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INTRODUCTION ============ In march 1985, after a detailed evaluation of digital switching systems, BT placed a contract with Ericsson Limited

for the development of AXE10 for the BT Network and for the supply of a quantity of exchanges. AXE10 is a duplicated-processor stored-program controlled digital switching system developed by Telefon AB LM Ericsson of Sweden. The system is structured for local, tandem, transit and combined exchange applications. It can also be configured as a cewllular mobile or as an international switching centre. SWITCHING ARCHITECTURE ====================== The system architecture is logically divided into two main parts, the switching system (APT) and the control system (APZ). See Figure 1. The switching system (APT) performs traffic and operation/ maintennance functions. It comprises four main hardware subsystems: Subscriber Switching SubSystem Group Switching SubSystem Trunk and Signalling SubSystem Common-Channel Signalling SubSystem and the following software subsystems : Traffic Control SubSystems Charging SubSystem Operation and Maintennance SubSystem Subscriber Services SubSystem Network Management SubSystem (TCS) (CHS) (OMS) (SUS) (NMS) (SSS) (GSS) (TSS) (CCS)

All Hardware subsystems have a hardware component. The control system (APZ) is made up of centralised and distributed logic achieved through the following subsystems: Central Processor SubSystem Regional Processor SubSystem Maintennance SubSystem Support Processor SubSystem Data Communication SubSystem File Management SubSystem Man-Machine Communication Subsystem (CPS) (RPS) (MAS) (SPS) (DCS) (FMS) (MCS)

In Earlier Exchanges the input/output subsystem was used instead of SPS, FMS, MCS and DCS. See Figure 2 for the Subsystem structure. FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE ==================== The division of the systems (APT and APZ) into subsystems is determined by conditions and requirements that arise from features, traffic handling and operations and maintennance functions. See Figure 3. The subsystems, including their interfaces, are designed such that they can be used for different applications with the minimum of adaptation.

Each subsystem is built from a number of function blocks which in themselves comprise hardware, central software, regional sofware and data components, or just central software and data components. Each function block is designed to execute a specific set of functions or sub-functions. A library of several hundred functional blocks exists to satisfy all applications and individual exchange requirements. Standardised interface signalling is extensively used between blocks not only to achieve the neccesary flexibility to satisfy customer's requirements, but to also enable new technology to be introduced within the system in an efficient manner. See Figure 4. To meet the twin needs of high capacity and low cost, the complex executove tasks neccesary to operate the system are executed by the duplicated central processor (CP) working in a paralell synchronous mode. The routine, high volume tasks, such as scanning operations and for the direct control of hardware, are distributed across a dimensionable number of small regional processors (RPs). Regional Processors controlling several hardware units are configured in a load sharing mode. The software driving the APT functions, therefore, has both APT and APZ elements. THE APT SUBSYSTEMS ================== Subscriber Switching SubSystem (SSS) -----------------------------------The subscriber switching subsystem contains the digital subscriber switch and is built up of 16 line switch modules (LSMs). An LSM serves 128 analogue subscribers or can support four 30-Channel systems for ISDN Customers. Its principal function is to supervise the state of connected subscriber lines, and to set up release connections by sending and receiving signals to and from subscribers. The SSS comprises both hardware and Software. To allow for the possibility of reducing line-plant costs, the local exchange may be engineered with distributed switching in the form of a remote subscribers switch (RSS). Trunk and Signalling SubSystem (TSS) -----------------------------------The trunk and signalling subsystem includes the equipment for connecting trunks to the group switch. It supervises the state of trunks to other exchanges by measn of the signals it receives and sends. The TSS consists of both hardware and software. Group Switching SubSystem (GSS) ------------------------------The group switching subsystem houses a time-space-time digital switch built up of duplicated time switch modules (TSMs) and duplicated space switch modules (SPMs). Its primary purpose is to set yp a 64Kbit/s path between SSS and TSS devices through the group switching network. It is also responsible for network synchronisation functions. The GSS comprises hardware and software. Traffic Control SubSystem (TCS) ------------------------------The Traffic Control SubSystem is wholly software, and controls and supervises the set-up and release of connections. The TCS stores and analyses digit information received from the SSS and TSS, and then, after checking against previously recorded information, for example, subscriber categories, routing

