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Physics 212

Lecture 28

Optical Devices

Physics 212 Lecture 28 Optical Devices Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 1

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 1

Music

Who is the Artist?

A) Pete Fountain
B) Marcus Roberts & Victor Goines
C) New Orleans Nightcrawlers Anat Cohen Tom McDermott & Evan Christopher

D)

E)
E)

Theme of Week

Tom McDermott & Evan Christopher D) E) Theme of Week Threadhead Records Artists who played at

Threadhead Records Artists who played at Lagniappe stage, Jazzfest 2011

Anat Cohen, clarinetist supreme, also played last Jazzfest with Tom McDermott and others

Your Comments

“All the stuff about nearsightedness and farsightedness was very confusing. But that was nothing compared to the confusion I felt while watching the stuff about angular magnification Please help!”

“Please have demos”

We will do a brief summary and have some demos

“Some extra time on systems of lenses would be appreciated. It can be difficult to keep track of everything, especially as more and more lenses are added.”

“Very confusing for how easy lenses have been”

LENGTHY DEMO / CALCULATION to finish lecture

“This is cool! now I know how my contacts and glasses work. But can you explain how they make these very important lenses so very very little?”

“My girlfriend told me my glasses made me nerdy. I explained to her the cool physics behind them. She then reiterated how nerdy I was.”

05

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 3

Your Comments

I have lost all faith in my posts ever ending up on a powerpoint. Physics fails me again

Anyway to get on the big board? I didn't get on it in physics 211 and still have yet to get on it for physics 212. Throw me a bone!!!

Hey can you put this on the screen! This is probably my last chance!

Thanks!

Aww my second physics class, and I have still never made it onto the board :(

THIS IS MY LAST CHANCE TO GET ONTO THE SCREEN, HELLO

WORLD!

I can't think of anything clever to put. Put this up anyways.

Dear Professor, This is the last prelecture/preflight i ever have to do.

Please post this!!!!!

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 4

Executive Summary – Mirrors & Lenses:

real

inverted

smaller

real

inverted

bigger

virtual

f > 0

f f f f

ffff

f f f f

convergingconvergingconvergingconverging

S > 2f

ff

ff

concaveconcave

concaveconcave

(converging)(converging)

(converging)(converging)

2f > S > f

1 1 1 ′ + = M = − S
1
1
1
+
=
M = − S
f > S > 0 upright S S′ f S bigger f < 0 virtual
f > S > 0
upright
S
S′
f
S
bigger
f < 0
virtual
convexconvex
convexconvex
(diverging)(diverging)
(diverging)(diverging)
S
> 0
upright
divergingdiverging
divergingdiverging
smaller
S > 0 upright divergingdiverging divergingdiverging smaller Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 5

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 5

ff

ff

ff

ffffff

It’s always the same:

1 1 1 ′ + = M = − S S S′ f S
1
1
1
+
=
M = − S
S
S′
f
S

You just have to keep the signs straight:

s’ is positive for a real image f is positive when it can produce a
s’ is positive for a real image
f is positive when it can produce a real image

Lens sign conventions

when it can produce a real image Lens sign conventions S : positive if object is

S:

positive if object is “upstream” of lens

S’ : positive if image is “downstream” of lens

f:

positive if converging lens

Mirrors sign conventions

lens f: positive if converging lens Mirrors sign conventions S : positive if object is “upstream”

S:

positive if object is “upstream” of mirror

S’ : positive if image is “upstream” of mirror

f:

positive if converging mirror (concave)

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 6

System of Lenses

• Trace rays through lenses, beginning with most upstream lens

Trace rays through lenses, beginning with most upstream lens Image from first lens Becomes object for
Image from first lens Becomes object for second lens
Image from first lens
Becomes object for second lens
beginning with most upstream lens Image from first lens Becomes object for second lens Physics 212

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 7

System of Lenses

• Virtual Objects are Possible !!

System of Lenses • Virtual Objects are Possible !! Image from first lens Becomes object for
Image from first lens Becomes object for second lens
Image from first lens
Becomes object for second lens
Object Distance is Negative !!
Object Distance is Negative !!
!! Image from first lens Becomes object for second lens Object Distance is Negative !! Physics

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 8

A B B. The beam is diverging C D E
A
B
B. The beam is diverging
C
D
E

A parallel laser beam of width w 1 is incident on a two lens system as shown below.

