000 gallons per day of distilling plant capacity. The total amount of scale preventive compound should be combined in the mixing tank with enough freshwater to make 24 gallons of solution. INJECTION RATE - With the proportioning pump, inject the prepared solution into the feed circuit at the rate of 1 gallon per hour. Record the mixing tank level hourly to confirm the feed rate. OPERATING NOTES - The following notes are general and apply to all flash-type plants. Refer to the manufacturer's technical manual for detailed information. Brine Density. Brine density is not considered an operating parameter for flash-type distillers. Water Level. The first and second-stage flash chambers should operate empty or nearly empty. Carrying a water level in the flash chambers can lead to flooding of the stages. The brine pump discharge valve may be throttled, if necessary, to ensure that the pump does not run dry.

Drain regulator gage glasses should show a level during normal operation. An empty or full glass indicates a drain regulator malfunction or air leak in the associated piping system. Gage glasses on brine and distillate pump suction lines should operate empty or with a water level anywhere in the glass. A flooded glass indicates pump malfunction or air leaks in the associated piping. An inter-stage loop seal should operate with a water level anywhere in the gage glass or above it.

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EVAPORATORS High Salinity. Distillate having a salinity content over 0.065 equivalents per million (epm) of chloride shall be discharged to the bilge. After diverting the contaminated distillate to the bilge with the solenoid-operated trip valve, determine the salinity of the distillate discharge from each stage condenser to locate the cause of the contamination. Seawater leaking into the distillate and priming is a major cause of contamination. Carryover. Carryover is one of the main causes of distillate contamination. The following plant conditions cause carryover: a. A high water level in the flash chambers resulting from improper operation of the brine overboard pump can cause overloading of the vapor separator. b. Reducing the feed flow to very low levels can cause flashing to occur ahead of the inlet orifice. Such flashing releases very fine moisture droplets in the form of a fog or mist that can pass through the vapor separator/mesh demister, resulting in high salinity distillate from the first stage. c. A fluctuating vacuum in the second-stage flash chamber can be caused by faulty air ejector operation from either low steam pressure or wet steam to the nozzle. Less common causes of a fluctuating vacuum are an incorrectly operating distillate pump and excessive or erratic air leaks at vacuum joints or pump glands.

Tube/tube joint leakage in stage condensers or in the distillate cooler may also contaminate the distillate. Condensate from the air ejector condenser and seawater feedheater drain may occasionally show salinity in excess of 0.065 epm of chloride. High salinity in the air ejector condenser drain may be due to high gas content or to a leaky tube/tube joint. High salinity in the seawater feedheater drain indicates a leaky tube/tube joint. When high salinity conditions persist, with a resulting drop in distillate output, secure the plant and conduct a hydrostatic test. Correct any leaks found before restarting the plant.

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TWO-STAGE FLASH DISTILLING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM

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NIREX FRESH WATER DISTILLER - The NIREX fresh water distiller is a vacuum evaporation distiller, normally using the waste heat from the fresh cooling water of a diesel engine as heating medium. The distiller consists of the following main components: Separator vessel Evaporator section This is a plate heat exchanger, enclosed in the separator vessel. Condenser suction Here again a plate heat exchanger is applied and, as the evaporator section, enclosed in the separator vessel Air ejector Brine ejector (pump) Fresh water pump Salinometer Electric panel For distillers the electric panel is fitted on the separator vessel, containing starters for the pump motors of the distiller and a terminal for the salinometer. Ejector pump

The design of the distiller and the principle of operation appear from the below description. The vacuum necessary for the evaporation process is established and maintained by the air ejector. Together with the brine ejector the air ejector is driven by jet water from the ejector pump. The ejector pump also supplies feed water to the evaporator section. The feed water is induced into the evaporator section through an orifice and disperses into every second plate channel. The jacket water is induced into the alternate inter-plate channels, transferring heat to the feed water. Having reached the boiling temperature for the vacuum in the shell, the feed water undergoes a partial evaporation. The mixture of generated steam and brine enters the separator vessel, in which baffle plates separate the steam from the brine. As previously mentioned, the brine is discharged by means of an ejector. (It can be a pump). Before the condenser section the steam passes through a demister (a filter, in which possible remaining salt particles are removed from the steam). In the condenser sea water from the ship's sea water system is normally used as cooling medium.

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The seawater is induced into every second plate channel and absorbs the heat transferred from the steam during the condensation in the alternate inter-plate channels. The produced fresh water is extracted from the condenser and pumped to the tank by the fresh water pump. On the delivery side of the distillate pump an electrode unit is fitted, which, together with the salinometer, continuously checks the salt content. Furthermore, a solenoid valve (opens at alarm for salinity), a watermeter and a backpressure valve are fitted on the delivery side. FRESH WATER QUALITY - The salt content of the produced fresh water is so low that it meets all common requirements on boiler feed water. If no special requirements from the authorities are to be kept, it can be used directly as drinking water. STEAM HEATING - If steam is required as heating medium, the distiller can be provided with a steam injector. In the steam injector the steam, transfers partly heat, partly kinetic energy. The condensate produced in the circuit is lead to the feed tank through a backpressure valve. Other than injecting the steam the distiller is operating as described above. POSITIONING - Within the limitations given on the sketch "vertical plant positioning" enclosed, the distiller can be placed anywhere in the engine room. Normally, a position close to the main coolers will give the lowest installation cost. It should be remembered that when this type of evaporator is used heat will be rejected and the main coolers will have to reject less heat. The ejector pump is not self-priming and is to be placed below lowest water line. If the pump is connected to a sea water line with pressure, it can be placed anywhere. It will then be necessary to arrange that the delivery pressure of the pump can be adjusted so as not to surpass 6.o kg/cm (85 lb./in). For type 7W(S)P-200 max. 7.5 kg/cm (l05 lb./in) JACKET WATER SYSTEM - The branches for inlet and outlet pipes for jacket water are marked C3 and C4 respectively. The best operating conditions will be obtained if the distiller is connected to the jacket water-cooling system before the fresh water cooler. If the cooling system is provided with a thermostatic valve, connection must be made before this to ensure a constant flow rate even with varying loads of the main engine. On engines provided with separate systems for cooling of pistons and the jacket, the distiller is to be connected to the jacket cooling water system, see Figure 6.