and tariff classes, decides how the call should be handled. Charging SubSystem (CHS) -----------------------The Charging SubSystem consists of central software blocks and is responsible for the task of charging calls by means of very accurate pulse metering techniques. In addition to normal charging, special subscribers charging facilities are available such as itemisation and advice duration and charge (AD&C) information. The CHS also provides the administration with charging statistics and per-event charging information. It functions by monitoring and then analysing call information from the TCS or SUS (for service information). Output to the FMS follows execution of the charging function. Operation and Maintennance SubSystem (OMS) -----------------------------------------The Operation and maintennance SubSystem mainly comprises software blocks. Its function is one of system supervision, fault location, collection of statistics and for dealing with the administration's operation and maintennance functions. It can be operated either in the local or in remote mode, say from a remote operation and maintennance centre. Subscriber Services SubSystem (SUS) ----------------------------------The subscriber services system consists entirely of central software. Its function blocks provide a variety of subscriber services. Typical SUS services include: Abbreviated Dialling Three-Party Services (Enquiry, hold and transfer) Diverion (Immediate, On Busy and and on no-reply) Malicious Call Trace Call Barring Automatic Alarm Call Common Channel Signalling SubSystem (CCS) ----------------------------------------The Common-channel signalling subsystem implements the message transfer part (MTP) of CCITT Signalling Systems No. 6 and No. 7. The subsystem consists of hardware and software blocks, the hardware devices (signalling terminals) being connected to the external signalling links via a semi-permanent connection through the group switch. Network Management Subsystem (NMS) ---------------------------------The functions of the network management subsystem are implemented in software. The role of NMS is to provide access via the normal input/output devices for the administration to monitor continuously the state of the network. THE APZ SUBSYSTEMS ================== Central Processor SubSystem (CPS) --------------------------------The Central Processor subsystem is realised in both hardware and software. The CPS executes the complex software tasks which are stored in the various APT blocks. The main hardware parts of the central processor, which is

duplicated and runs in the synchronous mode, are the central processing unit (CPU) and the memory stores. These stores comprise the main store (MS) or program store (PS), reference store (RS) and the data store (DS). The purpose of the CPS is to execute the following functions: o Program Control including supervision of functions and for measuring processor load. o Loading and storage of tasks o Output and updating reloading information o Controlling fault tracing programs resident in the MAS or RPs. Regional Processor SubSystem (RPS) ---------------------------------The regional processor subsystem consists of both hardware and software blocks. The purpose of the RPS is to run the simple, routine and very frequent tasks to drive the RP part of the APT software and hardware. The number of functions performed by an RP pair depends upon the complexity of these functions. The number of RP pairs required for a given exchange depends upon its size and the complexity of its signalling systems. Maintennance SubSystem (MAS) ---------------------------The maintennance subsystem consists of both hardware and software. The major role is to supervise the operation of the APZ control system and takes the appropriate action should a malfunction occur. Support Processor SubSystem (SPS) --------------------------------The support processor subsystem consists of one or more independent processors which drive input/output equipment such as personal computers, visual display units and disc drives which are connected to the subsystem. Data Communications System (DCS) -------------------------------The software for the data communications system resides in the SPS. It also has a hardware element to support protocols such as X.25. Its function is to support remote operation and maintennance, and transfer of itemised call accounting data. File Management SubSystem (FMS) ------------------------------The file management subsystem consists wholly of software. It provides storage in the event that a data link failure occurs. Man-Machine Communications SubSystem (MCS) -----------------------------------------The man-machine communications subsystem consists of software. It provides security checking and authorises I/O devices and the operator for a particular function. It routes data output from the exchange to the presel-ected terminal(s). In addition, the MCS controls the generation of alarm printouts or displays. RELIABILITY =========== System Performance is determined by both hardware and software reliability. Hardware reliability is achieved by choice of components and by duplication

of units which perform a task affecting a proportion of the exchange function. Software reliability exists through system recovery functions which rely on three restart levels namely: o Small Restart - The APZ clears all jobs in process of being established. The status of all existing calls is maintained. o Large Restart - If the smll restart is rapidly followed by a new software error then a more extensive restart involving a reset of all dynamic data will take place. All existing calls are cleared. o Restart with reload - The highest level of restart is enacted when the restart fails to lead to a succesful program execution. The system then automatically reloads programs and data from an external store. All existing calls are cleared.

