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Vol. 39 (2008)


No 6


Deyou Chen , Xiaotao Zu

Department of Physical Electronics University of Electronic Science and Technology of China Chengdu, 610054, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China

Shuzheng Yang §

Institute of Theoretical Physics, China West Normal Univer sity Nanchong, 637002 Sichuan, People’s Republic of China

(Received October 4, 2007; revised version received November 8, 2007)

In this paper, we investigate the Hawking radiation of the Ta ub-NUT black hole by Hamilton–Jacobi method. When the unfixed backg round space-time and self-gravitational interaction are consid ered, the tunnelling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein–Hawking entropy and the ra- diation spectrum deviates from the purely thermal one. This result is in accordance with Parikh and Wilczek’s opinion and gives a cor rection to the Hawking radiation of the black hole.

PACS numbers: 04.70.–s, 04.70.Dy, 97.60.Lf

1. Introduction

Hawking radiation [1,2] is viewed as tunnelling process cau sed by vacuum fluctuations near the black hole horizon. It can be explained as a virtual particle pair spontaneously created inside the horizon of t he black hole; the positive energy particle tunnels out the horizon and materi alizes as a true particle, while the negative energy particle is absorbed by the black hole. It can be also interpreted as the virtual particle pair creat ed outside the horizon; the negative energy particle tunnels into the hori zon and is absorbed by the black hole, while the positive energy particle is left outside the horizon and moves to infinite distance and forms the Hawking radiatio n.

deyouchen@126.com xtzu@uestc.edu.cn § szyangcwnu@126.com


1330 Deyou Chen, Xiaotao Zu, Shuzheng Yang

Based on the above tunnelling picture, Parikh and Wilczek stu died the Hawking radiation of the static Schwarzschild and Reissner –Nordström black holes. After considering the self-gravitational interact ion and unfixed back- ground space-time, the derived radiation spectrum deviate s from the purely thermal one and the tunnelling rate is related to the change o f Bekenstein– Hawking entropy [3–5]. The essence of this methodology is dy namical treat- ment to the Hawking radiation. In their work, they pointed ou t the potential barrier is afforded by the outgoing particle self, thus the ca use mechanism of the potential barrier is resolved. Meanwhile, there are two key points. Firstly, the unfixed background space-time and self-gravit ational interac- tion, which were often overlooked, were considered. Second ly, to eliminate the coordinate singularity, the Painlevé coordinate was introduced, and this coordinate is quite appropriate to describe the Hawking rad iation of slowly evaporating black holes. Following this work, people inves tigated the Hawk- ing radiation of various space-times [6–14]. Hemming and Ke ski–Vakkuri studied the Hawking radiation of Anti-de Sitter background space-time [6], Medved researched that of de Sitter background space-time [ 7] and Zhao and Zhang et al. investigated the case of the stationary axisymmetric black holes [8–10]. However, all of these researches are limited t o massless parti- cles. In 2005, this work was extended to the case of massive an d charged particles by Zhang and Zhao and a great deal of progress was ma de [15–18]. In the same year, Angheben et al. adopted another method to explore the action of radiation particles and discuss the Hawking ra diation [19]. This method is different from Parikh and Wilczek’s and shall be reff ered to as Hamilton–Jacobi method [20]. In fact, this work is the exten sion of that of Srinivasan and Padmanabhan [21]. In this method, since the a ction of the radiation particle is derived by the Hamilton–Jacobi equat ion, one can avoid exploring the equation of motion of the radiation particle i n Painlevé coor- dinate system and calculating the Hamilton equation. Meanw hile, although the equations of motion of massive and massless particles ar e different, one need not differentiate them. However, since the self-gravit ational interaction and the unfixed background space-time were not considered, t he derived ra- diation spectrum is only a leading term. To get the actual rad iation spec- trum, the self-gravitational interaction and unfixed backg round space-time should be considered. Our work in this paper is to incorporate these and review the H awk- ing radiation of the Taub-NUT black hole by the Hamilton–Jac obi method. The result shows the tunnelling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein– Hawking entropy and the radiation spectrum deviates from th e purely ther- mal one, which is fully in accordance with Parikh and Wilczek ’s opinion and gives another method to study the Hawking radiation. The Tau b-NUT so- lution, where there is a NUT parameter [22], was first obtaine d by Newman

Massive Particle Tunnels from the Taub-NUT Black Hole


et al. in 1963. In the subsequent researches, people found the para meter is related to gravitational monopole [23, 24]. The NUT space-t ime is asymp- totically flat and its properties are very special. Due to the existence of the closed time-like geodesics, it violates the causality c ondition. There are half-closed time-like geodesics in Taub area that can be exp lored in NUT area, so the naked singularity exists. Meanwhile, for the Ta ub-NUT black hole, the angular velocity at the event horizon is equal to ze ro and there is not super-radiation. The axial-symmetry is not caused by th e rotation of the black hole, while it is caused by the fact that the vector p otential cannot be selected as spherical symmetry but should be axial-symme tric. In light of these properties, the research on the Taub-NUT black hole is necessary and meaningful. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, takin g the unfixed background space-time and self-gravitational interactio n into account, we review the Hawking radiation of the Taub-NUT black hole by th e Hamilton– Jacobi method and get the actual radiation spectrum. Sectio n 3 contains some discussion and conclusion.