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A by-pass valve, C 10, is to be mounted between the inlet and outlet lines for jacket water to the evaporator to make adjustments of the flow rate possible. Shut-off valves are to be placed on the pipelines min. 2 m from the distiller. On these pipelines BSP sockets are to be placed near the distiller for fitting of thermometer pocket. SEA WATER SYSTEM - The branches for inlet and outlet pipes for seawater are marked C1 and C2 respectively. When connecting the distiller to the sea water system, please consider that the heat transfer surface is normally dimensioned for a maximum temperature of 32C. A by-pass valve C9 is to be mounted between the inlet and outlet lines for seawater to the condenser to make adjustments of the flow rate possible. Shut-off valves are to be placed on the pip lines min. 2m from the distiller. On these pipelines BSP sockets are to be placed near the distiller for fitting of thermometer pocket. If the cooling system is provided with piston pumps, these must be provided with air vessel on the pressure side to reduce pulsation. JET WATER - The ejector pump inlet line B2 is to be fitted with a shut-off valve and a strainer on the discharge line B3 a shut-off valve must be fitted conveniently near to the pump. Please note: The jet water line B3 should in its complete length be installed in a dimension according to the installation diagram and B3. BRINE AND JET WATER OVERBOARD - For plants with brine ejector - The brine and air are extracted separately by means of a brine ejector B5 and an air ejector B4. For plants with brine pump - The brine is extracted by means of a one stage centrifugal pump B8 placed on the distiller base. On the brine pump discharge a valve must be placed for giving possibility of regulating the discharge pressure to min. 1.0 kg/cm. The air is extracted by means of an ejector B4. In both cases jet water, brine and air are discharged through a common overboard line B7 which is to be provided with a, shut-off valve (non-return valve). Maximum back pressure 0.8 kg/cm (11.4 lbs./in). PRODUCED FRESH WATER TO TANK - The pipe connection D1 to the fresh water tank is made just after the water meter. Max. backpressure 2.0 kg/cm (28 lbs./in). DISCHARGE TO BILGE - A discharge to bilge should be arranged below the distiller.

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ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY AC - All necessary electric components are included in the delivery. By installation only the main power supply F1 should be connected to the electric panel, F, from which a connection to the ejector pump B should be fitted. The electric panel is delivered with isolating switch and prepared for remote start and stop as standard. ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY DC - Electric components NOT fitted and NOT wired. PRESSURE TESTING - When pressure testing the separator vessel a max pressure of 1.5 kg/cm (21 lbs./in) should be applied. The corresponding Figure for pressure testing of the jacket and seawater side of the heat exchangers is 4 kg/cm (57 lbs./in) STEAM HEATING - The steam supply line G1 is connected to the injector G mounted on the distiller. On the supply line a shut-off valve and a safety valve G6 are to be fitted. The safety valve must be adjusted to an opening pressure of 4.5 kg/cm (64 lbs./in). If stable fresh water production is required irrespective of the seawater temperature; means for varying the steam pressure must be available. STEAM CONDENSATE DISCHARGE - The condensate discharge line G3 from the injector G is provided with a spring-loaded valve, after which a shut-off valve is to be installed. The spring-loaded valve is preset to a backpressure of 0.6 kg/cm (8.5 lbs./in). The condensate is to be returned to the condensate-well. Max backpressure in condensate discharge line 1.0 kg/cm (14 lbs./in) PRIMING WATER FOR STEAM HEATING ARRANGEMENT - For priming of the steam heating arrangement a connection G2 provided with a shut-off valve must be made to the ship's hydrophor system. DRAIN PIPE FOR JACKET WATER - For distillers arranged for alternative jacket water and steam heating means for draining the jacket water in the evaporator are to be arranged. This should be done to ensure that the additives normally used in the jacket water system are not contaminating the water in the condensate well when switching the distiller from jacket water heating to steam heating. The drainpipe G4 must be provided with a shut-off valve.

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MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
Component
Vessel Front cover Pipe for brine discharge Bed plate Evaporator plates Condenser plates Demister

Material
St 37 (MS) St 37 (MS) Steel pipe St 37 (MS) Titanium Titanium Al. Brass 21% Zn 2% Al 77% CU

Surface Treatment
Interior of vessel and front cover sandblasted to SA 3, and provided with 3 coats of flake reinforced polyester lining FLAKELINE 252. Thickness 1.0-1.2 mm. Exterior of vessel, cover and bed plate sandblasted painted with primer and hammertone finish None None

Fresh water pump Seawater pump Brine pump Impeller for F.W. pump Impeller for ejector pump Impeller for brine pump Shaft for pumps Air ejector Brine ejector

85% CU Gun metal 5 5%Sn 5% Zn 5%Pb 85%CU Gun metal 9 9%Sn 4%Zn 2%Pb 79%Cu 5%Fe Alu-bronze 5%Ni .5%Mn 9.5%Al 18%Cr Stainless steel 12%Ni 2.7%Mo Gun metal 5 (see spec for pumps) Stainless steel 26% Cr 5% Ni 1.5% Mo Cast iron Bronze Al. brass 76%CU (Yorcalbro) 2% Al 22% Zn Steel pipe

Painted with primer and hammertone finish. None

None

None Painted with primer and hammertone finish.

Nozzle for air and brine ejector Steam injector Nozzle Pipe for seawater Pipe for fresh water

Painted with primer and hammertone finish Painted with primer and hammertone finish. Galvanized. Painted with primer and hammertone finish.

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FIGURE 5. NIREX JWP-36-125/150

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FIGURE 6. NIREX FRESH WATER DISTILLER JWSP-36-125 with BRINE EJECTOR

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FIGURE 7. NIREX VERTICAL PLANT POSITIONING P-36-125/150 with brine ejector Highest plant installation position in reference to the lowest water line BWL Limiting factor: Minimum pressure of water to ejectors 4.5 Kp/cm Lowest plant installation position in reference to highest water line LWL. Limiting factor: Maximum back pressure of 0.8Kp/cm on the brine and air ejectors. The stated installation heights are given under the conditions that the line pressure drop does not exceed 0.1kp/cm, which should. If the 0.1kp/cm is exceeded the heights must be diminished accordingly.