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/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // // // The AXE 10 Subscriber Switching Subsystem // // Excerpted from Introduction to Digital Communications Switching // // Expunged into Digital Form by Keltic Phr0st // // // /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// (I've often been told it was lame to type up files of already present info. In which case, fuck off - how is anyone supposed to learn, and how is the info supposed to spread??? And how do you know its accurate??? Anyway hope you enjoy this release - There's Plenty more to come) The AXE System will serve well as an introduction to the functions of the subscriber's concentration stage of a PCM Local Exchange. Figure 5.20 illustrated that, as analog-to-digital conversion is moved to the periphery of the exchange, many other functions are moved to the line interface also. The resulting line interface is shown in functional terms in fig 5.21. These functions will be discussed more fully in Chapter 8; It suffices now to indicate that the elements of the mnemonic BORSCHT are evident in fig 5.21: B O R S Battery Feed OverVoltage protection Ringing Supervision (Detection of seizure and release) or Supervision and Signalling C Coding (Omitted within analogue enviroment - KpT) H Hybrid or 2-wire to 4-wire conversion T Test The principles of subscriber switching in the AXE system are illustrated in fig 5.22. Subscriber modules of 2048 subscribers are divided into sub modules of 128 subscribers, each with its own time switch, key sender receivers, test circuits and an optional 2Mb/s link to the group switching

stage. All 16 sub modules have access to a common time switch bus haing 512 Channels. Thus, connection to the group stage is effected via a channel of the sub-module's 2Mb/s link or, if all these are busy or the link is not fitted, via one of the 512 Channels linking to other sub-modules over the time switch bus. There is thus a time division bus interconnecting the lines within each sub-module called the device speech bus (DEVSB) and a single 512 channel bus interconnecting all 16 modules called the Time Switch Bus (TSB). The speech store in each time switch therefore has 768 storage locations. This is more adventurous than the devices described earlier in this chapter. There is capacity, therefore, to provide a normal minimum concentration of 4 to 1 (2048 subscriber's lines to sixteen 32-Channel links to the group stage). Only sufficient group stage links will be provided to carry the traffic offered by subscribers on the particular exchange and, because of the time switch bus (TSB) Link, traffic from all subscribers has full availability to al channels of all the links fitted. Figure 5.23 shows a block diagram of the time switch in concept only, illustrating the relationship of channel capacities of the various inlets to DEVSB and TSB. At any time slot, the time switch will read out a sample from the speech store on to the DEVSB destined for a subscriber or a channel to the group switch or a VF receiver or to line test and at the same time it will read a sample on to the the TSB Bus detsined for the group switch or for a subscriber via another subscriber stage time switch. The AXE10 subscriber's stage time switch is therefore performing space switching by performing more than one time-slot interchange at the same channel time-slot. The Control memory contains the data on the destination of the sample stored in the speech memory. This data is loaded by the device processor as a result of instructions received on the DEVSB Bus. Note that the speech memory is loaded at each channel time by a sample from DEVSB and a sample from TSB. The speech memory capacity includes space for two 32-Channel Links to the group switch, JTC, although the normal maximum is one JTC per LSM. There is also spare capacity for more than the normal 8 VF receivers the normal 4 Line test facilities. The diagram of the line interface (fig 5.21) Indicates that there two further time division buses involved; the control bus DEVCB, and the test Bus TEST B. The Control Bus provides acces from the regional processor of the line module EMRP to the device controllers of the constituent elements of the line module. The Control structure of the line module is illustrated in fig 5.24. The provision of solid state electronic switching right out to the subscriber's line interface, partcularly in TDM form, makes physical access to the subscriber's line for testing purposes impossible. Line and Trunk testing is a subject that will be returned to in Chapter 8. At this stage it is neccessary to point to the need to provide other means, in TDM exchanges, to gain access to the lines. The access method employed has become almost classical in its universal adoption. Figure 5.25 illustrates the contents of the LIC block labelled Test Access in fig 5.21. Test access relays are provided which normally (when released) provide a through connection from the line to the line interface. Operation of one test access relay connects the line to a test bus for outward testing, whereas operation of the other relay provides access from the test bus to the line interface for inwards testing of the interface and other exchange functions. In some