2. Hawking radiation as tunnelling from the Taub-NUT black hole

The line element of the stationary axisymmetric Taub-NUT bl ack hole is given by [25]

ds 2

= 1 2 r mr 2 + + l 2 l 2 ( dt 2l sinθdϕ) 2

1 2 mr + l 2 r 2 + l 2


dr 2 r 2 + l 2 2 + sin 2 θdϕ 2 , (1)

where t represents the time coordinate, m is the mass of the black hole, and l is the NUT parameter. For the convenience of the discussion, we define = r 2 2mr l 2 and ρ 2 = r 2 + l 2 , and then the line element can be written as

ds 2 = 2 dt 2 + ρ 2 dr 2 + ρ 2 2 + ρ 4 4l 2 sin 2 θ




dϕ 2 4∆l sinθ



dtdϕ . (2)

The event horizon and entropy of the black hole are obtained a s

r h = m + m 2 + l 2 ,

S = π r h + l 2 .



1332 Deyou Chen, Xiaotao Zu, Shuzheng Yang

Obviously, the event horizon coincides with the outer infini te red-shift sur- face, which means the geometrical optics limit can be applie d here. Using the WKB approximation [26], we can get the relationship between the tun- nelling rate and the action of the radiation particle as Γ exp (2Im I ). Considering that the axial-symmetry is not caused by the rot ation of the black hole, we need not perform the dragging coordinate tran sformation on the line element here. In the discussion of the Hawking radia tion, the deriva- tion of the action is crucial. There are two methods to derive it, namely the Hamilton–Jacobi method and radial geodesic method. The rad ial geodesic method was developed by Parikh and Wilczek et al. and the derivation of the action mainly relies on the exploration of the equation o f motion in the Painlevé coordinate systems and the calculation of Hamilto n equation. In the Hamilton–Jacobi method, the derivation of the action wa s dependent on the Hamilton–Jacobi equation. In this paper, we adopt the Ha milton–Jacobi equation to derive the action. Near the event horizon, the li ne element takes on the form

ds 2 = ,r (r h )(r r h ) ρ 2 (r h )

dt 2 +

ρ 2 (r h ) ,r (r h )(r

r h ) dr 2 + ρ 2 (r h ) 2

+ ρ 2 (r h ) sin 2 θdϕ 2 + 4,r (r h )( r r h ) l sinθ ρ 2 ( r h )

dtdϕ ,


in which ,r ( r h ) = r = r h = 2( r h m ) and ρ 2 (r h ) = r h + l 2 . The ac-

tion I of the outgoing particle satisfies relativistic Hamilton–J acobi equation, namely


where u and g µν are the mass of the particle and the inverse metric tensors derived from the line element (4). The non-null inverse metr ic tensors are



g µν (µ I )(ν I ) + u 2 = 0


g 00 =

ρ 2 ( r h ) r h ) , ,r ( r h )(r

g 22 =


ρ 2 (r h ) ,

g 03 = g 30 =


ρ 2 ( r h ) sin θ .

g 11

g 33

= ,r (r h )(r r h ) ρ 2 (r h )



ρ 2 ( r h ) sin 2 θ




Substituting them into the Hamilton–Jacobi equation yield s

ρ 2 (r h ) r h ) ( t I ) 2 + ,r (r h )(r r h )

,r (r h )( r

ρ 2 (r h )

(r I ) 2

+ g 22 (θ I ) 2 + g 33 ( ϕ I ) 2 + 2g 03 (t I )(ϕ I ) + u 2 = 0 .