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FIGURE 8. NIREX FRESH WATER DISTILLER JWSP-36-125 with BRINE EJECTOR

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FIGURE 9. NIREX FRESH WATER DISTILLER JW(S)P-36-125/150 with BRINE EJECTOR

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EVAPORATORS

Open the valves on the suction and delivery side of the ejector pump as well as the overboard valve for the ejectors. Close the vacuum breaker valve. Start the ejector pump. Check that the ejector pump pressure and the overboard pressure are normal, i.e. 4.5-6.0 kp/cm and 0- 0.8 kp/cm respectively. Open the valves for seawater in- and outlet for the condenser completely. In case of a seawater by-pass being fitted, adjust on the by-pass until seawater is flowing through the condenser. Deaerate the condenser via the air relief cock on the seawater discharge branch. Check the evacuation time, which must be maximum 10 minutes for obtaining 90% vacuum. Check that no water is seen in the water gauge glass.

Having obtained: 90-94% vacuum (after max. 10 min.), the valves for jacket water in and outlet to the evaporator section are completely opened. Adjust on the jacket water by-pass, until jacket water is flowing through the evaporator section. EVAPORATION - JACKET WATER HEATING - Having obtained 90-94% vacuum (after max. 10 min), the valves for jacket water in- and outlet to the evaporator section are completely opened. Adjust on the jacket water by-pass, until the jacket water is flowing through the evaporator section. Deaerate the evaporator section via the air relief cock on the jacket water discharge branch. The boiling temperature now rises at the same time as the obtained vacuum falls to between 85% and 80%. This indicating that evaporation has begun. CONDENSATION After approx. 3-5 min. the boiling temperature will again drop, and normal vacuum will be reestablished. This indicates condensation has begun. Shortly after, water flow is to be seen in the sight glass on the air extraction pipe. Connect the salinometer and start the fresh water extraction pump. Check the solenoid valve for FW to bilge. Check fresh water pump pressure, which shall normally be 1.2 1.5 kp/cm. Check sight glass. If continuous water flow in sight glass, see number under trouble-shooting, item 6.3 Note: Health authorities in several countries do not allow fresh water distillers to produce drinking water within a distance of 20 nautical miles of the land. STOP

Open by-pass for jacket water and close in and outlet valves to the distiller. Stop the fresh water pump, when the water meter shows no production. Switch off the salinometer. Wait approx. 10 minutes. Stop the ejector pump. Open vacuum breaker valve.
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QMED EVAPORATORS Open by-pass for seawater and close in and outlet valves to the distiller. Close valves before and after the ejector pump as well as the overboard valve for ejectors. NOTE: When the distiller is out of operation, all valves to and from the distiller SHALL remain closed, and the vacuum breaker valve shall be open.

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3.. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS PROPER OPERATING PARAMETERS 3 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS PROPER OPERATING PARAMETERS

FIGURE 10 - FRESH WATER DISTILLER TYPE JWSP 36 125 WITH BRINE EJECTOR

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS PROPER OPERATING PARAMETERS

FIGURE 11 - FRESH WATER DISTILLER TYPE JWSP 36 125 WITH BRINE EJECTOR

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EVAPORATORS

SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES ARE AT THE HEART OF RO SYSTEMS - The process of reverse osmosis (RO) represents the finest level of liquid filtration available today. While ordinary liquid filters use a screen to separate particles from water streams, an RO system employs a semi-permeable membrane that separates an extremely high percentage of unwanted molecules. For example, the membrane may be permeable to water molecules of dissolved salt. If this membrane is placed between two compartments in a container as shown in Figure 20, and a salt solution is placed in one half of the container and pure water in the other, water passes through the membrane while the salt cannot. PRESSURE IS APPLIED TO REVERSE NATURAL OSMOTIC FLOW - Now a fundamental scientific principle comes into play. That is, dissimilar liquid systems will try to reach the same concentration of materials on both sides of the membrane. The only way for this to happen in our example is for pure water to pass through the membrane to the salt-water side in an attempt to dilute the salt solution. This attempt to reach equilibrium is called osmosis. However, if the goal in our water purification system is to remove the salt from water, it is necessary to reverse the natural osmotic flow by forcing the salt water through the membrane in the reverse direction. This can be accomplished by applying pressure to the salt water as it is fed into the system, creating a condition known as "reverse osmosis." See Figure 12.

FIGURE 12 REVERSE OSMOSIS CROSS-FLOW FILTRATION PERMITS LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE - While the principles of reverse osmosis are simple, in practical terms, the RO process cannot go on indefinitely unless steps are taken to ensure that the membrane does not become clogged by the precipitated salts and other impurities forced against by the pressurized stream of feed water. To significantly reduce the rate of membrane fouling, RO systems employ cross-flow filtration

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(shown in Figure 13), which allows water to pass through the membrane while the separate flow of concentrate sweeps rejected salts away from the membrane surface. Watermakers RO systems are designed optimal performance, minimal maintenance and long life.

FIGURE 13 CROSS-FLOW FILTRATION

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4.. TROUBLE SHOOTING PROBLEMS WITH WATERMAKERS 4 TROUBLE SHOOTING PROBLEMS WITH WATERMAKERS
GENERAL Full output can be maintained for relatively long periods without interruption only if every part of the plant is maintained in reliable operating condition. This can be ensured by periodic inspections, tests, cleaning and by replacing worn parts.

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EVAPORATORS TABLE 1 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE FOR FLASH-TYPE DISTILLING PLANTS 22 FAULTY COMPONENTS

STEP

SYMPTON Improper salinity, distillate

PROBABLE CAUSE(S) Improper heat balance Salinity indicating equipment out-of-calibration Foaming in evaporator

Leaky distillate trough High water level in stages

Air ejector malfunction Tube leak in stage condenser of distillate cooler Carryover Instrument calibration Improperly installed feed distribution equipment inside evaporator

REMEDY Establish pressures, temperatures and flow rates according to manufacturers technical manual. Stabilize operation Chemically test distillate. If salinity cells are reading inaccurately, conduct cell Planned Maintenance System (PMS) Ensure proper feed treatment. If feed is of high organic content or other unusual substance (most likely to occur in port), secure operation until seawater conditions improve. With unit secured, fill trough with water and check for leaks, then repair. If flooding occurs in first or intermediate stages, check feed temperature, equalization of pressure between stages and air leaks. If flooding occurs in last stage, increase brine flow overboard. See step 3B if unable to lower level. See step 4 See steps 5 and 6 See step 8 See step 9 Install according to technical manual.