Checkpoint 3

Each lens is converging. The second lens has a larger focal length than the first (f 2 > f 1 ). What does the beam look like when it emerges from the second lens?

A.

C.

D.

E.

The beam is converging

The beam is parallel to the axis with a width < w 1

The beam is parallel to the axis with a width = w 1

The beam is parallel to the axis with a width > w 1

1 The beam is parallel to the axis with a width > w 1 “ converge

converge plus converge equals megaconverge!

“The beam converges through the first lens but then diverges through the second due to the placement of the focal point.”

“the second lens corrects the convergence of the first”

“Since the object of the second lens is formed at the focal point of the second lens. Thus the beam comes out parallel to the x axis with the same width.”

“Not sure about the width, but with larger f2 it seems width would be greater

too :/”

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 9

A B B. The beam is diverging C D E
A
B
B. The beam is diverging
C
D
E

A parallel laser beam of width w 1 is incident on a two lens system as shown below.

Checkpoint 3

incident on a two lens system as shown below. Checkpoint 3 Each lens is converging. The

Each lens is converging. The second lens has a larger focal length than the first (f 2 > f 1 ). What does the beam look like when it emerges from the second lens?

A.

C.

D.

The beam is converging

The beam is parallel to the axis with a width < w 1

The beam is parallel to the axis with a width = w 1 The beam is parallel to the axis with a width > w 1

E.
E.
The beam is parallel to the axis with a width > w 1 E. 1. Parallel

1. Parallel rays are transmitted and pass through focal point (f 1 )

2. Those rays also pass through focal point of second lens (f 2 ) and therefore are transmitted parallel to the axis.

3. f 2 > f 1 implies that the width > w 1

parallel to the axis. 3. f 2 > f 1 implies that the width > w

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 10

Normal Eye

Normal Eye Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 11

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 11

Checkpoint 2

A person with normal vision (near point 28 cm) is standing in front of a plane mirror. What is the closest distance to the mirror the person can stand and still see herself in focus?

A.

14 cm

B. 28 cm

C. 56 cm

and still see herself in focus? A. 14 cm B. 28 cm C. 56 cm “

The virtual image will be twice as far away from the person as the person is from the mirror.

It can't be any closer than 28cm, but it should be fine at it.

The distance will need to be doubled in order to see the person in focus.

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 12

Checkpoint 2 A person with normal vision (near point 28 cm) is standing in front
Checkpoint 2
A person with normal vision (near point 28 cm) is standing in front of a plane mirror. What
is the closest distance to the mirror the person can stand and still see herself in focus?
A.
14 cm
B. 28 cm
C. 56 cm
θθθθ rrrr
θθθθ iiii
d
dddd
The image is formed an equal distance BEHIND the mirror
Therefore, if you stand a distance = ½ of your near point,
the distance to the image will be the near point distance.
Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 13

Far-sighted

Far-sighted Converging Lens creates virtual image at person’s near point Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 14
Far-sighted Converging Lens creates virtual image at person’s near point Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 14

Converging Lens creates virtual image at person’s near point

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 14

Near-sighted

Near-sighted Fix with diverging lens that creates virtual image at far point. Physics 212 Lecture 28,
Near-sighted Fix with diverging lens that creates virtual image at far point. Physics 212 Lecture 28,

Fix with diverging lens that creates virtual image at far point.

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 15

Checkpoint 1

Two people who wear glasses are camping. One of them is nearsighted and the other is farsighted. Which person’s glasses will be useful in starting a fire with the sun’s rays?

A. The farsighted person’s glasses

B. The nearsighted person’s glasses

person’s glasses B. The nearsighted person’s glasses “ My glasses have never started a fire and

My glasses have never started a fire and I am nearsighted. That has to count for something. Also, magnifying glasses seem like it would be closer to a farsighted person's glasses and tv characters are always using them

you'd

let a nearsighted guy without his glasses on attempt to start a fire?.

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 16

Checkpoint 1

Two people who wear glasses are camping. One of them is nearsighted and the other is farsighted. Which person’s glasses will be useful in starting a fire with the sun’s rays?