Massive Particle Tunnels from the Taub-NUT Black Hole


Obviously, it is difficult to solve the action I for it is a function of t , r , θ and ϕ. Considering the properties of the black hole space-time, we carry out the separation of variables as

I = ωt + R (r ) + H ( θ ) + jϕ ,


where ω and j are the energy and angular momentum of the particle. At the

event horizon, h = dϕ r = r h = 0. Substituting Eq. (8) into (7) and solving

R (r ) yields


R (r ) = ±

ρ 2 ( r h ) ,r (r h )

dr r r h


× ω 2 ,r (r h )( r r h ) ρ 2 (r h )

± πiρ 2 ( r h )

+ ζ ,

,r (r h )

g 22 (θ H ( θ )) 2 + g 33 j 2 + 2g 03 ωj + u 2


where ± sign comes from the square root and ζ is integral constant. Inserting Eq. (9) into Eq. (8), we can get two different actions which cor respond to the outgoing and ingoing solution, respectively. Therefor e the imaginary parts of the two actions are

Im I ± = ± πρ 2 ( r h ) ω ∆ ,r (r h )


Re (ζ ) .


According to Ref. [27], to ensure that the incoming probabil ity is unity in the classical limit — when there is no reflection and everythi ng is absorbed — instead of zero or infinity, one should select the appropria te value of ζ .

We can let ζ = πiρ 2 (r h )ω + Re( ζ ), and then Im I = 0. Then I + with I give

,r ( r h )

the imaginary part of the corresponding outgoing solution a s

Im I = 2πρ 2 ( r h ) ω ∆ ,r (r h )

= r

+ l 2 πω r h m





Using the WKB approximation, the tunnelling rate can be obta ined. How- ever, we find the radiation spectrum is only the leading term. The reason is that the unfixed background space-time and self-gravitat ional interaction were not taken into account. Now let us incorporate these and move on the discussion. Considering the unfixed background space-t ime, we fix the ADM mass of the total space-time and allow that of the black ho le to fluctu- ate. When a particle with energy ω tunnels out, the mass of the black hole

1334 Deyou Chen, Xiaotao Zu, Shuzheng Yang

should change into m ω . At the event horizon, due to the angular velocity h = 0, the angular momentum is equal to zero. Taking self-gravita tional interaction into account, the imaginary part of the true act ion should be


= π



r h


+ l 2

r h m





(m ω ) 2 + l 2 + (m ω ) (m ω ) 2 + l 2

( m ω ) 2 + l 2

= π ( m ω ) 2 m 2 +(m ω ) (m ω ) 2 + l 2 m m 2 + l 2 . (12)

So the tunnelling rate is


exp (2Im I ) = exp 2π (m ω ) 2 m 2 + (m ω ) (m ω ) 2 + l 2

m m 2 + l 2 = exp π r f r


i 2 = exp ( ∆S BH ) ,


where r f = (m ω ) + (m ω ) 2 + l 2

locations of the event horizon before and after the particle emission, and ∆S BH = S BH (M ω ) S BH ( M ) is the change of Bekenstein–Hawking en- tropy. Clearly, the tunnelling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein– Hawking entropy and the radiation spectrum deviates from th e purely ther- mal one. The result satisfies an underlying unitary theory an d is fully in accordance with the well known result.

and r i = m + m 2 + l 2 are the

3. Discussion and conclusion

When l = 0, the stationary axisymmetric Taub-NUT black hole is re-

duced to the Schwarzschild black hole, and the tunnelling ra te can be accord-

2 ,

ingly obtained from Eq. (1) as Γ exp ( 2ImI ) = exp 8πω m ω

which is fully consistent with that obtained by Parikh and Wi lczek. From the discussion in Section 2, we find some virtues in the investiga- tion of Hawking radiation by Hamilton–Jacobi method. First ly, one does not introduce the Painlevé coordinate transformation. In f act, applying this method, we can get the same result in the Painlevé coordinate system and dragging coordinate system. But considering the simplicity, we would like to adopt the metric (4). Secondly, since the derivation of acti on depends on the

Massive Particle Tunnels from the Taub-NUT Black Hole


Hamilton–Jacobi equation, one can avoid differentiating ma ssless and mas- sive particles. In the former treatment, the massless and ma ssive particles should be differentiated for their equations of motion are di fferent, which cor- respond to light-like and time-like character, respective ly. Thirdly, one does not need to solve the Hamilton canonical equations. Moreove r, since one can obtain not only the actions of radiation particles from the s tationary black holes but also these of the non-stationary black holes by Ham ilton–Jacobi equations, this method can be easily extended to non-statio nary black holes. Meanwhile, we should notice that the self-gravitational interaction and un- fixed background space-time should be taken into account; ot herwise the derived spectrum is only the leading term. To summarize, we have considered the unfixed background spac e-time and self-gravitational interaction and revised the Hawkin g radiation of the Taub-NUT black hole. The Hawking radiation spectrum obtain s a correc- tion.

The authors (D. Chen) would like to thank the anonymous refer ees for their insightful comments. This work is partially supporte d by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10705008 an d 10773008) and the Sichuan Province Foundation for Fundamental Resear ch Projects (Grant No. 05JY029-092).


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