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EVAPORATORS TABLE 1 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE FOR FLASH-TYPE DISTILLING PLANTS (continued) FAULTY COMPONENTS

STEP

SYMPTON Low distillate output (as determined by meter and tank soundings

PROBABLE CAUSE(S) Improper heat balance Distillate transfer valve leaking to waste system Temperature of steam supply to feedheater excessive; that is 10F of more above the heater shell temperature Stage condenser (s) flooding Low stage vacuum Feedheater malfunction Instrumentation out-ofcalibration Improperly installed feed distribution equipment inside evaporator.

REMEDY Install according to technical manual. Repair of replace. Adjust desuperheater water flow.

See step 3A See step 4 Secure unit and hydrostatically test. See step 7 See steps 9 See step 8

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EVAPORATORS TABLE 1 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE FOR FLASH-TYPE DISTILLING PLANTS (continued) FAULTY COMPONENTS Pumps (all)

STEP

SYMPTON Noise and vibration

PROBABLE CAUSE(S) Excessive misalignment of pump to motor. Refer to technical manual Maintenance Requirement Cards (MRCs) for maximum allowed values Excessive misalignment of piping to pump Binding at packing /seals faulty bearing. If coupled, faulty coupling. If external inspection is not conclusive, open pump; a. Inspect for rubbing b. Inspect for damaged bearings c. Inspect for foreign matter. d. Inspect for impeller erosion. e. Remove rotating element and check for straightness and proper balance.

REMEDY Realign if excessive.

Ensure that piping shows no strain on casing. Repair discrepancy.

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EVAPORATORS TABLE 1 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE FOR FLASH-TYPE DISTILLING PLANTS (continued) FAULTY COMPONENTS Distillate pump

STEP

3A

3B

Brine pump

SYMPTON PROBABLE CAUSE(S) REMEDY Flooding in Improper valve alignment. Open or close valves as necessary distillate trays Improper direction of pump rotation. Reverse motor rotation. and pump Air leak at shaft seal Check for discharge very Check for air leak, utilizing potable low or in vacuum water hose. When water is applied to leak, an immediate increase in pump discharge pressure normally occurs and flooding is eliminated. If air leak is indicated. a. Ensure sealing water to mechanical seals/packing. b. Ensure alignment of packing lantern ring with sealing water inlet. Ensure seal between shaft/shaft sleeve. Flooding in last Excessive wearing of ring clearance Open, inspect and repair as necessary stage and pump Improper venting Ensure vent piping is clear of discharge very obstruction and free of air leaks. low or in vacuum

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EVAPORATORS TABLE 1 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE FOR FLASH-TYPE DISTILLING PLANTS (continued) FAULTY COMPONENTS SYMPTON Feedheater drain Flooding in pump distillate trays and pump discharge very low or in vacuum Feed pump Excessive feedheater temperature when feed valve is wide open Steam discharge from air ejector condenser vent NOTE: These indications may also be caused by excessive scale in heater and condense. See step 7

STEP

3C

PROBABLE CAUSE(S) See 3B

REMEDY See 3B

3D

Excessive wearing of ring clearance/impeller erosion

Check pump discharge pressure (shutoff head) with discharge valve closed. If pressure is 10-psig of more below technical manual valve, open, inspect, and repair as necessary.

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EVAPORATORS TABLE 1 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE FOR FLASH-TYPE DISTILLING PLANTS (continued) FAULTY COMPONENTS SYMPTON Air ejector Loss of or low vacuum; Last stage temperature is high and temperature difference between last and next to last stage is low. Refer to technical manual for values

STEP

PROBABLE CAUSE(S) Steam pressure to air ejector is not according to technical manual Air ejector nozzles faulty

REMEDY Determine cause of pressure discrepancy and correct

Inspect air ejector nozzles for; c. Scale in throat d. Erosion (wire drawn) e. Location in proper stage f. Steam bypass at nozzle to chest. Correct discrepancy Air ejector condenser faulty as Inspect for low feed rate and evidenced by; malfunctioning feed pump. See step a. large amount of steam from vent 3D. Inspect for excessive scale. (based on operator experience) Hydrostatically test, including b. Large amount of air from vent feedheater, to find air leaks. (based on operator experience). Excessive moisture in steam supply. Air ejector discharge valve is binding, has loose flapper, or is installed backwards Verify all low point drains and traps in steam supply are functional. Eliminate discrepancy.

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TABLE 1 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE FOR FLASH-TYPE DISTILLING PLANTS (continued) FAULTY STEP COMPONENTS SYMPTON Interstage High salinity condensers

5 6

PROBABLE CAUSE(S) Saltwater leak in condenser

Distillate cooler

Feedheater

High salinity at cooler discharge while maintaining satisfactory salinity to the cooler Heater shell temperature above 206F or vacuum is less than 3 inches mercury (Hg)

Saltwater leak in condenser

REMEDY While operating, use salinity indicating system to identify the faulty stage. Hydrostatically test the suspected stage condenser. Repair leaks Hydrostatically test cooler. Repair leaks

Temperature of steam to feedheater is excessive; that is, 10F or more above shell temperature. Excessive scale on waterslides (last pass normally most heavily scaled) If no scale is present, inspect for an air leak Hot well flooded Feed system malfunction Saltwater leak in feedheater

Adjust desuperheater water flow. Remove scale using acid and mechanical means. Hydrostatically test feedheater and steam piping, including the critical flow orifice See step 3C See step 3D Hydrostatically test feedheater steamside with water boxed removed.. Repair

Impure condensate from feedheater drain

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EVAPORATORS TROUBLE-SHOOTING UNDER OPERATION SITUATION OF P-36 DISTILLERS SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE DEFECTS REPAIR Dismantling of evaporator section for cleaning. See chapter concerning this. Dismantling of condenser section for cleaning. See chapter concerning this. Dismantling of evaporator section for cleaning.