A. The farsighted person’s glasses

B. The nearsighted person’s glasses

person’s glasses B. The nearsighted person’s glasses Farsighted = Converging Lens Only Converging Lens can

Farsighted = Converging Lens Only Converging Lens can produce a REAL IMAGE !!

glasses Farsighted = Converging Lens Only Converging Lens can produce a REAL IMAGE !! Physics 212

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 17

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 18

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 18

How to make a big telescope mirror Melt it & spin it

52,000 lbs of borosilicate glass when filled Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 19
52,000 lbs of borosilicate glass when filled
Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 19

A big telescope mirror

A big telescope mirror Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 20

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 20

What to do with a big telescope mirror:

A system of lenses and mirrors

What to do with a big telescope mirror: A system of lenses and mirrors Physics 212

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 21

Multiple Lenses Exercises

Two converging lenses are set up as shown. The focal length of each lens is
Two converging lenses are set up as shown. The focal length of each lens is 47
cm. The object is a light bulb located 70 cm in front of the first lens.
s 1 =70 cm f=47 cm
s 1 =70 cm
f=47 cm

What is the nature of the image from the first lens alone?

(A) REAL

UPRIGHT

(B) REAL INVERTED
(B) REAL
INVERTED

(C) VIRTUAL UPRIGHT

(D) VIRTUAL INVERTED

EQUATIONS 1 1 1 fs = − s ′ = s ′ f s s
EQUATIONS
1
1
1
fs
=
s ′ =
s
f
s
s
− f
s > f
s’ > 0
real image
s
M = −
M < 0
inverted image
s
PICTURES Draw Rays as above
PICTURES
Draw Rays as above

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 22

Multiple Lenses Exercises

Two converging lenses are set up as shown. The focal length of each lens is
Two converging lenses are set up as shown. The focal length of each lens is 47
cm. The object is a light bulb located 70 cm in front of the first lens.
Lens separation = 2 m s 1 = 70 cm f = 47 cm s
Lens separation = 2 m
s 1 = 70 cm
f = 47 cm
s 1 ’ = 1.43 m

What is the object distance s 2 for lens 2?

(A) s 2 =

-1.43 m

(B) s 2 =

+1.43 m

(C) s 2 =

-0.57 m

(D) s 2 =
(D) s 2 =

+0.57 m (E) s 2 = +2.7 m

THE OBJECT FOR THE SECOND LENS IS THE IMAGE OF THE FIRST LENS
THE OBJECT FOR THE SECOND LENS
IS THE IMAGE OF THE FIRST LENS
OBJECT FOR THE SECOND LENS IS THE IMAGE OF THE FIRST LENS s 2 = -0.57
OBJECT FOR THE SECOND LENS IS THE IMAGE OF THE FIRST LENS s 2 = -0.57

s 2 = -0.57

OR s 2 = +0.57
OR
s 2 = +0.57
THE IMAGE OF THE FIRST LENS s 2 = -0.57 OR s 2 = +0.57 Image

Image of first lens is a REAL object for the second lens

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 23

Multiple Lenses Exercises

Two converging lenses are set up as shown. The focal length of each lens is
Two converging lenses are set up as shown. The focal length of each lens is 47
cm.
The object is a light bulb located 70 cm in front of the first lens.
Lens separation = 2 m
s 1 =70 cm
f=47 cm
s 1 ’ = 1.43 m
s 2 = 0.57 m

What is the nature of the FINAL image in terms of the ORIGINAL object?

(A) REAL UPRIGHT
(A) REAL
UPRIGHT

(B) REAL INVERTED

(C) VIRTUAL UPRIGHT

(D) VIRTUAL INVERTED

EQUATIONS ′ fs 2 s = 2 s − f 2 s 2 > f
EQUATIONS
′ fs
2
s
=
2
s
− f
2
s 2 > f
s 2 ’ > 0
real image
s 2
M
= −
M 2 < 0
M = M 1 M 2 > 0
2
s
2
upright image
PICTURES Draw Rays as above RESULTS s 2 ’ = 2.69 m M = 9.6
PICTURES
Draw Rays as above
RESULTS
s 2 ’ = 2.69 m
M = 9.6

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 24

Multiple Lenses Exercises

Suppose we increase the initial object distance to 74 cm

Multiple Lenses Exercises Suppose we increase the initial object distance to 74 cm Lens separation =