systems (notable ITT System 12) the relays are also used to switch in a spare line circuit in place of a faulty line interface. The interface arrangements with these three bus systems, DEVSB, DEVCB and TEST B, are shown in fig 5.26. This introduces a point, expanded in the next chapter, that time division relates, not only to the circuit switching function, but also to the control functions of the telephone exchange. REMOTE CONCENTRATORS ==================== The migration of the bulk of the cost of a telephone exchange to the periphery, caused, in part, by PCM TDM and illustrated in fig 5.20, has been encouraged to proceed still further. One aspect of this is the advent of ISDN where the migration reaches the subscriber's instrument which becomes a communications terminal and work-station as a result. Another, less drastic aspect is the attractiveness of locating the subscriber's concentration stage remote from the telephone exchange. There was always a requirement for remote concentrators and suitable space division equipments were designed, mainly for rural application. The costs involved never justified such concentrators in more urban locations since a reduction in the local cable of between 80% and 90% (One link to the exchange for every 10-20 subscribers instead of one per subscriber) could not be made to pay for the cost of the remote switch plus its secured power supply and ancilliaries. Added to this was the extra maintenance effort involved in routine maintenance of remote electro-mechanical devices. With PCM TDM, the reduction in links to the main exchange is much greater (two channels for every 10 to 20 subscribers), the power requirement is lower (although seldom low enough for power to be supplied down the line from the parent exchange), and the necessarily complicated signalling can be accomodated on common channel signalling links. Almost all practical PCM local switching systems therefore include remote multiplexor, remote concentrator, and possibly, remote simplified exchange options. Because of TDM, these options can also accomodate diversity of routings to the parent exchange, or even exchanges, thus overcoming the other disadvantage of concentrators that service is lost to large numbers of providers should the exchange link be broken. At the least, concentrators with just one link to the parent continue to provide local service when that link is broken. Because the concentrator is cut off from the processing power of the parent exchange, this residual local service is probably not charged. This is small comfort, however, to the subscriber, accustomed to access to only a few hundreds of nearby subscribers. The AXE10 concentrtaor is similar to the subscribers switching stage just described except that the links to the group stage now become 30 channel CEPT Systems, and the control links from the regional processor to the central control are formed by using common channel signalling via time-slot 16 of two of the 30 channel links to the parent exchange. This concentrator arrangement is shown as part of the diagram of a full AXE 10 local exchange in fig 5.27. The diagram illustrates that the only difference in the remotely located subscriber stage is the use of common channel signalling to communicate between the remote regional processors and the exchange central processor. CHANNEL MODULARITY AND SUBSCRIBER SIGNALLING ============================================

In this Brief survey of a practical subscriber's switching system several concepts have been introduced without detailed discussion. One, which is evident from the diagrams, is that a modularity of 30 Channels has been increased to 32. Similarly, the diagrams reveal units devoted to signalling: KRD (MF Receivers) and ST-C and ST-R (Common channel signalling equipment). Channel Modularity -----------------In describing the 30-Channel system, channel 0 was identified as being reserved for synchronisation, frame alignment and other link related functions, and channel 16 for signalling. However, these functions, possibly required outside the exchange, are certainly not neccesary within the exchange. Most practical switching systems, therefore, utilise all 32 channels for traffic carrying connections. Channel 16 is identified in the CEPT system as a signalling channel and a quartet system is defined for channel associated signalling. It is often appropriate, therefore, to utilise channel 16 as a first choice for common channel signalling in which case the quartet protocol is abandoned and the channel becomes a normal communications channel of 64 kbit/sec capacity. This is the arrangement chosen for the AXE10 system. Throughout the book there is a distinction drawn between channel 16 signalling (Channel associated in Quartets), and signalling over channel 16, normally probably common channel but on occaison the channel may be used for ordinary traffic carrying circuits. As an example, were the remote concentrator of fig 5.27 to require 3 or more "30" channel links to the parent exchange, then the remaining channel 16's could be devoted to ordinary traffic. Subscriber Signalling --------------------Signalling from the subscriber to the exchange is normally loop seizure and release, with either loop-disconnect dial impulses or multi frequency key sender signalling for routing information. In either case the digital exchange must provide means for detecting the routing request information and passing it on to control. If loop disconnect is used then this can be detected, in the PCM line circuit scanning process, by (in the case of AXE 10) The LIC device controller and passed on to the regional processor. MF Signalling will pass through the line circuit and be PCM - encoded. There must, therefore, be a MF receiver associated with the line circuit when it is seized and a TDM connection completed to this receiver which detects the digitised MF information, translates it and passes the resulting numerical information to the regional processor. ///// ///// ///// ///// // Phr0st // ///// ///// ///// /////