OPERATION DEVIATIONS Drop in production 15.0

Scaling of plates on steam side and/or deposit of sludge on the Lower boiling temperature jacket waterside. and less t over evaporator 15.1 Sludge on the plates an seawater side. NOTE! Higher boiling temperature and less t over condenser For 15.2 and 15.3 it 15.2 Blocking of the inlet channel in may be a question plate stack, f. inst. with rust of a sudden drop in Lower boiling temperature scales, welding residues, bits of production and higher t over gaskets etc. evaporator 15.3 Blocking of the inlet channel in plate stack, f. inst. with rust scales, Higher boiling temperature welding residues, bits of gaskets and higher t over etc. condenser 16.0 a. Too low ejector pump pressure. b. Leakages on distiller. Low Vacuum c. Extraneous matters in air ejector (Normal vacuum above 90% nozzle. d. Defective air ejector nozzle. e. Defective vacuum manometer. 16.1 High boiling temperature (see also under item 15.1 and 15.3) a. Too low ejector pump pressure.

Dismantling of condenser section for cleaning.

a. See under item 16.2. b. Pressure test the distiller (see chapter concerning this). c. Inspect nozzle. d. Renew nozzle e. Inspect vacuum pressure gauge and delivery pipe renew Defective parts.

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OPERATION DEVIATIONS

SYMPTOMS 16.2

POSSIBLE DEFECTS

REPAIR a. Clean the filter. b. Examine and overhaul defective valves. c. Replace the pressure gauge. d. Repair the leakages. e. Examine and overhaul pump. f. Change phases. a. Examine the suction pipe for leakages, especially at union and pipe connections. b. Replace mechanical seal. c. Examine and overhaul pump the pump. d. Change phases. e. Examine the valves. f. Clean the filters. a. Examine the water clock. Let the produced water flow through the water clock into a 10-liter pail, and check the production with a stopwatch.

a. Blocked suction strainer b. Defective valves on suction or pressure pipe. Too low ejector c. Defective pressure gauge. pressure (normal d. Leakages on suction pipe for pump. pressure 4.5 6.0 e. Defective ejector pump. kp/cm). f. Wrong direction of rotation of pump 16.3 a. Leakage in the suction pipe of the FW extraction pump. Overflow in sight b. Defective mechanical seal in FW extraction pump. glad (normal c. Defective FW extraction pump. backpressure for d. Wrong direction of rotation of the FW extraction FW extraction pump. pump 1.2-1.5 e. Valves to FW tanks not open. kp/cmr f. Blocked filter in the inlet of water clock. a. Defective water clock. 16.4 Too low a production acc. to water clock, when pressure and temperatures are normal.

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EVAPORATORS

OPERATION SYMPTOMS DEVIATIONS Salinity 17.0 Too high salinity (Above 4.0 ppm)

POSSIBLE DEFECTS a. Demister is not fitted correctly. b. Defective front cover gasket, wrongly fitted. c. Insufficient brine extraction. d. Defective electrode unit. e. Leakage on condenser.

REPAIR a. Check fitting of demister, this shall fit against the baffle plate and the front cover. b. Renew front cover gasket filter. c. See under chapter Insufficient brine extraction. d. Examine the electrode unit for cracks and short circuit, and whether it has been correctly connected. e. Open the distiller and pressure test the condenser. If a defective plate is found, this and the adjacent plate are removed. Check also the plate gaskets and replace possibly if defects are found. a. See under item 16.2. b. Check nozzle and clean it. c. Examine overboard pipe and the valves. d. Replace nozzle. e. Examine size of orifice compared with the technical specification. f. Examine the valve and overhaul it. a. Check overboard pipe and the valves. b. Make pressure test and replace defective parts. c. Check size of orifice compared with the technical specification. d. Overhaul the pump and replace defective parts. e. Change phases.

a. Too low ejector pump pressure. b. Extraneous matters in the brine Insufficient brine Water level is seen in ejector nozzle. extraction the water gauge glass c. Too high backpressure after brine (under normal ejector. operation the glass shall d. Defective brine ejector nozzle. be empty). e. Defective feed water orifice. f. Defective non-return valve on the suction pipe of the ejector. a. Too high backpressure after the 18.0 pump. (For distillers provided b. Leakage on suction side of the pump or in mechanical seal. with brine pump). c. Defective feed water orifice. (Normal backpressure d. Defective brine pump. 0.6 1.0 kp/cm) e. Wrong direction of rotation.

18.0

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a. Open the distiller and pressure test the evaporator section. If a defect is found, Loss of jacket Frequent filling up of FW this and the adjacent plate are removed. cooling water expansion tank without Check the plate gaskets too and replace, if provable leakages. defects are found. 20. a. Defective rubber sleeve a. Fit a new one. Water is leaking b. The rubber sleeve is not in the right b. Check the position of the deairating from the tell-tale Water is flowing from the position under the internal flange of the cock and correct position of same if hole below the tell-tale hole. deariation cock. necessary. seawater outlet c. Internal collar of the rubber sleeve is not c. Dismantle the condenser plates and branch in the right position after adjusting the correct the position of the collar of the condenser plates. rubber sleeve. (for distillers wit rubber sleeve and tell-tale hole only) 21.0 a. Defective nozzle in air ejector. a. Remove the nozzle and examine it for Abnormal current b. Defective bearings in motor. wear and tear, especially on the inlet side. consumption The current consumption c. Defective contractor. b. Examine bearings with a stethoscope ejector pump. for the ejector pump is too d. Defective orifice in feed water inlet. and examine for heating of bearings. high as per the rated e. Breaking of phases. c. Examine and polish the contactor. consumption of the motor. d. Check orifice according. to the technical specification. e. Max. 5% excess current between the phases

OPERATION SYMPTOMS DEVIATIONS 19.0

POSSIBLE DEFECTS a. Leakage on evaporator section.