Lens separation = 2 m

the initial object distance to 74 cm Lens separation = 2 m s 1 =74 cm
s 1 =74 cm f=47 cm

s 1 =74 cm f=47 cm

RESULTS s 1 ’ : 1.43 m Ø 1.29 m s 2 ’ : 2.69
RESULTS
s 1 ’ : 1.43 m Ø 1.29 m
s 2 ’ : 2.69 m Ø 1.38 m

1

 

s

1

1

 

s

2

increases

s 2 increases

increases

s 2 increases s 2 increases increases How does the L, the distance to the FINAL
s 2 increases s 2 increases increases How does the L, the distance to the FINAL

How does the L, the distance to the FINAL image, change?

(A) L increases

(B) L decreases
(B) L decreases
WORDS Increasing s 1 will decrease s 1 ’ (moving closer to focal point would
WORDS
Increasing s 1 will decrease s 1 ’
(moving closer to focal point would
increase the image distance)
Decreasing s 1 ’ will increase s 2
Increasing s 2 will decrease s 2 ’

1

1

1

= −

s

1

f

s

1

s

2

=

2

ms

1

1

1

= −

s

2

f

s

2

(C) L remains the same

Step through images, one at a time EQUATIONS

′ f s 2 (C) L remains the same Step through images, one at a time

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 25

Multiple Lenses Exercises

Suppose we now decrease the initial object distance to 58 cm. Applying the lens equation,
Suppose we now decrease the initial object distance to 58 cm. Applying the lens
equation, we find s 1 ’ = 2.48m
Lens separation = 2 m s 1 = 58 cm f = 47 cm s
Lens separation = 2 m
s 1 = 58 cm
f = 47 cm
s 1 ’ = 2.48 m
What is the object distance s 2 for lens 2?
(B) s 2 =
+0.48 m
(C) s 2 =
-2.48 m
(D) s 2 =
+2.48 m (E) s 2 = +2.58 m
THE OBJECT FOR THE SECOND LENS IS THE IMAGE OF THE FIRST LENS
THE OBJECT FOR THE SECOND LENS
IS THE IMAGE OF THE FIRST LENS
OBJECT FOR THE SECOND LENS IS THE IMAGE OF THE FIRST LENS OR Image of first
OBJECT FOR THE SECOND LENS IS THE IMAGE OF THE FIRST LENS OR Image of first

OR

FOR THE SECOND LENS IS THE IMAGE OF THE FIRST LENS OR Image of first lens

Image of first lens is a VIRTUAL object for the second lens

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 26

Multiple Lenses Exercises Suppose we now decrease the initial object distance to 58 cm. Applying
Multiple Lenses Exercises
Suppose we now decrease the initial object distance to 58 cm.
Applying the lens equation, we find s 1 ’ = 2.48m

Lens separation = 2 m

lens equation, we find s 1 ’ = 2.48m Lens separation = 2 m s 1

s 1 =58 cm f=47 cm s 1 ’ = 2.48 m s 2 = -0.48 m

What is the nature of the FINAL image in terms of the ORIGINAL object?

(A) REAL

UPRIGHT

(B) REAL INVERTED
(B) REAL
INVERTED

(C) VIRTUAL UPRIGHT

(D) VIRTUAL INVERTED

EQUATIONS ′ fs 2 s = 2 s − f 2 s 2 < 0
EQUATIONS
′ fs
2
s
=
2
s
− f
2
s 2 < 0
s 2 ’ > 0
real image
s 2
M
= −
M 2 > 0
M = M 1 M 2 < 0
2
s
2
inverted image
PICTURES Draw Rays as above RESULTS s 2 ’ = 0.24 m M = -2.1
PICTURES
Draw Rays as above
RESULTS
s 2 ’ = 0.24 m
M = -2.1

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 27

Course Review on Tuesday

• The most popular topics

– Electric Fields/Gauss’ Law/Potential

– Faraday’s Law

– RC/RL Circuits

– AC Circuits

Selected old exam problems

Notes on the End Game

Final Exam: 50 questions uniformly covering topics in course

• should have already chosen “combined”/”conflict”

Don’t forget to check room assignments!!

About 40 students still have not registered their iclicker

• Do it now or accept all zeroes for lectures

Course Grade: See “Course Description” link on homepage

Physics 212 Lecture 28, Slide 28