REPAIR

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OPERATIONS DEVIATIONS

TROUBLE-SHOOTING UNDER OPERATION SITUATION OF JWSP/SP DISTILLER SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE DEFECTS REPAIR a. Worn or incorrect nozzle in steam injector. b. Arrangement not deairated sufficiently c. Incorrect steam pressure. d. Incorrect backpressure in condensate discharge pipe. a. Replace nozzle. b. Deairate the steam arrangement and the evaporator section. c. Compare steam pressure with the one specified and adjust it. d. Adjust the backpressure to min. 0.6 kp/cm and max. 1.0 kp/cm

24.0 Too low fresh water production. Incorrect temperature on the circulated heating water

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PUMPS 1. General information 2. Centrifugal Pumps o Construction o Maintenance and Repair o Operation 3. Venturi Pumps o Construction o Maintenance and Repair o Operation 4. Displacement Pumps o Construction o Maintenance and Repair o Operation 5. Wilden Pumps Reference Manual 6. Chesterton Pumps Reference Workbooks

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GENERAL INFORMATION

1.. GENERAL INFORMATION 1 GENERAL INFORMATION


Pumps are vital to the operation of the ship. If they fail, the plant they serve also fails. You will have to keep the pumps in good working order. In this section, we will discuss the principles of operation, classification, and maintenance of some of the pumps you may have to maintain. PRINCIPLES OF PUMP OPERATION Pumps are used to move any substance which flows or which can be made to flow. Most pumps are used to move water, oil, and other liquids. However, air, steam, and other gases are also fluid and can be moved with pumps, as can such substances as molten metal, sludge, and mud. A pump is essentially a device, which uses an external source of power to apply a force to a fluid in order to move the fluid form one place to another. A pump develops no energy of its own; it merely transforms energy from the external source (steam turbine, electric motor, and so forth) into mechanical kinetic energy, which is manifested by the motion of the fluid. This kinetic energy is then used to do work. Here are some examples: to raise a liquid from one level to another, as when water is raised from a well; to transport a liquid through a pipe, as when oil is carried through an oil pipeline; to move a liquid against some resistance, as when water is pumped to a boiler under pressure; or to force a liquid through a hydraulic system, against various resistances, for the purpose of doing work at some point. Every pump has a POWER END, whether it is a steam turbine, a reciprocating steam engine, a steam jet, or some kind of electric motor. Every pump also has a FLUID END, where the fluid enters (suction) and leaves (discharges) the pump. When a pump delivers energy to a liquid, it usually causes an increase in pressure, which is generally referred to as HEAD. There are four types of heads: 1. Net positive suction head 2. Suction head 3. Discharge head 4. Total discharge head. TYPES OF PUMPS Pumps are by far the most numerous units of auxiliary machinery aboard ship. They include: 1. Centrifugal pumps 2. Propeller pumps 3. Variable stroke pumps 4. Reciprocating pumps 5. Positive displacement rotary pumps 6. Eductors Simple language and diagrams explain the basic principles of each of the general classes of pumps. This section also discusses the characteristics of each type that make it adaptable to a particular service in the various engineering systems.

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GENERAL INFORMATION

PROPELLER PUMPS - Propeller pumps are used primarily where there is a large volume of liquid with a relatively low total head requirement. These pumps are usually limited to use where the total head does not exceed 40 to 60 feet. The chief use of the propeller pump is for the main condenser circulating pump. In most ships this has an emergency suction for pumping out the engine room. The main condenser-circulating pump is of the vertical propeller type. The pump unit consists of three major parts: the propeller, together with its bearings and shaft; the pump casing; and the driving unit, which may be an auxiliary steam turbine or electric motor. The propeller is a multi-bladed screw propeller having a large pitch. The blades are thick at the roots and flare out toward the tips. The blades and hubs are cast or forged in one piece and are then machined and balanced. The lower shaft bearing is a water-lubricated, sleeve bearing. The shaft packing gland prevents excessive leakage of water between the casing and the shaft.

Positive Displacement Pump Family Tree

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2.. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 2 CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR VARIOUS APPLICATIONS CONSTRUCTION OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS - The following information applies in general to most of the centrifugal pumps used in marine service. Figure 1 shows the parts of a centrifugal pump that are used for the cooling water system on a diesel engine. Figure 2 shows a cutaway view of a fire and flushing pump. For the relative location of components, refer to Figure 2 as we continue our discussion of the construction of centrifugal pumps.

FIGURE 1 EXPLODED VIEW OF A CENTRIFUGAL WATER PUMP The shaft is protected from excessive wear and corrosion by a Monel or corrosion-resistant steel sleeve wherever the shaft comes in contact with the liquid being pumped or with the shaft packing. The advantage of using a shaft sleeve is that it can be replaced more economically than the entire shaft. The impellers are carefully machined and balanced to reduce vibration and wear since they rotate at very high speeds. To prevent corrosion of pumps that handle seawater, the components of these pumps are made of nonferrous materials such as bronze, stainless steel or Monel. A close radial clearance must be maintained between the outer hub of the impeller and that part of the pump casing in which the hub rotates to minimize leakage from the discharge side of the pump casing to the inlet side. Because of the close clearances at the hub and the high rotational speed of the impeller, the running surfaces of both the impeller hub and the casing at that point are subject to wear. Wear results from erosion as the liquid passes between the close spacing
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(clearance) of the wearing rings, from the high-pressure side of the impeller, and back to the lowpressure side of the pump. (See the insert in Figure 3)

FIGURE 2 - FIRE PUMP (VERTICAL, DOUBLE SUCTION IMPELLER) Centrifugal pumps are provided with replaceable wearing rings to eliminate the need for renewing an entire impeller and pump casing because of wear. One ring is attached to each outer hub of the impeller. This ring is called the IMPELLER WEARING RING. The other ring, which is stationary and attached to the casing, is called the CASING WEARING RING.

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FIGURE 3 - STUFFING BOX ON A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Some small pumps with single-suction impellers have only a casing wearing ring and no impeller ring, in this type of pump; the casing-wearing ring is fitted into the end plate. Re-circulating lines are installed on some centrifugal pumps to prevent the pumps from overheating and becoming vapor bound in case the discharge is entirely shut off or the flow of fluid is stopped for extended periods. Seal piping is installed to cool the shaft and the packing, to lubricate the packing, and to seal the rotating joint between the shaft and the packing against air leakage. A lantern ring spacer is inserted between the rings of the packing in the stuffing box. Seal piping, Figure 3, leads the liquid from the discharge side of the pump to the annular space formed by the lantern ring. The web of the ring is perforated so that the water can flow in either direction along the shaft (between the shaft and the packing). Water flinger rings are fitted on the shaft between the packing gland and the pump bearing housing. These flingers prevent water from the stuffing box from flowing along the shaft and entering the bearing housing. During pump operation, a certain amount of leakage around the shafts and casings normally takes place. This leakage must be controlled for two reasons: (1) to prevent excessive fluid loss from the pump, and (2) to prevent air from entering the area where the pump suction pressure is below atmospheric pressure. The amount of leakage that can occur without limiting pump efficiency determines the type of shaft sealing selected. Shaft sealing systems are found in every pump. They can vary from simple packing to complicated sealing systems. Packing is the most common and oldest method of sealing. Leakage is checked by the compression of packing rings that causes the rings to deform and seal around the pump shaft and casing. The packing is lubricated by liquid moving through a lantern ring in the center of the packing. The sealing slows down the rate of leakage. It does not stop it completely since a certain amount of leakage is necessary during operation for cooling and lubrication.

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Mechanical seals are rapidly replacing conventional packing on centrifugal pumps. A typical mechanical seal is shown in Figure 4. Some of the reasons for the use of mechanical seals are as follows: 1) Leaking causes bearing failure by contaminating the oil with water. This is a major problem in engine-mounted water pumps. 2) Properly installed mechanical seals eliminate leak-off on idle (vertical) pumps. This design prevents the leak (water) from bypassing the water flinger and entering the lower bearings. Leak-off causes two types of seal leakage: a) Water contamination of the engine lubrication oil. b) Loss of treated fresh water which causes scale buildup in the cooling system.

FIGURE 4 - TYPE 1 MECHANICAL SEAL In regard to the use of mechanical seals; there are two important safety considerations: 1) Flammable liquids must be contained in the system 2) Pumps in the vicinity of electrical or electronic gear where moisture can be a major problem, must have zero leak-off. Fire pumps and seawater pumps that are provided with mechanical shaft seals may also have cyclone separators. These separators use centrifugal force to prevent abrasive material (such as sand) in the seawater from passing between the sealing surfaces of the mechanical seal. (Refer to Figure 2) As Figure 2 shows, this abrasive separator has no moving parts. Liquid from the high-pressure side of a pump is directed through tubing to the opening in the sides of the separator device, which is offset from the centerline. As the liquid enters, it is given a swirling motion (cyclone effect), which causes heavier abrasive materials to be forced to the walls of the center tube, which is shaped to form a venturi. There is an opening at each end of the separator. The opening

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at the top is for clean water, which is directed through tubing to the mechanical seals in the pump. The high-velocity dirty water is directed through the bottom of the separator, back to the inlet piping for the pump. Shaft and thrust bearings support the weight of the impeller, and maintain the position of the rotor, both radially and axially. (Radial bearings may be sleeve or ball type) Thrust bearings may be pivoted segmental type.) The power end of a centrifugal pump may be a steam turbine, an electric motor, or a diesel engine. Pumps used for continuous service can be either turbine or motor driven. Smaller pumps, such as those used for in-port or cruising operations, are generally motor driven. Pumps used for emergency firemain service are generally diesel driven.

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HOW TO INSTALL PACKING AND MECHANICAL SEALS REPACKING - Lubrication of the pump packing is extremely important. The quickest way to wear out the packing is to forget to open the water piping to the seals or stuffing boxes. If the packing is allowed to dry out, it will score the shaft. When operating a centrifugal pump, be sure that there is always a slight trickle of water coming out of the stuffing box. How often the packing in a centrifugal pump should be renewed depends on several facts-such as the type of pump, condition of the shaft sleeve, and hours in use. To ensure the longest possible service from pump packing, make certain that the shaft or sleeve is smooth when packing is removed from a gland. Rapid wear of the packing may be caused by roughness of the shaft sleeve (or shaft where no sleeve is installed). If the shaft is rough, it should be sent to the shop for a finishing cut to smooth the surface. If it is very rough, or has deep ridges in it, it will have to be renewed. It is absolutely necessary to use the correct packing. To find the right packing, check the packing chart for the particular pump. When replacing packing, be sure that the packing fits uniformly around the stuffing box. If you have to flatten the packing with a hammer, YOU ARE NOT USING THE RIGHT SIZE. Pack the box loosely, and set up the packing gland lightly. Allow a liberal leak-off for stuffing boxes that operate above atmospheric pressure. Next, start the pump. Let it operate for about 30 minutes before you adjust the leak-off. This gives the packing time to run-in and swell, if it is going to. When this requirement has been satisfied, you may begin to adjust the packing gland. Tighten the adjusting nuts one flat at a time. Wait about 30 minutes between adjustments. Be sure to tighten the same amount on both adjusting nuts. If you pull up the packing gland unevenly (or cocked), it will cause the packing to overheat and score the shaft sleeves. Once you have the desired leak-off, all you have to do is check it regularly to ensure that sufficient flow is maintained. MECHANICAL SEALS - Mechanical seals are rapidly replacing conventional packing as the means of controlling leakage on centrifugal pumps. Mechanical seals eliminate the problem of excessive stuffing box leakage, which causes failure of pump and motor bearings and motor windings. Mechanical seals are ideal for pumps operating in closed systems (such as air conditioning, chilled water systems, and various sonar, radar, and other electronic cooling systems). They not only conserve the fluid being pumped but also improve system operation. Mechanical seals are well suited for pumps operating under varying discharge pressures. Mechanical seals are now used for most centrifugal pumps that may operate under vacuum conditions (such as condensate and ships potable water pumps). Fire pumps and all seawater pumps in surface ships are being provided with mechanical shaft seals with cyclone separators. The glands incorporate two or more rings of packing for use in the event of a mechanical shaft seal failure. Opposing seal faces are constructed of tungsten carbide against carbon, or tungsten carbide against tungsten carbide. The tungsten carbide seal ring(s) are of solid construction. The cyclone separators are constructed of nickel-copper alloy. Fittings for

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abrasive separators and pump casing are of the straight thread type with 0-ring seal. They are constructed of nickel-copper alloy. Tubing is copper nickel (70-30). Replace mechanical seals whenever the seal is removed for any reason or whenever the leakage rate exceeds 5 drop per minute. Mechanical shaft seals are positioned on the shaft by stub or step sleeves. Mechanical shaft seals shall not be positioned by setscrews. Shaft sleeves are chamfered on outboard ends for easy mechanical seal mounting. The driving unit may be connected, or coupled, to the pump by a FLANGE COUPLING. Here too, frequent realignment of the shafting may be necessary. Each pump shaft must be kept in proper alignment with the shaft of the driving unit. Such things as abnormal temperatures, abnormal noises, and worn bearings or bushings indicate misalignments. Where mechanical shaft seals are used, they ensure that positive liquid pressure is supplied to the seal faces under all conditions of operation. They also ensure adequate circulation of the liquid at the seal faces to minimize the deposit of foreign matter on the seal parts.

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MECHANICAL SEAL VS PACKING ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES A - Some of the benefits of using mechanical seals are: Lower frictional drag than traditional packing means improved pump efficiency; A mechanical seal will not wear out a shaft, or sleeve, as fast as packing; Near zero leakage is possible with mechanical seal; packing requires much greater leakage (usually visible) for proper lubrication; Properly applied mechanical seals require less periodic maintenance than packing; Specially designed mechanical seals can be applied to higher pressures and speeds than traditional packing. Some of the advantages of packing are: Lower upfront cost; Low-tech selection, installation, maintenance, and trouble-shooting.

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS ADVANTAGES Simple construction one moving part, the rotor Low cost Small space requirements Low maintenance Quite operation/dependable service Low NPSH requirements Ample clearances can handle liquid containing solids, abrasives etc. Can be built in a wide range of sizes Flexible operating characteristics Capacity automatically adjusts to change in head DISADVANTAGES Pressure limitations Viscosity limitation effects head flow and efficiency Unstable at low flow

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OVERHAUL OF PUMPS- WEAR ITEMS, INDICATIONS OF WEAR, PROCEDURES FOR PUMP OVERHAUL This overhaul procedure is written in generic form. It is intended to act only as a guideline in the overhaul of Overhung, single stage centrifugal pumps. In following these steps, one should always refer to the Manufactures Installation, Operation and Maintenance Instructions for the given pump being overhauled. Determination of when a pump should be overhauled should be related to either factual of circumstantial evidence. Factual evidence is dictated through deteriorated pump performance, noise or driver overload trouble. Circumstantial evidence refers to past pump history. Always maintain records of daily, semiannual, annual and overhaul inspections. Each pump should have an individual record of history. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lock out/Tag out the electrical power source to the pumps motor. Close the discharge piping valve and tag out Close the suction piping valve and tag out. Drain the pump casing Remove the coupling guard Disconnect the coupling between the pump and motor shafts. Remove the spacer piece from between the hubs. 7. If any environmental control lines are present, disconnect and remove them. (i.e. flush lines, seal lines etc) 8. Drain the oil from the power end. Tag pump, No Oil. Follow plant procedures for disposal. 9. Unfasten the hold down bolts from the bearing frame footing and the pump baseplate. 10. Unfasten the bolts that connect the pump power end to the wet end and remove the power end from the wet end. 11. Clean all machined surfaces of the wet end casing. The main casing joint should be stoned to remove all rust, burrs or raised surfaces. Check for evidence of rubbing, cuts, grooves, extreme wear and/or corrosion. 12. Unlock the mechanical seal from the shaft. (if utilized) 13. Remove the impeller from the shaft. 14. Inspect the impeller vanes for signs of wear, breakage or corrosion. Inspect any hubs, O ring grooves, or pressure reducing balance vanes or holes that might be present. If wear rings are used, check wear ring clearance at wear ring I.D. and the impeller hub O.D. If installation, operation and maintenance instructions do not exist for wear ring specifications, check wear ring clearance and tolerance standards for correct fit. 15. Remove nuts from the mechanical seal gland or gland follower at stuffing box. 16. Remove the rear cover from the pump bearing frame 17. Clean stuffing box cavity thoroughly. Clean machined surfaces and gasket joint. Inspect for damage or wear in the stuffing box cavity. 18. Remove the mechanical seal or gland follower from the pumps shaft. 19. If a mechanical seal is present, inspect all seal faces and gaskets. Inspect for seal face chipping, scoring, cracking or chemical attack. Inspect elastomers and gasketing for

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hardness, tears or chemical attack. Inspect all metal parts for rubs, damage or chemical attack. Rebuild or replace the seal before reinstalling. 20. Remove shaft sleeve if present. Inspect sleeve for grooves or wear. Replace O rings and sleeve if required. 21. Check shaft run out. Run out should be less than 0.002 T.I.R. Check shaft end at seal area and coupling area. 22. Check shaft deflection. Deflection should be less than 0.002 T.I.R. 23. Check shaft end play. End play should be less than 0.002 maximum. IF POWER END CHECKS 21. 22. AND 23. ARE WITHIN SPECIFICATIONS, GO TO STEP #39. 24. Remove the coupling from the pump shaft. 25. Remove the bearing seals, radial and thrust ends, from the bearing frame. 26. Remove the rotating element from the bearing frame. Refer to manufacturers installation, operation and maintenance instructions of pump for details. 27. Clean oil sump thoroughly, removing all dirt and debris. 28. After removing and retaining devices, press the thrust bearing from the shaft. Do not use a hammer or other tool that may damage the shaft. 29. Press the radial bearing from the shaft. Do not use a hammer or other tool that may damage the shaft. 30. After removing bearings, clean thoroughly. Inspect bearings for any damage. 31. Check to ensure shaft is straight, within 0.001 T.I.R. (this can be accomplished through the use of shaft v-blocks and dial indicators) Inspect shaft for nicks, grooves or wear. Replace if required. 32. Check bearing fits at housing and shaft. Measurements s